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Sample records for biomphalaria glabrata gastropoda

  1. Duration of pairing and use of allosperm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae Duração do acasalamento e uso do aloesperma em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropode: Planorbidae

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    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin homozygous black pigmented and albino Biomphalaria glabrata are paired during a period varying from 1 to 20 days. The rate of cross-fertilized parents is statistically similar for the various lengths of pairing. As a whole, nearly 80% of the albino snails produce a pigmented progeny. This production begins as soon as the snails are mated and continues after their separation. To measure the actual use of the allosperm, its use during the postmating period must be added to the length of mating. So, it appears that the real use of the allosperm is statistically constant (mean slightly inferior to 8 weeks and not related to the length of the previous pairing.Espécimes virgens de Biomphalaria glabrata (um melâncio e um albino são acasalados durante um período variável de 1 a 20 dias. A proporção de espécimes parentais albinos fecundados por cruzamento é semelhante estatisticamente para os diversos períodos de acasalamento. Em conjunto, cerca de 80% dos albinos produziram descendência pigmentada. Essa produção começa assim que os moluscos são acasalados e continua depois que são separados. Para medir a utilização real do aloesperma, sua utilização durante o período de pós-acasalamento. Parece, assim, que a utilização real do aloesperma é estatisticamente constante (média ligeiramente inferior a oito semanas e não relacionada a duração do acasalamento anterior.

  2. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

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    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  3. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  4. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  5. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  7. Development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata Desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea e Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the development of Schistosoma mansoni during the intra-molluscan phase was made by means of histological sections of Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabrata from Brazil. Two hundred snails of each species were individually exposed to 50 miracidia of the S. mansoni, AL line. No larvae were observed in the snails fixed 72 h after exposure. In specimens shedding cercariae, 31 days after exposure tissue reactions encapsulating the larvae were seen in B. tenagophila and B. straminea, in the head-foot, mantle collar and renal ducts. No tissue reactions occurred in the digestive glands of these two species. In B. glabrata the presence of numerous sporocysts and cercariae without tissue reactions was observed in the digestive gland, and other organs. The levels of infection of the snails and the average numbers of cercariae shed per day were 32.6% and 79±90 respectively for B. tenagophila, 11.3% and 112±100 for B. straminea and 75.3% and 432±436 for B. glabrata. The lower levels of infection and average numbers of cercariae shed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea are thus related to their more potent internal defense systems.Foi feito estudo comparativo do desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni na fase intra-molusco, através de cortes histológicos, em Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea e B. glabrata. Duzentos moluscos de cada espécie foram expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios de S. mansoni da linhagem AL. Nenhuma larva foi observada nos exemplares fixados 72 horas após a exposição. Nos exemplares eliminando cercárías, 31 dias após a exposição, foram observadas reações teciduais de encapsulamento de larvas em B. tenagophila e B. straminea, na região cefalopodal, colar do manto e dutos renais. Nas glândulas digestivas das duas espécies não foram observadas reações. Em B. glabrata foi registrada a presença de numerosos esporocistos e cercárias sem reação tecidual na gl

  8. Gastrointestinal transit and digestive rhythm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florschutz, A.; Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    Transit of X-ray opaque Micropaque™ particles in the digestive tract of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated by X-radiography. Passage through the whole animal lasted up to 200 min depending on the experimental conditions (starvation, fed ad libitum etc.). For the first time, cyclic activity of the digestive gland could be visualised: the gland is emptied every 60-110 min discharging undigested particles. In the afternoon transport of probably predigested material from more distally located parts of the digestive tract into the esophagus can be observed indicating resorption processes occurring in the esophagus

  9. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

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    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  10. Oxidative stress in mollusks Biomphalaria Glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

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    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Augusto, Ricielle L.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Pereira, Dewson R.; França, Elvis J.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: dewson.rocha@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: ricielleaugusto@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can cause biological changes in different organisms such as mollusks from Biomphalaria glabrata species, in which alterations could be observed in the reproductive system of the specimens, prejudicing fertility and fecundity. As the changes may occur due to the lipid peroxidation caused by the action of free radicals on the gonads, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage caused by the exposure of B. glabrata mollusks to different doses of gamma radiation. In addition, efforts were carried out to standardize a sensitive and low-cost technique for detecting negative effects caused by high doses of ionizing radiation. For this, each mollusk group (n = 10) was submitted to 0 (control), 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy (Gammacell- {sup 60}Co, dose rate 3.532 kGy/h). The TBARS method was applied for the quantification of lipid peroxidation of the gonads of the mollusks after 24 and 48 h. ANOVA, followed by the mean comparison (Tukey) at the 5% of significance level, indicated high concentrations of TBARS in the gonads after 24 h. Otherwise, after 48 h, differences for TBARS concentrations were not significant at the 95% confidence level, determining that the action of free radicals from ionizing radiation on cell membranes mainly occurred within 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  11. Oxidative stress in mollusks Biomphalaria Glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Augusto, Ricielle L.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Pereira, Dewson R.; França, Elvis J.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can cause biological changes in different organisms such as mollusks from Biomphalaria glabrata species, in which alterations could be observed in the reproductive system of the specimens, prejudicing fertility and fecundity. As the changes may occur due to the lipid peroxidation caused by the action of free radicals on the gonads, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage caused by the exposure of B. glabrata mollusks to different doses of gamma radiation. In addition, efforts were carried out to standardize a sensitive and low-cost technique for detecting negative effects caused by high doses of ionizing radiation. For this, each mollusk group (n = 10) was submitted to 0 (control), 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy (Gammacell- "6"0Co, dose rate 3.532 kGy/h). The TBARS method was applied for the quantification of lipid peroxidation of the gonads of the mollusks after 24 and 48 h. ANOVA, followed by the mean comparison (Tukey) at the 5% of significance level, indicated high concentrations of TBARS in the gonads after 24 h. Otherwise, after 48 h, differences for TBARS concentrations were not significant at the 95% confidence level, determining that the action of free radicals from ionizing radiation on cell membranes mainly occurred within 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  12. On the origin of the Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes

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    Samaly dos Santos Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A histologic, morphometric and ultrastructural study performed on Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to infection with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia failed to provide significant evidences that the so-called amebocyte-producing organ (APO is really the central organ for hemocyte production. In infected snails no general reactive changes appeared in the APO, the mitoses were seen only occasionally, and the possibility of cellular hyperplasia was ruled out by morphometric measurements. Under the electron microscope the APO cells presented an essentially epithelial structure, without features indicative of transition toward hemocytes. On the other hand, the present findings pointed to a multicentric origin for the mollusck hemocytes, as earlier studies had indicated. Dense foci of hemocyte collections appeared sometimes around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae in several organs and tissues of the infected snails, including a curious accumulation of such cells inside the ventricular cavity of the heart. In the heart and other sites, features suggestive of transformation of vascular space endothelial lining cells into hemocytes were apparent. To some extent, the postulated multicentric origin for B. glabrata hemocytes recapitulates earlier embryologic findings in vertebrates, when mesenchymal vascular spaces generate the circulating and phagocytic blood cells.

  13. Contribution to the histology of Biomphalaria glabrata Contribuição à histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A combination of histological techniques applied to the study of Biomphalaria glabrata yielded some interesting new data about the histology of this snail, a major intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. Three kinds of pigments were identified: a dark pigment which bleached following oxidation with potassium permanganate; a lipofuchsin-like, diastase-resistant PAS-positive pigment and an iron-containing pigment, probably related to hemosiderin. Calcium was detected in small deposits within the connective tissue and forming a dense core inside the chitinous radular teeth. The presence of fibrils, staining with sirius-red and birefringence under polarized light strongly suggest primitive collagen tissue. The radular apparatus appeared as a storing site for glycogen, while abundant Alcian-blue positive material (proteoglycans was extremely concentrated in the radular sac.Uma combinação de várias técnicas histológicas permitiu alguns achados de interesse para a histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil. Três tipos de pigmentos foram identificados: um pigmento escuro, que se descora após oxidação pelo permanganato de potássio; outro que é semelhante à lipofuscina, que se cora pelo PAS e é diastase- resistente, e um pigmento que contém ferro, provalvelmente, relacionado com a hemossiderina. O cálcio foi identificado em pequenos depósitos no interior do tecido conjuntivo e formando pequenos núcleos no interior dos dentes quitinosos da rádula. A presença de fibrilas coradas pelo sírius-vermelho, exibindo birrefrigência sob luz polarizada, sugere fortemente a presença de um tecido colágeno primitivo. O aparelho radular foi visto como um local de armazenamento do glicogênio, enquanto a presença de abundante material amorfo positivo para o azul de alciano (proteoglicano apareceu em grande concentração no saco radular.

  14. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  15. Influence of the nontarget mollusc Marisa cornuarietis on the hourly cercarial production of Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, J R; Pointier, J P; Théron, A; Moné, H

    1991-10-01

    A comparative study of hourly cercarial productivities of Schistosoma mansoni from infected Biomphalaria glabrata was carried out in the presence of either healthy B. glabrata (control) or healthy Marisa cornuarietis (experimental). The results showed that, with M. cornuarietis, almost all the hourly cercarial productivities increased by a factor varying from 1.3 to 2.5 without modification of the shedding period.

  16. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  17. Use of Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes as a biomarker of exposure to ionizing radiation

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    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Lima, Maira V.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: mairavasconceloslima@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: larissamelo.pe@gmail.com, E-mail: viniciushtmorais@hotmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2017-11-01

    The increase of the applications of ionizing radiation in several areas and sectors of modern society has given rise to a greater probability of occurrence of accidents. These accidental occurrences have revealed the need for methods that provide quantitative data on the radiation doses absorbed by biological systems. The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata presents as a good bioindicator in several works referenced in the literature. In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological and quantitative alterations of hemocytes of the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to ionizing radiation. For the experiments, adult mollusks of the species B. glabrata pigmented were used. The selected mollusks were divided into six groups: five submitted to doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation and the control group. After 48 h, the slides were prepared and then read in a microscope. Quantitative analysis showed a decrease in the total number of hemocytes after irradiation. In the cell classification, a higher number of hyalinocytes were observed in relation to the number of granulocytes, except for the animals exposed to a dose of 30 Gy. The presence of micronuclei and binucleations were observed at all doses used. Apoptosis was observed at doses starting at 30 Gy. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the morphological and quantitative analysis of B. glabrata hemocytes provided significant data for the identification of biological damage caused by ionizing radiation, allowing the beginning of standardization of the morphological alteration counting technique in B. glabrata hemocytes as An environmental biomarker for the action of physical agents. (author)

  18. Use of Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes as a biomarker of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Lima, Maira V.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the applications of ionizing radiation in several areas and sectors of modern society has given rise to a greater probability of occurrence of accidents. These accidental occurrences have revealed the need for methods that provide quantitative data on the radiation doses absorbed by biological systems. The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata presents as a good bioindicator in several works referenced in the literature. In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological and quantitative alterations of hemocytes of the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to ionizing radiation. For the experiments, adult mollusks of the species B. glabrata pigmented were used. The selected mollusks were divided into six groups: five submitted to doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy of "6"0Co gamma radiation and the control group. After 48 h, the slides were prepared and then read in a microscope. Quantitative analysis showed a decrease in the total number of hemocytes after irradiation. In the cell classification, a higher number of hyalinocytes were observed in relation to the number of granulocytes, except for the animals exposed to a dose of 30 Gy. The presence of micronuclei and binucleations were observed at all doses used. Apoptosis was observed at doses starting at 30 Gy. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the morphological and quantitative analysis of B. glabrata hemocytes provided significant data for the identification of biological damage caused by ionizing radiation, allowing the beginning of standardization of the morphological alteration counting technique in B. glabrata hemocytes as An environmental biomarker for the action of physical agents. (author)

  19. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo, I. Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10,15,20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality was the parameter used to evaluated the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Susceptibility decreased with increasing embryo age and with decreased radiation dose. Estimated LD 50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). The survival curves obtained for each embryo stage are discussed on the basis of the multitarget theory. (author) [pt

  20. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  1. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana; Silva, Luanna R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of 60 Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD 50 obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  2. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  3. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J.; Silva, E.B.; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  4. Behavior of Schistosoma mansoni-induced histopathological lesions in Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

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    Azevedo Carine M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present report demonstrates that repeated radiation of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, totaling 15,000 rads, caused a sudden, albeit transient, suppression of cercarial shedding. Initially, sporocysts practically disappeared from the snail tissues. The more resistant developing cercariae presented nuclear clumping and vacuolation, before undergoing lysis. No host tissue reaction was evident at any time. Thirty-four days after the last irradiation, the snails resumed cercarial elimination. By that time numerous sporocysts and developing cercariae were detected, disseminated throughout snail tissues in a pattern similar to that of a highly malignant neoplasm, with no signs of host cellular reactions, which on the other hand were present in non-irradiated infected controls. The region of the ovo-testis was apparently destroyed after radiation, but returned to its normal appearance around 40 days after the last radiation. Ionizing radiation affected both host and parasite in S. mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, but the resulting impressive changes were soon reversed.

  5. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

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    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  6. Molluscicidal and ovicidal activities of plant extracts of the Piperaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado, L N; Nakano, E; Ohlweiler, F P; Kato, M J; Yamaguchi, L F; Pereira, C A B; Kawano, T

    2011-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by Schistosoma and occurs in 54 countries, mainly in South America, the Caribbean region, Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Currently, 5 to 6 million Brazilian people are infected and 30,000 are under infection risk. Typical of poor regions, this disease is associated with the lack of basic sanitation and very frequently to the use of contaminated water in agriculture, housework and leisure. One of the most efficient methods of controlling the disease is application of molluscicides to eliminate or to reduce the population of the intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Studies on molluscicidal activity of plant extracts have been stimulated by issues such as environmental preservation, high cost and recurrent resistance of snails to synthetic molluscicides. The aim of this study was to determine the molluscicide action of extracts from Piperaceae species on adult and embryonic stages of B. glabrata. Fifteen extracts from 13 Piperaceae species were obtained from stems, leaves and roots. Toxicity of extracts was evaluated against snails at two different concentrations (500 and 100 ppm) and those causing 100% mortality at 100 ppm concentration were selected to obtain the LC₉₀ (lethal concentration of 90% mortality). Piper aduncum, P. crassinervium, P. cuyabanum, P. diospyrifolium and P. hostmannianum gave 100% mortality of adult snails at concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 ppm. These extracts were also assayed on embryonic stages of B. glabrata and those from P. cuyabanum and P. hostmannianum showed 100% ovicidal action at 20 ppm.

  7. Potential use of glycogen level as biomarker of chemical stress in Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Holmes-Brown, Eduardo; Agote, Marcos; Ansay, Cristina V.; Guerrero, Noemi R. Verrengia; Wider, Eva A.

    2006-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater gastropod mollusc, was tested as biondicator organism to assess cadmium, lead and arsenic exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. Modifications of glycogen levels were measured in different anatomical regions of B. glabrata in order to test the usefulness of this parameter as a general biomarker of chemical stress. The snails were exposed 96 h to different concentrations of the following contaminants: 0.1 and 0.05 mg Cd/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg Pb/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg As/L. Significant decreases in the polysaccharide content were observed in gonadal region for all treated animals. Arsenic and lead at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L level of exposure were also able to decrease the levels of glycogen in the pulmonary and digestive gland region. Glycogen content in the cephalopedal region of treated animals presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared with control organisms only for arsenic at the highest level of exposure. To establish possible correlations between glycogen and contaminants accumulated by snails, analyses of the elements bioaccumulated in the different anatomical regions of B. glabrata were also performed. Cadmium and lead followed a similar pattern of bioaccumulation with highest values in the digestive gland region. Arsenic bioaccumulation, however, was highest in the gonadal region

  8. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival

  9. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo. II. Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Biomphalaria glabrata embryos irradiated in the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages with 5 to 25 Gy doses of 60 CO gamma radiation. The number of malformed embryos rapidly increased with increasing radiation dose, reaching a maximum between 5th to 8th day after irradiation in all stages analyzed. Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher the younger than the age of the irradiated embryo. However, for the cleavage stage the frequency of malformed embryos was inversely proportional to radiation dose for the same radiation dose. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were obtained, among then cephalic malformations, exogastrula, shell malformations and embryos with everted stomodeum, unspecific malformations being the most frequent. The results show that the types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied [pt

  10. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  11. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

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    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  12. The Compatibility Between Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Schistosoma mansoni: An Increasingly Complex Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitta, G; Gourbal, B; Grunau, C; Knight, M; Bridger, J M; Théron, A

    2017-01-01

    This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a "matching hypothesis" between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other. Because these genes are involved in a coevolutionary arms race, we also propose that the underlying mechanisms can vary. Finally, some recent results show that environmental factors could influence compatibility. Together, these results make the compatibility between B. glabrata and S. mansoni an increasingly complex puzzle. We need to develop more integrative approaches in order to find targets that could potentially be manipulated to control the transmission of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molluscicidal activity of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) dubard on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Robson Xavier; Rocha, Leandro Machado; Souza, Eloísa Portugal Barros Silva Soares; Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Santos, José Augusto Albuquerque

    2018-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is promoted for species from Schistosoma genus affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Molluscicides are an efficient method to control this disease, being able to reduce intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata number. In function of resistance cases using niclosamide, natural products are promisors to discover new drugs. Manilkara subsericea is endemic to Brazilian sandbanks of Rio de Janeiro State and wide ranges of biological activities. However, there is no studies evaluating its effects as molluscicidal agent. We tested crude extract from leaves of M. subsericea molluscicidal action, as well it ethyl-acetate fraction and isolated substances against B. glabrata. M. subsericea leaves crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction induced 80±4.13% and 86.66±4.59% mortality of adult snails at concentrations of 250ppm after 96h, and their LD 50 values were 118.7±1.62 and 23.41±1.15ppm respectively. Isolated substances from M. subsericea were also considered active. Quercetin, myricetin and ursolic acid, at concentration of 100ppm (96h), were able to induce mortality levels of 100%, 80% and 53.33%, respectively. Our results suggest that M. subsericea can be considered promising as a molluscicide agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Targeted Capture Linkage Map Anchors the Genome of the Schistosomiasis Vector Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Blouin, Michael S

    2017-07-05

    The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here, we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrata scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups (LGs). We added additional scaffolds to these LGs based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails. Our final linkage map consists of 18,613 scaffolds comprising 515 Mb, representing 56% of the genome and 75% of genic and nonrepetitive regions. There are 18 large (> 10 Mb) LGs, likely representing the expected 18 haploid chromosomes, and > 50% of the genome has been assigned to LGs of at least 17 Mb. Comparisons with other gastropod genomes reveal patterns of synteny and chromosomal rearrangements. Linkage relationships of key immune-relevant genes may help clarify snail-schistosome interactions. By focusing on linkage among genic and nonrepetitive regions, we have generated a useful resource for associating snail phenotypes with causal genes, even in the absence of a complete genome assembly. A similar approach could potentially improve numerous poorly-assembled genomes in other taxa. This map will facilitate future work on this host of a serious human parasite. Copyright © 2017 Tennessen et al.

  15. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  16. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  17. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

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    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  18. The effect of gamma radiation and caffeine during the embrionic development of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.

    1982-01-01

    Some experiments have been carried out, dealing with the interations of caffeine and gamma radiation in the embryonic development of Biomphalaria glabrata. Gamma radiation was used in a dosis of 1000r (exposure time of 1/2 hour) and caffeine concentration was 0.1% (Exposure time of 24 hours). Experiment I. The embryos were irradiated before treatment with caffeine. In this experiment we have observed a synergistic effect between caffeine and gamma radiation. Experiment II. The embryos in the caffeine solution were irradiated 8 hours after the beginning of the experiment. The synergistic effect observed in this experiment was reduced when compared with the first one. Experiment III. In this experiment we made the pre-treatment with caffeine. We have not observed any synergistic effect between the drug and gamma radiation. Experiment IV. Embryos were irradiated, and after 24 hours treated with caffeine during another 24 hours. As in the previous experiment, we have not observed any synergism between the radiation and the drug. According to the above results, we conclude that the synergistic effect between caffeine and gamma radiation in the embryos was more effective when the embryos have been treated with caffeine after irradiation. (Author) [pt

  19. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also

  20. Dominant lethal effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Germ cell mutations are used in ecotoxicological studies as biomarkers of population effects and indicators of ecological changes. Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater mollusk, is a good experimental model for biomonitoring studies due to its biological characteristics and the ecological importance of this invertebrate group. The dominant lethal test was established in B. glabrata for the detection of germ cell mutations. Results with chemical mutagens showed that this system is efficient, specific and sensitive in the evaluation of germ cell mutations induced by reference mutagens. In this work, the dominant lethal effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co were studied. A preliminary experiment was done to establish the dose range and to estimate the chronology of spermatogenesis in B. glabrata. This estimate is possible because of the uniformity in response to ionizing radiation between germ cells at homologous stages of spermatogenesis in widely different species. In general, pre-meiotic germ cells are less sensitive to the induction of lethal dominant mutations than post-meiotic cells. This effect can be attributed to: young gametogenic cells - mitotically active - have greater repair ability from sub-lethal DNA damage and there is a selective elimination of the damaged cells. In our system: induction of lethal dominant mutations causes an increase in the frequency of malformations and, cytotoxic effect is displayed as a reduction in the crossing rates. Total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated in approximately 36 days, with the following distribution of stages: 1 to 13 days - spermatogonia, 14 to 20 days - spermatocytes, 21 to 36 days - spermatids and spermatozoa. Based on this chronology, irradiated wild-type snails with 2,5; 10 and 20Gy and crossed with non-irradiated albino snails after 7, 17, 23, 30 and 36 days. The frequencies of malformations in the heterozygous wild-type offspring of the nonirradiated albino snails were used as indicator of germ cell

  1. Growth of Biomphalaria glabrata populations in the presence of the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-06-01

    Adults of three ampullariid species were examined for their ability to affect the population growth of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions in which food (lettuce) was supplied ad libitum over an eleven week interval. Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata were obtained from Kenya, and Marisa cornuarietis originated from the Dominican Republic. The presence of either 3 or 9 L. carinatus or 3 M. cornuarietis per 40 l aquarium did not reduce the population size of B. glabrata below levels attained in control aquaria lacking ampullariids. The presence of 9 M. cornuarietis adults significantly reduced B. glabrata populations by week 10 of the experiment. Presence of 3 or 9 P. ovata per aquarium significantly reduced B. glabrata numbers below control levels starting at week four of the experiment. Aquaria with 9 P. ovata were observed to have fewer B. glabrata egg masses than control aquaria, but the number of egg masses observed was not significantly reduced in aquaria with 3 P. ovata or with 3 or 9 L. carinatus or M. cornuarietis. However, the presence of 3 or 9 adults of each ampullariid species resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of such egg masses that disappeared prior to expected hatching date and that were presumed to have been consumed. The results of his laboratory study suggest that further investigation of the role of ampullariids as biological control agents for pulmonate snails in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on P. ovata.

  2. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  3. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  4. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  5. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  6. BgTEP: An Antiprotease Involved in Innate Immune Sensing in Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Portet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect thioester-containing protein (iTEP is the most recently defined group among the thioester-containing protein (TEP superfamily. TEPs are key components of the immune system, and iTEPs from flies and mosquitoes were shown to be major immune weapons. Initially characterized from insects, TEP genes homologous to iTEP were further described from several other invertebrates including arthropods, cniderians, and mollusks albeit with few functional characterizations. In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector of the schistosomiasis disease, the presence of a TEP protein (BgTEP was previously described in a well-defined immune complex involving snail lectins (fibrinogen-related proteins and schistosome parasite mucins (SmPoMuc. To investigate the potential role of BgTEP in the immune response of the snail, we first characterized its genomic organization and its predicted protein structure. A phylogenetic analysis clustered BgTEP in a well-conserved subgroup of mollusk TEP. We then investigated the BgTEP expression profile in different snail tissues and followed immune challenges using different kinds of intruders during infection kinetics. Results revealed that BgTEP is particularly expressed in hemocytes, the immune-specialized cells in invertebrates, and is secreted into the hemolymph. Transcriptomic results further evidenced an intruder-dependent differential expression pattern of BgTEP, while interactome experiments showed that BgTEP is capable of binding to the surface of different microbes and parasite either in its full length form or in processed forms. An immunolocalization approach during snail infection by the Schistosoma mansoni parasite revealed that BgTEP is solely expressed by a subtype of hemocytes, the blast-like cells. This hemocyte subtype is present in the hemocytic capsule surrounding the parasite, suggesting a potential role in the parasite clearance by encapsulation. Through this work, we report the first

  7. Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  9. Estratégia competitiva entre Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila: estudos de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairy Barbosa Loureiro dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation about conhabitation among B. glabrata and B. tenagophila revealed a greater vulnerability of B. tenagophila population during the process of competition when its density was severaly decreased in 12 trials, moderate in 2 trials. It was higher than B. glabrata in only one trial. Some snail water chemical parameters analysed such as pH, alkalinity, conductivity and oxygen dissolve, an the viability rate of batch of eggs didn't give subsidy to explain the competition mechanism. The newly-born survival, in the situation of cohabitation, was low for both species. This reveals the existence of intra and interspecific competitive interacition. The fertility rate reduction of B. tenagophila during the cohabitation was considered as a cause of its exlusion. One of the factors that seems to have influenced the fertility rate was a possible wrong crossing.

  10. Controlled chaos of polymorphic mucins in a metazoan parasite (Schistosoma mansoni interacting with its invertebrate host (Biomphalaria glabrata.

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    Emmanuel Roger

    Full Text Available Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata. Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism-a "controlled chaos"-based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also

  11. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  12. New insights into the amphibious life of Biomphalaria glabrata and susceptibility of its egg masses to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Glennyha F; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The air-breathing snail Biomphalaria glabrata proliferates in stagnant freshwater, and nothing is known about the survival of eggs in intermittently (rather than perpetually) wet habitats. In the present study their egg masses matured, and juveniles subsequently eclosed and were mobile in a stable water film of transitory habitats simulated by two different simple test devices described here. The viability of eggs maintained in an unstable film however, was diminished. The maturation of egg masses in a water film or in water was significantly prevented by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficiency depended on the fungal propagule and test environment. Hyphal bodies were more effective against egg masses than conidia. This appears to be a first report of activity of either entomopathogen against a mollusc. Both devices offer accurate and reproducible conditions to test both biological questions and the effects of substances or pathogens against B. glabrata egg masses in water films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Padronização da técnica de marcação de caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata com radioestroncio Standardization of the technic of labeling Biomphalaria glabrata snails with radiostrontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Archanjo Muniz Leal

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata vetor da esquistossomose mansônica, utilizados em experiências de campo, nas quais se faz necessário sua identificação e/ou localização, devem ser marcados com radioestrôncio 85,89 ou 90. Sua marcação em laboratório deve ser procedida em aquários de vidro sem fundo de areia, temperatura de 26,5 ± 1ºC, pH ajustado ao valor encontrado no "habitat", aeração artificial, alimentação diária com pequenas porções de alface fresca e 25 ml de água desionizada por caramujo. O nível de atividade no caramujo pode ser estimado sabendo-se que para o tempo de marcação de 5 dias e atividades iniciais de 0,036 a 0,362 µCi/ml, a captação global para grupos de 10 caramujos está em torno de 84 ± 2% e que a marcação em água contendo cálcio, praticamente não se altera até concentrações de 50ppm. A sobrevida ao longo de nove semanas não foi influenciada pela presença de radioestrôncio no caramujo.The vector snail of schistosomiasis mansoni, Biomphalaria glabrata, when used in field experiments in which it is to be recovered and/or located, should be labeled with radiostrontium 85,89 or 90. The labeling in laboratory should be carried out in an artificially aerated aquarium with 25 ml of deionized water per snail, without sand at the bottom, at a temperature of 26.5 ± 1ºC, pH adjusted to the value found in the natural habitat, and the snails should be fed with small pieces of fresh lettuce. The level of snail activity can be estimated taking into account that, for a labeling time of 5 days and initial activities of 0.036 to 0.362 µCi/ml, the global uptake for groups of 10 snails is about 84 ± 2% and that labeling in calcium-containing water parctically does not change till a 50 ppm concentration. Survival along 9 weeks was not influenced by the presence of radiostrontium in the snail.

  14. Deep, multi-stage transcriptome of the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata provides platform for understanding molluscan disease-related pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J Kenny

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. Despite intensive study, our understanding of the genetic basis of B. glabrata development, growth and disease resistance is constrained by limited genetic resources, constraints for which next-generation sequencing methods provide a ready solution. Methods Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly using the Trinity program was used to generate a high-quality transcriptomic dataset spanning the entirety of in ovo development in schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata. This was subjected to automated (KEGG, BLAST2GO and manual annotation efforts, allowing insight into the gene complements of this species in a number of contexts. Results Excellent dataset recovery was observed, with 133,084 contigs produced of mean size 2219.48 bp. 80,952 (60.8 % returned a BLASTx hit with an E value of less than 10-3, and 74,492 (55.97 % were either mapped or assigned a GO identity using the BLAST2GO program. The CEGMA set of core eukaryotic genes was found to be 99.6 % present, indicating exceptional transcriptome completeness. We were able to identify a wealth of disease-pathway related genes within our dataset, including the Wnt, apoptosis and Notch pathways. This provides an invaluable reference point for further work into molluscan development and evolution, for studying the impact of schistosomiasis in this species, and perhaps providing targets for the treatment of this widespread disease. Conclusions Here we present a deep transcriptome of an embryonic sample of schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata, presenting a comprehensive dataset for comparison to disease-affected specimens and from which conclusions can be drawn about the genetics of this widespread medical model. Furthermore, the dataset provided by this sequencing provides a useful reference point for comparison to other mollusc

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of 60 Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO 3 ) and negative (H 2 O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  16. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Alves dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp., and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.. As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  17. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426 mg/L and LC(50) 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94 mg/L, LC(50) 13.51 mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  18. Reduction in transmission of Schistosoma mansoni by a four-year focal mollusciciding programme against Biomphalaria glabrata in Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, M A; Jordan, P; Bartholomew, R K; Grist, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni of a focal snail control programme was investigated over four years amongst approximately 1250 people living in five communities in the steep-sided Soufriere river valley, St. Lucia, West Indies. Bayer 6076 was applied from constant flow drip cans to 12 stream sections at a target dose of 8 mg/litre clonitralide every four weeks. Only proven and potential transmission sites were treated; marsh habitats, where Biomphalaria glabrata were widespread, were ignored. In the stream snail numbers were reduced by 94% in the first year and by 100% thereafter. Incidence of new S. mansoni infections amongst children fell from 18% in the last year before control to 6% and 9% after three and four years respectively. Amongst children and adults in the four years of control the conversion/reversion ratio declined leading to a lowering of the over-all prevalence from 40% to 22%. Parasitologically the results were similar to those of a previously evaluated area-wide mollusciciding programme. The mean annual cost per person protected was US $2.60. This figure is atypically high because the topography of the area severely limited the population size.

  19. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  20. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

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    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  1. Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

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    EC Oliveira-Filho

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples.

  2. A low stringency polymerase chain reaction approach to the identification of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila, intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR with a pair of specific primers for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene was evaluated as a means of differentiating between the two Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host species in Brazil: Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila. Individual snails obtained from different states of Brazil were used and the amplification patterns obtained showed a high degree of genetic variability in these species. Nevertheless, 4 and 3 clearly defined specific diagnostic bands was observed in individuals from B. glabrata and B. tenagophila respectively. The detection of snail specific diagnostic bands suggests the possibility of reliable species differentiation at the DNA level using LS-PCR.

  3. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

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    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  4. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.

  5. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

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    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  6. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

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    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp

  7. Comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 como critério de toxicidade em ensaios biológicos com moluscicidas Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 as a parameter of toxicity in biological assays with molluscicides

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    Otávio S. Pieri

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando à aplicação sistemática de parâmetros comportamentais como indicadores da ação tóxica de moluscicidas empregados no combate aos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni, um procedimento para avaliação quantitativa do efeito de dose sobre o comprotamento de Biomphalaria glabrata foi desenvolvido, com base no paradigma recomendado pela O.M.S. para ensaios biológicos e envolvendo registro comportamental por cenematografia ocm lapso de tempo: caramujos com 5 7/8 ± 1/8 giros eram subemtidos a diferentes concentrações subletais de sulfato de cobre durante 24 horas e em seguida transferidos para recuperação em água destilada desionizada; a partir da análise dos registros foram computados (a a freqüência total de subidas à superfície por indivíduo, (b a frqüência total de saídas da água por indivíduo e (c a proporção média de indivíduos no terço superior do recipiente de teste. O método Litchfield-Wilcoxon foi empregaod para determinação de índices de referência (denominados "concentrações de efieto comportamental de 50%" ou CEC50 em relação a cada parâmetro, e os valores obtidos - (a 0,010, (b 0,006 e (c 0,029 ppm de cobre - não só evidenciaram a exeqüibilidade da aplicação sistemática de critérios comportamentais de toxidade, como se revelaram capazes de detectar o efieto tóxico do produto em concentrações muito infereiores às obtidas nas determinações convencionais de letalidade. Os dados também mostraram alterações na atividade dos caramujos em decorrência do ciclo de iluminação dia-noite. Embora o esclarecimento dos aspectos etológicos envolvidos no problema do controle químico do vetor dependa da análise das relações entre o indivíduo e seu ambiente natural, estudos de laboratório com mensurações acuradas de parâmetros relacionados a comportamentos de proteção podem fornecer subsídios relevantes a respeito.The possibility of using reliable behavioural

  8. Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle) and their effects on the bioactivity of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Pereira, Adalberto Alves; Nogueira, Aline de Jesus Lustosa; Araújo, Karla Regina Freitas; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; de Carvalho, Iramar Borba; da Silva, Natale Maria Lindoso; Azevedo, Alexandre Santana; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from the stem and leaves of each of the three plant species to which mollusks were exposed. The phytochemical analysis of plants showed the presence of important metabolites in the leaves and stems of L. racemosa and R. mangle, such as tannins and saponins, but the absence of these metabolites in A. schaueriana. Leaf and stem extracts of the three plant species showed low molluscicidal activity, not reaching the standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1983). L. racemosa and R. mangle has interfered with motility, feeding and oviposition of snails, unlike the extracts of A. schaueriana, which had no effect on these activities. PMID:29451595

  9. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

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    Zahida Zahoor

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni control in Cul de Sac Valley, Saint Lucia. I. A two-year focal surveillance-mollusciciding programme for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, G; Christie, J D; Prentice, M A

    1980-01-01

    An area-wide mollusciciding campaign in Cul de Sac valley, St. Lucia reduced incidence of Schistosoma mansoni from 22% to 4.3% between 1970 and 1975. Following this, a two-year focal surveillance-mollusciciding programme was introduced. Sites of potential transmission of S. mansoni were identified and routinely searched for Biomphalaria glabrata. If found, the site was treated with clonitralide 25% emulsifiable concentrate. Two chemotherapy campaigns supplemented the snail control programme. As a result of the combined measures, incidence of the infection dropped from 4.3% to 1.0% and from 2.2% to 0.6% in areas originally of high and low transmission respectively. The cost of protecting the 7,000 population was US $20,362: of these costs, labour absorbed 68%, transport 24%, equipment 4% and molluscicide 4%. The cost per person per year protected was US $1.45 which compares favourably with the $3.24 of the previous scheme. Although effective and relatively cheap, this programme was still dependent on a high standard of supervision for maximum benefit.

  11. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Jacob A Tennessen

    Full Text Available New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2 Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1 with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated.The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation.

  12. Studies on survival, biological activities and behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata, the host snail of Schistosomiasis, submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure: a technique Estudos sobre a sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário da esquistossomose, submetido a aumento da pressão hidrostática: uma técnica

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    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available To study changes in survival, in biological activities and behavior of planorbids submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure, we developed a technique using two transparent chambers and a hydraulic piston. The apparatus permitted renewal of the liquid medium without substantial variations in pressure, thus eliminating excretion products and maintaining the desired O2 level and thereby permitting us to evaluate the effects of pressure independently of the occurrence of anoxia. Pressure was maintained without any contact of the liquid medium with compressed air, a situation which reproduced with relative fidelity what occurs in nature and assured the presence of the same amounts of gases in the two observation chambers (Control and Experimental. Biomphalaria glabrata was found to be able to survive at least 48 hours when submitted to 49.02 x 10**4 Pa (equivalent to a water depth of 48.8 m, continuing to day egg masses and showing few behavioral changes when compared with the control group.Para estudar mudanças na sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de planorbídeos submetidos a aumento de pressão hidrostática, desenvolvemos uma técnica que utiliza duas câmaras transparentes e um pistão hidráulico. O aparelho permitiu a renovação do meio líquido sem variações substanciais na pressão, eliminando assim os produtos de excreção e mantendo o nível de O2 disseolvido desejado, e desse modo permitido-nos avaliar o efeito da pressão independente da ocorrência de anoxia. A pressão foi mantida sem nenhum contato do meio líquido com o ar comprimido, situação que produziu com relativa fidelildade o que ocorre na natureza, e assegurou a presença da mesma quantidade de gases nas duas câmaras de observação. Biomphalaria glabrata foi capaz de sobreviver pelo menos 48 horas quando submetida a 49,02 x 10 Pa (equivalente a 48 m de profundidade continuando a pôr massas ovíferas, e mostrando poucas modifica

  13. Evaluation of a linear spectral mixture model and vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) in a study of schistosomiasis mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata distribution in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the associations between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) on the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Additionally, vegetation, soil and shade fraction images were created using a Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) from the blue, red and infrared channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spaceborne sensor and the relationship between these images and the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of B. glabrata was analysed. First, we found a high correlation between the vegetation fraction image and EVI and second, a high correlation between soil fraction image and NDVI. The results also indicate that there was a positive correlation between prevalence and the vegetation fraction image (July 2002), a negative correlation between prevalence and the soil fraction image (July 2002) and a positive correlation between B. glabrata and the shade fraction image (July 2002). This paper demonstrates that the LSMM variables can be used as a substitute for the standard vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) to determine and delimit risk areas for B. glabrata and schistosomiasis in MG, which can be used to improve the allocation of resources for disease control.

  14. The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P

    1993-06-01

    A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia.

  15. Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

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    Dolcie DeGrandchamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3 mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages.

  16. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

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    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  17. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    OpenAIRE

    Pino,Luz A.; Matinella,Liboria; Morales C.,Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro) con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a) Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b) Cagua c) Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua) d) Mariara e) Caserío El 25 f) Güigüe (Estado Carabobo). Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g) Anzoátegui (Estado Lara), h) Ch...

  18. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Luz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  19. Influência do magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio em desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 Influence of metallic magnesium and various magnesium salts on egg-masses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluções de magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio foram testadas em laboratório, a fim de comprovar a ação das mesmas sobre a oviposição de B. glabrata. Usaram-se, para cada solução, dez caramujos adultos originários da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brasil, criados em laboratório. No experimento I foram estudadas soluções em água desclorada de magnésio elementar (Mg, cloreto de magnésio (MgCl2.6H2O, carbonato de magnésio [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], nitrato de magnésio [Mg(NO32. 6H2O] e sulfato de magnésio (MgSO4.7H2O, e no experimento II, Mg, Mg + latossolo, MgCO3, MgCO3 + latossolo, sempre nas concentrações de 500 e 1.000 ppm. Durante duas semanas os planorbídeos permaneceram em água para adaptação; em seguida, por quatro semanas em exposição com as soluções testadas e, posteriormente, em água por mais duas semanas para recuperação. A cada sete dias as desovas eram contadas, eliminadas e as soluções renovadas. Foi observado que as soluções de Mg e MgCO3, isoladamente ou associada ao latossolo, produziram uma diminuição significativa do número de desovas dos caramujos, mas não parada completa de oviposição, quando comparados os períodos de adaptação com os de exposição. As soluções de Mg e MgCO3 não devem ser consideradas como produtos promissores para o controle da população de B. glabrata, em virtude da diminuição das desovas só terem sido observadas quando foram utilizadas concentrações muito altas.Solutions of magnesium metallic and other salts of magnesium were tested in the laboratory to study the action on B. glabrata oviposition. For each solution, 10 adult snails from Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil, reared in the laboratory, were used. In experiment I solutions, in dechlorinated water, of magnesium (Mg, magnesium chloride (MgCl2. 6H2O, magnesium carbonate [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], magnesium nitrate [Mg(NO32.6H2O] and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O were tested; and in

  20. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  1. Size Polymorphism in Alleles of the Myoglobin Gene from Biomphalaria Mollusks

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    Marcelo M. Santoro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported in several eukaryotic globin genes. Globin genes in invertebrates show considerable variation in the positions of introns; globins can be found without introns, with only one intron or with three introns in different positions. In this work we analyzed the introns in the myoglobin gene from Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila. In the Biomphalaria genus, the myoglobin gene has three introns; these were amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results showed that the size (number or nucleotides and the nucleotide sequence of the coding gene of the myoglobin are variable in the three species. We observed the presence of size polymorphisms in intron 2 and 3; this characterizes a homozygous/heterozygous profile and it indicates the existence of two alleles which are different in size in each species of Biomphalaria. This polymorphism could be explored for specific identification of Biomphalaria individuals.

  2. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Lima, Adilson da Costa; Gonçalves, Murilo; Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Guimarães, Ricardo José Paula de Souza e; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-01-01

    The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ). Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  3. Resistência de Biomphalaria peregrina de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, a infecção com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni Resistance of Biomphalaria peregrina from Santa Rita do Sapucaí, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to infection with strain of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Descendentes do planorbídeo Biomphalaria peregrina, coletados em Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram expostos a miracídios de três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" de Belo Horizonte, MG; "SJ" de São José dos Campos, SP e "AL" do Estado de Alagoas. Dentre 300 exemplares expostos, nenhum se infectou com as três cepas do trematódeo. Por outro lado, 300 exemplares de B. glabrata, dos grupos de controle, apresentaram taxas de infecção de 61,1 a 95,3% com as três cepas do trematódeo. As taxas de mortalidade de B. peregrina e de B. glabrata foram de 20,0 e de 28,0%, respectivamente.The descendants of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria peregrina, collected in the region of Santa rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia of three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" strain from Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais; "SJ", strain from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL" strain from State of Alagoas. Of 300 snails exposed to miracidia of the three strains, none was infected. On the other hand, 300 Biomphalaria glabrata of the control groups showed infection rates of 61.1 to 95.3% with three strains. The mortality rates of B. peregrina and B. glabrata were 20% and 28%, respectively.

  4. Esquistossomose: nova ocorrência de Biomphalaria straminea em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Schistosomiasis: new occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, a Biomphalaria straminea é encontrada na região da Pampulha. Recentemente, o molusco foi encontrado em valas da antiga Barragem de Santa Lúcia, foco extinto de esquistossomose transmitida por B. glabrata. Os moluscos foram coletados e examinados para verificar se estavam naturalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Os exemplares negativos foram usados para criação ou infecção com a cepa LE de S. mansoni, mantida no laboratório, e outra cepa VGS, obtida de ovos de fezes de escolar de Belo Horizonte. Dentre 1.890 moluscos capturados em 1994 e 1995, nenhum estava infectado com S. mansoni. Dentre 87 exemplares coletados no criadouro e expostos à cepa LE, nove (10,3% eliminaram cercárias; dentre 83 moluscos da F1, dez (12,0% eliminaram cercárias e dentre 88 exemplares coletados e expostos à cepa VGS, dez (11,3% eliminaram cercárias. Em Belo Horizonte, a esquistossomose é transmitida por B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Entretanto, atualmente existe o risco de aparecimento de novo foco, no qual a B. straminea poderá vir a ser a transmissora, se medidas profiláticas adequadas não forem tomadas pelas autoridades responsáveis pela construção de um parque e lago no local.In Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria straminea was found in the Pampulha region. Recently the snail was found in ditches in the old Santa Lúcia Reservoir, a now-extinct focus of schistosomiasis transmission by B. glabrata. The snails were collected and examined to verify whether they were naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Negative specimens were used for breeding or infection with the LE strain of S. mansoni from the laboratory and another strain obtained from eggs found in the feces of a schoolchild (VGS from Belo Horizonte. Among the 1890 snails collected from 1994 to 1995, none were infected with S. mansoni. Among 87 snails collected and exposed to the LE strain, 9 (10.3% shed cercariae

  5. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. METHODS: The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. RESULTS: Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  6. Estudo da potencialidade de populações de Biomphalaria straminea do Estado de Minas Gerais, como hospedeiras do Schistosoma mansoni Potentiality of the Biomphalaria straminea populations of the State of Minas Gerais, as hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos de Biomphalaria straminea, descendentes de exemplares coletados em nove municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram infectados experimentalmente com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", procedente de Belo Horizonte (MG; "SJ", procedente de São José dos Campos (SP e "AL" procedente do Nordeste (AL. As taxas de infeção variaram de 0,0 a 24,0% com a cepa "LE"; de 0,0 a 16% com a cepa "SJ" e de 2,0 a 9,0% com a cepa "AL". Os índices de infecção experimental obtidos foram semelhantes aos registrados por outros autores, para B. straminea dessa região. Comparou-se o número de cercárias de cepa "LE", eliminadas por oito exemplares de B. straminea de Baldim e oito Biomphalaria glabrata do controle, após 30 minutos de exposição à luz. O número de cercárias eliminadas por B. straminea foi de 4.550, aproximadamente cinco vezes menor que o de B. glabrata, 22.679. Discute-se a potencialidade desses moluscos como hospedeiros do S. mansoni nessa região.The decendents of Biomphalaria straminea snails collected in nine regions from the State of Minas Gerais were experimentally infected with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; "SJ", from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL", from State of Alagoas. The infection rates obtained were of 0 to 24% (LE strain, 0 to 16% (SJ strain and 2 to 9% (AL strain. These infection rates were similar to those obtained by other authors for B. straminea from this region. Comparation were made between the numbers of cercariae (LE strain shed by eight specimens of B. straminea from Baldim and eight B. glabrata of the control group, after 30 minutes of exposure to light. B. straminea shed 4,550 cercariae, about five times less than B. glabrata (22,679. The authors discuss the potentiality of theses molluscs as hosts of S. mansoni in this region.

  7. Uptake and loss of Cesium - 134 by the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The uptake and loss of Cs-134 produced in IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN was observed in fresh water adult snails. Two activites were employed: 3.700 and 18.500 Bq/1. A monochannel analyses was used for radiactivity couting and the number of egg-laying and embryo were registered. Maximum uptake occured approximately at 8 th day and the biological half-life was about 6 days. Although the egg-laying and embryo number were diminished with Cs-134 presence, it is not possible to affirm that result due to the small number of animals used. (author) [pt

  8. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

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    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni.

  9. Candida glabrata: an emerging oral opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Redding, S; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2007-03-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimycotic prophylaxis, C. glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in the oral mucosa. In the past, studies on the virulence factors and host-pathogen interactions of this organism were scarce, but continued to rise in recent years. Denture-wearing, immunosuppression, antibiotic therapy, and aging are risk factors for oral colonization or infection with C. glabrata. Compared with C. albicans, C. glabrata exhibits lower oral keratinocyte-adherence capacity, but higher denture-surface-adherence ability. The role of extracellular hydrolase production in the virulence of this organism does not appear to be as important as it is in C. albicans pathogenesis. Although traditionally thought of as a non-transforming yeast organism, both phenotypic switching and pseudohyphal formation have recently been identified in C. glabrata, but their role in pathogenesis is not known. With the exception of granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor, C. glabrata triggers a lower proinflammatory cytokine response in oral epithelial cells than does C. albicans, in a strain-dependent manner. C. glabrata is less susceptible to killing by human beta-defensins than is C. albicans and exhibits various degrees of resistance to the antifungal activity of salivary histatins and mucins. In addition, C. glabrata possesses both innate and acquired resistance against antifungal drugs, due to its ability to modify ergosterol biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, or antifungal efflux. This resistance allows for its relative overgrowth over other susceptible species and may contribute to the recent emergence of C. glabrata infections in chronically immunocompromised populations. Further investigations on the virulence and host-pathogen interactions of C. glabrata are needed to better define the pathogenesis of oral C. glabrata infection in susceptible hosts.

  10. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  11. Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale

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    Florence Mara Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010. Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m, with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions.

  12. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  13. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    miracidial destruction soon after parasite penetration. The other type occurs in less resistant snails where a delayed resistance development occurs after the dissemination of the sporocysts in the snail tissues. It seems that B. alexandrina snails respond more or less similar to B. glabrata. The results also proved that the immune response of the internal defense system increased with increasing the number of the inherited resistant genes.En Egipto, Biomphalaria alexandrina es el huésped intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni. La supervivencia de los miracidios de Schistosoma en los caracoles varía entre las especies de Biomphalaria. El sistema de defensa interno es uno de los factores que influyen en el patrón de susceptibilidad de los caracoles. La interacción entre los caracoles Biomphalaria y S. mansoni requiere ser identificada para cada especie e incluso, entre los miembros de la misma especie con diferente grado de susceptibilidad. En el presente estudio, la primera generación de padres susceptibles y resistentes de B. alejandrina fue examinada histológicamente al día 30, después de la exposición. El trabajo fue realizado tanto para caracterizar la respuesta inmune, según las reacciones de los tejidos, de los caracoles susceptibles y resistentes de B. alejandrina contra S. mansoni. También, el estudio se diseñó para determinar el impacto en el aumento de la resistencia en los caracoles padres, en los mecanismos de interacción de sus crías contra la infección. Los resultados mostraron que la tasa de infección para las crías, de padres susceptibles, fue del 92%. No se originaron crías susceptibles de los padres resistentes. Cuando los padres incluían un número igual de caracoles susceptibles y resistentes, dieron como resultado crías con una tasa de infección del 20%. Los caracoles susceptibles que tuvieron padres susceptibles mostraron un mayor grado de susceptibilidad que los que tenían tanto padres sensibles como resistentes. Una caracter

  14. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    schistosome-snail interactions and confirmation of transmission foci. Cercarial shedding patterns of field-caught Biomphalaria spp., as identified by morphology, were hourly observed over a ten day period and showed that Biomphalaria stanleyi produced significantly more cercariae than Biomphalaria sudanica...

  15. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  16. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  17. Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

    1982-03-01

    Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored.

  18. Potencialidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do lago Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, como hospederia do Schistosoma mansoni Potentiality of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Pampulha lake, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, as a host of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos Biomphalaria tenagophila descendentes de exemplares coletados no lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, foram expostos a miracídios de quatro cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: LE e HK de origem local, Belo Horizonte, AL do Estado de Alagoas e SJ, de São José dos Campos, SP. As cepas LE, AL e SJ são mantidas em laboratório e HK foi obtida de fezes de paciente que reside próximo à Pampulha. As taxas de infecção experimental foram de 4% (LE, 6% (HK, 30% (SJ e 40% (AL. Esses indícios de infecção foram semelhantes aos obtidos por vários autores para populações de B. tenagophila de Minas Gerais. Caramujos infectados experimentalmente eliminaram número de cercárias comparável ao de B. glabrata do controle e de B. tenagophila capturada no lago, com infecção natural (cerca de 2.000 cercárias/molusco. Devido à alta densidade planorbídica atual em alguns pontos do lago, número de cercárias eliminadas por exemplares naturalmente infectados, afluxo de pessoas para pesca e lazer, contaminação das águas por dejetos humanos, os autores alertam para o risco de crescimento do foco de esquistossomose no local.Biomphalaria tenagophila snails, from a population originally obtained from "Pampulha" lake, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia from four strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" and "HK" from Belo Horizonte, "AL" from alagoas and "SJ" from São José dos Campos, São Paulo. The "LE", "AL" and "SJ" strains are maintained in the laboratory and the "HK" strain was obtained from feces of a patient residing near to "Pampulha" lake. Infection rates were of 4% ("LE" strain, 6% ("HK" strain, 30% ("SJ" strain and 40% ("AL" strain. These infection rates were similar to those obtained by others authors for B. tenagophila from Minas Gerais. Experimentally infected snails when compared to B. glabrata of the control group and B. tenagophila naturally infected in "Pampulha" lake shed similar number

  19. Susceptibilidad de Biomphalaria tenagophila de las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay a Schistosoma mansoni Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Paraná and Uruguay river basins to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edgardo Borda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la posibilidad de extensión de la esquistosomiasis a las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay se expusieron experimentalmente a infección por Schistosoma mansoni 1 711 caracoles criados en laboratorio a partir de ejemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila recolectados en 15 poblaciones de dicha zona geográfica. Se utilizaron tres cepas de S. mansoni: la BH2, adaptada a B. glabrata, y las cepas SJ y SJ2, adaptadas a B. tenagophila. No se produjo infección de ninguno de los 543 caracoles expuestos a la cepa BH2 ni de los 668 expuestos a la SJ. En cambio, de los 500 expuestos a la cepa SJ2, fueron susceptibles a la infestación 4 de 163 caracoles (2% procedentes de Ayolas, una localidad de la cuenca del Paraná, y 8 de 45 (18% de los procedentes de Fuente Salto, en la cuenca del Uruguay. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de otras áreas geográficas en las que se han encontrado poblaciones de B. tenagophila que no se infectan y otras que sí son susceptibles a S. mansoni. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la posibilidad de expansión de la esquistosomiasis a una amplia región de Sudamérica en la que se halla B. tenagophila.To study the possibility that schistosomiasis might be able to spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, 1 711 snails were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. These snails were laboratory-bred progeny of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from 15 populations in the geographic area under consideration. Three strains of S. mansoni were used: BH2, adapted to B. glabrata, and SJ and SJ2, adapted to B. tenagophila. None of the 543 snails exposed to the BH2 strain became infected, nor did any of the 668 exposed to SJ. However, of the 500 exposed the SJ2, 4 of 163 snails (2% from Ayolas, a locality in the Paraná basin, were susceptible, as were 8 of 45 (18% from Fuente Salto, in the Uruguay basin. These findings are similar to those of studies done in other

  20. Specific Identification of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis Populations by the Low Stringency Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Edina Rodrigues Pires

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Biomphalaria occidentalis and B. tenagophila are indistinguishable on the basis of shell morphology and the majority of their genital organs, only the latter is susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, the identification of these species is fundamental to epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. Here we describe a simple and rapid method for differentiating B. tenagophila from B. occidentalis based on low stringency polymerase chain reaction and using a pair of primers specific for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Analysis of the low stringency product profiles of populations of these snails from different geographical regions confirmed this approach as being applicable to the identification of B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in cases where classical morphology is inconclusive

  1. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

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    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  2. Genetic variability in Brazilian populations of Biomphalaria straminea complex detected by simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

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    Caldeira Roberta L

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil. The latter is of epidemiological importance in the northwest of Brazil and, due to morphological similarities, has been grouped with B. intermedia and B. kuhniana in a complex named B. straminea. In the current work, we have standardized the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-PCR technique, using the primers (CA8RY and K7, to study the genetic variability of these species. The similarity level was calculated using the Dice coefficient and genetic distance using the Nei and Li coefficient. The trees were obtained by the UPGMA and neighbor-joining methods. We have observed that the most related individuals belong to the same species and locality and that individuals from different localities, but of the same species, present clear heterogeneity. The trees generated using both methods showed similar topologies. The SSR-PCR technique was shown to be very efficient in intrapopulational and intraspecific studies of the B. straminea complex snails.

  3. Proteomics of drug resistance in Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian; Abiko, Y; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2010-04-01

    Candida glabrata is a fungal pathogen that causes a variety of mucosal and systemic infections among compromised patient populations with higher mortality rates. Previous studies have shown that biofilm mode of the growth of the fungus is highly resistant to antifungal agents compared with the free-floating or planktonic mode of growth. Therefore, in the present study, we used 2-D DIGE to evaluate the differential proteomic profiles of C. glabrata under planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Candida glabrata biofilms were developed on polystyrene surfaces and age-matched planktonic cultures were obtained in parallel. Initially, biofilm architecture, viability, and antifungal susceptibility were evaluated. Differentially expressed proteins more than 1.5-fold in DIGE analysis were subjected to MS/MS. The transcriptomic regulation of these biomarkers was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Candida glabrata biofilms were highly resistant to the antifungals and biocides compared with the planktonic mode of growth. Candida glabrata biofilm proteome when compared with its planktonic proteome showed upregulation of stress response proteins, while glycolysis enzymes were downregulated. Similar trend could be observed at transcriptomic level. In conclusion, C. glabrata biofilms possess higher amount of stress response proteins, which may potentially contribute to the higher antifungal resistance seen in C. glabrata biofilms.

  4. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

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    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  6. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  7. Susceptibilidad de Biomphalaria tenagophila de las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay a Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edgardo Borda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la posibilidad de extensión de la esquistosomiasis a las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay se expusieron experimentalmente a infección por Schistosoma mansoni 1 711 caracoles criados en laboratorio a partir de ejemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila recolectados en 15 poblaciones de dicha zona geográfica. Se utilizaron tres cepas de S. mansoni: la BH2, adaptada a B. glabrata, y las cepas SJ y SJ2, adaptadas a B. tenagophila. No se produjo infección de ninguno de los 543 caracoles expuestos a la cepa BH2 ni de los 668 expuestos a la SJ. En cambio, de los 500 expuestos a la cepa SJ2, fueron susceptibles a la infestación 4 de 163 caracoles (2% procedentes de Ayolas, una localidad de la cuenca del Paraná, y 8 de 45 (18% de los procedentes de Fuente Salto, en la cuenca del Uruguay. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de otras áreas geográficas en las que se han encontrado poblaciones de B. tenagophila que no se infectan y otras que sí son susceptibles a S. mansoni. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la posibilidad de expansión de la esquistosomiasis a una amplia región de Sudamérica en la que se halla B. tenagophila.

  8. Identification of Biomphalaria havanensis and Biomphalaria obstructa populations from Cuba using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found.

  9. Epithelial GM-CSF induction by Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2009-08-01

    The main cytokine induced by the interaction of oral epithelial cells with C. glabrata is granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the mechanisms regulating this response are unknown. Based on previously published information on the interactions of C. albicans with oral epithelial cells, we hypothesized that interaction with viable C. glabrata triggers GM-CSF synthesis via NF-kappaB activation. We found that C. glabrata-induced GM-CSF synthesis was adhesion-dependent, enhanced by endocytosis, and required fungal viability. NF-kappaB activation was noted during interaction of epithelial cells with C. glabrata, and pre-treatment with an NF-kappaB inhibitor partly inhibited GM-CSF synthesis. Blocking TLR4 with anti-TLR4 antibody did not inhibit GM-CSF production. In contrast, an anti-CDw17 antibody triggered significant inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and GM-CSF synthesis. beta-glucans did not stimulate GM-CSF synthesis, suggesting that the CDw17/NF-kappaB/GM-CSF pathway may be beta-glucan-independent. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of GM-CSF induction by C. glabrata.

  10. Um inimigo natural dos caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

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    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A formiga carnívora Paratrechina longicornis exerce predação ativa sobre os caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria. Assim que os caramujos são deixados no seco pela retirada ou dessecamento das águas na estação seca, são atacados e rapidamente devorados pelas formigas. Somente os caramujos enterrados na lama argilosa ou aqueles que tiverem a abertura das conchas obturadas por tampões de argila endurecida pela secura conseguem escapar à predação e retornarem à atividade quando a volta da estação chuvosa traz água para os vivedouros dessecados. Obviamente outras espécies de formigas carnívoras podem assumir idêntica função ecológica.

  11. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  12. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  13. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

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    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  14. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Candida glabrata um patogénio emergente?

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde, Filipa Alexandra Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Nas últimas décadas as infecções fúngicas têm aumentado exponencialmente. Apesar de Candida albicans (C. albicans) continuar a ser a espécie isolada com maior frequência, as espécies não albicans tem vindo a proliferar rapidamente. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) é uma das espécies emergentes como patogénio oportunista humano, sendo responsável maioritariamente por candidoses invasivas em pacie...

  16. The Effect of Molybdenum Fertilization on Arachis Glabrata Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of molybdenum fertilization on biomass and the number of nodules of Arachis glabrata was assessed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang in 2011 at different periods of mowing. A factorial design comparing four doses of molybdenum as ammonium molybdate (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 ...

  17. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  18. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  19. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. PMID:29371530

  20. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  1. Susceptibility of Argentinean Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the possibility of geographic expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Franceschi Simoes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human migration and the presence of natural vectors (mollusks of Schistosoma mansoni are the primary causes of the expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis into southern areas of South America. Water conditions are favorable for the expansion of this disease because of the extensive hydrographic network, which includes the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers and favors mollusk reproduction. These rivers also aid agriculture and tourism in the area. Despite these favorable conditions, natural infection by S. mansoni has not yet been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, or Paraguay. Methods Two species of planorbid from Argentina, Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila, were exposed to the miracidia of five Brazilian strains of S. mansoni. Results Biomphalaria tenagophila (Atalaya, Buenos Aires province was infected with the SJS strain (infection rate 3.3%, confirming the experimental susceptibility of this Argentinian species. Biomphalaria straminea (Rio Santa Lucía, Corrientes province was susceptible to two Brazilian strains: SJS (infection rate 6.7% and Sergipe (infection rate 6.7%. Conclusions These results demonstrate that species from Argentina have the potential to be natural hosts of S. mansoni and that the appearance of foci of mansoni schistosomiasis in Argentina is possible.

  2. Variation spatiale et temporelle de la susceptibilité de Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2018 ... Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails. Veterinary. Parasitology, 161 : 207-212. Mostafa OM, El-Dafrawy SM, 2011. Susceptibility of. Biomphalaria spp. to infection with. Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on ...

  3. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  4. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  5. Metabolic engineering of Candida glabrata for diacetyl production.

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    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available In this study, Candida glabrata, an efficient pyruvate-producing strain, was metabolically engineered for the production of the food ingredient diacetyl. A diacetyl biosynthetic pathway was reconstructed based on genetic modifications and medium optimization. The former included (i channeling carbon flux into the diacetyl biosynthetic pathway by amplification of acetolactate synthase, (ii elimination of the branched pathway of α-acetolactate by deleting the ILV5 gene, and (iii restriction of diacetyl degradation by deleting the BDH gene. The resultant strain showed an almost 1∶1 co-production of α-acetolactate and diacetyl (0.95 g L(-1. Furthermore, addition of Fe3+ to the medium enhanced the conversion of α-acetolactate to diacetyl and resulted in a two-fold increase in diacetyl production (2.1 g L(-1. In addition, increased carbon flux was further channeled into diacetyl biosynthetic pathway and a titer of 4.7 g L(-1 of diacetyl was achieved by altering the vitamin level in the flask culture. Thus, this study illustrates that C. glabrata could be tailored as an attractive platform for enhanced biosynthesis of beneficial products from pyruvate by metabolic engineering strategies.

  6. Candida glabrata Esophagitis: Are We Seeing the Emergence of a New Azole-Resistant Pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aze Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata has become a recognized pathogen in fungal esophagitis. A proportion of these isolates are azole-resistant which may have treatment implications. Variability in the prevalence of this organism exists in the limited data available. Objective. To determine the incidence of C. glabrata esophagitis in a North American hospital setting and to highlight factors that may predispose patients to this condition. Methods. Patient charts were collected from January 1, 2009 to July 30, 2011. Any charts of patients identified as having esophagitis with a positive fungal culture were reviewed for the species of Candida and the presence of factors that would predispose them to esophageal candidiasis. Results. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis based on culture was 2.2% (37 subjects. C. glabrata was the 2nd most prevalent pathogen identified (24.3% or 9 subjects. Of the C. glabrata cohort, all patients had at least one factor predisposing them to candidiasis. Conclusion. C. glabrata esophagitis makes up a large portion of the candidal esophagitis seen in hospital. C. glabrata infections were associated with at least one risk factor for candidal infection. Given its resistance to azole-based therapy, this may have treatment implications for how candidal esophagitis is approached by the clinician.

  7. Dissection of Ire1 functions reveals stress response mechanisms uniquely evolved in Candida glabrata.

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    Taiga Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.

  8. Probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) modulates adhesive properties of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Zorica; Zupan, Jure; Matos, Tadeja; Raspor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy together with broad-spectrum antimycotic therapy, the frequency of mucosal and systemic infections caused by the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata has increased in the past decades. Due to the resistance of C. glabrata to existing azole drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) on C. glabrata adhesion at different temperatures, pH values, and in the presence of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. We also studied the adhesion of C. glabrata co-culture with Candida krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two bacterial probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei The method used to assess adhesion was crystal violet staining. Our results showed that despite the nonadhesiveness of S. boulardii cells, this probiotic significantly affected the adherence ability of C. glabrata This effect was highly dependent on C. glabrata strain and was either antagonistic or synergistic. Regarding the extrinsic factors, temperature did not indicate any significant influence on this S. boulardii modulatory effect, while at high pH and at increased concentrations of antimycotics, S. boulardii did not manage to repress the adhesion of C. glabrata strains. The experiments of C. glabrata co-cultures with other species showed that the adhesiveness of two separate cultures could not be used to predict the adhesiveness of their co-culture. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  10. MALDI-TOF typing highlights geographical and fluconazole resistance clusters in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, C; Normand, A C; Al-Yasiri, M; Chaker, E; El Euch, D; Vranckx, K; Hendrickx, M; Sadfi, N; Piarroux, R; Ranque, S

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra for Candida glabrata typing would be a cost-effective and easy-to-use alternative to classical DNA-based typing methods. This study aimed to use MALDI-TOF for the typing of C. glabrata clinical isolates from various geographical origins and test its capacity to differentiate between fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strains.Both microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 58 C. glabrata isolates originating from Marseilles (France) and Tunis (Tunisia) as well as collection strains from diverse geographic origins were analyzed. The same analysis was conducted on a subset of C. glabrata isolates that were either susceptible (MIC ≤ 8 mg/l) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 mg/l) to fluconazole.According to the seminal results, both MALDI-TOF and MLP classifications could highlight C. glabrata population structures associated with either geographical dispersal barriers (p typing to investigate C. glabrata infection outbreaks and predict the antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical laboratory isolates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  12. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  13. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  14. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  15. Phylogenetic reconstruction and shell evolution of the Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2012-06-01

    The fascinating and often unlikely shell shapes in the terrestrial micromollusc family Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) provide a particularly attractive set of multiple morphological traits to investigate evolutionary patterns of shape variation. Here, a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, based on five genes and 2700 bp, was undertaken for this family, integrated with ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic PCA of discrete and quantitative traits, respectively. We found strong support for the Diplommatininae as a monophyletic group, separating the Cochlostomatidae into a separate family. Five main clades appear within the Diplommatininae, corresponding with both coiling direction and biogeographic patterns. A Belau clade (A) with highly diverse (but always sinistral) morphology comprised Hungerfordia, Palaina, and some Diplommatina. Arinia (dextral) and Opisthostoma (sinistroid) are sister groups in clade B. Clade C and D solely contain sinistral Diplommatina that are robust and little ornamented (clade C) or slender and sculptured (clade D). Clade E is dextral but biogeographically diverse with species from all sampled regions save the Caroline Islands. Adelopoma, Diplommatina, Palaina, and Hungerfordia require revision to allow taxonomy to reflect phylogeny, whereas Opisthostoma is clearly monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests a sinistral origin for the Diplommatinidae, with three reversals to dextrality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Candida glabrata-pneumonia in a non-immuno-suppressed patient: Imaging by digital radiology and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankier, A.; Fleischmann, D.; Wiesmayr, M.; Laczika, K.; Huebsch, P.

    1994-01-01

    Pneumonias caused by Candida glabrata are extremely rare and occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We report an atypical case of Candida glabrata pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised patient and describe the imaging findings on digital radiography and computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  17. Candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses eight years after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, G M; Blackstone, M; Hart, J; Piper, J; Baker, A L

    1997-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 48-year-old man in whom candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses developed 8 years after liver transplantation. After a week of fever, computed tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed several fluid-filled loculations in the left lobe of the liver and hepatic arterial stenosis. Aspirates from the abscesses contained T. glabrata organisms. This complication probably developed because hepatic arterial stenosis resulted in bile infarcts (bilomas), which were contaminated via the biliary tract with candida from the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Catheter drainage and administration of amphotericin B for 10 weeks permitted successful retransplantation. T. glabrata liver abscesses, a life threatening complication that can occur long after liver transplantation, can be successfully managed by aggressive medical treatment followed by retransplantation.

  18. Small chromosomes among Danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Khadija Mohamed; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Hellborg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    chromosomes, which were smaller than 0.5 Mb. Regarding the year, patient and hospital, these C. glabrata strains had independent origin and the analyzed small chromosomes were structurally not related to each other (i.e. they contained different sets of genes). We suggest that at least two mechanisms could...... exhibited mitotic instability, while the second type, which contained the corresponding genes in only one copy in the genome, was mitotically stable. Apparently, in patients C. glabrata chromosomes are frequently reshuffled resulting in new genetic configurations, including appearance of small chromosomes...

  19. New polymeric formulation for control of biomphalaria Alexandria based on pharmaceutical waste gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; El-Maghraby, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, important new areas of application for plastics have emerged in medicine such as devices for the controlled release of drugs. The increases in the use of plastic materials in all sectors of industry have led to a continuous increase in the generation of plastic wastes. Recycling allow the waste to be reintroduced into the consumption cycle. Pharmaceutical companies which manufacture soft gels with different shapes, sizes and colors based mainly on gelatin formulations produce huge amount of gelatin waste. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in our country. We now report the utilization of gelatin scrap by incorporating them in biodegradable films containing the molluscicide niclosamide for control of Biomphalaria Alexandrina snails. The preparation of the gelatin films will be described. The release of niclosamide from the prepared blends was investigated. The prepared formulations proved to be useful compared with free niclosamide

  20. Effects of Snail Density on Growth, Reproduction and Survival of Biomphalaria alexandrina Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Mangal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of snail density on Biomphalaria alexandrina parasitized with Schistosoma mansoni were investigated. Laboratory experiments were used to quantify the impact of high density on snail growth, fecundity, and survival. Density-dependent birth rates of snails were determined to inform mathematical models, which, until now, have assumed a linear relationship between density and fecundity. The experiments show that the rate of egg-laying followed a negative exponential distribution with increasing density and this was significantly affected by exposure to parasitic infection. High density also affected the weight of snails and survival to a greater degree than exposure to parasitic infection. Although snail growth rates were initially constrained by high density, they retained the potential for growth suggesting a reversible density-dependent mechanism. These experimental data can be used to parameterise models and confirm that snail populations are regulated by nonlinear density-dependent mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  2. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  3. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini-chr...

  4. A network of paralogous stress response transcription factors in the human pathogen Candida glabrata.

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    Jawad eMerhej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq, transcriptome analyses and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1 transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption and iron metabolism.

  5. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  6. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  7. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

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    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement. His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1 placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained, and (2 chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis. To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections.

  8. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

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    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  9. Rapid Discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis by Use of a Singleplex PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; Guitard, J.; Grenouillet, F.; Martin, T.; Durrens, P.; Fairhead, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.

  10. Generational distribution of a Candida glabrata population: Resilient old cells prevail, while younger cells dominate in the vulnerable host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouklas, Tejas; Alonso-Crisóstomo, Luz; Székely, Tamás; Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Orner, Erika P; Smith, Kalie; Munshi, Mansa A; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Balázsi, Gábor; Fries, Bettina C

    2017-05-01

    Similar to other yeasts, the human pathogen Candida glabrata ages when it undergoes asymmetric, finite cell divisions, which determines its replicative lifespan. We sought to investigate if and how aging changes resilience of C. glabrata populations in the host environment. Our data demonstrate that old C. glabrata are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil killing, whereas young cells adhere better to epithelial cell layers. Consequently, virulence of old compared to younger C. glabrata cells is enhanced in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Electron microscopy images of old C. glabrata cells indicate a marked increase in cell wall thickness. Comparison of transcriptomes of old and young C. glabrata cells reveals differential regulation of ergosterol and Hog pathway associated genes as well as adhesion proteins, and suggests that aging is accompanied by remodeling of the fungal cell wall. Biochemical analysis supports this conclusion as older cells exhibit a qualitatively different lipid composition, leading to the observed increased emergence of fluconazole resistance when grown in the presence of fluconazole selection pressure. Older C. glabrata cells accumulate during murine and human infection, which is statistically unlikely without very strong selection. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neutrophils constitute the predominant selection pressure in vivo. When we altered experimentally the selection pressure by antibody-mediated removal of neutrophils, we observed a significantly younger pathogen population in mice. Mathematical modeling confirmed that differential selection of older cells is sufficient to cause the observed demographic shift in the fungal population. Hence our data support the concept that pathogenesis is affected by the generational age distribution of the infecting C. glabrata population in a host. We conclude that replicative aging constitutes an emerging trait, which is selected by the host and may even play an

  11. Identification of Candida glabrata genes involved in pH modulation and modification of the phagosomal environment in macrophages.

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    Lydia Kasper

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata currently ranks as the second most frequent cause of invasive candidiasis. Our previous work has shown that C. glabrata is adapted to intracellular survival in macrophages and replicates within non-acidified late endosomal-stage phagosomes. In contrast, heat killed yeasts are found in acidified matured phagosomes. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the processes leading to inhibition of phagosome acidification and maturation. We show that phagosomes containing viable C. glabrata cells do not fuse with pre-labeled lysosomes and possess low phagosomal hydrolase activity. Inhibition of acidification occurs independent of macrophage type (human/murine, differentiation (M1-/M2-type or activation status (vitamin D3 stimulation. We observed no differential activation of macrophage MAPK or NFκB signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors after internalization of viable compared to heat killed yeasts, but Syk activation decayed faster in macrophages containing viable yeasts. Thus, delivery of viable yeasts to non-matured phagosomes is likely not triggered by initial recognition events via MAPK or NFκB signaling, but Syk activation may be involved. Although V-ATPase is abundant in C. glabrata phagosomes, the influence of this proton pump on intracellular survival is low since blocking V-ATPase activity with bafilomycin A1 has no influence on fungal viability. Active pH modulation is one possible fungal strategy to change phagosome pH. In fact, C. glabrata is able to alkalinize its extracellular environment, when growing on amino acids as the sole carbon source in vitro. By screening a C. glabrata mutant library we identified genes important for environmental alkalinization that were further tested for their impact on phagosome pH. We found that the lack of fungal mannosyltransferases resulted in severely reduced alkalinization in vitro and in the delivery of C. glabrata to acidified phagosomes. Therefore

  12. Development of a Candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amdS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianmin; Blaylock, Morganne; Wickes, Cameron F; Welte, William; Mehrtash, Adrian; Wiederhold, Nathan; Wickes, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The gene encoding Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amdS) was placed under control of Candida albicans ACT1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing C. glabrata ARS10,CEN8 or ARS10+CEN8 sequences. All plasmids transformed C. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ARS-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). Plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dependent on chromosomal element, thus recycling the acetamide- phenotype. The amdS plasmid was used to transform a set of clinical isolates resistant to a variety of antifungal drugs. All strains were successfully transformed to the acetamide+ phenotype at high frequency, confirming that this plasmid construct could be used as a simple dominant marker on virtually any strain. Gap repair experiments demonstrated that just as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gap repair functions efficiently inC. glabrata, suggesting that C. glabrata has numerous similarities toS. cerevisiae with regard to ease of molecular manipulation. The amdS system is inexpensive and efficient, and combined with existing C. glabrata plasmid elements, confers a high transformation frequency for C. glabrata with a phenotype that can be easily recycled. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Further studies on the molecular systematics of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the rRNA gene, using the enzyme DdeI were used for the molecular identification of ten species and one subspecies of Brazilian Biomphalaria. Emphasis is given to the analysis of B. oligoza, B. schrammi and B. amazonica. The RFLP profiles obtained using this enzyme were highly distinctive for the majority of the species and exhibited low levels of intraspecific polymorphism among specimens from different regions of Brazil. However, B. peregrina and B. oligoza presented very similar profiles that complicated their identification at the molecular level and suggested a very close genetic similarity between the two species. Others enzymes including HaeIII, HpaII, AluI and MnlI were tested for their ability to differentiate these species. For B. amazonica three variant profiles produced with DdeI were observed. The study demonstrated that the ITS contains useful genetic markers for the identification of these snails

  14. FKS2 Mutations Associated with Decreased Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida glabrata following Anidulafungin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Miranda, Isabel Marcos; Silva, Raquel M.; Pinto e Silva, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Amorim, Antonio; Rodrigues, Acacio Goncalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia

    2011-01-01

    This is the first case report of Candida glabrata-disseminated candidiasis describing the acquisition of echinocandin resistance following anidulafungin treatment. The initial isolates recovered were susceptible to echinocandins. However, during 27 days of anidulafungin treatment, two resistant strains were isolated (from the blood and peritoneal fluid). The resistant peritoneal fluid isolate exhibited a Ser663Pro mutation in position 1987 of FKS2 HS1 (hot spot 1), whereas the resistant blood...

  15. Enhanced oxidative killing of azole-resistant Candida glabrata strains with ERG11 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, V L; Geber, A; Bennett, J E

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of genetically defined Candida glabrata strains to killing by H2O2 and neutrophils was assessed. Fluconazole-susceptible L5L and L5D strains demonstrated survival rates higher than those of two fluconazole-resistant strains lacking the ERG11 gene coding for 14 alpha-demethylase. Fluconazole resistance can occur by mechanisms which increase fungal susceptibility to oxidative killing by H2O2 and neutrophils. PMID:8807069

  16. Potassium Uptake Mediated by Trk1 Is Crucial for Candida glabrata Growth and Fitness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Llopis-Torregrosa, Vincent; Hušeková, Barbora; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), e0153374 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/1151; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03398S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 606786 - ImResFun Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida glabrata * potassium uptake * Trk1 protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  17. An unexpected response of torulopsis glabrata fusion products to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, C.L.; Sriprakash, K.S.; Batum, C.M.; Clark-Walker, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intra-species fusion products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Torulopsis glabrata have been isolated following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of protoplasts and selection for prototrophic colonies. Staining with lomofungin showed that all fusion products were uninucleate. Measurement of DNA content mostly gave values between haploid and diploid levels indicating that the majority of fusion products were aneuploid. Nevertheless fusion products of S. cerevisiae and S. unisporus were, as expected, more resistant to X-irradiation than their haploid parents. By contrast, the X-ray doze-response curve of all T. glabrata fusion products was indistinguishable from their progenitors despite the fact that mitotic segregants could be recovered amongst the survivors to X-rays. A possible explanation for the behaviour towards X-rays of T. glabrata fusion products is that this species lacks a DNA repair pathway involving recombination between homologous chromosomes. We conclude from this study that the shape of the X-ray dose-response curve should not be taken to indicate the ploidy of new yeast isolates without supporting data. (orig.)

  18. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: characteristics of women with Candida albicans, C glabrata and no candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A M; Foxman, B; Sobel, J D

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Although as many as 5% of all women complain of chronic vulvovaginitis, little is known about these women. They may often be misdiagnosed and the role of vaginal yeast culture in diagnosing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) among them has not been clearly defined. METHODS--To address these deficiencies, we tabulated initial diagnoses among new patients and conducted a medical record-based, unmatched case-control study among women reporting a history of chronic vulvovaginitis (four or more episodes in the past year) at a vulvovaginitis specialty clinic. Clinical presentation and medical history were compared for women who had a positive vaginal yeast culture for either Candida albicans or C glabrata, or who had a negative culture. RESULTS--One-third of the women had no apparent vulvovaginal disease at their initial visit. All women reported similar symptoms, except for an increased prevalence of painful sexual intercourse in women with C albicans (chi 2 p = 0.014 versus women with C glabrata and p vulvovaginitis. Among women with VVC, subtle differences in clinical presentation do not reliably distinguish women with C albicans from those with C glabrata. Our study also indicates that vaginal yeast cultures, while not necessary for every patient, are valuable in confirming negative diagnoses, detecting microscopy false-negatives, and identifying non-C albicans isolates. Images PMID:7490047

  19. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

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    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  20. Relative Abundances of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in In Vitro Coculture Biofilms Impact Biofilm Structure and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C

    2018-04-15

    Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species- Candida albicans and Candida glabrata -are often coisolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida coculture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the coculture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans and C. glabrata When using a starting ratio of C. albicans to C. glabrata of 1:3, ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increases in biofilm biomass were observed relative to those of a C. albicans monoculture and a C. albicans / C. glabrata ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long C. albicans hyphae and C. glabrata cell clusters in the coculture biofilms, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) studies showed increases in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the C. albicans / C. glabrata 1:3 biofilm compared to that in the C. albicans monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 C. albicans / C. glabrata biofilm demonstrated an increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a coculture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are often coisolated during infection, and the occurrence of coisolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in

  1. Isolamento genético de populações de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

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    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiências de intrecruzamento de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria de várias procedências de Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando o albinismo como mercador genético mostraram que ocorre na região duas populações isoladas que não se intercruzam. Uma das populações è constituída por caramujos que podem atingir diâmetros de concha até em torno de 30 mm, enquanto que a outra atinge somente em torno de 10 mm mesmo nas melhores condições ambientais.

  2. Dispersão de Biomphalaria straminea, hospedeira intermediária do Schistosoma mansoni, através da distribuição de peixes The spreading of Biomphalaria straminea, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni through the distribution of fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de R. Corrêa

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi focalizado, pela primeira vez o encontro de B. straminea no Estado de São Paulo. Esta espécie vem juntar-se aos planorbídeos já assinalados em nosso Estado. Foram descritos os criadouros, onde a B. straminea foi coletada, localizados em tanques de criação de peixes nas Estações de Piscicultura de Barra Bonita e Americana, Estado de São Paulo, e em um aquário particular na capital dêsse Estado. Fêz-se referência ao transporte de peixes oriundos de zonas do país onde ocorre aquela espécie, Amazonas e Ceará, como responsável pela introdução daquele molusco no Estado. Destacou-se êsse achado pelo perigo que representa a distribuição de peixes da maneira como vem sendo feita atualmente em nosso país, tendo sido julgado necessário o estabelecimento de quarentena para aquêles vindos de zonas infestadas por espécies hospedeiras intermediárias do S. mansoni. Foram relatadas as medidas de combate aos caramujos efetuadas imediatamente após aquela descoberta e os resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que a dispersão passiva da B. straminea pelo transporte de peixes, deve ampliar a distribuição geográfica dêsse planorbídeo, já assinalado na Venezuela, Guianas e no Brasil, sendo que neste último ocorre em tôdas as Unidades Federativas, exceto, no Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro e Territórios.Up the present, the works of collecting planorbids done in 226 municipalities for the elaboration of the geographical distribution chart in the State of São Paulo (Brazil, showed the presence of two intermediate host species of Schistosoma mansoni: Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biompralaria glabrata. Although the technicians from the Psiculture Stations, have not found snails in the water inside the containers used for the transportation of fishes, the ecological conditions of B. straminea in the latest researches are such as to indicate that they have been introduced, in our State through fish transportation imported

  3. Occurrence and characterization of Candida nivariensis from a culture collection of Candida glabrata clinical isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Lotfalikhani, Azadeh; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Na, Shiang Ling; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species. This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital. C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method. There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate. This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  4. Studies of radiation gamma effects of 60 Co on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Melo, Ana M.M. de; Motta, Mauricy A. da

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gamma 60 Co radiation on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea was carried out with these mollusks kept in totality reproductive isolation and grouped, for their possible utilization in the study of radiation effect in biological system. Biomphalaria straminea species are disseminated in Brazil, specially in Northeast region. The snails were exposed to the following doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320; and 640 gy source was a Gamma Cell Co model RL (rate dose = 0,31 Gy/min). The fecundity was observed through the count of the spawing abd eggs number/snail/day; the fecundity and fertility when the radiation dose increased; it was evidenced that the grouped mollusks presented a better performance in respectivity when compared with the isolated ones. After the statistical analysis was observed that fercundity and fertility were closely related. The survival, presented higher levels of resistence in isolated mollusks than in grouped ones. The DL50/30 obtained for the isolated mollusks submitted the radiation was about 90 Gy and for the grouped ones 70 Gy. (author). 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Isolamento genético de populações de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

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    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiências de intrecruzamento de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria de várias procedências de Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando o albinismo como mercador genético mostraram que ocorre na região duas populações isoladas que não se intercruzam. Uma das populações è constituída por caramujos que podem atingir diâmetros de concha até em torno de 30 mm, enquanto que a outra atinge somente em torno de 10 mm mesmo nas melhores condições ambientais.Breending experiments with snails of the genus Biomphalaria from several beeding sites in Pernambuco, Brazil, using albinism as the genetics tag have shown that two isolated non-interbreeding populations occur in the region. One of the populations is made up of snails which consistently reached diameter sizes around 30 mm, while the other of snails reaching only around 10 mm shell diameter, even when in the best environmental conditions.

  6. Reversal of fluconazole resistance induced by a synergistic effect with Acca sellowiana in Candida glabrata strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R M Machado, Gabriella da; Pippi, Bruna; Dalla Lana, Daiane Flores; Amaral, Ana Paula S; Teixeira, Mário Lettieri; Souza, Kellen C B de; Fuentefria, Alexandre M

    2016-11-01

    The increased incidence of non-albicans Candida (NAC) resistant to fluconazole (FLZ) makes it necessary to use new therapeutic alternatives. Acca sellowiana (O.berg) Burret (Myrtaceae) is a guava with several proven biological activities. The interaction with fluconazole can be a feasible alternative to overcome this resistance. This study evaluates the in vitro antifungal activity of fractions obtained from the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of A. sellowiana against resistant strains of NAC. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated at 500 μg/mL by microdilution method. Checkerboard assay was performed to determine the effect of the combination of the F2 fraction and antifungal at concentrations: MIC/4, MIC/2, MIC, MIC × 2 and MIC × 4. Candida glabrata showed the lowest MIC values (500-3.90 μg/mL) and the F2 active fraction was the most effective. The association of F2 with FLZ showed a strong synergistic effect (FICI ≤ 0.5) against 100% of C. glabrata resistant isolates. Moreover, the F2 active fraction has demonstrated that probably acts in the cell wall of these yeasts. There was no observed acute dermal toxicity of lyophilized aqueous extract of leaves of A. sellowiana on pig ear skin cells. The interaction between substances present in the F2 active fraction is possibly responsible for the antifungal activity presented by this fraction. This study is unprecedented and suggests that the combination of F2 active fraction and FLZ might be used as an alternative treatment for mucocutaneus infections caused by C. glabrata resistant.

  7. Time to positivity and detection of growth in anaerobic blood culture vials predict the presence of Candida glabrata in candidemia: a two-center European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Kaasch, Achim J; Soriano, Alex; Torres, Jorge-Luis; Vergara, Andrea; Morata, Laura; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De La Calle, Cristina; Alejo, Izaskun; Hernández, Cristina; Cardozo, Celia; Marco, Franscesc; Del Río, Ana; Almela, Manel; Mensa, Josep; Martínez, José Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This study shows the accuracy of exclusive or earlier growth in anaerobic vials to predict Candida glabrata in a large series of candidemic patients from two European hospitals using the Bactec 9240 system. Alternatively, C. glabrata can be predicted by a time to positivity cutoff value, which should be determined for each setting. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

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    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  9. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

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    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  10. Time-kill assay and Etest evaluation for synergy with polymyxin B and fluconazole against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George; Ashcraft, Deborah; Kahn, Heather; Ismail, Abdulrahim

    2014-10-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata is an emerging pathogen that causes fungemia. Polymyxin B, a last-resort antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, has been found to possess in vitro fungicidal activity and showed synergy with fluconazole against a single strain of C. glabrata. Since both agents may be used simultaneously in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, this study was performed to test for possible synergy of this combination against 35 C. glabrata blood isolates, using 2 methods: a time-kill assay and an experimental MIC-MIC Etest method. Thirty-five genetically unique C. glabrata bloodstream isolates were collected from 2009 to 2011, identified using an API 20C system, and genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). MICs were determined by Etest and broth microdilution methods. Synergy testing was performed using a modified bacterial Etest synergy method and time-kill assay, with final results read at 24 h. The Etest method showed synergy against 19/35 (54%) isolates; the time-kill assay showed synergy against 21/35 (60%) isolates. Isolates not showing drug synergy had an indifferent status. Concordance between methods was 60%. In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and fluconazole against the majority of C. glabrata isolates was demonstrated by both methods. The bacterial Etest synergy method adapted well when used with C. glabrata. Etest was easier to perform than time-kill assay and may be found to be an acceptable alternative to time-kill assay with antifungals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  12. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic

  13. Candida glabrata tryptophan-based pigment production via the Ehrlich pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Heyken, Antje; Fleck, Christian Benjamin; Brock, Matthias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Hube, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Pigments contribute to the pathogenicity of many fungi, mainly by protecting fungal cells from host defence activities. Here, we have dissected the biosynthetic pathway of a tryptophan-derived pigment of the human pathogen Candida glabrata, identified key genes involved in pigment production and have begun to elucidate the possible biological function of the pigment. Using transcriptional analyses and a transposon insertion library, we have identified genes associated with pigment production. Targeted deletion mutants revealed that the pigment is a by-product of the Ehrlich pathway of tryptophan degradation: a mutant lacking a tryptophan-upregulated aromatic aminotransferase (Aro8) displayed significantly reduced pigmentation and a recombinantly expressed version of this protein was sufficient for pigment production in vitro. Pigment production is tightly regulated as the synthesis is affected by the presence of alternative nitrogen sources, carbon sources, cyclic AMP and oxygen. Growth of C. glabrata on pigment inducing medium leads to an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, an effect which was not observed with a mutant defective in pigmentation. Furthermore, pigmented yeast cells had a higher survival rate when exposed to human neutrophils and caused increased damage in a monolayer model of human epithelia, indicating a possible role of pigmentation during interactions with host cells.

  14. Antiestrogenic constituents of the Thai medicinal plants Capparis flavicans and Vitex glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Prathan; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Antiestrogenic compounds were investigated from Thai indigenous plants for galactogogues since estrogen is reported to suppress lactation in breastfeeding women. The aerial parts of the Thai medicinal plant Capparis flavicans, which has traditionally been used to promote lactation, gave the new compound capparoside A (1), along with 28 known compounds. The leaves of Vitex glabrata belong to the same genus as the chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), which is used traditionally to support lactation, and afforded the new compounds khainaoside A (14), khainaoside B (15), and khainaoside C (16), together with six known compounds. The isolates were tested for their biological activity using the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Syringaresinol (3) and principin (6), from C. flavicans, and khainaoside A (14) showed the most potent inhibitory effects on estrogen-enhanced cell proliferation among all compounds isolated. These results suggest that the lactation-promoting properties of C. flavicans might be related to the inhibitory effect on excess estrogen of women who experience insufficient breastfeeding and highlight the possibility of using V. glabrata leaves for their antiestrogenic properties.

  15. Genotyping of the MTL loci and susceptibility to two antifungal agents of Candida glabrata clinical isolates

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    María Teresa Lavaniegos-Sobrino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is the second most common isolate from bloodstream infections worldwide and is naturally less susceptible to the antifungal drug fluconazole than other Candida species. C. glabrata is a haploid yeast that contains three mating-type like loci (MTL, although no sexual cycle has been described. Strains containing both types of mating information at the MTL1 locus are found in clinical isolates, but it is thought that strains containing type a information are more common. Here we investigated if a particular combination of mating type information at each MTLlocus is more prevalent in clinical isolates from hospitalized patients in Mexico and if there is a correlation between mating information and resistance to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. We found that while both types of information at MTL1 are equally represented in a collection of 64 clinical isolates, the vast majority of isolates contain a-type information at MTL2 and α-type at MTL3. We also found no correlation of the particular combination of mating type information at the three MTL loci and resistance to fluconazole.

  16. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a salt-tolerant and fluconazole (FLC)-resistant yeast species. Here, we analyse the contribution of plasma-membrane alkali-metal-cation exporters, a cation/proton antiporter and a cation ATPase to cation homeostasis and the maintenance of membrane potential (ΔΨ). Using a series of single and double mutants lacking CNH1 and/or ENA1 genes we show that the inability to export potassium and toxic alkali-metal cations leads to a slight hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane of C. glabrata cells; this hyperpolarization drives more cations into the cells and affects cation homeostasis. Surprisingly, a much higher hyperpolarization of C. glabrata plasma membrane was produced by incubating cells with subinhibitory concentrations of FLC. FLC treatment resulted in a substantially increased sensitivity of cells to various cationic drugs and toxic cations that are driven into the cell by negative-inside plasma-membrane potential. The effect of the combination of FLC plus cationic drug treatment was enhanced by the malfunction of alkali-metal-cation transporters that contribute to the regulation of membrane potential and cation homeostasis. In summary, we show that the combination of subinhibitory concentrations of FLC and cationic drugs strongly affects the growth of C. glabrata cells. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms: Influence of the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosida, Thayse Yumi; Cavazana, Thamires Priscila; Henriques, Mariana; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The relationship among Candida species may be influenced by several factors. Thus, this study evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms, varying the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation. Biofilms were formed for 48 hours in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) or RPMI 1640, supplemented with 0%, 1% or 5% glucose. Each strain of C. albicans was combined with two strains of C. glabrata, generating four biofilm associations, which were quantified by colony-forming units (CFUs), total biomass and metabolic activity. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). For CFUs, all associations were classified as indifferent for biofilms formed in RPMI 1640, while for SDB the interactions were antagonistic for C. albicans and indifferent for C. glabrata. The association of reference strains resulted in a dual-species biofilm with biomass significantly higher than that observed for each single biofilm developed in SDB. The metabolic activity of dual-species biofilms did not significantly differ from that found for single ones, except for co-culture of the reference strains. Glucose supplementation and culture media had a significant influence on all parameters. In conclusion, the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation influenced the interactions between C. albicans and C. glabrata. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINET, CARLOS; ARÉVALO, ALEJANDRA; GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA TERESA; MORENO, CARLOS A.; ARATA, JAVIER; NIKLITSCHEK, EDWIN

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis. PMID:26146832

  1. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis.

  2. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  3. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...... also resistant to azoles and caspofungin. In this study, 4 isolates were studied thoroughly using susceptibility assays and a mouse model and to determine clonality. METHODS: Different broth microdilution tests, Etests, and time-kill studies for antifungals were performed in different media. Three...... isolates obtained from nonrelated patients, and a reference strain. RESULTS: The murine model indicated that 1 isolate was resistant to amphotericin B, 1 had intermediate susceptibility, and 1 was fully susceptible. Two of the 3 isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Microdilution methods did not reliably...

  5. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina—a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis

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    Alejandra Rumi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas

  6. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  7. Bird attributes, plant characteristics, and seed dispersal of Pera glabrata (Schott, 1858), (Euphorbiaceae) in a disturbed cerrado area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, M R; Lunardi, V O; Galetti, M

    2007-11-01

    Several plant characteristics, such as fruit production, nutrient reward, secondary compounds, and fruit color display, affect fruit choice by birds. On the other hand, several bird attributes affect their efficiency as dispersers. Here we investigate the ornithochoric seed dispersal of Pera glabrata Schott (Euphorbiaceae) in a cerrado fragment in southeastern Brazil. A set of bird attributes, such as frequency of visits, number of diaspores eaten, time spent foraging, methods of taking and handling the diaspores and agonistic interactions were analyzed in order to infer about the potential of each species to act as a seed disperser. Birds were the unique seed dispersers of these oil-rich diaspores. We observed 414 bird visits during 60 hours of focal observations in five trees from December 1999 to January 2000. Twenty bird species from seven families ate the diaspores of P. glabrata, but only 14 species were considered potential seed dispersers because they swallowed the diaspores, increasing the probabilities for the seeds to be defecated and/or regurgitated away from the parent trees. The main potential seed dispersers were: Turdus leucomelas (Muscicapidae), Dacnis cayana (Emberizidae), Colaptes melanochloros (Picidae) and Elaenia spp. (Tyrannidae). We did not find any significant seasonal change in the number of visits on the fruiting trees throughout the day. We also did not find any relation between the number of visits per tree and fruit production. The most effective seed dispersers of P. glabrata were generalist birds, which have a high visiting rate, high fruit consumption rate, and spend short periods on the plants. The large number of species recorded as potential seed dispersers of P. glabrata, being most of them very abundant even in Brazilian disturbed areas, may guarantee seed dispersal of this plant in small fragments and regenerating areas.

  8. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elicharová, Hana; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 8 (2014), s. 1705-1713 ISSN 1350-0872 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/1151; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida glabrata * fluconazole * membrane potential Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  10. One small step for a yeast--microevolution within macrophages renders Candida glabrata hypervirulent due to a single point mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Brunke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is one of the most common causes of candidemia, a life-threatening, systemic fungal infection, and is surpassed in frequency only by Candida albicans. Major factors contributing to the success of this opportunistic pathogen include its ability to readily acquire resistance to antifungals and to colonize and adapt to many different niches in the human body. Here we addressed the flexibility and adaptability of C. glabrata during interaction with macrophages with a serial passage approach. Continuous co-incubation of C. glabrata with a murine macrophage cell line for over six months resulted in a striking alteration in fungal morphology: The growth form changed from typical spherical yeasts to pseudohyphae-like structures - a phenotype which was stable over several generations without any selective pressure. Transmission electron microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the filamentous-like morphology was accompanied by changes in cell wall architecture. This altered growth form permitted faster escape from macrophages and increased damage of macrophages. In addition, the evolved strain (Evo showed transiently increased virulence in a systemic mouse infection model, which correlated with increased organ-specific fungal burden and inflammatory response (TNFα and IL-6 in the brain. Similarly, the Evo mutant significantly increased TNFα production in the brain on day 2, which is mirrored in macrophages confronted with the Evo mutant, but not with the parental wild type. Whole genome sequencing of the Evo strain, genetic analyses, targeted gene disruption and a reverse microevolution experiment revealed a single nucleotide exchange in the chitin synthase-encoding CHS2 gene as the sole basis for this phenotypic alteration. A targeted CHS2 mutant with the same SNP showed similar phenotypes as the Evo strain under all experimental conditions tested. These results indicate that microevolutionary processes in host-simulative conditions

  11. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  12. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Doralice de Souza Luro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  13. Evaluation of Chemical and Physical-morphological Factors as Potential Determinants of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848 Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in five sites along a small perennial river system in south-central Tanzania, which had been identified as the focus for transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the area. Malacological surveys preceding the study showed a focal distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host snail of Schistosoma mansoni, the snails being present in three sites but absent from the other two sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate to what extent chemical and/or physical-morphological factors determine the distribution of B. pfeifferi between these five sites. It was found that none of the chemical constituents in the waters examined were outside the tolerance range of B. pfeifferi snails. Moreover, the composition of water from B. pfeifferi-free sites was not different from that in those sites where snails occurred. Furthermore, none of the physical-morphological constituents seemed likely to be a determinant for the absence of B. pfeifferi. In view of these findings, and those of previous studies, it is concluded that the focal distribution of B. pfeifferi cannot be associated with a single environmental factor and is rather the result of more complex interactions of habitat factors

  14. Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Yin; Zhu, Yang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of cofactor (thiamine, biotin and Ca(2+)) levels as a potential tool to redistribute carbon flux was studied in Torulopsis glabrata. With sub-optimization of vitamin in fermentation medium, the carbon flux was blocked at the key node of pyruvate, and 69 g/L pyruvate was accumulated. Increasing the concentrations of thiamine and biotin could selectively open the valve of carbon flux from pyruvate to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway and the channel into the TCA cycle, leading to the over-production of alpha-ketoglutarate. In addition, the activity of PC was enhanced with Ca(2+) present in fermentation medium. By combining high concentration's vitamins and CaCO(3) as the pH buffer, a batch culture was conducted in a 7-L fermentor, with the pyruvate concentration decreased to 21.8 g/L while alpha-ketoglutarate concentration increased to 43.7 g/L. Our study indicated that the metabolic flux could be redistributed to overproduce desired metabolites with manipulating the cofactor levels. Furthermore, the manipulation of vitamin level provided an alternative tool to realize metabolic engineering goals.

  15. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Drainage of a Spontaneous Candida glabrata Pituitary Abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ben A; Pham, Martin; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Carmichael, John; Weiss, Martin; Zada, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Noniatrogenic pituitary abscess remains a rare clinical entity, and is the indication for surgery in abscess caused by Candida species, and also provide an intraoperative video showing the endoscopic management of this pathology. A 33-year-old woman presented with headache, hypopituitarism, and vision loss in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to have multiple abscesses in the liver, lung, kidney, and uterus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 15-mm cystic sellar mass with restricted diffusion. The patient underwent urgent evacuation of the abscess via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal route, with obvious purulent material filling the sella, later identified as Candida glabrata. Antimicrobial therapy was refined appropriately, and she exhibited significant improvement in neurologic function, although endocrinopathy has persisted. With timely management, including a combination of surgical drainage and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, neurologic outcomes are good in most cases of pituitary abscess; however, endocrinopathy often does not improve. Although most reported cases with identified causative organisms speciate bacteria, some cases are of fungal etiology and require different antimicrobial agents. This further underscores the importance of identifying the causative agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carboxymethylated ɩ-carrageenan conjugated amphotericin B loaded gelatin nanoparticles for treating intracellular Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, V; Melge, Anu Rohit; Rajan, V K; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Gopi Mohan, C

    2018-04-15

    Intercellular Candida glabrata infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of drugs into the fungal niche. Delivering amphotericin B (Amp B) into the macrophages where the pathogen inhabits is an effective solution. We are studying the macrophage targeting proficiency of ɩ-carrageenan for the delivery of Amp B using gelatin A nanoparticles (GNPs). The choice of gelatin A was the outcome of in silico inspections where the amino functionalized polymer having the best docking score with Amp B was selected. We prepared a sustained release formulation of amp B loaded carboxymethyl ɩ-carrageenan conjugated gelatin nanoparticles (CMC-Amp B-GNPs) with size 343±12nm and -25±5.3mV zeta potential. The formulations were found to be stable, biocompatible and non-haemolytic. Flow cytometry analysis showed 3 fold higher uptake of CMC-GNPs compared to the GNPs by RAW 264.7 cells. CMC-Amp B-GNPs showed enhanced antifungal activity than bare Amp B and Amp B-GNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. to infection with Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on the genetic variability between snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; El-Dafrawy, Shadia M

    2011-08-25

    This investigation was carried out to study the susceptibility of Saudi Biomphalaria arabica to Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni in comparison with the susceptibility of Egyptian Biomphalaria alexandrina to the same parasite. This was in order to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia and to determine the genetic variability between Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi Biomphalaria arabica snails. Lab bred Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi B. arabica snails were exposed individually to 10 freshly hatched Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia/snail. The mortality rate, infection rate, prepatent period, duration of cercarial shedding and cercariae production per snail were recorded in both the sympatric couple (Egyptian B. alexandrina and Egyptian S. mansoni) and in the allopatric combination (Saudi B. arabica and Egyptian S. mansoni). The results revealed that, the survival rate of snails exposed to Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia at 34th day post-exposure (at first cercarial shedding) was higher in B. arabica than in B. alexandrina. After shedding, the mortality rate was higher in the B. arabica, compared to B. alexandrina. The infection rate was higher in B. arabica than B. alexandrina; the mean of prepatent period was shorter in the B. arabica than in the B. alexandrina. However, the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian snails and the cercarial production per snail was higher in B. alexandrina snails than in B. arabica. To study the genetic variability between B. alexandrina and B. arabica, RAPD-PCR on the genomic DNA of snails was done. RAPD-PCR revealed significant variation between the two snail species. In conclusion, the results suggest that B. arabica can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. mansoni in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, the RAPD-PCR results demonstrated genetic variability between the two species which may be related to the

  19. Relationships within Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) based on RNA-Seq data: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Jessica A; Bazinet, Adam L; Collins, Allen G; Cummings, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) is a diverse (approx. 1000 species) but understudied group of sea slug molluscs. In order to fully comprehend the diversity of nudibranchs and the evolution of character traits within Cladobranchia, a solid understanding of evolutionary relationships is necessary. To date, only two direct attempts have been made to understand the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, neither of which resulted in well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. In addition to these studies, several others have addressed some of the relationships within this clade while investigating the evolutionary history of more inclusive groups (Nudibranchia and Euthyneura). However, all of the resulting phylogenetic hypotheses contain conflicting topologies within Cladobranchia. In this study, we address some of these long-standing issues regarding the evolutionary history of Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data (transcriptomes). We sequenced 16 transcriptomes and combined these with four transcriptomes from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive. Transcript assembly using Trinity and orthology determination using HaMStR yielded 839 orthologous groups for analysis. These data provide a well-supported and almost fully resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for Cladobranchia. Our results support the monophyly of Cladobranchia and the sub-clade Aeolidida, but reject the monophyly of Dendronotida.

  20. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  1. Three New Records of Gastropoda (Mollusca) from the Nansha Islands, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Li

    2018-04-01

    The Nansha Islands, China, have extremely high marine biodiversity and hundreds of mollusks have been reported there. Benthos resources investigations of the intertidal and subtidal zone around the Nansha Islands have been continuously performed for decades, and recently, dozens of new species and new records of mollusks have been reported from this area. This paper dealt with three new record species of the Gastropoda from Chinese waters: Cerithium salebrosum Sowerby II, 1855, Vexillum militare (Reeve, 1845) and Vexillum bizonale (Dautzenberg et Bouge, 1923), respectively belonging to three families: Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and Costellariidae MacDonald, 1860. All specimens were collected from the Nansha Islands during the benthos resources investigations on the intertidal zone of islands and reefs in the South China Sea in recent years. Diagnosis and geographic descriptions of both genus and species, illustrations of each species were given in this contribution, and discussion of taxonomy, identification features and faunal characteristics were presented. All examined specimens were deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto-Reductase in Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Glabrata Determined by cDNA-AFLP

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    Mansour Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata.Methods: The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection inimmunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazoleand itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns ofthe organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potentialgene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains.Results and conclusions: The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinicalisolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  3. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mnl I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns.

  4. Discriminative power of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis using the microbial identification system (MIS) for Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Schmidt, S; Lütticken, R; Haase, G

    2000-12-01

    Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is frequently isolated in cases of fungal infection and commonly shows acquired or innate fluconazole resistance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an emerging opportunistic yeast pathogen, causes serious systemic infections in immunocompromised, and vaginitis and superficial infections in immunocompetent patients. For both species reliable identification in the routine laboratory is mandatory, but species identification of strains, e.g. trehalose-negative C. glabrata, may be difficult. Therefore, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of whole cell fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, that is independent of assimilation profiles of strains and suitable for reliable and rapid identification of clinically important yeasts, was applied. However, frequent misidentification of C. glabrata as S. cerevisiae has been reported when using the Yeast Clinical Database of MIS. Accuracy of MIS identification may be strongly influenced by the amounts of cell mass analyzed. Therefore, the present study compared the MIS results of these two yeasts achieved with different cell masses. Primarily we optimized, especially with respect to cost-effectiveness, the recommended streaking technique yielding a maximal recovery of 90-130 mg of cell mass from one plate, enabling testing of poor growing strains of C. glabrata. For all C. glabrata strains tested (n = 10) the highest identification scores (SI [Similarity Index] range 0.525-0.963, median 0.832) were achieved with 30 to 45 mg of cell mass. Only 5 of 10 S. cerevisiae strains revealed good library comparisons (SI > or = 0.5) when using 30 mg of cell mass, whereas with 45 mg all strains but two revealed this SI-level. For S. cerevisiae a higher amount of cell mass processed (up to 90 mg) was correlated with better identification scores (SI range using 90 mg: 0.464-0.870, median, 0.737). Several passages prior to FAME analysis of C. glabrata strains on recommended media revealed narrowing of SI ranges, but

  5. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  6. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  7. Endogenous growth factor stimulation of hemocyte proliferation induces resistance to Schistosoma mansoni challenge in the snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Gordy, Michelle A; Phillips, Valerie K; Kabore, Alethe L; Rudko, Sydney P; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-05-10

    Digenean trematodes are a large, complex group of parasitic flatworms that infect an incredible diversity of organisms, including humans. Larval development of most digeneans takes place within a snail (Gastropoda). Compatibility between snails and digeneans is often very specific, such that suitable snail hosts define the geographical ranges of diseases caused by these worms. The immune cells (hemocytes) of a snail are sentinels that act as a crucial barrier to infection by larval digeneans. Hemocytes coordinate a robust and specific immunological response, participating directly in parasite killing by encapsulating and clearing the infection. Hemocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by unknown digenean-specific exogenous factors. However, we know nothing about the endogenous control of hemocyte development in any gastropod model. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a progranulin [Biomphalaria glabrata granulin (BgGRN)] from the snail B. glabrata, a natural host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni Granulins are growth factors that drive proliferation of immune cells in organisms, spanning the animal kingdom. We demonstrate that BgGRN induces proliferation of B. glabrata hemocytes, and specifically drives the production of an adherent hemocyte subset that participates centrally in the anti-digenean defense response. Additionally, we demonstrate that susceptible B. glabrata snails can be made resistant to infection with S. mansoni by first inducing hemocyte proliferation with BgGRN. This marks the functional characterization of an endogenous growth factor of a gastropod mollusc, and provides direct evidence of gain of resistance in a snail-digenean infection model using a defined factor to induce snail resistance to infection.

  8. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  9. Transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p regulate pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eWu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an important microorganism used in commercial fermentation to produce pyruvate, but very little is known about its mechanisms for surviving acid stress in culture. In this study, it was shown that transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p play essential roles in C. glabrata in the tolerance of acid stress, as the deletion of CgASG1 or CgHAL9 resulted in the inability to survive in an acidic environment. Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains are unable to maintain pH homeostasis, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular pH and an increase in reactive oxygen species production, which results in metabolic disorders. The results showed that intracellular acidification was partly due to the diminished activity of the plasma membrane proton pump, CgPma1p. In addition, transcriptome sequencing revealed that Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains displayed a variety of changes in gene expression under acidic conditions, including genes in the MAPK signaling pathway, plasma membrane or cell wall organization, trehalose accumulation, and the RIM101 signaling pathway. Lastly, quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR and cellular localization showed that CgAsg1p and CgHal9p played independent roles in response to acid stress.

  10. Candida glabrata prosthetic joint infection, successfully treated with anidulafungin: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutserimpas, Christos; Samonis, George; Velivassakis, Emmanouil; Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Stylliani; Kontakis, Georgios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P

    2018-04-01

    Non-albicans Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is extremely rare. A case of a Candida glabrata knee PJI is a 68-year-old splenectomised female smoker, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alcoholism is reported. The patient presented with a peri-prosthetic fracture, 15 years after total knee replacement surgery. Cultures of the intraoperative peri-prosthetic tissue and materials yielded C. glabrata, as well as a methicillin-resistant S. epidermitis. The patient was treated with anidulafungin and vancomycin. The knee prosthetic joint was removed and cement-spacer with vancomycin and gentamycin was placed. Additionally, an external fixation was performed. A second stage revision surgery was planned, after completion of the antimicrobial and antifungal treatment. The patient is followed up for 4 months without signs, symptoms or findings of infection. PJI Candida infections require a high clinical suspicion index. It is of utmost importance to report these cases, since there is no consensus yet of the proper antifungal treatment. Furthermore, a literature review regarding treatment of those cases is provided. First-line treatment with an echinocandin seems most proper, due to their fungicidal properties, their effectiveness against biofilm, as well as their minimal toxicity, making them ideal for long-term use. Further experience is needed, for better understanding the disease's pathogenesis and optimal treatment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A new terrestrial snail species (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae from the Región de Antofagasta, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scutalus Albers, 1850 (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae, Scutalus chango sp. n., is described from a coastal area of northern Chile. Empty shells of this new species were found buried in sand and under boulders and rocks in the foothills of the Chilean Coastal Range at Paposo, Región de Antofagasta. This new species is distinguished from all other Chilean terrestrial snails by its slender shell with a flared and reflected aperture, and by the presence of a columellar fold. This is the first record of Scutalus in Chile, and the southernmost record for this endemic South American bulimulid genus. The presence of this species in Paposo highlights the need for further research and for conservation guidelines in coastal areas of northern Chile, which have comparatively high levels of biodiversity and endemism.

  12. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  13. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  14. Candida species isolated from different body sites and their antifungal susceptibility pattern: Cross-analysis of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Fazii, Paolo; Traini, Tonino; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-01

    Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C. albicans (44), C. glabrata (13) and C. parapsilosis (13) mainly from Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Neonatology and Oncology Divisions, the majority of the biological samples were swabs (44) and blood cultures (16). The analysis of the biofilm formation was performed at 24 and 48-hours comparing resistant and susceptible strains of C. albicans to resistant and susceptible strains of C. glabrata. Candida albicans has a greater ability to form biofilm compared to C. glabrata, both in the susceptible and resistant strains reaching maturity after 24 hours with a complex structure composed of blastospores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in a matrix. On the contrary, C. glabrata biofilm was composed exclusively of blastospores that in the resistant strain, after 24 hours, were organized in a compact multilayer different to the discontinuous structure observed in the susceptible analyzed strains. In conclusion, the increasing of the incidence of Candida species infection together with their emerging drug resistance also related to the biofilm forming capability underline the need to monitor their distribution and susceptibility patterns for improving the surveillance and for a correct management of the infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H 2 O 2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H 2 O 2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OH aq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OH aq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OH aq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata . Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H 2 O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOH aq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein. (paper)

  16. Processing of predicted substrates of fungal Kex2 proteinases from Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Oliver

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kexin-like proteinases are a subfamily of the subtilisin-like serine proteinases with multiple regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Kex2 protein is biochemically well investigated, however, with the exception of a few well known proteins such as the α-pheromone precursors, killer toxin precursors and aspartic proteinase propeptides, very few substrates are known. Fungal kex2 deletion mutants display pleiotropic phenotypes that are thought to result from the failure to proteolytically activate such substrates. Results In this study we have aimed at providing an improved assembly of Kex2 target proteins to explain the phenotypes observed in fungal kex2 deletion mutants by in vitro digestion of recombinant substrates from Candida albicans and C. glabrata. We identified CaEce1, CA0365, one member of the Pry protein family and CaOps4-homolog proteins as novel Kex2 substrates. Conclusion Statistical analysis of the cleavage sites revealed extended subsite recognition of negatively charged residues in the P1', P2' and P4' positions, which is also reflected in construction of the respective binding pockets in the ScKex2 enzyme. Additionally, we provide evidence for the existence of structural constrains in potential substrates prohibiting proteolysis. Furthermore, by using purified Kex2 proteinases from S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris, C. albicans and C. glabrata, we show that while the substrate specificity is generally conserved between organisms, the proteinases are still distinct from each other and are likely to have additional unique substrate recognition.

  17. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.

  18. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MOLINET; ALEJANDRA ARÉVALO; MARÍA TERESA GONZÁLEZ; CARLOS A. MORENO; JAVIER ARATA; EDWIN NIKLITSCHEK

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  19. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  20. Cariotipos de los caracoles de tinte Plicopurpura pansa y Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Arias-Rodriguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El cariotipo de Plicopurpura pansa y P. columellaris fue determinado a partir de 17 y 13 especímenes adultos respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se utilizaron ocho cápsulas de P. pansa. Contamos 186 campos mitóticos en P. pansa: 59 en los adultos y 127 en los embriones; y 118 campos en P. columellaris. En ambas especies se observaron números cromosómicos desde 30 hasta 42. Las variaciones en número cromosómico fueron identificadas en cada individuo, no habiendo ninguna relación con los tejidos (branquias, músculo y estómago empleados. El número modal diploide típico fue de 2n=36 cromosomas en ambas especies. En los especímenes adultos seleccionamos cinco de las mejores dispersiones cromosómicas para armar el cariotipo. Calculamos los estadísticos citogenéticos clásicos, longitudes relativas, proporción de brazos, índice centromérico y la diferencia entre brazos. Identificamos en ambas especies tres pares de cromosomas metacéntricos y quince pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Esta clasificación no fue suficientemente robusta, por lo que dividimos el complemento cromosómico de cada especie en cuatro grupos ("a", "b", "c" y "d" utilizando como criterio las longitudes relativas (p+q. Hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos cromosómicos por especie y entre especies, los tres primeros pares de cromosomas (grupo "a" birrámeos y los dos últimos pares (grupo "d" monorrámeos menores (análisis de varianza de dos vías, pKaryotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa and Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae. The karyotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853 and P. columellaris (Lamarck, 1816 were established from 17 and 13 adults, respectively; and from eight capsules with embryos of P. pansa. In P. pansa were counted 59 mitotic fields in the adults and 127 in embryos; and 118 fields in P. columellaris. Chromosome numbers from 30 to 42 were observed in both species. Such a variation was

  1. Daños por depredación y tamano de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea. Arroyave-Rincón

    2009-01-01

    Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages...

  2. 2018-05-08T18:33:05Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barringtonia racemosa, Leeythidaceae, Aedes aegypti, Dengue, Biomphalaria glabrata, mollusicides, schistosomiasis, piscicides The aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether extracts of Barringtonia racemosa Blume pericarp and seed were evaluated for molluscicidal, larvicial and pisicidal activity ...

  3. Cnh1 Na+/H+ antiporter and Ena1 Na+-ATPase play different roles in cation homeostasis and cell physiology of Candida glabrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-41 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Candida glabrata * potassium homeostasis * podium detoxification * Ena 1 ATPase * Cnh1 antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.403, year: 2011

  4. Chimeras between C. glabrata Cnh1 and S. cerevisiae Nha1 Naplus/Hplus-antiporters are functional proteins increasing the salt tolerance of yeast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2010), s. 435-441 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : C. glabrata * S. cerevisiae * Nha1 antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  5. SNF3 as high affinity glucose sensor and its function in supporting the viability of Candida glabrata under glucose-limited environment

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    Tzu Shan eNg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3 as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR pathway-related genes. The SNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01% and 0.1% in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1% and 2%. It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1% and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (4 out of 9. Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment.

  6. The Effectiveness of Voriconazole in Therapy of Candida glabrata's Biofilms Oral Infections and Its Influence on the Matrix Composition and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F; Gonçalves, Bruna; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-08-01

    Candida glabrata is one of most prevalent yeast in fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Its azole resistance results in a low therapeutic response, particularly when associated with biofilms. The main goal of this work was to study the effectiveness of voriconazole (Vcz) against C. glabrata biofilms oral pathologies, as esophageal or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined in pre-formed 24-h-biofilms and ERG genes expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Protein quantification was performed using BCA ® Kit, carbohydrate was estimated according to the Dubois assay and β-1,3 glucans concentration were determined using Glucatell ® kit. Finally, ergosterol, Vcz, and fluconazole (Flu) concentrations within the biofilm matrices were determined by RP-HPLC. Results showed that C. glabrata biofilms were more susceptible to Vcz than to Flu and that ERG genes expression evidenced an overexpression of the three ERG genes in the presence of both azoles. The matrix content presented a remarked decrease in proteins and an increase in carbohydrates, namely β-1,3 glucans. Ergosterol was successfully detected and quantified in the biofilm matrices, with no differences in all the considered conditions. Vcz demonstrated better diffusion through the biofilms and better cell penetration capacities, than Flu, indicating that the structure of the drug molecule fully influences its dissemination through the biofilm matrices. This work showed that Vcz is notably more effective than Flu for the treatment of resistant C. glabrata oral biofilms, which demonstrates a clinical relevance in its future use for the treatment of oropharyngeal/esophageal candidiasis caused by this species.

  7. Suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do Estado de São Paulo à infecção por linhagens de Schistosoma mansoni da Baixada Maranhense (Maranhão, Brasil Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila, from S. Paulo State, to infection by Schistosoma mansoni, from the State of Maranhão

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, provenientes do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul (São Paulo, Brasil, foram expostos às linhagens humana (H e silvestre (S de Schistosoma mansoni, oriundos da Região da Baixada Maranhense, ao noroeste do Estado do Maranhão. As linhagens H e S apresentaram comportamento distinto quando colocadas à infectar os moluscos paulistas. As B. tenagophila infectadas com a linhagem S apresentaram índice de mortalidade inferior ao observado nas infectadas com a linhagem H. No molusco paulista a linhagem silvestre maranhense completou seu desenvolvimento, fato que não ocorreu com a linhagem humana. Estas observações foram comparadas com os resultados anteriormente obtidos, quando estudou-se o comportamento das linhagens H e S do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul no molusco simpátrico. Foi verificado que as linhagens maranhenses e paulistas quando comparadas apresentavam comportamento similar frente a B. tenogophila do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, SP.Wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the lowland region of Maranhão State (northeastern Brazil. Snail progenies of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from Paraiba do Sul River valley (Southeastern Brazil were exposed to W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents,and to H miracidia, from eggs in human stools. The date of elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. This data suggest better adaptation of the W strain than of the H strain to B. tenagophila. These results were compared with published data of H and W strains from the Paraiba do Sul River valley and similar parasitological behavior was found.

  8. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Purification, Reconstitution, and Inhibition of Cytochrome P-450 Sterol Δ22-Desaturase from the Pathogenic Fungus Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David C.; Maspahy, Segula; Kelly, Diane E.; Manning, Nigel J.; Geber, Antonia; Bennett, John E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    Sterol Δ22-desaturase has been purified from a strain of Candida glabrata with a disruption in the gene encoding sterol 14α-demethylase (cytochrome P-45051; CYP51). The purified cytochrome P-450 exhibited sterol Δ22-desaturase activity in a reconstituted system with NADPH–cytochrome P-450 reductase in dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, with the enzyme kinetic studies revealing a Km for ergosta-5,7-dienol of 12.5 μM and a Vmax of 0.59 nmol of this substrate metabolized/min/nmol of P-450. This enzyme is encoded by CYP61 (ERG5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and homologues have been shown in the Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome projects. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and exhibited type II spectra, which are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the cytochrome heme. The azole antifungal compounds inhibited reconstituted sterol Δ22-desaturase activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry, with total inhibition of enzyme activity occurring when equimolar amounts of azole and cytochrome P-450 were added. These results reveal the potential for sterol Δ22-desaturase to be an antifungal target and to contribute to the binding of drugs within the fungal cell. PMID:10390230

  10. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  11. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep-water Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

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    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the program “Environmental Characterization of the Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil”, from 2001 to 2003, samples were taken of soft bottoms from the continental slope of Campos Basin (off southeast Brazil by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge; 117 stations with depths from 700 to 1950 m were sampled. There were molluscs in all samples, and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Here we present the results obtained for the subfamilies Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae. Two species were found within Mangeliinae: Benthomangelia cf. macra (Watson, 1881 and Benthomangelia enceladus n. sp. Within Taraninae only one undescribed species was found: Taranis tanata n. sp. Within Clathurellinae we found four species: Corinnaeturris leucomata (Dall, 1881, recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic; Corinnaeturris rhysa (Watson, 1881, extending its described depth range; Corinnaeturris angularis n. sp., Typhlomangelia nivalis (Lovén, 1846, expanding its known distribution farther south; and Drilliola pulchella (Verrill, 1880. The type material of Drilliola loprestiana (Calcara, 1841, previously considered lost, has been located and is illustrated here. Drilliola crispata (Cristofori and Jan, 1832 is considered to be a nomen dubium.

  13. Integrating Morphology, Breeding Ground and Mitochondrial COI Gene Analysis for Species Identification of Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae in China.

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    Youzhu Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic public health concern that causes human severe eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and China. As a medically important intermediate host of A. cantonensis, Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae is often confused with other morphologically similar sibling species of genus Bellamya, such as B. aeruginosa and B. purificata in the past. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate evidences to discriminate these equivocal Bellamya species.This study was carried out by getting Bellamya snail samples from Fujian Province in the South-East of China. The snail morphological features, breeding grounds and phylogenetic relationship according to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene marker were analyzed.Based on external morphology, radular shape and cusp formula, as well as major breeding environment, B. lithophaga could be distinguished from B. aeruginosa, B. purificata. The phylogenetic tree also unconfirmed that B. lithophaga belongs to a different genetic clade from other morphologically similar species.Our findings demonstrate the significant differences in B. lithophaga and other sibling species, which supports the traditional species delimitation in the genus Bellamya.

  14. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

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    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  15. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

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    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3% and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Água, EC strain, Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains, Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain, Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain, Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains. These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area.

  16. Acute extrarenal kidney damage in the course of infection with fungal strain of Candida glabrata in a patient with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarejko-Paradowska, A.; Bartnicki, P.; Pietrzak, B.; Wilk, R.; Serwa-Stepien, E.; Rysz, J.; Jablonowski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute renal injury is becoming a significant epidemiological problem among patients requiring hospital treatment. Extrarenal aetiology of the kidney injury is recognized in 5 % to 10 % of hospitalized patients; however, the identification of the mycelium of the Candida glabrata as the direct factor causing the acute urinary obstruction is extremely rare. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to the clinic because of progressing weakness, nausea and vomiting, poor appetite and reduced urination. On admission, laboratory findings revealed pyuria, inflammatory changes, acute renal failure (eGFR-MDRD 6 ml/min), and hyperglycemia. The patient underwent USG of the abdominal cavity, which showed bilateral hydronephrosis, with lithiasis on the right site. Cystoscopy done the next day revealed that the mucous membrane of the bladder was reddened and had a white coating. During the next several days, a renal fistula was created on the left and right sides. Candida glabrata was isolated from urine, and was sensitive only to voriconazole. V-fend (voriconazole) treatment resulted in increase of diuresis and decrease in creatinine and urea levels. Conclusions: Urinary tract infection caused by Candida glabrata causes significant therapeutic problems. In most cases, these yeasts are resistant to triazole anti-fungal drugs such as fluconazole, which translates into significantly increased mortality of patients. To date, a similar case was described only by one group of doctors, however, due to the intensity of the currently used immunosuppression and multiantibiotic therapy, increased incidence of diabetes and the aging of the population, it is expected that the prevalence of this clinical problem will increase. (authors)

  17. Aspectos da ecologia reprodutiva de Pera glabrata (Schott Poepp. ex Baill. (Euphorbiaceae em uma área de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo

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    Juliana Ribeirão de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pera glabrata é uma árvore que apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil. A espécie vegetal é de importância para a conservação e recuperação de áreas degradadas, pois está presente em áreas impactadas, produz e dispersa grande quantidade de sementes e constitui-se em fonte alimentar para elevado número de espécies animais. Apesar da importância fitossociológica da espécie, ainda não existem estudos que abordem a sua ecologia reprodutiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos da fenologia reprodutiva, da morfologia floral, dos sistemas reprodutivo e de polinização e da dispersão de sementes da espécie. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de Cerrado no município de São Carlos, SP. Verificou-se que Pera glabrata é dioica e apresenta floração massiva e as flores dos dois sexos são pequenas, involucradas, amarelas e de antese diurna. As flores masculinas apresentam néctar e emitem odor adocicado, e as femininas não oferecem recursos perceptíveis aos visitantes florais. As flores foram visitadas por 32 espécies de Diptera e Hymenoptera de pequeno porte. Ocorre a formação de frutos e sementes por autogamia. Foram identificadas 25 espécies de aves visitando indivíduos com frutos maduros, das quais 16 ingeriram as sementes ariladas. Pera glabrata é autogâmica, com síndrome de polinização por diversos pequenos insetos e com dispersão ornitocórica de suas sementes.

  18. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eCosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms.In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  19. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

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    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  20. REDESCRIPCIÓN DE POTAMOLITHUS SUPERSULCATUS PILSBRY, 1896 (GASTROPODA, TATEIDAE DEL SUR DE LA CUENCA DEL PLATA

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    MICAELA DE LUCÍA

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El género Potamolithus Pilsbry, 1896 (Gastropoda; Tateidae, posee 31 especies, 22 de las cuales se hayan en la Argentina distribuidas principalmente en la cuenca Del Plata, definiendo al río Uruguay y al Río de la Plata como una zona caliente de diversidad en gasterópodos dulceacuícolas. Sin embargo, la mayoría de sus especies han sido descriptas solo por caracteres conquilógicos y, unas pocas tienen datos anatómicos, conllevando a la descripción de subespecies o morfos que se superponen unos a otros. A Potamolithus lapidum algunos autores le atribuyen cuatro subespecies (con datos conquiológicos, y una con datos parciales de anatomía blanda, sin embargo otros incluyen ocho “morfos”. Aquí nosotros damos un comienzo en el estudio de Potamolithus lapidum elevando a Potamolithus lapidum supersulcatus Pilsbry, 1896 a la categoría de especie, de la cual solo se conocen caracteres conquiológicos y radulares parcialmente. Aportamos datos de: concha, órganos paleales, cabeza, pie, pene, rádula, sistemas reproductor femenino y masculino, sistema nervioso y, secuencia parcial del gen mitocondrial citocromo c oxidasa subunidad I. Es necesario realizar una buena descripción de las especies del género Potamolithus debido a que algunas de las especies ya han sido citadas como especies vulnerables y que habitan ríos que están siendo modificados por la actividad humana y por la presencia del bivalvo invasor Limnoperna fortunei.

  1. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-11-01

    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  2. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  4. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  5. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  6. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  7. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  8. The effect of increasing water temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics: an agent-based modelling study.

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    Nicky McCreesh

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission.We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection.The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15-31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14-32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16-18°C and 1pm and 6-10pm in calm water, and 20-25°C and 12-4pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission.The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour--proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading

  9. Comparison of genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in C. glabrata wild-type and lig4 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yuke; Timmermans, Bea; Souffriau, Ben; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in North America and is threatening patients all over the world. Its incidence is rising, while it has developed resistance to the most widely used antifungal drugs, necessitating new approaches based on better insight into the biology of the organism. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, generating precise genomic alterations in this species is problematic. Previously we have shown that deletion of LIG4, which encodes an enzyme involved in Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), strongly enhances the probability of obtaining correctly modified transformants. In this work we used the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system to genetically engineer the C. glabrata genome, targeting the genes ADE2, MET15 and SOK2, located on different chromosomes. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 technology to replace the open reading frame (ORF) by the SAT1 selective marker or introduced a premature stop codon in ADE2 and MET15, as they are easily scored by their adenine or methionine auxotrophy, respectively. The SOK2 gene was modified by insertion of a triple HA-tag sequence and the transformants were verified in a western blot. The CRISPR-Cas9 mediated targeting efficiency varies depending on the gene targeted and the genetic modification performed. We show that CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is more efficient than the conventional method in the wild-type strain, moreover it has the big advantage being marker-free. In previous work, we showed that the targeting efficiency is highly increased in the lig4Δ strain using the conventional way to delete genes in C. glabrata. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in this strain, the percentage of correct transformants is consistently higher compared to the wild-type strain. This indicates that using the lig4 mutant as such is already a strong

  10. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. → First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. → Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. → CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using

  11. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  12. Morphology and anatomy of leaf miners in two species of Commelinaceae (Commelina diffusa Burm. f. and Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk Morfologia e anatomia de minas foliares em duas espécies de Commelinaceae Commelina diffusa Burm. f. e Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Elb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre anatomia de plantas parasitadas por agentes minadores, os quais promovem escavações ou caminhos através do consumo dos tecidos internos das plantas por larvas de diversos insetos. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar anatomicamente a ocorrência de minas foliares em Commelina diffusa (planta cosmopolita e Floscopa glabrata (planta anfíbia causadas por espécies de larvas endofitófagas de dípteros, pertencentes a duas famílias: Agromyzidae e Chironomidae. O local onde as plantas foram coletas está sujeito a inundações sazonais, e as duas espécies foram submetidas às mesmas condições climáticas. Em Commelina diffusa foram encontradas larvas da família Agromyzidae e, em Floscopa glabrata observaram-se três exuvias cefálicas de Chironomidae. Os dados anat

  13. Deletion of the Candida glabrata ERG3 and ERG11 genes: effect on cell viability, cell growth, sterol composition, and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Hitchcock, C A; Swartz, J E; Pullen, F S; Marsden, K E; Kwon-Chung, K J; Bennett, J E

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the structural genes encoding the delta 5,6 sterol desaturase (ERG3 gene) and the 14 alpha-methyl sterol demethylase (ERG11 gene) from Candida glabrata L5 (leu2). Single and double mutants of these genes were created by gene deletion. The phenotypes of these mutants, including sterol profiles, aerobic viabilities, antifungal susceptibilities, and generation times, were studied. Strain L5D (erg3 delta::LEU2) accumulated mainly ergosta-7,22-dien-3 beta-ol, was aerobically viable, and remained susceptible to antifungal agents but had a slower generation time than its parent strain. L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) strains required medium supplemented with ergosterol and an anaerobic environment for growth. A spontaneous aerobically viable mutant, L5LUD40R (LEU erg11 delta::URA3), obtained from L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), was found to accumulate lanosterol and obtusifoliol, was resistant to azole antifungal agents, demonstrated some increase in resistance to amphotericin B, and exhibited a 1.86-fold increase in generation time in comparison with L5 (leu2). The double-deletion mutant L5DUD61 (erg3 delta::LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) was aerobically viable, produced mainly 14 alpha-methyl fecosterol, and had the same antifungal susceptibility pattern as L5LUD40R (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), and its generation time was threefold greater than that of L5 (leu2). Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that the single-deletion mutants had a marked increase in message for the undeleted ERG3 and ERG11 genes. These results indicate that differences in antifungal susceptibilities and the restoration of aerobic viability exist between the C. glabrata ergosterol mutants created in this study and those sterol mutants with similar genetic lesions previously reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:8593007

  14. Avaliação do tipo de substrato e do período de armazenamento para a germinação de sementes de Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC. = Evaluation of substrate type and storage period for the germination of Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC seeds

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    Juliana Gadum

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a viabilidade e substratos adequados para a germinação de sementes de espécies arbóreas nativas são escassas. Cordia glabrata (louro-preto, espécie pioneira e de ampla distribuição, está incluída entre essas espécies. Suas característicaspermitem a utilização em ornamentação, na prática apícola e na medicina popular. Levando em conta seu potencial de utilização, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as taxas de germinação, em diferentes substratos, de sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas até 120 dias em laboratório, as quais foram coletadas no Pantanal do Rio Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados testes com sementes recém-colhidas e após 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, em três tipos de substrato (papel-filtro, solo arenoso e solo arenoso + matéria orgânica. Os resultados revelaram que C. glabrata possui pequena porcentagem de água (1,55% nas sementes, que decai com o período de armazenamento. Seu período de viabilidade é curto (90 dias e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com sementes recém-colhidas germinadas em papel-filtro (34%, com índice de velocidade de germinação de 10.Information about the feasibility and adequate substrates for the germination of seeds from native arboreous species are scarce. Cordiaglabrata (louro preto, a pioneering species with wide distribution, is included among these species. Its characteristics allow its use in ornamentation, apiculture and popular medicine. Considering its potential of utilization, this work had as objective to evaluate thegermination rates, in different substrates, of recently reaped seeds stored for up to 120 days in laboratory, which were collected in Pantanal of the Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State. Tests were done with recently reaped seeds and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days ofstorage, in three kinds of substrate (paper filter, sandy soil and sandy soil + organic matter. The results revealed that C

  15. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  16. Comportamento reológico de méis de florada de silvestre Rheological behavior of honey from Serjania glabrata flowers

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    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento reológico de méis de Apis mellifera produzidos no estado do Piauí, no semi-árido brasileiro, elaborados com florada predominante de silvestre (Serjania glabrata. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo do ano 2000, a partir de coletas realizadas por apicultores, associações e cooperativas de apicultura da região abrangida pelos municípios de Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes e Isaías Coelho. Após as coletas as amostras passaram pelos processos de centrifugação, filtragem e decantação. As medidas reológicas foram feitas nas temperaturas de 20 a 40 ºC utilizando-se um viscosímetro Brookfield, modelo RVT. As leituras de velocidade de rotação e torque foram transformadas em valores de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento. Os dados de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento foram ajustados pelas equações da Lei-da-Potência e de Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico. As equações se ajustaram adequadamente aos resultados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento em função da taxa de deformação. O aumento de temperatura reduziu a viscosidade aparente em níveis próximos de 80%. Os valores de viscosidade aparente foram bem ajustados por uma equação do tipo Arrhenius.The rheological behavior of Apis mellifera honey produced in the State of Piauí, in the Brazilian semi-arid, obtained with predominance of Serjania glabrata flowers was studied. The samples were collected in the year 2000 by beekeepers and associations and cooperatives of beekeepers in the area covered by the municipal districts of Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes and Isaías Coelho. The samples were centrifuged, filtered, decanted and the rheological measures at temperatures of 20 to 40 ºC using a Brookfield Viscometer RVT model were made. The readings of rotation speed and torque were transformed in shear rate and shear stress values. The data of shear rate and shear stress were fitted

  17. Revision of the genus Cuvierina Boas, 1886 based on integrative taxonomic data, including the description of a new species from the Pacific Ocean (Gastropoda, Thecosomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K; Janssen, Arie W; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    Shelled pteropods (Gastropoda, Thecosomata, Euthecosomata) are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods that occur predominantly in the surface layers of the world's oceans. Accurate species identifications are essential for tracking changes in species assemblages of planktonic gastropods, because different species are expected to have different sensitivities to ocean changes. The genus Cuvierina has a worldwide warm water distribution pattern between ~36°N and ~39°S. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphometric, genetic, and biogeographic information, the two subgenera of Cuvierina , Cuvierina s. str. and Urceolarica , are rejected. A new species is introduced: Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. , which has to date been considered the same species as Cuvierina pacifica . Cuvierina tsudai sp. n. is endemic to the Pacific Ocean and is characterised by a shell height of 7.2-8.0 mm, a moderately cylindrical shell shape, the absence of micro-ornamentation and a triangular aperture. Cuvierina pacifica is restricted to the centre of the oligotrophic southern Pacific gyre, has a shell height of 6.6-8.5 mm, a more cylindrical shell shape, no micro-ornamentation and a less triangular aperture than Cuvierina tsudai sp. n.

  18. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sijo; Joseph, Siby; Koshy, Ebey P; Mathew, Beena

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern. IC 50 values shown by gold and silver nanoparticles (44.1 ± 0.82 and 57.92 ± 1.33 μg/mL) reflected their high free radical scavenging potential. The synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles revealed their potency to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Anthropogenic pollutants rhodamine B and methyl orange were effectively degraded from aquatic environment and waste water sewages of dye industries using the prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic capacities of the synthesized nanoparticles were also exploited in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Graphical abstract.

  20. Possible competitive displacement of planorbids by Melanoides tuberculata in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of snails, including Pomacea haustrum, Marisa cornuarietis and Helisoma duryi, have been identified as probable competitors and/or predators of planorbid intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. During the last few years, studies carried out in the Caribbean region have shown reductions and even disappearances of populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea in breeding places where the snail Melanoides tuberculata was introduced. Observations made over a period of 10 years in two lakes close to Belo Horizonte, MG, showed that there were marked reductions in autochthonous populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea after the arrival of M. tuberculata, both Biomphalaria species disappearing completely after eight years.

  1. Possible competitive displacement of planorbids by Melanoides tuberculata in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, C T; Souza, C P; Soares Dd

    2001-01-01

    Several species of snails, including Pomacea haustrum, Marisa cornuarietis and Helisoma duryi, have been identified as probable competitors and/or predators of planorbid intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. During the last few years, studies carried out in the Caribbean region have shown reductions and even disappearances of populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea in breeding places where the snail Melanoides tuberculata was introduced. Observations made over a period of 10 years in two lakes close to Belo Horizonte, MG, showed that there were marked reductions in autochthonous populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea after the arrival of M. tuberculata, both Biomphalaria species disappearing completely after eight years.

  2. Candida glabrata binds to glycosylated and lectinic receptors on the coronary endothelial luminal membrane and inhibits flow sense and cardiac responses to agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Tirado, David; Knabb, Maureen; Castaño, Irene; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Rubio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata (CG) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection by binding to host cells via specific lectin-like adhesin proteins. We have previously shown the importance of lectin-oligosaccharide binding in cardiac responses to flow and agonists. Because of the lectinic-oligosaccharide nature of CG binding, we tested the ability of CG to alter the agonist- and flow-induced changes in cardiac function in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed strong attachment of CG to the coronary endothelium, even after extensive washing. CG shifted the coronary flow vs. auricular-ventricular (AV) delay relationship upward, indicating that greater flow was required to achieve the same AV delay. This effect was completely reversed with mannose, partially reversed with galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, but hyaluronan had no effect. Western blot analysis was used to determine binding of CG to isolated coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) receptors, and the results indicate that flow-sensitive CELM receptors, ANG II type I, α-adrenergic 1A receptor, endothelin-2, and VCAM-1 bind to CG. In addition, CG inhibited agonist-induced effects of bradykinin, angiotensin, and phenylephrine on AV delay, coronary perfusion pressure, and left ventricular pressure. Mannose reversed the inhibitory effects of CG on the agonist responses. These results suggest that CG directly binds to flow-sensitive CELM receptors via lectinic-oligosaccharide interactions with mannose and disrupts the lectin-oligosaccharide binding necessary for flow-induced cardiac responses. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. A paralogue of the phosphomutase-like gene family in Candida glabrata, CgPmu2, gained broad-range phosphatase activity due to a small number of clustered substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Kelly A; Iosue, Christine L; Leone, Sarah G; Davies, Danielle L; Wykoff, Dennis D

    2015-10-15

    Inorganic phosphate is required for a range of cellular processes, such as DNA/RNA synthesis and intracellular signalling. The phosphate starvation-inducible phosphatase activity of Candida glabrata is encoded by the gene CgPMU2 (C. glabrata phosphomutase-like protein). CgPMU2 is part of a three-gene family (∼75% identical) created through gene duplication in the C. glabrata clade; only CgPmu2 is a PHO-regulated broad range acid phosphatase. We identified amino acids that confer broad range phosphatase activity on CgPmu2 by creating fusions of sections of CgPMU2 with CgPMU1, a paralogue with little broad range phosphatase activity. We used site-directed mutagenesis on various fusions to sequentially convert CgPmu1 to CgPmu2. Based on molecular modelling of the Pmu proteins on to a histidine phosphatase crystal structure, clusters of amino acids were found in two distinct regions that were able to confer phosphatase activity. Substitutions in these two regions together conferred broad phosphatase activity on CgPmu1. Interestingly, one change is a histidine adjacent to the active site histidine of CgPmu2 and it exhibits a novel ability to partially replace the conserved active site histidine in CgPmu2. Additionally, a second amino acid change was able to confer nt phosphatase activity to CgPmu1, suggesting single amino acid changes neofunctionalize CgPmu2. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 μg ml−1, respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that CG156 was a sterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p) mutant, wherein 14α-methylated intermediates (lanosterol was >80% of the total) were the only detectable sterols. ERG11 sequencing indicated that CG156 harbored a single-amino-acid substitution (G315D) which nullified the function of native Erg11p. In heterologous expression studies using a doxycycline-regulatable Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 strain, wild-type C. glabrata Erg11p fully complemented the function of S. cerevisiae sterol 14α-demethylase, restoring growth and ergosterol synthesis in recombinant yeast; mutated CG156 Erg11p did not. CG156 was culturable using sterol-free, glucose-containing yeast minimal medium (glcYM). However, when grown on sterol-supplemented glcYM (with ergosta 7,22-dienol, ergosterol, cholestanol, cholesterol, Δ7-cholestenol, or desmosterol), CG156 cultures exhibited shorter lag phases, reached higher cell densities, and showed alterations in cellular sterol composition. Unlike comparator isolates (harboring wild-type ERG11) that became less sensitive to FLC and VRC when cultured on sterol-supplemented glcYM, facultative sterol uptake by CG156 did not affect its azole-resistant phenotype. Conversely, CG156 grown using glcYM with ergosterol (or with ergosta 7,22-dienol) showed increased sensitivity to AMB; CG156 grown using glcYM with cholesterol (or with cholestanol) became more resistant (MICs of 2 and >64 μg AMB ml−1, respectively). Our results provide insights into the consequences of sterol uptake and metabolism on growth and antifungal resistance in C. glabrata. PMID:22615281

  5. Avaliação do tipo de substrato e do período de armazenamento para a germinação de sementes de Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1013 Evaluation of substrate type and storage period for the germination of Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC seeds - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gadum

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a viabilidade e substratos adequados para a germinação de sementes de espécies arbóreas nativas são escassas. Cordia glabrata (louro-preto, espécie pioneira e de ampla distribuição, está incluída entre essas espécies. Suas características permitem a utilização em ornamentação, na prática apícola e na medicina popular. Levando em conta seu potencial de utilização, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as taxas de germinação, em diferentes substratos, de sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas até 120 dias em laboratório, as quais foram coletadas no Pantanal do Rio Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados testes com sementes recém-colhidas e após 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, em três tipos de substrato (papel-filtro, solo arenoso e solo arenoso + matéria orgânica. Os resultados revelaram que C. glabrata possui pequena porcentagem de água (1,55% nas sementes, que decai com o período de armazenamento. Seu período de viabilidade é curto (90 dias e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com sementes recém-colhidas germinadas em papel-filtro (34%, com índice de velocidade de germinação de 10.Information about the feasibility and adequate substrates for the germination of seeds from native arboreous species are scarce. Cordia glabrata (louro preto, a pioneering species with wide distribution, is included among these species. Its characteristics allow its use in ornamentation, apiculture and popular medicine. Considering its potential of utilization, this work had as objective to evaluate the germination rates, in different substrates, of recently reaped seeds stored for up to 120 days in laboratory, which were collected in Pantanal of the Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State. Tests were done with recently reaped seeds and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage, in three kinds of substrate (paper filter, sandy soil and sandy soil + organic matter. The results revealed that C

  6. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  7. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata sn...

  8. Biological control of schistosome transmission in flowing water habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Laracuente, A

    1979-09-01

    Marisa cornuarietis was evaluated in Puerto Rico for control of schistosome transmission in flowing water. A population of Biomphalaria glabrata and their schistosome infections disappeared after introduction of 20,000 M. cornuarietis to an endemic stream, while in nearby untreated streams the B. glabrata population remained stable and the schistosome prevalence increased. This method cost U.S. $0.10 per capita for over a year of protection, 5%-10% of the cost of chemical control.

  9. Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade de Araújo, Hallysson Douglas; Dos Santos Silva, Luanna Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Williams Nascimento; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; de Albuquerque Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça; Barroso Martins, Mônica Cristina; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.

  10. Biological and morphological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni from Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I - susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila snail to sympatric S. mansoni strain Características biológicas e morfológicas de cepa paulista de Schistosoma mansoni do Vale do Ribeira: I - suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do Vale do Ribeira, SP, a cepa simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Figueiredo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In the São Paulo State, Brazil, where the Biomphalaria tenagophila is the intermediate host, the Ribeira Valley is an important endemic schistosomiasis mansoni area. During last eleven years there has been intense control measures focusing on schistosomiasis. The efforts have been concentrated in the municipalities of Pedro de Toledo and Itariri. We determined the susceptibility of B. tenagophila to sympatric strain of S. mansoni, both recently isolated from Itariri field. In 1988, this strain was isolated and maintained in the experimental model: Swiss mice - sympatric B. tenagophila. The second generation of the worm was evaluated. The snail were divided in the three groups of 60 snails each. One group was exposed to 1 miracidium and other to 10. The third group was the control. The mortality and the shedding of cercariae were checked during 78 days. After that, the positive snails were observed until they ceased to shed cercariae. The exposed molluscs showed mortality rates of 23% and 31% and infection indexes were of 8% and 60% to 1 and 10 miracidia respectively. The mortality was of 22% in the control group. The periods of shedding cercariae in the two groups were 82 and 104 days. We can conclude that B. tenagophila is an effective intermediate host to the sympatric strain of S. mansoni sympatric strainDentre as regiões do Estado de São Paulo, onde Biomphalaria tenagophila é hospedeira intermediária, o vale do Ribeira é área endêmica da esquistossomose. Nos últimos onze anos a endemia vem sendo intensamente controlada no vale, principalmente, nos municípios de Pedro de Toledo e Itariri. Estudamos a suscetibilidade de B. tenagophila de Itariri à linhagem simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni, isolada do campo em 1988 e mantida no laboratório em camundongos suiço e B. tenagophila. Estudou-se a 2ª geração do trematódeo. Constituiram-se 3 grupos de 60 moluscos cada, sendo um grupo exposto a um miracídio e outro a 10 e um grupo

  11. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan

  12. Use of micronucleus test in the assessment of radiation effects in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edvaldo F. de; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Lima, Pedro A. de S.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana Maria M. de A.; Silva, Edvane B. da; Silva, Ronaldo C. da

    2011-01-01

    The study of the effects of radioactive substances on the environment is accomplished by radioecology. This science has played an important role in combating all forms of pollution. The uncontrolled use of physical and chemical agents has been a concern for environmental regulatory agencies, due to the serious damage to ecosystems. Aquatic organisms are exposed to a variety of pollutants harmful to aquatic systems. The mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata has been featured as a bioindicator to possess characteristics such as short reproductive cycle ease of maintenance in the laboratory and low maintenance cost. The micronucleus assay has been shown to be a great test to identify mutagenic effects caused by physical and chemical agents. In this study the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to high doses of 60 Co gamma radiation contributing to a further standardization of this test as an indicator of the presence of radioactive contamination in aquatic environments. The young adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata were divided into groups and subjected to a dose of 0 (control), 40 and 60 Gy of gamma radiation. The results showed that snails irradiated with 40 Gy showed a smaller number of haemocytes, whereas those exposed to 60 Gy had a greater quantity of these cells compared to control group. It can be concluded that the morphological analysis and the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation may be used in studies of the action of high doses of radiation in aquatic environments (author)

  13. The molluscicidal activity of coumarins from Ethulia conyzoides and of dicumarol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kady, M M; Brimer, L; Furu, P

    1992-01-01

    The molluscicidal principles of Ethulia conyzoides were identified as ethuliacoumarin A (1) and isoethuliacoumarin A (2). Ethuliacoumarin A possessed an LC90 between 19 and 23.5 ppm depending on the age of the snail against Biomphalaria glabrata, and between 12 and 15 ppm against Bulinus truncatu...

  14. Clinical characteristics of the first cases of invasive candidiasis in China due to pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata isolates with delineation of their resistance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meng Xiao,1,2,* Xin Fan,1–3,* Xin Hou,1,2,4,* Sharon CA Chen,5 He Wang,1,2 Fanrong Kong,5 Zi-Yong Sun,6,* Yun-Zhuo Chu,7 Ying-Chun Xu1,2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, New South Wales Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People’s Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C. glabrata isolate was cultured from ascitic fluid of a 46-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal IC developing after surgery in 2012. This patient had had no prior antifungal exposure. The echinocandin-resistant C. tropicalis isolate was cultured from chest drainage

  15. A associação entre Crepidula aculeata (Gastropoda, Calyptraeidae a alga calcárea Amphiroa beauvoisii, na Baía de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Association Crepidula aculeata - Amphiroa beauvoisii. Population study of Crepidula aculeata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda Calyptraeidae and analysis of protocooperative association between the mollusc and the alga were carried out in the phytal of calcareous alga Amphiroa beauvoisii Lamouroux, 1816 at Ilha das Palmas, Santos Bay (24º00'S - 46º19'W. Samples were collected at three sites of different degree of water movement in the intertidal zone and sublittoral fringe during 1975 and 1976. From 93,916 organisms belonging to 172 species, 5,331 were Crepidula, the most abundant among sessile species. Also, Crepidula constitutes a substratum to attachment of Amphiroa, accounting for 30% of total phytal area. There was a positive correlation between the growth of shell and epizoic alga. Higher level of the phytal belt was more suitable for attachment and/or growth of the epizoic alga, without influence from water movement or season of the year. This association depends on the external morphology of the shell, filter-feeding habit, high adhesive power and lacking of mechanisms avoiding attachment of epizoics of Crepidula. Exuberant growth of the epizoic tuft over Crepidula female shell would constitute camouflage and protection of offsprings against predators.

  16. Lab-scale preparations of Candida albicans and dual Candida albicans-Candida glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) perfusion tube using a modified gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Lu, KeQiao; Tian, Ge; Cui, YanYan; Yan, YuanYuan; Wang, TianMing; Zhang, XinLong; Wang, ChangZhong

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of a man-made gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI) was described, which was composed of a gas cushion injector and four incubators. The GS-FFBI had the characteristics of (i) a bottom-up flow direction, and (ii) lab-scale biofilm preparation without the use of a multichannel pump. Two opportunistic fungal strains, namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, were employed to incubate C. albicans and dual C. albicans-C. glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride perfusion tube. In terms of the results from {2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} (XTT) assay, dry weight measurement, colony-forming unit counting, susceptibility test, and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that GS-FFBI could form both stable single and dual Candida biofilms with no significant variations among the four incubators or the three daily incubations within 21h, and could operate for at least 96h smoothly with no contamination of stock medium. The results also indicated, for the first time, that C. albicans and C. glabrata might be co-existent competitively and symbiotically in the dual biofilms with flowing media. GS-FFBI would be a useful device to study in vitro morphological and physiological features of microbial biofilms in the medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) at constant temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... lifespan and net reproduction rate of H. dury; were higher than those of B. pfeifferi over the whole range of temperatures ... not itself act as an intermediate host of economically impor- tant parasite .... age-specific birth rate.

  18. BIOAKUMULASI MERKURI DAN STRUKTUR HEPATOPANKREAS PADA TEREBRALIA SULCATA DAN NERITA ARGUS (MOLUSKA: GASTROPODA DI KAWASAN BEKAS PENGGELONDONGAN EMAS, MUARA SUNGAI LAMPON, BANYUWANGI, JAWA TIMUR(Bioaccumulation of mercury and the hepatopancreas structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susintowati Susintowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Amalgamasi pada proses penggelondongan emas tradisional di muara sungai Lampon menggunakan Merkuri (Hg. Limbah dibuang langsung ke muara dan lingkungan sekitar. Walaupun aktivitas penggelondongan emas telah dihentikan, efek cemar Merkuri terhadap lingkungan termasuk biota terus berlangsung. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dapat ditelusuri menggunakan bioindikator anggota Gastropoda. Penelusuran bioakumulasi Merkuri menggunakan spesimen Terebralia sulcata yang hidup di hutan mangrove sekitar lokasi penggelondongan, dan Nerita argus yang hidup di muara pantai. Analisis Merkuri berdasar metode SNI 06-6992.2-2004 menggunakan perangkat Mercury Analyzer. Hepatopankreas sebagai organ detoksifikasi Merkuri digunakan sebagai parameter patologis. Hepatopankreas masing-masing spesimen dipreparasi dengan metode parafin, diwarnai dengan Hematoksilin Ehrlich’s-Eosin untuk pengamatan struktur mikroskopis. Bioakumulasi Merkuri dalam tubuh T. sulcata hingga 3,10 ppm, sedangkan dalam tubuh N. argus hingga 3,03 ppm. Tampak banyak vesikula residu diduga berisi inklusi pemadatan elektron dan metalotionin sebagai dampak detoksifikasi ion logam Merkuri dalam hepatopankreas. Tubulus hepatopankreas N. argus mengalami disintegrasi dan atropi cukup parah. Walaupun tambang emas di Lampon berskala kecil dan telah ditutup, efek patologis pencemaran Merkuri terhadap biota terutama Gastropoda sangat signifikan.   ABSTRACT Traditional gold mining at Lampon Banyuwangi district was used mercury amalgamation. Tailings are discharged to waters, that caused mercury pollution. Mercury accumulation can be trace in sediments and benthic organisms such as Gastropods. Although the gold mining has been ceased, the impact of mercury pollution can be traced. The purposes of this study are to know the mercury accumulation in sediments, to know mercury bioaccumulation in the soft body of Gastropod bioindicators, to know mercury pathological effect in hepatopancreas. Terebralia sulcata and

  19. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha; Souza, Maria Conceicao de

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  20. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  1. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  2. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  3. Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano seis especies de gasterópodos: Sthenorytis turbinus Dall, 1908, Crucibulum (Crucibulum umbrella (Deshayes, 1830, Favartia (Murexiella lappa (Broderip,1833, Cantharus (Cantharus shaskyi Berry, 1959, Cantharus (Solenosteira macrospira (Berry, 1957, Cancellaria (Bivetopsia haemastoma Sowerby, 1832. Se informa sobre la distribución, el hábitat y comentarios relevantes acerca de cada una de las especies.

  4. Morphological studies on Bulinus sp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several samples have been tentatively identified as B. natalensis (Küster, 1841) on the basis of observations on the shell and radula. The present study is a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of the shell and the radula of the snails from Nchout Monoun Crater Lake (Monoun Koumogoum) for adequate comparisons ...

  5. Notes on Buccinulum (Gastropoda, Buccinidae), a reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt was made to assemble what is known at present of Buccinulum in the Indo-Western Pacific Region, fossil and Recent, more scope being offered by the discovery of new Miocene fossils from Java and Sumatra, and the recognition of further fossil species from India and Burma. This induced

  6. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Separation of haemolymph proteins by 2D electrophoresis analysis revealed a ... Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in several parts of ... for drug and vaccine design. Manipulation ... urine jars was sprayed with water thoroughly using a wash bottle ... The plasma was stored at -200C for use.

  7. Distribution and habitats of Biomphalaria pfeifferi , snail intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of four isolated and persistent foci occurring further west than the western arm of its range of distribution and far removed from the bilharzia endemic areas, is discussed. Two of these localities are popular holiday resorts and the fact that specimens from both these localities showed a high compatibility with a ...

  8. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  9. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCOR......-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two of the saponins were submitted to a preliminary screening for molluscicidal activity against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata and showed, respectively, strong and weak activity. In addition, four saponins previously reported from other strains of Phytolacca...

  10. Ecological review of hydroelectric reservoirs in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobin, W.R.; Ferguson, F.F.; Brown, R.

    1976-10-01

    A review of published literature and available data on the ecology of hydroelectric reservoirs and other lakes in Puerto Rico yielded various studies on unrelated elements in the aquatic ecology, but very few comprehensive investigations. The majority of the island-wide studies pertained to surveys on snails related to the parasitic disease bilharzia. A survey of 28 major lakes in 1976 showed that Biomphalaria glabrata had gradually been displaced from most of the lakes by Marisa cornuarietis and Tarebia granifera, two foreign snails which do not transmit bilharzia. Of the 17 lakes containing B. glabrata in 1956, only 8 remained infested in 1966 and only 5 in 1976, twenty years after the introduction of Marisa cornuarietis. Although the trend indicates that the lakes may be safe from transmission a monitoring system is necessary before the lakes could be used for recreation.

  11. Biological control and invading freshwater snails. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Augustin, D

    1999-12-01

    Introductions of four species of freshwater snails occurred between 1972 and 1996 onto Guadeloupe Island. Two of them, Melanoides tuberculata and Marisa cornuarietis, were subsequently used as biological control agents against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of intestinal schistosomiasis. In 1996, a general survey was carried out in 134 sites which had already been investigated in 1972. The total number of mollusc species had increased from 19 to 21. Site numbers housing B. glabrata and two other species had strongly declined. This decline may be mainly attributed to a competitive displacement by M. tuberculata and M. cornuarietis as illustrated by several biological control programmes. There were no changes in the remainder of the malacological fauna.

  12. Change in schistosome sex ratio under the influence of a biotic environmental-related factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moné, H

    1997-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a dioecious trematode responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis in man. The sex ratio was determined for S. mansoni adults derived from cercariae obtained from infected Biomphalaria glabrata maintained in the presence of the nonvector molluse. Marisa cornuarietis. The presence of M. cornuarietis is responsible for enhanced growth of B. glabrata and for a change in the sex ratio of the schistosome, which becomes more male-biased as compared to control snails maintained in aquaria lacking M. cornuarietis. This is the first time the presence of another species in the environment has been shown to influence schistosome sex ratios. Two nonexclusive hypotheses are proposed to explain this variation in the sex ratio: sexual competition between male and female sporocysts; and sex reversal.

  13. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  14. The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

    1975-10-16

    Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory.

  15. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  16. Neglected tropical diseases: prevalence and risk factors for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Luzivalda D; Tibiriça, Sandra H C; Pinheiro, Izabella O; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Lima, Adilson C; Castro, Milton F; Gonçalves, Murilo; Silva, Marcio R; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Rosa, Florence M; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2014-06-01

    Among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and the three main soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs), i.e., ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, represent the most common infections in developing countries. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiological data in many parts of the country, which favors the unawareness of the real situation concerning these diseases. Due to this, we investigated the occurrence of schistosomiasis and STHs in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. One stool sample was collected from 503 individuals, whose ages ranged from 0.1 to 91.2 years, and screened using both the Kato-Katz and the Formol-Ether methods. In parallel, a malacological survey was carried out in the main water bodies of the district, and Biomphalaria susceptibility assays and kernel-based techniques were also performed. No individual was found infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm. Schistosoma mansoni was the most common parasite found (1.6%). The prevalence was higher in males and the chance of acquiring the disease increased by 43.35 times with contact with a body of water. None of the Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. glabrata specimens were found naturally infected, but B. glabrata was highly susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Using kernel-based techniques, clusters of Biomphalaria were found near the households where the infected individuals lived. Schistosomiasis was the most prevalent parasitic infection found. Our findings show that the occurrence of this disease has been underestimated by the local health care service, and highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance in areas of low prevalence for schistosomiasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Planaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Zhang, Junlong; Lian, Xiping; Tan, Yehui

    2018-03-01

    Planaxidae is a family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that are adapted to an intertidal, rocky environment. The present study deals with three species in the family Planaxidae from the South China Sea: Planaxis sulcatus (von Born, 1778), Angiola longispira (Smith, 1872), and Supplanaxis niger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833), based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of the South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The taxonomic status, main morphological characteristics of the shell and radula, distribution, and habitat of these three planaxid species are presented. We also briefly discuss their morphological differences and the biogeographic distribution.

  18. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  19. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of rissooidean and cingulopsoidean families (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Francesco; Ponder, Winston Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Rissooidea is one of the largest and most diverse molluscan superfamilies, with 23 recognized Recent families including marine, freshwater and terrestrial members. The Cingulopsoidea are a group of three marine families previously included within the Rissooidea. A previous molecular analysis including two rissooideans and one cingulopsoidean, indicated the possibility that the Rissooidea is at least diphyletic. We use new molecular data to investigate the polyphyly of Rissooidea and test the monophyly of Cingulopsoidea with a greatly increased taxon set. This study includes the greatest sampling to date with 43 species of 14 families of Rissooidea and all families of Cingulopsoidea. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of 16S and 28S show that there are two major clades encompassing taxa previously included in Rissooidea. These are the Rissooidea s.s. containing Rissoidae and Barleeiidae and the Truncatelloidea containing Anabathridae, Assimineidae, Falsicingulidae, Truncatellidae, Pomatiopsidae, Hydrobiidae s.l., Hydrococcidae, Stenothyridae, Calopiidae, Clenchiellidae, Caecidae, Tornidae, and Iravadiidae. Rissoidae is not monophyletic, with Lironoba grouping with Emblanda (Emblandidae) and Rissoina forming a separate clade with Barleeiidae. Iravadiidae is not monophyletic, with Nozeba being sister to the Tornidae. Tatea, usually included within Hydrobiidae, is distinct from that family and Nodulus, previously included in Anabathridae, groups with the hydrobiids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  2. Dispersion factors in the arboreal snail Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coefficient was enhanced by grassy habitats, continuous vegetation cover, absence of edible plants and ... I III green card-board qUtldraL The quadrat, with its ... Season. relea~~ duratioll I cast Illl ... 13 (10). Dry FL:bruary. 21 (3). Dry March. 14 (13). 01 ,nail" rec(w~red. 4R. 43. :'0 ...... test Cilse f()r prcscnt gcncralillitinn~.

  3. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  4. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  5. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  6. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesha Shrestha

    Full Text Available The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes.

  7. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitalajenyn.si (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G = the number or snails in grasses, % = percentage proportion of shruh snail s to the total number ot' snails in both habitats, ..... transmission pylons (P.F. Kasigwa personal observations). .... ation and k is any positive integer. References.

  8. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitats and patterns of vertical migration of the shell banding morphs of the snail Sitala jenynsi (Pfeiffer) were studied in Dar es Salaam and Wazo regions of central coastal Tanzania Both dimorphic and trimorphic populations were arboreal throughout the year. The snails occurred randomly within mid-heights 180 to ...

  9. Mitrella albovittata [Gastropoda: Columbellidae]: range extension to Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitrella albovittata Lopes, Coelho & Cardoso, 1965, was originally described from Bahia, Salvador, Itapuã (type locality), Alagoas, Maceió and Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio. These three localities are all situated on the east coast of Brasil. Recently, it was found in a dredge sample collected near

  10. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  11. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  12. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  13. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  14. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Número de ovos nas fezes e número e tamanho dos granulomas nas vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: II. Number of eggs in the feces and number and size of granulomas in the visceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematódeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas progênies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o caráter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercárias oriundas das gerações P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infecção de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas após a exposição às larvas. Por esta ocasião verificou-se o número de ovos nas fezes e o número de granulomas no fígado, baço e intestino. Avaliou-se também o tamanho das reações granulomatosas nestas vísceras. Concluiu-se que a maior susceptibilidade de B. tenagophila induziu a uma maior eliminação de ovos do parasita nas fezes. Verificou-se maior número de granulomas por área de tecido hepático em roedores infectados com cercárias oriundas de moluscos mais susceptíveis. Nos mesmos roedores, constatou-se relação inversa entre a área dos granulomas esplênicos, hepáticos e intestinais e a taxa de infecção dos moluscos que forneceram as cercárias para a infecção dos camundongos.The influence of the susceptibility of the vector snails of S. mansoni on the development of the pathogenicity of the worm to the host was studied. Off-spring of snails Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila were used, selected with regard to the susceptibility to S. mansoni of the strains BH and SJ trait, respectively. Parenteral, F1,F2, F3 and F4 generation cercariae were used for the infection of Swiss mice, which were killed eight weeks after infection. The number of eggs in the feces and the number of granulomas in the liver, spleen and intestines were counted. The size of the granulomatous reactions was evaluated. The results led to the conclusion that greater susceptibility of B. tenagophila was associated with a larger egg production in the feces

  15. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil Factores biológicos y ambientales asociados al riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis mansoni en la localidad de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil Fatores biológicos e ambientais associados ao risco de transmissão da esquistossomose mansoni na localidade de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata snails were captured in 36 breeding sites, and 11 schistosomiasis transmission foci were identified. A negative correlation was found between breeding site temperature and snail density and infection rate, and a positive correlation with pH and salinity. The rainy season showed a positive correlation with snail density and infection rate. The study emphasizes the factors involved in the maintenance of schistosomiasis breeding sites, in light of persistence of this disease in Porto de Galinhas for more than 10 years.La esquistosomiasis se expande hacia el litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, donde han sido frecuentes los registros de caracoles Biomphalaria glabrata y casos humanos de la enfermedad. Este estudio presenta factores relacionados con el riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis en la localidad Porto de Galinhas. Durante un año se llevó a cabo una investigación malacológica para identificar factores biológicos, abióticos y ambientales, relacionados con los criaderos de los moluscos huéspedes. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron los softwares Excel 2010, GTM Pro y ArcGis 10. Se recogieron 11.012 caracoles B. glabrata en los 36 criaderos identificados, siendo diagnosticados 11 focos de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis. Se verificó la correlación negativa entre la temperatura de los criaderos, densidad y tasa de infección de los caracoles, y la correlación positiva entre el pH y salinidad. El período de lluvia presentó una

  16. Ocorrência de linhagens humana e silvestre de Schistosoma mansoni, na pré-amazônia: I - estudo em moluscos Occurrence of wild and human strains of Schistosoma mansoni in lower Amazonia: I - study in moluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas na região da Baixada Maranhense (Brasil, linhagens humana (H e silvestre(S de Schistosoma mansoni a partir de miracídios eclodidos de ovos encontrados em fezes de doentes humanos autóctones da Região e de fígados de roedores silvestres naturalmente infectados. Biomphalaria glabrata, descentes de caramujos coletados no campo, foram expostos, isoladamente, aos miracídios H e S, mantidos isolados em moluscário e observados durante 100 dias. Moluscos normais foram mantidos nas mesmas condições de ambiente em que foram submetidos os infectados e tomados como controle da experiência. Foram anotados os indices de infecção dos moluscos, as datas da eliminação de cercárias, quantidade de larvas eliminadas e mortalidade dos moluscos. Os dados sugeriram melhor adaptação do esquistossomo da linhagem H à B. glabrata. A linhagem S, por sua vez, foi três vezes mais virulenta do que a linhagem H. Estes dados foram comparados com os encontrados na literatura especializada e verificado diversidades nos comportamentos parasitológicos das linhagens em estudo, quando comparados com os encontrados nas linhagens H e S oriundas do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil.The wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the Lowland Region of the Maranhão State (Brazil. The snail progenies from Biomphalaria glabrata collected from that region were exposed to the W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents, and H miracidia from eggs in human stools. A control gruop of normal snails was kept in the same conditions as the infected one. The date of the elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. These data suggested better adaptation of the H strain to B. glabrata. The W strain presented three times more virulence to snails than the H strain. These results were compared with published

  17. Molluscicidal saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1993-01-01

    Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl......Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O......-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta -D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, HETCOR). The saponins are potent molluscicides against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata with LC...

  18. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and Its Potential Use in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

  20. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  1. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  2. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aurélio Euzébio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains. The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  4. A geoprocessing approach for studying and controlling schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are tools that have been recently tested for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution of disease. The objective of this paper was to further develop the GIS technology to model and control schistosomiasis using environmental, social, biological and remote-sensing variables. A final regression model (R² = 0.39 was established, after a variable selection phase, with a set of spatial variables including the presence or absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, winter enhanced vegetation index, summer minimum temperature and percentage of houses with water coming from a spring or well. A regional model was also developed by splitting the state of Minas Gerais (MG into four regions and establishing a linear regression model for each of the four regions: 1 (R² = 0.97, 2 (R² = 0.60, 3 (R² = 0.63 and 4 (R² = 0.76. Based on these models, a schistosomiasis risk map was built for MG. In this paper, geostatistics was also used to make inferences about the presence of Biomphalaria spp. The result was a map of species and risk areas. The obtained risk map permits the association of uncertainties, which can be used to qualify the inferences and it can be thought of as an auxiliary tool for public health strategies.

  5. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.Bromocetamide has been tested as molluscicide, with good results, in the People's Republic of China, on Oncomelania, host of Schistosoma japonicum. We have conducted preliminary assays with bromoacetamide on adult snails (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea, newly hatched smails and egg-masses. This product has been also tested on fishes (Lebistes reticulatus. Comparative assays have been made with pentaclorophenol to evaluate the suceptibility of the snails. Snails tested had a diameter of 8-10 mm; the newly hatched were 1-3 days old and the eggs-masses. 0-1 day old. The temperature of the water varied from 24.3 to 27.5° C. Bromoacetamide was active on adult and newly hatched snails and egg-masses, in concentrations from 1-4ppm. The product was less toxic for jish (LC90 = 7,5 ppm. These results indicate that bromoacetamide has promising molluscicide

  6. Study of the radiomodifier effect of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Joao V.T.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Pereira, Dewson R.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been applied in several areas of knowledge, among them the study of the radiomodifier activity of natural substances. These substances can modify the cellular response to the damage induced by the radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the radiomodifier action of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos exposed to "6"0Co gamma radiation. Initially, toxicity tests were performed on the extract against the B. glabrata embryos for the choice of concentration that did not cause death and embryonic malformation. Then, the antioxidant activity of the P. moniliformis extract with flavonoids and phenolic compounds was evaluated by means of the ABTS method. To evaluate the radiomodifier activity of the extract, embryos were selected in the blastula stage and irradiated with 7.5 Gy in a "6"0Co source (Gammacell-Co"6"0). Then, the embryos were exposed for 24 h to the extract of P. moniliformis at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The results showed that the extract of P. moniliformis presents flavonoids and enzymatic inhibition by ABTS, which demonstrates the presence of antioxidant compounds. However, the tests of the radiomodifier activity did not present radioprotective effect for embryos exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Amancio, Francisco F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of {sup 60}Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  8. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Ronaldo C. da; Amancio, Francisco F.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of 60 Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  9. Study of the radiomodifier effect of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Joao V.T.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Pereira, Dewson R.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: joaotorres16@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: dewson.rocha@gmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation has been applied in several areas of knowledge, among them the study of the radiomodifier activity of natural substances. These substances can modify the cellular response to the damage induced by the radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the radiomodifier action of Pityrocarpa moniliformis extract on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. Initially, toxicity tests were performed on the extract against the B. glabrata embryos for the choice of concentration that did not cause death and embryonic malformation. Then, the antioxidant activity of the P. moniliformis extract with flavonoids and phenolic compounds was evaluated by means of the ABTS method. To evaluate the radiomodifier activity of the extract, embryos were selected in the blastula stage and irradiated with 7.5 Gy in a {sup 60}Co source (Gammacell-Co{sup 60}). Then, the embryos were exposed for 24 h to the extract of P. moniliformis at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The results showed that the extract of P. moniliformis presents flavonoids and enzymatic inhibition by ABTS, which demonstrates the presence of antioxidant compounds. However, the tests of the radiomodifier activity did not present radioprotective effect for embryos exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Schistosoma mansoni larval development using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, A S; Vermeire, J J; Bernier, J; Birkeland, S R; Cipriano, M J; Papa, A R; McArthur, A G; Yoshino, T P

    2009-04-01

    Infection of the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, by the free-swimming miracidial stage of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and its subsequent development to the parasitic sporocyst stage is critical to establishment of viable infections and continued human transmission. We performed a genome-wide expression analysis of the S. mansoni miracidia and developing sporocyst using Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE). Five cDNA libraries were constructed from miracidia and in vitro cultured 6- and 20-day-old sporocysts maintained in sporocyst medium (SM) or in SM conditioned by previous cultivation with cells of the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line. We generated 21 440 SAGE tags and mapped 13 381 to the S. mansoni gene predictions (v4.0e) either by estimating theoretical 3' UTR lengths or using existing 3' EST sequence data. Overall, 432 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed amongst all 5 libraries. In total, 172 tags were differentially expressed between miracidia and 6-day conditioned sporocysts and 152 were differentially expressed between miracidia and 6-day unconditioned sporocysts. In addition, 53 and 45 tags, respectively, were differentially expressed in 6-day and 20-day cultured sporocysts, due to the effects of exposure to Bge cell-conditioned medium.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni mucin gene (SmPoMuc expression: epigenetic control to shape adaptation to a new host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Perrin

    Full Text Available The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a human parasite that uses the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata as intermediate host. Specific S. mansoni strains can infect efficiently only certain B. glabrata strains (compatible strain while others are incompatible. Strain-specific differences in transcription of a conserved family of polymorphic mucins (SmPoMucs in S. mansoni are the principle determinants for this compatibility. In the present study, we investigated the bases of the control of SmPoMuc expression that evolved to evade B. glabrata diversified antigen recognition molecules. We compared the DNA sequences and chromatin structure of SmPoMuc promoters of two S. mansoni strains that are either compatible (C or incompatible (IC with a reference snail host. We reveal that although sequence differences are observed between active promoter regions of SmPoMuc genes, the sequences of the promoters are not diverse and are conserved between IC and C strains, suggesting that genetics alone cannot explain the evolution of compatibility polymorphism. In contrast, promoters carry epigenetic marks that are significantly different between the C and IC strains. Moreover, we show that modifications of the structure of the chromatin of the parasite modify transcription of SmPoMuc in the IC strain compared to the C strain and correlate with the presence of additional combinations of SmPoMuc transcripts only observed in the IC phenotype. Our results indicate that transcription polymorphism of a gene family that is responsible for an important adaptive trait of the parasite is epigenetically encoded. These strain-specific epigenetic marks are heritable, but can change while the underlying genetic information remains stable. This suggests that epigenetic changes may be important for the early steps in the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts, and might be an initial step in adaptive evolution in general.

  12. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  13. Fumarate Production by Torulopsis glabrata: Engineering Heterologous Fumarase Expression and Improving Acid Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulai Chen

    Full Text Available Fumarate is a well-known biomass building block compound. However, the poor catalytic efficiency of fumarase is one of the major factors preventing its widespread production. To address this issue, we selected residues 159HPND162 of fumarase from Rhizopus oryzae as targets for site-directed mutagenesis based on molecular docking analysis. Twelve mutants were generated and characterized in detail. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values of the P160A, P160T, P160H, N161E, and D162W mutants were decreased, whereas Km values of H159Y, H159V, H159S, N161R, N161F, D162K, and D162M mutants were increased. In addition, all mutants displayed decreased catalytic efficiency except for the P160A mutant, whose kcat/Km was increased by 33.2%. Moreover, by overexpressing the P160A mutant, the engineered strain T.G-PMS-P160A was able to produce 5.2 g/L fumarate. To further enhance fumarate production, the acid tolerance of T.G-PMS-P160A was improved by deleting ade12, a component of the purine nucleotide cycle, and the resulting strain T.G(△ade12-PMS-P160A produced 9.2 g/L fumarate. The strategy generated in this study opens up new avenues for pathway optimization and efficient production of natural products.

  14. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either

  15. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments.

  16. Bakteri Simbion Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapesium Dari Perairan Ternate, Sebagai Alternatif Antibakteri MDR (Bacterial Symbiont Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapezium from Ternate, as Alternative Antibacterial MDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delianis Pringgenies

    2014-03-01

    The bacteria resistant to some antibiotics are known as multi drug resistant (MDR. To overcome the problem, it is needed to search for a new antibiotic compounds more effectively and efficiently. This study aims to identify potential from symbionts of Pleuroploca trapezium as a source of antibacteria MDR and identifying the bacteria that were active against the MDR. Samples were collected from Ternate, Maluku. Isolation of symbiotic bacteria, screening for bacteria which producing secondary metabolites as anti-MDR bacteria, antibacterial test, isolation of clinical pathogenic bacteria of MDR. Conducting anti-bacterial sensitivity test,  sensitivity test for antibacterial,  DNA exctraction, DNA amplification based on PCR method, DNA sequencing.  Result of 16S r-DNA sequence was then analyzed and edited using GENETYX program and followed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Screening of bacteria associated with P. trapezium resulted in 19 isolates with 5 active bacteria. Based on the size of the zone forming and the consistency of zone, so the best isolate is TPT 4.7. The identification shows that TPT 4.7 has a close relationship with the Paracoccus sp. MBIC4019 with homologi of 95%, which shows the relationship at the genus level. Its suggest that these results are very promising as a new antibacterial material. Keywords: antibacterial, symbiotic bacteria, Pleuroploca trapezium, multi drugs resistant

  17. Ação da inoculação de hemolinfa no mecanismo de defesa de Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 The effect of hemolymph inoculation on the defense mechanism of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Maria Pissini Machado Reis

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni em moluscos B. tenagophila inoculados com vários tipos de hemolinfa provenientes de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni da linhagem SJ ou por outros trematódeos avaliando-se, nestas circunstâncias, o comportamento dos amebócitos. Concluiu-se que dois tipos de mecanismos teriam agido provocando resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni: celular e humoral. A reação do tipo celular ocorreu quando os moluscos eram inoculados com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni B. tenagophila inoculadas com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por furcocercárias longifurcadas sem ocelos, apresentaram elevada resistência à infecção posterior por S.mansoni.The resistance of B. tenagophila snails to infection by Schistosoma mansoni was studied. These snails had been previously inoculated with hemolymph talsen from other snails infected by S. mansoni of SJ strain or by other trematodes. The findings suggest that two types - cellular and humoral - are responsible for the resistance to infection by S. mansoni. The cellular response occurred when the snails were inoculated with hemolymph from snails infected by S. mansoni. B. tenagophila inoculate with hemolymph from snails infected by furcocercariae without eye-spot, also showed resistance to the infection by S. mansoni. In this latter case, the degenerated sporocysts were not enveloped by amebocitary reaction, leading to the conclusion that humoral factors could be involved.

  18. Malacología Latinoamericana: Moluscos de agua dulce de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estado de situación y una lista actualizada y comentada sobre las especies de moluscos de agua dulce de la República Argentina. Se aborda en Gastropoda y Bivalvia la distribución a nivel de familias; las entidades endémicas, exóticas, invasoras y de importancia sanitaria. Los moluscos relacionados a la cuenca del Plata presentan la mayor riqueza específica. Base de datos: 4 500 registros relevados de las tres colecciones más importantes de la Argentina: MLP, MACN y FML. Además, se incluye información de recolecciones actuales y localidades citadas por otros autores. Hasta el presente han sido descritas 166 especies. De ellas 101 pertenecen a 10 familias de Gastropoda y 65 a 7 de Bivalvia. Las familias que presentan mayor riqueza específica son Lithoglyphidae (22 y Sphaeriidae (25, respectivamente. Sphaeriidae, Cochliopidae, Chilinidae y Lymnaeidae se distribuyen prácticamente en todo el país. Erodonidae y Solecurtidae se registran en ambientes mixohalinos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Thiaridae y Glacidorbiidae presentan una distribución muy restringida. Especies endémicas de la Argentina: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1, Cochliopidae (10, Lithoglyphidae (11, Thiariidae (3, Chilinidae (11, Lymnaeidae (2 y Physidae (2?; Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?; Etheriidae (1? y Sphaeriidae (10. Especies de interés sanitario: propagadoras de: Esquistosomiasis, Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila (Planorbidae; Fasciolasis, Lymnaea viatrix y L. columnella (Lymnaeidae; y dermatitis esquistosómicas, Chilina gibbosa y C. fluminea (Chilinidae. Especies de origen asiático: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae y Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae. Es prioritaria la formación de áreas protegidas para la conservación de especies endémicas, especialmente de la Mesopotamia Argentina.Latin American Malacology. Freshwater Mollusks from Argentina. A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of

  19. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-01-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50 15min = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50 48h = 91,25 mg L -1 ) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50 48h = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was assessed with the

  20. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O'Dwyer, K.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Poulin, R.; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 133-152 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode parasites * life cycles * intertidal ecosystems * phylogenetics analysis * SW Iceland * Notocotylidae * history * snail Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  1. Recent history of the European Nassarius nitidus (Gastropoda) : phylogeographic evidence of glacial refugia and colonization pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albaina, Naiara; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Couceiro, Lucia; Miguel Ruiz, Jose; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    Because marine species respond differentially to factors governing survival and gene flow, closely related taxa may display dissimilar phylogeographic histories. New data for the patchily distributed gastropod Nassarius nitidus throughout its Atlantic-Mediterranean range (collected during 2008 and

  2. New records and new species of cones from deeper water off Fiji (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Röckel, D.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken

  3. Size-mass relationships of Melanoides tuberculatus (Thiaridae: Gastropoda in a eutrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationships of certain allometric measurements in Melanoides tuberculatus Muller, 1774, in order to develop a statistical model to estimate the biomass of this mollusc species. We measured the total length and aperture of 70 shells. These measurements were correlated with the biomass values to construct exponential and power-function models, and both models showed high coefficients of determination. The exponential model was the better biomass predictor, with a coefficient of determination over 93%. These proposed models may be an effective tool to determine the biomass of M. tuberculatus in eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs.

  4. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  5. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  6. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  7. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  8. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  9. A review of the land snail genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia ( Alycaeus balingensis , Alycaeus carinata , Alycaeus conformis , Alycaeus gibbosulus , Alycaeus kapayanensis , Alycaeus kelantanensis , Alycaeus liratulus , Alycaeus perakensis perakensis , Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti ) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula ( Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis ). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus . The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed ( Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n. , Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n. , Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n. , Alycaeus alticola sp. n. , Alycaeus charasensis sp. n. , Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n. , Alycaeus regalis sp. n. , Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n. , Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n. , Alycaeus expansus sp. n. , Alycaeus clementsi sp. n. ). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia.

  10. A review of the land snail genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia (Alycaeus balingensis, Alycaeus carinata, Alycaeus conformis, Alycaeus gibbosulus, Alycaeus kapayanensis, Alycaeus kelantanensis, Alycaeus liratulus, Alycaeus perakensis perakensis, Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula (Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus. The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed (Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n., Alycaeus alticola sp. n., Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., Alycaeus regalis sp. n., Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n., Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., Alycaeus expansus sp. n., Alycaeus clementsi sp. n.). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:29133987

  11. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  12. Population ecology and fishery of Cittarium pica (Gastropoda: Trochidae on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmidt

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fishery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were studied at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population density with 14 ind./m² about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequeney histograms showed a strong shift towards smaller specimens at the exploited sites, which is also reflected in significantly higher rates of total mortality (Z = 4.05 and 4.47 when compared to the unexploited site (Z = 1.47. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as k = 0.19-0.28 (yr-1 and L∞= 104 mm. No significant differences were found among sites. From these values a range of the growth performance index Φ was computed ( Φ = 3.31-3.48 which lies at the lower end of the values reported for other tropical marine gastropods. The size at first maturity for both sexes combined was estimated as 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Exploitation rates >0.6 for both exploited sites and a large fraction of small specimens (El caracol Cittarium pica (West Indian Top Shell es recolectado en forma artesanal en zonas rocosas de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. A la fecha no hay datos sobre esta extracción ni existe regulación de su pesquería. La dinámica poblacional de esta especie fue evaluada, desde octubre del 2000 hasta marzo del 2001, en dos sitios en los cuales la especies es recolectada (Playa Negra y Cahuita, y en un sitio protegido de la actividad pesquera (Isla Uvita. La densidad promedio de la población fue 14 ind/m², cerca de tres veces más alta en el sitio protegido que en los dos no protegidos. Los histogramas de frecuencia de tallas mostraron un fuerte sesgo hacia los ejemplares más pequeños en los sitios no protegidos, lo que se refleja también en tasas de mortalidad total significativamente más altas (Z = 4.05 y 4.47 cuando se les compara con el sitio protegido (Z = 1.47. Los parámetros de crecimiento según von Bertalanffy fueron estirnados en k = 0.19 - 0.28 / año y L∞= 104 mm. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los sitios. A partir de estos valores el índice Φ (performance index Φ estuvo en un αmbito de 3.31 a 3.48, el cual se encuentra entre los valores bajos informados para otros gastrópodos tropicales. La edad a la primera madurez sexual para ambos sexos combinados fue estimada en 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Las tasas de explotación fueron mayores a 0.6 para los sitios no protegidos y un alto componente de ejemplares pequeños (menos de 30 mm en las recolectas, sugieren una sobre explotación de los adultos y sobrepesca en el reclutamiento. Con base en la estimación de la captura máxima sostenible (maximum sustainable yield, se recomienda algunas medidas reguladores de la pesquería como el control de un tamaño mínimo de desernbarque de 40 mm y la veda de la pesquería durante los rneses de reproducción (de julio a noviembre.

  13. Crecimiento del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en cuatro ambientes de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Jesús Navarrete

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tasa de crecimiento de caracoles cultivados en corrales en cuatro ambientes diferentes. El cultivo se realizó de octubre de 1993 a marzo de 1994. 16 corrales de 50 m² de área cada uno, cuatro por ambiente, fueron colocados en los siguientes ambientes: Thalassia, Thalassia-arena, Arena y Coral, todos dentro de la laguna arrecifal en Punta Gavilán y Banco Chinchorro. En cada ambiente se introdujeron 20 caracoles de las siguientes tallas: 1 100-120, 2 120-140, 3 140-160 y 4 160-180 mm de longitud de concha. Los caracoles se midieron mensualmente con un vernier con una precisión de un mm. El crecimiento se evaluó por dos métodos: a el incremento marginal promedio de la concha y por el método de Gulland-Holt. En el primer método, el ambiente Arena mostró el mayor crecimiento (3.21 + 0.26 mm/mes en Punta Gavilán, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, el mayor crecimiento ocurrió en coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/mes. Con el segúndo método la mayor longitud asintótica en Punta Gavilán se midió en Thalassia-arena (287.5 mm, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, la mayor longitud asintótica se midió en Arena (318.1 mm. Existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre los sitios y eso muestra que el crecimiento de los juveniles se relaciona con la cantidad de alimento disponible el cual fue mayor en Thalassia y Thalassia-arena. Sin embargo se requiere evaluar la cantidad de alimento, principalmente microfitobentos en los ambientes sin vegetación como Arena y Coral.The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m² each, four pens per environment, were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a shell marginal mean increase and b the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 + 0.26 mm/month at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/month. Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm, whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm. There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete circular mitochondrial genome of D. reticulatum is 14,048 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes (GenBank accession number: KY765589). The overall base composition was 31.0 % A, 12.2 % C, 17.7 % G and 39...

  15. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  16. On the occurrence of Bullia tranquebarica (Roding) Nassaridae (Gastropoda) in Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Namboodiri, P.N.; Sivadas, P.

    A live buccinid gastropod Bullia tranquebarica belonging to family Nassaridae was collected from Kavaratti atoll in Lakshadweep island of Indian Ocean. Interesting pattern of its distribution is described. This is the second record of occurrence...

  17. Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Jessica A; Bazinet, Adam L; Valdés, Ángel; Collins, Allen G; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-10-26

    The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of marine specialized consumers for which reliable phylogenies exist hampers attempts to test the role of trophic specialization in evolution. In this study, RNA-Seq data is used to produce a phylogeny of Cladobranchia, a group of marine invertebrates that feed on a diverse array of prey taxa but mostly specialize on cnidarians. The broad range of prey type preferences allegedly present in two major groups within Cladobranchia suggest that prey type shifts are relatively common over evolutionary timescales. In the present study, we generated a well-supported phylogeny of the major lineages within Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data, and used ancestral state reconstruction analyses to better understand the evolution of prey preference. These analyses answered several fundamental questions regarding the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, including support for a clade of species from Arminidae as sister to Tritoniidae (which both preferentially prey on Octocorallia). Ancestral state reconstruction analyses supported a cladobranchian ancestor with a preference for Hydrozoa and show that the few transitions identified only occur from lineages that prey on Hydrozoa to those that feed on other types of prey. There is strong phylogenetic correlation with prey preference within Cladobranchia, suggesting that prey type specialization within this group has inertia. Shifts between different types of prey have occurred rarely throughout the evolution of Cladobranchia, indicating that this may not have been an important driver of the diversity within this group.

  18. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Burridge, A.K.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to

  19. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  20. Comparative anatomy of the fasciolariids Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae from Brazil (Gastropoda: Buccinoidea: Peristerniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo R. Couto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian species Pustulatirus ogum and Hemipolygona beckyae were examined, and certain morphological characters were described. Both species were originally assigned to the genus Latirus, considered as a heterogeneous complex. The radulae of both species are like that which characterizes Latirus, in which the innermost cusp of the rachidian tooth is well developed but always smaller than the other cusps. This feature differs from Leucozonia, in which this cusp is reduced or absent. The penis tapers terminally, and the tapered part may be long (more than half the total penis length, as in H. beckyae, or very short (less than half the total penis length, as in P. ogum. The anatomical data observed in both species are discussed under the framework of fasciolariid systematics and they appear to be widespread among other fasciolariid species. For this reason, to date, the soft-part features here provided and those known from previously studied species of Latirus are not useful for delineating precise generic diagnoses.

  1. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und

  2. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    that concentrations as low as 1 ng Sn/l induce imposex in Nucella lapillus and sterilization of females is initiated at around 4 ng Sn/l (Gibbs et al., 1988). This has led to the decline in the population of dog-whelks in and around the coast of the UK (Bryan et al..., G. W., Gibbs, P. E., & Burt, G. R. (1988). A comparison of the eC128ectiveness of Tri-n-buytin chloride and five other organotin compounds in promoting the development of imposex in the dog- whelk Nucella lapillus. Journal of Marine Biological...

  3. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  4. Pseudo-imposex: male features in female volutes not TBT-induced (Gastropoda: Volutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.; Horpet, P.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a penis in female gastropods of the superfamily Muricoidea (infraorder Neogastropoda) has commonly been accepted as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Some species seem less sensitive than others, and one belonging to the family Columbellidae has been reported that it

  5. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  6. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  7. Study on the contamination by transuranides of Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) has been performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the nuclear accident occurred in 1966. The existence of plutonium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana) along with their great gastronomic interest in the area reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements into a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in the Palomares most contaminated area. Plutonium analyses have been carried out following normalized procedures for the determination of this radionuclide. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could contribute up to 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  8. Study on the contamination of transuranides in Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium and americium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) was performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the 1966 nuclear accident. The existence of plutonium and americium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana), along with their great gastronomic interest in the area, reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements to a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in various sampling campaigns. Pretreatment of the snail samples for further transuranics analyses was based on culinary customs of the region. First, the gastropods had a biological rest, allowing the removal of the non-adsorbed or non-retained ingested material, and then the excrements were collected by washing the snails. Water with excrements was filtered using different filters and analyzed separately. Once rinsed, the snails were dipped into salty water to eliminate the slime, finally, after boiling, the soft tissue was separated from the shell. Plutonium and americium analyses have been carried out sequentially, following normalized procedures for the determination of these radionuclides. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. Autoradiographies performed to soft tissues made evident that the contamination was incorporated into the gastropods as radioactive particles. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could reach 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  9. Morphology and systematic position of Cingula tumidula G.O. Sars, 1878 Gastropoda: Rissoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhaev, Ivan O

    2016-11-03

    Rissoidae is a family of small to minute marine gastropods distributed worldwide. The generic composition of the family was revised by Ponder (1984) based on characters of external morphology and internal anatomy. However, species level taxonomy within the family is still based mainly on conchological characters, which are less informative and usually not sufficient for resolving the systematic relationships of species. Northern Atlantic representatives of the family were revised by Warén (1974; 1996) and Bouchet & Warén (1993) based on shape and sculpture of both proto- and teleoconch, and were suggested to be members of several genera, widely distributed in boreal or even tropical Atlantic environments. These include Alvania Risso, 1826; Onoba H. & A. Adams, 1852; Obtusella Cossmann, 1921 and a few more. However, it was recently demonstrated that some these genera are not monophyletic (Criscione et al. 2016).

  10. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  11. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio P. Ávila; Jeroen Goud; António M. de Frias Martins

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean...

  12. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  13. A new Indo-Pacific Zebina species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sleurs, W.J.; Van Goethem, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new, widespread, but uncommon Indo-Pacific rissoinine species, Zebina ( ? Zebina) malagazzae sp. nov. is described. It is compared with its morphologically closest relative, the tropical Eastern Pacific species Zebina axeliana (STRONG & HERTLEIN, 1951 ), with the holotype of Zebina constricta LASERON, 1956 from Christmas Island and with Zebina ( ?Zebina) japonica (WEINKAUFF, 1881).

  14. Marginella orstomi, a new species from deeper water off the coast of West Africa (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Marginella (s. str.) orstomi nov. spec. was collected at a depth of 200 to 250 m, off Pointe Noire, Congo. The species is related to M. huberti Clover, 1972, from Angola. Both species have a characteristic white tooth on the inside of the outer lip near the posterior end.

  15. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  16. Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda : Bulimulidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.; McArdle, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    Placostylus hongii (Lesson) is recorded from sites between Whangaroa and Whangarei on the mainland Northland coast, and from the Poor Knights, Chicken, Mokohinau and Great Barrier islands offshore. There is considerable variation in shell morphology between the various populations, commonly with marked morphological divergence at a local scale but with overlapping variation overall across all populations of the taxon. Patterns of morphological variation show no clear geographic trends and are at least in part related to local environmental factors. Correlations are identified between shell shape and substratum type, and between shell size and vegetation type. Placostylus hongii has a very restricted stratigraphic distribution in mainland Northland, with most if not all of the few known fossil populations post-dating Polynesian settlement at c. 900-700 years BP. We suggest that P. hongii populations on the Poor Knights and possibly also those on the Mokohinau islands are endemic, whereas the mainland populations and those on Great Barier and the Chicken islands have originated from anthropic redistribution of snails in prehistoric time. A high proportion of the mainland P. hongii populations and some offshore island populations became extinct in the last few hundred years as a result of predation by introduced mammals and the modification and destruction of shrubland and forest habitat. (author). 54 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  18. Three new species of Scissurellidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia from the coast of Brazil

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    Pierre Ch. Montouchet

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available A consultation of the original descriptions of the genera of Scissurellidae led the author to conclude that the valid names for the genera of this family are: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescription by Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley, 1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924, Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella and Anatoma are cosmopolites, the first generally living in shallow waters, associated to sea-weeds, while the second is found in deep waters. The three last genera are restricted to Australasia. Three new species are described from the Brazilian coast: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis and Scissurella morretesi. The internal anatomy of S. alexandrei is described. These three new species have been found in littoral shallow waters, the two first on the northeast Brazilian coast, the third on the coast of the State of São Paulo. The fourth known species of Scissurellidae from Brazil, Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, was dredged by H.M.S, "Challenger", in 1873, off Pernambuco, 350 fm (640 m.Pela leitura das descrições originais dos gêneros de Scissurellidae , conclue-se que os nomes válidos destes gêneros são: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescrição por Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley,1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924 e Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella e Anatoma são cosmopolitas; o primeiro encontra-se geralmente em águas rasas e associado a algas; o segundo habita águas profundas. Os três últimos gêneros são restritos à Australásia. Três novas espécies são descritas para a costa do Brasil: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis e Scissurella morretesi. Da primeira foi estudada a anatomia interna. Estas três espécies novas foram encontradas em águas rasas; S. alexandrei e S.electilis provém de amostras de algas do mesolitoral inferior. Conhece-se uma quarta espécie de Scissurellidae para o Brasil: Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, dragada em 1873 pelo 'Challenger', ao largo da costa de Pernambuco, em profundidade de 640 m.

  19. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  20. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  1. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  2. Flexible colour patterns obscure identification and mimicry in Indo-Pacific Chromodoris nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Chromodorididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Gosliner, Terrence M; Wilson, Nerida G

    2018-07-01

    Chromodoris is a genus of colourful nudibranchs that feed on sponges and is found across the Indo-Pacific. While this was once the most diverse chromodorid genus, recent work has shown that the genus should be restricted to a monophyletic lineage that contains only 22 species, all of which exhibit black pigmentation and planar spawning behaviour. Earlier phylogenies of this group are poorly resolved and thus additional work is needed to clarify species boundaries within Chromodoris. This study presents a maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on mitochondrial loci (COI, 16S) for 345 Chromodoris specimens, including data from 323 new specimens and 22 from GenBank, from across the Indo-Pacific. Species hypotheses and phylogenetic analysis uncovered 39 taxa in total containing 18 undescribed species, with only five of 39 taxa showing stable colour patterns and distinct morphotypes. This study also presents the first evidence for regional mimicry in this genus, with C. colemani and C. joshi displaying geographically-based variation in colour patterns which appear to match locally abundant congenerics, highlighting the flexibility of these colour patterns in Chromodoris nudibranchs. The current phylogeny contains short branch lengths, polytomies and poor support at interior nodes, which is indicative of a recent radiation. As such, future work will employ a transcriptome-based exon capture approach for resolving the phylogeny of this group. In all, this study included 21 of the 22 described species in the Chromodoris sensu stricto group with broad sampling coverage from across the Indo-Pacific, constituting the most comprehensive sampling of this group to date. This work highlights several cases of undocumented diversity, ultimately expanding our knowledge of species boundaries in this group, while also demonstrating the limitations of colour patterns for species identification in this genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new record of Oxychilus alliarius (Gastropoda: Zonitidae with the species distribution in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new finding of the land snail species Oxychilus alliarius was recorded in the Czech Republic. This West European species was found in the six isolated sites during the last thirteen years always in western part of Bohemia. This paper brings new information on the distribution of Oxychilus alliarius in the Czech Republic.

  4. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ► Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ► Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  5. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  6. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the

  7. Intracellular Immunohistochemical Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Salvitti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX, is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring.

  8. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  9. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some

  10. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

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    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  11. Intracellular immunohistochemical detection of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda) and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; Winsor, Leigh; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2015-01-28

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  13. A taxonomic review of the Norwegian species of Raphitoma (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

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    Tore Høisæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problematic conoidean genus Raphitoma s.l. in inshore Norwegian waters is revised based on fresh material from all along the coast of Norway. This largely shallow water group is represented by at least six species in Norwegian waters of which two, Raphitoma obesa n.sp. and R. maculosa n.sp. are described as new, and another Raphitoma aequalis (Jeffreys, 1867 is reported from Norway for the first time. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of R. reticulata (sensu Jeffreys 1867 and R. asperrima (sensu Forbes & Hanley 1853 are discussed. Empty shells of several additional species indicate that the number of Raphitoma-species living in the North East Atlantic will be further increased in the future. The morphological variability of each species is described if possible. Shell morphology, including microsculpture and protoconch details as deduced from LM photographs, are used for distinguishing the species. Some easily observable behaviour and soft part morphology features were found to bepromising areas for further studies.

  14. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  15. Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, prosobranchia): a potential TBT bioindicator for freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Bettin, C; Fioroni, P; Oehlmann, J; Stroben, E

    1995-12-01

    : The ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (L., 1767) exhibits imposex (occurrence of male parts in addition to the female genital duct) under the influence of TBT (tributyltin) in laboratory experiments and accumulates this biocide in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. A comparison of BCF (bioconcentration factors) demonstrates that this limnic species accumulates more TBT than marine species. Evidence is given that TBT causes hormonal disorders which are responsible for imposex development. The testosterone/oestradiol quotient reflects the imposex development which can be described by a classification scheme differentiating four stages in Marisa cornuarietis. In the background of the constantly increasing organotin concentration in the limnic environment Marisa cornuarietis could be a well-suited bioindicator for TBT pollution. No other limnic species with a lower threshold concentration for measurable TBT effects is reported within the literature.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingling; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, a biocontrol agent of freshwater weeds and snail vectors of schistosomes. The mitogenome is 15,923 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. The mitogenome is A+T biased (70.0%), with 28.9% A, 41.1% T, 16.7% G, and 13.3% C. A comparison with Pomacea canaliculata, the other member in the same family (Ampullariidae) with a sequenced mitogenome, shows that the two species have an identical gene order, but their intergenic regions vary substantially in sequence length. The mitogenome data can be used to understand the population genetics of M. cornuarietis, and resolve the phylogenetic relationship of various genera in Ampullariidae.

  17. Bisphenol A Induces Superfeminization in the Ramshorn Snail (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27°C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20°C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20°C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

  18. Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the Ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experiment...

  19. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  20. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating......The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found...... foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a preadaptation for other...

  1. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  2. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  3. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  4. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  5. Transcriptome analysis in Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda, Muricidae): mining and characterization of new genomic and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Leyla; Sánchez, Roland; Gomez, Daniela; Fuenzalida, Gonzalo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristián; Tanguy, Arnaud

    2011-09-01

    The marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, locally known as the "loco", is the main target species of the benthonic Chilean fisheries. Genetic and genomic tools are necessary to study the genome of this species in order to understand the molecular basis of its development, growth, and other key traits to improve the management strategies and to identify local adaptation to prevent loss of biodiversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first transcriptomic database from adult specimens of the loco. After trimming, a total of 140,756 Expressed Sequence Tag sequences were achieved. Clustering and assembly analysis identified 19,219 contigs and 105,435 singleton sequences. BlastN analysis showed a significant identity with Expressed Sequence Tags of different gastropod species available in public databases. Similarly, BlastX results showed that only 895 out of the total 124,654 had significant hits and may represent novel genes for marine gastropods. From this database, simple sequence repeat motifs were also identified and a total of 38 primer pairs were designed and tested to assess their potential as informative markers and to investigate their cross-species amplification in different related gastropod species. This dataset represents the first publicly available 454 data for a marine gastropod endemic to the southeastern Pacific coast, providing a valuable transcriptomic resource for future efforts of gene discovery and development of functional markers in other marine gastropods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  7. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  8. Conus (Gastropoda, Conidae) from the Marquesas Archipelago: Description of a new endemic offshore fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Zandbergen, A.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    Based on surveys conducted in the 1980s-1990s, especially the MUSORSTOM 9 expedition, we report on the bathymetric occurences of 35 species of Conus in the Marquesas Archipelago. Four are new records of shallow-water tropical Indo-Pacific species, and six are new species that were dredged,

  9. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  10. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  11. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  12. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  13. Geochemical and Crystallographic Study of Turbo Torquatus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) From Southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L. M.; George, A. D.; Shaw, J.; Hart, R. D.; Roberts, M. P.; Becker, T.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Shells of the marine gastropod Turbo torquatus were sampled from three different locations along the Western Australian coastline, namely Marmion Lagoon (31°S), Rottnest Island (32°S), and Hamelin Bay (34°S). Marmion Lagoon and Rottnest Island have similar sea surface temperature ranges that are ˜1°C warmer than Hamelin Bay, with all sites influenced by the warm southward flowing Leeuwin Current. The shells were characterized using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and geochemical analyses. Shell mineral composition varies between the three sites suggesting the influence of sea surface temperature, oxygen consumption, and/or bedrock composition on shell mineralogy and preferential incorporation and/or elemental discrimination of Mg, P, and S. Furthermore, T. torquatus was found to exert control over the incorporation of most, if not all, the elements measured here, suggesting strong biological regulation. At all levels of testing, the concentrations of Li varied significantly, which indicates that this trace element may not be a suitable environmental proxy. Variation in Sr concentration between sites and between specimens reflects combined environmental and biological controls suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios in T. torquatus cannot be used to estimate sea surface temperature without experimentally accounting for metabolic and growth effects. The mineral composition and microstructure of T. torquatus shells may help identify sea surface temperature variations on geological time scales. These findings support the previously hypothesized involvement of an active selective pathway across the calcifying mantle of T. torquatus for most, if not all, the elements measured here.

  14. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.A laboratory technician was accidentally infected with the LE strain of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae maintained in our laboratories. After 5 months infection parasitological examination revealed 108 eggs/g faeces. Althrough treated with oxamniquine, the infection still persisted (6 eggs/g of faeces. An isolate (SSF was obtained from that person and maintained in Biomphalaria glabrata - Swiss mouse by alternate passage. The experimental comparative results between the newly obtained SSF isolate and the original LE strain showed that the differences in pre-patent period, the mice infectivity level and the schistosomicidal response to hycanthone, oxamniquine and praziquantel was not statistically significant. On the other hand the number of miracidia recovered from intestines and livers of equally infected mice was twice as miich in the LE strain than

  15. [Phylogenetic analysis of CO I gene of Oncomelania snails from project of afforestation for schistosomiasis control in marshland endemic regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Qing; Zhu, Chuan-Gang

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of cytochrome oxidase I (CO I ) of Oncomelania snails from the project of afforestation for schistosomiasis control in marshland regions, so as to explore the effects of different ecological environments. The snails were collected from 3 different areas, Anqing, Tongling, Wuwei, i.e. the upstream, midstream and downstream regions along the Yangtz River in Anhui Province. Genomic DNA was extracted from the snails, and CO I gene fragments were amplified by PCR, then purified and sequenced. The sequences were edited by using Blast. The CO I genes of O. h. minima and Biomphalaria glabrata were used as the reference of exogenous gene. The genetic distances of the various regions were calculated by the Kimura method and phylogenetic trees were constructed with UPGMA and the NJ method of MEGA (3.1) software. The amplified CO I gene of the snail was a fragment about 700 bp including 2 primers in length. There were little genetic diversity among the different areas, the identities were higher than or equal to 98%. The genetic distances indicated that the distance between the projects of afforestation and woodland in Anqing was 0.003, while Tongling was 0.019, Wuwei was 0.007. The distances among the three projects of afforestation were 0.003-0.012. The two phylogenetic trees were constructed by the methods of UPGMA and NJ respectively, which took on very similar topo-structure in which isolates of Biomphalaria glabrata located in one clade and all the others in the other one. In the other one clade, O. H. minima located in one clade. There was little genetic diversity among Anqing, Tongling, Wuwei clusters. The afforestations of Anqing and Wuwei clustered into one group, while the woodlands of Anqing and Wuwei appeared as another group. There is a little genetic diversity of the snail cytochrome oxidase I (CO I ) in different ecological environments among the upstream, midstream and downstream regions along the Yangtz River in Anhui

  16. Actividad molusquicida del Piquerol A aislado de Piqueria trinervia (compositae sobre ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados The molluscicide activity of Piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae against eight species of pulmonate snails

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    Alejandro Cruz-Reys

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available De las partes aéreas de la planta Piqueria trinervia (Compositae colectada en diveresas áereas de México, se aisló el Piquerol A. Este compuesto se probó como agente molusquicida contra ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados: Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnae sp., Pseudosuccinea columella, Stagnicola attenuata, de México; F. (B. cubensis y Physacubensis, de Cuba; P. Columella y Biomphalaria glabrata, de Brasil; B glabrata, de Puerto Rico; S. elodes, de Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron tres concentraciones 50, 25 y 5 ppm para cada una de las especies y 2 períodos de exposición, 6 y 24 horas, a 20-22ºC. En 50 ppm, después de 6 horas, y 25 ppm, después de 24 horas los ejemplares de todas las especies murieron. En 5 ppm después de 24 horas, se observaron mortalidades de 60 a 100%. En ningún caso se observó recuperación después de la exposición por 24 horas. El piquerol A es un terpeno biodegradable que presenta otras actividades biológicas. No se han hecho pruebas de toxicidad en otros animales ni pruebas de campo. Sin embargo, es una substacia con alto potencial de uso como molusquicida en zonas de transmisión focal. Es la primera que en México se hacen estudios sistemáticos sobre molusquicidas de origen vegetal.In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species. Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B. cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from USA. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22ºC. A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25

  17. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

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    Adam E Lynch

    Full Text Available Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×. In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates, 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates, were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  18. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  19. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  20. Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies

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    Jean-Pierre Pointier

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp., three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis. Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained restricted to some particular sites. The invasion processes were documented during the last 20 years and showed (i a rapid invasion of the island by several morphs of M. tuberculata at the beginning of the 80's; (ii the introduction of T. granifera in 1991 and M. amabilis in 1997; and (iii the rapid spread of these last two species throughout the island. In the years following its introduction, M. tuberculata was used in biological control experiments against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis, B. glabrata and B. straminea. Experiments were conducted with success in several groups of water-cress beds which constituted the latest transmission sites for schistosomiasis at the beginning of the 80's. A malacological survey carried out in 2000 all over the island showed the absence of B. glabrata but the presence of some residual populations of B. straminea. Long-term studies carried out in Martinique have shown that the thiarids are able to maintain relatively stable populations over a long period of time, thus preventing recolonization by the snail hosts. Within this context the invasion of the hydrographic system of Martinique by thiarid snails has resulted in an efficient and sustainable control of the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis.

  1. Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P

    2001-01-01

    Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp.), three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera) and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis). Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained restricted to some particular sites. The invasion processes were documented during the last 20 years and showed (i) a rapid invasion of the island by several morphs of M. tuberculata at the beginning of the 80's; (ii) the introduction of T. granifera in 1991 and M. amabilis in 1997; and (iii) the rapid spread of these last two species throughout the island. In the years following its introduction, M. tuberculata was used in biological control experiments against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis, B. glabrata and B. straminea. Experiments were conducted with success in several groups of water-cress beds which constituted the latest transmission sites for schistosomiasis at the beginning of the 80's. A malacological survey carried out in 2000 all over the island showed the absence of B. glabrata but the presence of some residual populations of B. straminea. Long-term studies carried out in Martinique have shown that the thiarids are able to maintain relatively stable populations over a long period of time, thus preventing recolonization by the snail hosts. Within this context the invasion of the hydrographic system of Martinique by thiarid snails has resulted in an efficient and sustainable control of the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis.

  2. Biological control of the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: the example of the Caribbean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Jourdane, J

    2000-10-23

    The biological control of schistosomiasis has already proven its efficiency in several habitats in the Caribbean area. Two main types of biological control agents, either trematode parasites or competitor snails have been studied and tested against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in this region. The first one, Ribeiroia guadeloupensis, a trematode sterilizing Biomphalaria glabrata was successfully tested in a Guadeloupean pond housing a natural population of B. glabrata. The second agent involves several species of competitor snails belonging to the Ampullariidae (Pomacea glauca, Marisa cornuarietis) and Thiaridae (Tarebia granifera, Melanoides tuberculata) families. Ampullarid snails were tested with success in several West Indian islands such as Guadeloupe. Thiarid snails have also proven their efficiency but also their limits in several types of habitats in Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia and Venezuela. Competitor snails have also proven to be useful in preventing the recolonization by the snail hosts after molluscicide treatments. The case of the rivers of the littoral central part of Venezuela is particularly relevant to this issue. The island of Martinique also constitutes a good example of the importance of competitor snails in a post-transmission phase of schistosomiasis control. This island is a well-developed country where schistosomiasis transmission was interrupted in the 1970s. However, the reactivation of some transmission sites was observed in the 1980s. The introduction of M. tuberculata into these sites resulted in the interruption of transmission and the near total disappearance of the snail hosts. Presently, the thiarid snails have colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system and maintain dense populations preventing an eventual recolonization by the planorbid snails and thus are maintaining a sustainable control.

  3. Evaluation of the antischistosomal activity of sulfated α-D-glucan from the lichen Ramalina celastri free and encapsulated into liposomes

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    R.V.S. Araújo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The antischistosomal activity of the sulfated polysaccharide α-D-glucan (Glu.SO4 extracted from Ramalina celastri was evaluated after encapsulation into liposomes (Glu.SO4-LIPO in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. The effect of treatment with Glu.SO4 and Glu.SO4-LIPO (10 mg/kg on egg elimination, worm burden and hepatic granuloma formation was assessed using female albino Swiss mice, 35-40 days of age, weighing 25 ± 2 g, infected with 150 cercariae/animal (Biomphalaria glabrata, BH strain. Four groups (N = 10 were studied, two controls (empty liposomes and NaCl and two treated groups (Glu.SO4-LIPO and Glu.SO4 using a single dose. Parasitological analysis revealed that Glu.SO4-LIPO was as efficient as Glu.SO4 in reducing egg elimination and worm burden. Treatment with free Glu.SO4 and Glu.SO4-LIPO induced a statistically significant reduction in the number of granulomas (62 and 63%, respectively. Lectin histochemistry showed that wheat germ agglutinin intensely stained the egg-granuloma system in all treated groups. On the other hand, peanut agglutinin stained cells in the control groups, but not in the treated groups. The present results suggest a correlation between the decreasing number of hepatic egg-granulomas and the glycosylation profile of the egg-granuloma system in animals treated with free Glu.SO4 or Glu.SO4-LIPO.

  4. Proteolytic activity in the adult and larval stages of the human roundworm parasite Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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    Karina Mastropasqua Rebello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a widespread human parasitism in Latin America. This study aimed to characterize the protease profiles of different developmental stages of this helminth. First-stage larvae (L1 were obtained from the faeces of infected Sigmodon hispidus rodents and third-stage larvae (L3 were collected from mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata previously infected with L1. Adult worms were recovered from rodent mesenteric arteries. Protein extraction was performed after repeated freeze-thaw cycles followed by maceration of the nematodes in 40 mM Tris base. Proteolysis of gelatin was observed by zymography and found only in the larval stages. In L3, the gelatinolytic activity was effectively inhibited by orthophenanthroline, indicating the involvement of metalloproteases. The mechanistic class of the gelatinases from L1 could not be precisely determined using traditional class-specific inhibitors. Adult worm extracts were able to hydrolyze haemoglobin in solution, although no activity was observed by zymography. This haemoglobinolytic activity was ascribed to aspartic proteases following its effective inhibition by pepstatin, which also inhibited the haemoglobinolytic activity of L1 and L3 extracts. The characterization of protease expression throughout the A. costaricensis life cycle may reveal key factors influencing the process of parasitic infection and thus foster our understanding of the disease pathogenesis.

  5. The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

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    Hanington, Patrick C.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection. PMID:21063081

  6. Acute schistosomiasis diagnosis: a new tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a group of travelers recently infected in a new focus of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni on early stages of infection is important to prevent late morbidity. A simple, cheap, sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection based on the detection of specific IgG for schistosomula tegument antigens (ELISA-SmTeg was developed by our group. Methods We describe here an acute outbreak involving a travel group of 80 individuals from a non-endemic area of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These individuals were in contact with a freshwater pool where Biomphalaria glabrata was found. Results obtained from our new methodology were compared to IgG antibody titers against soluble worm antigenic preparation (SWAP by ELISA and, also to parasitological examination, nuclear magnetic resonance and clinical findings. Results ELISA-SmTeg was capable of detecting 64 positive cases among the 80 individuals participating at the survey with a positivity ratio of 80% and a higher sensitivity than ELISA-SWAP that was only sensitive for 56% of positive cases. Besides, a significant correlation was found for the severity of the infection and the specific IgG titers against SmTeg. Conclusions Our data showed that ELISA-SmTeg might serve as the initial diagnostic tool for acute stages of the infection in community-based helminth control programs or for the surveillance of individuals from non-endemic areas.

  7. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  8. Acute schistosomiasis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: alert about the risk of unnoticed transmission increased by growing rural tourism

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    Martin J Enk

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the occurrence of 17 cases of acute schistosomiasis in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All individuals affected took a bath in a swimming pool of a holiday resort that was provided with water from a nearby brook. The apparently clean water and the absence of snails in the pool gave the wrong impression that there was no risk for infection. During a malacological survey at the site snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata were found and tested positive for Schistosoma mansoni. All the patients live in the middle-class area of Barreiro, metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte and have medium grade school education. The difficulties in establishing the right diagnosis is expressed by the search for medical attention in 17 different medical facilities, the wide range of laboratory test and the inadequate treatment administration. A lack of knowledge about the disease was found in all groups studied. The booming rural tourism in endemic areas is identified as a probable risk factor for infection, especially for individuals of the non-immune middle and upper class parts of the society in urban centers. Special attention is given to a multidisciplinary approach to the complex issue of disease control and prevention.

  9. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  10. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, William R.; Ferguson, Frederick F.; Palmer, Juan R.

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation. PMID:5309511

  11. Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Ferguson, F F; Palmer, J R

    1970-01-01

    In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation.

  12. Comparison of four species of snails as potential decoys to intercept schistosome miracidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracuente, A; Brown, R A; Jobin, W

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary studies have shown that various species of aquatic snails may be used as decoys or "sponges" to intercept schistosome miracidia, thereby preventing the miracidia from reaching the snails which normally serve as their intermediate host. In this study, four species of snails were evaluated as candidate decoys for field trials: Marisa cornuarietis, Pomacea australis, Helisoma caribaeum, and Tarebia granifera. In the laboratory all four species caused considerable reductions in the proportion of Biomphalaria glabrata infected by miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. The most effective decoys were M. cornuarietis and H. caribaeum, both of which caused experimental infection levels of 90% to decrease to 25% when five decoy snails were present for each target snail. When ten decoy snails were present for each target snail, the proportion infected decreased to 1%. M. cornuarietis was chosen as the candidate for field trials because it was found more frequently in Puerto Rico than was H. caribaeum. Initial field trials in two ponds showed that M. cornuarietis blocked infections at a ratio of 6 decoys to 1 target snail, confirming the laboratory results. Further studies in flowing water are needed before the technique can be generally evaluated in an endemic area.

  13. Activity of praziquantel on in vitro transformed Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts

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    ACA Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effective against all the evolutive phases of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails have their cercarial shedding interrupted when exposed to PZQ. Using primary in vitro transformed sporocysts, labeled with the probe Hoechst 33258 (indicator of membrane integrity, and lectin of Glycine max (specific for carbohydrate of N-acetylgalactosamine membrane, we evaluated the presence of lysosomes at this evolutive phase of S. mansoni, as well as the influence of PZQ on these acidic organelles and on the tegument of the sporocyst. Although the sporocyst remained alive, it was observed that there was a marked contraction of its musculature, and there occurred a change in the parasite's structure. Also, the acidic vesicles found in the sporocysts showed a larger delimited area after contact of the parasites with PZQ. Damages to the tegument was also observed, as show a well-marked labeling either with Hoechst 33258 or with lectin of Glycine max after contact of sporocysts with the drug. These results could partially explain the interruption/reduction mechanism of cercarial shedding in snails exposed to PZQ.

  14. Sobre um foco urbano de esquistossomose em área metropolitana da região sudeste do Brasil

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    Guimarães Carlos Tito

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se foco de transmissão ativa de esquistossomose mansoni em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, localizado no Parque "Julien Rien", uma área de lazer com 48.500 m², criada pela Prefeitura Municipal, em 1980, na zona sul da cidade. Em capturas feitas durante 10 anos (1983-1992 foram coletados 3.361 exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata (diâmetro médio= 9,3 mm, dos quais 23 (0,7% estavam infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni. O encontro de moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do S. mansoni em áreas urbanizadas (pequenos lagos artificiais cimentados de parques, jardins, prédios públicos, e outros pode estar relacionado com a introdução de peixes e plantas aquáticas. É sugerida, como medida profilática, a não introdução de peixes e plantas aquáticas nesses locais, a não ser após período de quarentena de, no mínimo, 30 dias.

  15. Evaluation of chemotherapy in the control of Schistosoma mansoni in Marquis Valley, Saint Lucia. II. Biological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, G

    1982-01-01

    Following the final chemotherapy campaign of a 4-year program, the biological assessment of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated for 5 years. No infected Biomphalaria glabrata were found amongst 28,791 and 13,550 snails examined from flowing and static index sites, respectively. However, 89 infected snails of 16,602 examined (0.54%) were found from additional sites. Sentinel snails examined between March 1974 and October 1977 revealed no infections and their use was discontinued. Following an increase in transmission, routine focal mollusciciding at 4-weekly intervals was introduced in March 1980. The cost for eight applications was US $641, representing a cost per caput of $0.21. These figures, extrapolated to a full year's control, become $1,042 and $0.35, respectively. The maximum cost was for the molluscicide, which absorbed 71.5% of the total. The data suggest that the main transmission of S. mansoni occurs in the dry season, in flowing habitats, as it does elsewhere in St. Lucia.

  16. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  17. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condi

  18. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of maturity throughout the year. Mature individuals were distributed between 5 and 13 m depth, forming aggregations at 5 m depth during much of the year. Periods of greater maturity were observed from July to August and November to January, with the most important aggregations at the end of both periods. A relationship was observed between the months with the greatest maturity and aggregations and the months with the highest daily temperature fluctuations. At the population level, the results allowed us to estimate 2.3*10(6 individuals, with 39% of this population over the minimum legal size (55 mm. The relatively slow growth estimated for this population was probably influenced by the high variability of the bottom temperature in this area. The critical size and size at first maturity of the population were higher than the minimal legal size, making it is necessary to review the current fishing regulation for this species. The effectiveness of the State marine reserves in the conservation of this marine resource was demonstrated.

  19. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  20. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental stages per capsule. This suggests that even when a comparable number of embryos develops at high temperature, subsequent survival may be affected, since developed embryos attained smaller sizes. The negative effect of high temperature on embryo aggregation has also been reported for Brachyuran crabs, affecting female patterns of oxygen provision and brooding costs. This evidence suggests that aggregating embryos in the ocean, even under optimum oxygen conditions, may be negatively affected at high temperatures. Spatial patterns of distribution of brooding species in the ocean tend to agree with this prediction. Our analysis is particularly relevant given the current increase in temperature and the proportion of anoxic areas in the world's oceansLos organismos marinos y dulceacuícolas muestran modelos similares de cuidado parental y están confrontados con similares restricciones para incubar, lo que sugiere que existen límites ambientales comparables guiando la evolución del cuidado parental en sistemas acuáticos. El bajo coeficiente de difusión y la baja solubilidad del oxígeno en ambientes acuáticos afecta la adquisición de oxígeno y por lo tanto la capacidad para agregar los embriones. El efecto de otras variables ambientales críticas, como la temperatura, es menos claro. Se evaluaron los efectos de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre (1 el número de embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar, (2 la proporción de embriones que alcanza estados avanzados de desarrollo (contabilizando no solo embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar sino también anormales, (3 la asincronía en el desarrollo (estimada solo cuando ocurrió desarrollo embrionario, y (4 el tamaño final, con el objetivo final de identificar las limitaciones que estos factores imponen sobre el cuidado parental en el mar. La especie modelo fue el gastrópodo Acanthina monodon. Cápsulas recientemente depositadas fueron colectadas e incubadas bajo diferentes condiciones experimentales de temperatura (7, 11, 15 y 19 °C y oxígeno (hipoxia: 50-60 % saturación de aire; normoxia; e hiperoxia: 150-160 %. Más embriones permanecieron en fases tempranas del desarrollo al final del experimento en hipoxia y a 19 °C. El número promedio de embriones desarrollados fue significativamente más bajo en hipoxia que bajo normoxia e hiperoxia, pero no fue influenciado por la temperatura. Sin embargo, la temperatura de incubación afectó otras variables de respuesta. Menores tamaños de los embriones y mayores niveles de asincronía al final del desarrollo fueron observados en las más altas temperaturas experimentales, lo que podría tener consecuencias negativas sobre la sobrevivencia posasentamiento. Las altas temperaturas también afectan el comportamiento y los costos asociados a la provisión de oxígeno a los embriones en braquiuros. Estas evidencias sugieren que agregar embriones en el océano, aun en condiciones óptimas de oxígeno, podría ser desfavorable a altas temperaturas. Los patrones espaciales de distribución de especies incubadoras tienden a apoyar esta predicción. Nuestro análisis también cobra relevancia en el escenario actual de aumento de la temperatura media de los océanos y de la proporción de zonas anóxicas

  1. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

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    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the level tide zero. In the field, A. monodon actively foraged at night preying mainly on mussels (95 % and barnacles (5 %. Temporal variation in diet composition of A. monodon was caused mostly by changes in the cover of different mussel species during the two years of sampling. In the laboratory, individual of A. monodon showed significant preference for the mussel Semimytilus algosus. In these experiments, A. monodon's foraging behavior maximized the net gain of energy by selecting species and sizes of prey that provided the greatest energy profitability

  2. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata no nordeste do Brasil

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    FS. Albuquerque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam no meio da manhã. A comida preferida destes caracóis foram plantas vasculares como Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus Communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Nossos dados sugerem que o A. fulica está plenamente adaptado e estabelecido nesta cidade e, também, que ambientes modificados facilitam seu estabelecimento e dispersão. Entretanto, a perturbação humana, como a limpeza de terrenos pode ser um fator limitante para a persistência da população de A. fulica.

  3. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata no Brasil Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in Brazil

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    Eduardo Colley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet, essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.

  4. Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae

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    Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.

  5. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  6. Uptake and release of 65Zn and 124Sb by Biomphalaria alexandrina and Cleopatra bulimoides snails and their effects on the ultrastructure of the hermaphrodite gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloukhia, H.; Alian, A.

    1999-01-01

    The freshwater snails, are by far the most prevalent organisms among the local freshwater fauna, and represent an important group of mollusks, from the stand point of health and economy. This is due to he role played by many of them as hosts for certain parasites of man and his animals. These snails are rather considered pests and so their populations are currently controlled by several measures. On the other hand, various radioactive elements are increasingly detected in the aquatic environment, some of them may find their way to the freshwater ecosystems. So it became necessary to find any radiobioindicator from among the common aquatic biota that can be used to detect any radioactive disposal into the freshwater environment. This paper reports a radioactive tracer study on weather the previously mentioned snails can be used either in the biological treatment of low-level radioactive waste and/or as radiobioindicators

  7. Ação da inoculação de hemolinfa no mecanismo de defesa de Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835

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    Reis Soely Maria Pissini Machado

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni em moluscos B. tenagophila inoculados com vários tipos de hemolinfa provenientes de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni da linhagem SJ ou por outros trematódeos avaliando-se, nestas circunstâncias, o comportamento dos amebócitos. Concluiu-se que dois tipos de mecanismos teriam agido provocando resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni: celular e humoral. A reação do tipo celular ocorreu quando os moluscos eram inoculados com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni B. tenagophila inoculadas com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por furcocercárias longifurcadas sem ocelos, apresentaram elevada resistência à infecção posterior por S.mansoni.

  8. Ação da inoculação de hemolinfa no mecanismo de defesa de Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835

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    Soely Maria Pissini Machado Reis

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni em moluscos B. tenagophila inoculados com vários tipos de hemolinfa provenientes de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni da linhagem SJ ou por outros trematódeos avaliando-se, nestas circunstâncias, o comportamento dos amebócitos. Concluiu-se que dois tipos de mecanismos teriam agido provocando resistência à infecção pelo S. mansoni: celular e humoral. A reação do tipo celular ocorreu quando os moluscos eram inoculados com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por S. mansoni B. tenagophila inoculadas com hemolinfa de moluscos infectados por furcocercárias longifurcadas sem ocelos, apresentaram elevada resistência à infecção posterior por S.mansoni.

  9. EL GÉNERO ECHINOLITTORINA HABE, 1956 (GASTROPODA: LITTORINIDAE DE LOS ECOSISTEMAS ROCOSOS DE LA COSTA PACÍFICA COLOMBIANA

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    ÁLVARO GIRALDO-CARDONA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron taxonómicamente por medio de caracteres de la concha 233 especímenes del género Echinolittorina (familia Littorinidae recolectados en ecosistemas rocosos del Pacífico colombiano. Los especímenes revisados se encuentran depositados en la Colección de Referencia de Biología Marina de la Universidad del Valle (CRBMUV y provienen de localidades en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca (Bahía Málaga, Bahía de Buenaventura, Cauca (Isla Gorgona, Guapi y Nariño (Mulatos, Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga. Hasta este trabajo, se pensaba que esta familia estaba representada solamente por tres especies en el Pacifico colombiano y en este estudio se registran seis especies: Echinolittorina apicina, E. atrata, E. conspersa, E. dubiosa, E. paytensis, y E. tenuistriata. Se incluye una descripción morfológica de cada una de ellas para facilitar su identificación.

  10. A good compromise: rapid and robust species proxies for inventorying biodiversity hotspots using the Terebridae (Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Puillandre, Nicolas; Castelin, Magalie; Zhang, Yu; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Devising a reproducible approach for species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups is an ongoing challenge in evolutionary biology. Speciation processes combine modes of passive and adaptive trait divergence requiring an integrative taxonomy approach to accurately generate robust species hypotheses. However, in light of the rapid decline of diversity on Earth, complete integrative approaches may not be practical in certain species-rich environments. As an alternative, we applied a two-step strategy combining ABGD (Automated Barcode Gap Discovery) and Klee diagrams, to balance speed and accuracy in producing primary species hypotheses (PSHs). Specifically, an ABGD/Klee approach was used for species delimitation in the Terebridae, a neurotoxin-producing marine snail family included in the Conoidea. Delimitation of species boundaries is problematic in the Conoidea, as traditional taxonomic approaches are hampered by the high levels of variation, convergence and morphological plasticity of shell characters. We used ABGD to analyze gaps in the distribution of pairwise distances of 454 COI sequences attributed to 87 morphospecies and obtained 98 to 125 Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs). The PSH partitions were subsequently visualized as a Klee diagram color map, allowing easy detection of the incongruences that were further evaluated individually with two other species delimitation models, General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP). GMYC and PTP results confirmed the presence of 17 putative cryptic terebrid species in our dataset. The consensus of GMYC, PTP, and ABGD/Klee findings suggest the combination of ABGD and Klee diagrams is an effective approach for rapidly proposing primary species proxies in hyperdiverse groups and a reliable first step for macroscopic biodiversity assessment.

  11. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters

  12. Isolation and characterization of cultivable fermentative bacteria from the intestine of two edible snails, Helixpomatia and Cornu aspersum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata

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    MAR YVONNE CHARRIER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota of the edible snails Cornu aspersum fSyn: H. aspersa, and Helix pomatia were investigated by culture-based methods, 16S rRNA sequence analyses and phenotypic characterisations. The study was carried out on aestivating snails and two populations of H. pomatia were considered. The cultivable bacteria dominated in the distal part of the intestine, with up to 5.10(9 CFU g -1, but the Swedish H. pomatia appeared significantly less colonised, suggesting a higher sensitivity of its microbiota to climatic change. All the strains, but one, shared ≥ 97% sequence identity with reference strains. They were arranged into two taxa: the Gamma Proteobacteria with Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Obesumbacterium, Raoultella and the Firmicutes with Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Clostridium. According to the literature, these genera are mostly assigned to enteric environments or to phyllosphere, data in favour of culturing snails in contact with soil and plants. None of the strains were able to digest filter paper, Avicel cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Acetogens and methanogenic archaea were not cultivated, so the fate of hydrogen remains questionable. This microbiota could play important roles in the digestive process (fermentation and the energy supply of the snail (L-lactate, acetate. The choice of cereals and plants by snail farmers should take into account the fermentative abilities of the intestinal microbiota

  13. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  14. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

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    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  15. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

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    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  16. Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae - a new record for India from the Andaman Islands

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    Titus Immanuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999, a discodoridid nudibranch was reported from Havelock Island of Ritchie’s Archipelago representing a new addition to the Opisthobranch fauna of India. This species is characterized by a firm, bright orange coloured mantle with a network of angular ridges on the dorsum that is ornate with white lines and dots; rhinophores with 17 brown lamellae on a translucent white stalk; highly pinnate gills with eight branchial leaves. The present record extends the known geographical distribution of H. dalanghita and this is the sixth species representing the genus in India. 

  17. A new species of Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (Gastropoda, Cassidae from the Philippines identified by molecular data

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    Alexander Fedosov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (family Cassidae is widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific and has been documented from some Atlantic localities as well. Two Casmaria species, C. erinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. ponderosa (Gmelin, 1791, are common in Indo-Pacific shallow-water sandy bottom communities and are characterized by high morphological variability; both species encompass multiple, often sympatric forms of uncertain status. In the present study we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of some Philippine Casmaria morphs and demonstrate that one of the distinctive morphs earlier assigned to Casmaria ponderosa is in fact a different species, which we describe as Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. The smooth form of Casmaria ponderosa, C. ponderosa ponderosa, and the solid nodulose form, widely called “form nodulosa” despite being strikingly different in shell morphology, are shown to be conspecific. Studied specimens of these two morphs even from different localities share the same haplotype of the CO1 gene. In light of these new data on the morphological variability of Casmaria species, we discuss criteria of species delimitation in the genus Casmaria and possible affinities of Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. within the genus.

  18. Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3, Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene?) Tongaporutuan-Opoitian; Eunaticina cincta (Hutton), holotype illustrated. (author). 427 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Fusceulima and Halielloides (Gastropoda: Eulimidae in the southwestern Atlantic, with descriptions of two new species of Fusceulima

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    Leonardo Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusceulima Laseron, 1955 and Halielloides Bouchet & Warén, 1986 are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time. Halielloides ingolfiana Bouchet & Warén, 1986 is considered a valid name, and the taxon is distinct from its previous senior synonym Eulima verrilliana Bush, 1909 in shell shape and absence of an umbilicus. Fusceulima saturata sp. nov. is characterized by a conical shell, domed at the apex, a short ovoid aperture, and a distinct dark-brown spiral band near the suture. Fusceulima toffee sp. nov. also has a conical shell and a dome-shaped apex, but has a taller high aperture and the entire shell is dark brown. Halielloides cf. ingolfiana, Fusceulima cf. boscheineni, and Fusceulima cf. minuta, are here recorded from the continental shelf off southeastern Brazil. The nominal species of these taxa were originally described from the northeastern Atlantic. Their status remains dubious because of lack of information on their biology, anatomy and molecular data. Regarding shell morphology, we cannot distinguish the Brazilian specimens from species in the northeastern Atlantic with the material available. A series of short grooves close to the suture of the protoconch in all species of Fusceulima, including the type species Fusceulima jacksonensis Laseron, 1955, is a possible diagnostic character for this genus.

  20. Composición de ácidos grasos de los caracoles marinos Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Haydelba D’Armas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el contenido de ácidos grasos en los lípidos totales de los caracoles Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, recolectados en tres diferentes épocas del año en Punta Arena, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Las concentraciones lipídicas oscilaron entre 0.87 y 1.85%, correspondiendo el valor mínimo y el máximo a C. brevifrons colectado en lluvia y sequía, respectivamente. La esterificación de los ácidos grasos presentes en estos lípidos seguida de la cromatografía de gases permitió la caracterización y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos. En los lípidos totales de las dos especies, en todas las épocas, se observaron elevadas concentraciones de ácidos grasos insaturados (57.21-70.05% seguido de los saturados (20.33-31.94%. Entre los ácidos grasos insaturados, predominaron los de tipo poliinsaturados, exceptuándose el extracto lipídico de P. pomum en época de transición donde las grasas monoinsaturadas fueron las mayoritarias (38.95%. Los ácidos grasos que prevalecieron fueron: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ω- 11, C22:1 ω-9, C18:3 ω-3, C20:5 ω-3 y el C22:6 ω-3, siendo este ϊltimo el predominante entre los αcidos grasos poliinsaturados, presentando porcentajes de distribuciσn comprendidos entre 4.62 y 33.11%. Debido a las altas concentraciones de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados encontradas en ambos caracoles, se recomienda su consumo para la alimentación de los seres humanos.

  1. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  2. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  3. Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae, on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Holguin Quiñones

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length varies between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogeny and biogeographic history of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakiozi, Panayiota; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Giokas, Sinos; Papanikolaou, Irene; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work was to infer the phylogeny of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898, estimate the time frame of the radiation of the genus, and propose a biogeographic scenario that could explain the contemporary distribution of Codringtonia lineages. The study took place in the districts of Peloponnese, Central Greece and Epirus of mainland Greece. Sequence data originating from three mtDNA genes (COI, COII, and 16S rDNA) were used to infer the phylogeny of the eight nominal Codringtonia species. Furthermore, the radiation time-frame of extant Codringtonia species was estimated using a relaxed molecular clock analysis and mtDNA substitution rates of land snails. The phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of six Codringtonia lineages in Greece and indicated that one nominal species (Codringtonia neocrassa) might belong to a separate genus distantly related to Codringtonia. The time frame of differentiation of Codringtonia species was placed in the Late Miocene-Pleistocene epoch. The dispersal-vicariance analysis performed indicated that most probably Codringtonia exhibited a north-to-south spread with the ancestral area being that of central Greek mainland, accompanied with duplication (speciation) and vicariance events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  6. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  7. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  8. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o......The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report...... on the occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed...

  9. Anisospira velascorum, a new land snail from Mexico, with notes on the anatomy and histology (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Urocoptidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1977-01-01

    During a collecting trip through southern and central Mexico (Breure, 1974) special attention has been paid to Bulimulidae and Urocoptidae. Among the material of urocoptids a new species has been found. Anisospira velascorum sp. n. (figs. 1-10, pl. 1) Description. — Shell up to 30.5 mm, 2.39 times

  10. New records of Vertigo moulinsiana (Gastropoda: Vertiginidae and notes on its distribution and habitats in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy, 1849 was found in 2003–2005 in Northern Bohemia (Czech Republic at 11 sites. All these sites are situated on floodplains of smaller streams in a sandstone area. The known occurrence of this endangered relict in the Czech Republic is concentrated in three areas – a large area of Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, a floodplain near villages Břežany and Božice (Dyje River Basin in Southern Moravia and small, isolated, treeless fens in the White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty Mts.. The principal habitats where V. moulinsiana lives in the Czech Republic are sedge marshes, Typha swamps, reed swamps (with Carex spp., alder carrs (also with Carex spp. and tufa-forming spring fens.

  11. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea) is described from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Adrienne; Prozorova, Larisa; Sharyi-Ool, Mariana; Páll-Gergely, Barna

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, Koreozospeum nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell.

  12. Cytogenetic and morphophysiological differences in snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from reservoirs of the Chernobyl NPP resettling zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneva, A.Yu.; Afonin, V.Yu.; Dramashka, S.Ya.; Golubew, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of the molluscs obtained from animals of two populations of the Chernobyl NPP zone was carried out. Preservation of the raised number of cells with micronuclei in hemolymph of the molluscs obtained from animals lived under conditions with the highest level of radiation contamination was noted. Interpopulational distinctions in a number of biological parameters were revealed. Away of fertilization which is used for animal production under laboratory conditions affects sensitivity of molluscs to additional acute irradiation was established. (authors)

  13. Imposex incidence in Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast after Tributyltin global ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayari, Tahani; Bierne, Nicolas; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2018-04-01

    The development of male genital tract by female gastropods, or imposex, can be caused by the tributyltin used in antifouling paints. A spatial survey of imposex in the gastropod Stramonita haemastoma was conducted across five Western Mediterranean and eleven North-Eastern Atlantic sites, in order to monitor the effectiveness of the tributyltin regulation imposed in the International Maritime Organisation. Imposex still occurs in eight out of eleven Mediterranean sites and in three out of five Atlantic sites. Extreme values of imposex incidence (I%) and degree (VDSI) were recorded in Tunisia, mainly in Bizerta channel (I% = 96.2%, VDSI = 0.96). However, the Relative Penis Length index (RPLI) was higher in Western Mediterranean sites where values varied between 0.56 in Algiers (Algeria) and 11.80 in Bouznika (Morocco). In the European sites, moderate to low imposex level and degree were recorded. All the affected sites were below the Ecotoxicological Assessment Criteria (EAC) derived for TBT.

  14. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  15. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  16. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

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    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  17. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  18. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

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    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses composto