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Sample records for biomphalaria glabrata gastropoda

  1. Caracterização da microbiota bacteriana de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)(Mollusca: Gastropoda)

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    Silva, Tatiana Maria da

    2012-01-01

    Devido a grande importância da microbiota no desenvolvimento de parasitas nos invertebrados, muitos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos para o melhor entendimento desta interação. Desta forma, a associação entre microrganismos e seus hospedeiros invertebrados, vetores de doenças, está se tornando cada vez mais evidente. Com base nisto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a microbiota bacteriana de caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro interm...

  2. Duration of pairing and use of allosperm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae Duração do acasalamento e uso do aloesperma em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropode: Planorbidae

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    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin homozygous black pigmented and albino Biomphalaria glabrata are paired during a period varying from 1 to 20 days. The rate of cross-fertilized parents is statistically similar for the various lengths of pairing. As a whole, nearly 80% of the albino snails produce a pigmented progeny. This production begins as soon as the snails are mated and continues after their separation. To measure the actual use of the allosperm, its use during the postmating period must be added to the length of mating. So, it appears that the real use of the allosperm is statistically constant (mean slightly inferior to 8 weeks and not related to the length of the previous pairing.Espécimes virgens de Biomphalaria glabrata (um melâncio e um albino são acasalados durante um período variável de 1 a 20 dias. A proporção de espécimes parentais albinos fecundados por cruzamento é semelhante estatisticamente para os diversos períodos de acasalamento. Em conjunto, cerca de 80% dos albinos produziram descendência pigmentada. Essa produção começa assim que os moluscos são acasalados e continua depois que são separados. Para medir a utilização real do aloesperma, sua utilização durante o período de pós-acasalamento. Parece, assim, que a utilização real do aloesperma é estatisticamente constante (média ligeiramente inferior a oito semanas e não relacionada a duração do acasalamento anterior.

  3. Genetical exchanges between one Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae and a varying number of partners Trocas genéticas entre uma Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae e um número variado de parceiros

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    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available When one pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata is mated with 1 to 20 albino snails, the percentage of albino parent producing pigmented offspring decreases while the percentage of parent laying albino offspring increases. If the number of snaisl/group increases, the mean duration of the use of allosperm decreases.Quando uma Biomphalaria glabrata pigmentada é posta em presença de um a vinte parceiros albinos, a percentagem de indivíduos parentais que produzem, por fecundação cruzada, uma descendência pigmentada, decresce. Ao contrário, a proporção de indivíduos parentais cuja descendência é de albinos aumenta. Quando o número de caramujos albinos por grupo aumenta, a duração média da utilização dos espermatozóides estranhos recebidos do parceiro pigmentado decresce.

  4. Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (gastropoda, mollusca).

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    Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M; Stout, Barbara A; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S

    2010-04-01

    The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by "unknown" ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus, parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable.

  5. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  6. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

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    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  7. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

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    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-02-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails.

  8. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  9. Biomphalaria glabrata no Estado do Piauí Biomphalaria glabrata in the State of Piaui

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available É registrado o primeiro encontro do molusco planorbideo Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, no Estado do Piauí, coletado em vários criadouros na cidade de Parnaíba. O exame de 694 exemplares revelou a presença de formas evolutivas de algumas espécies de trematodeos, mas não de Schistosomatidea. Nenhum caso autoctone de xistosomose foi até agora identificado na população humana da cidade. A presença da B. glabrata em Parnaíba amplia em 20 km para leste a área de sua distribuição na Região Litoral Norte da Grande Região Nordeste do Brasil onde era conhecida até em Avaioses no extremo leste da parte maranhense da referida Região. Outros moluscos também coletados nos mesmos criadouros foram Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum. D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae e Ampullarriidae.The occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata is recorded for the first time in the state of Piauí, where it was collected from several breeding places in the city of Parnaíba. Examination of 694 specimens showed that a part of them were infected with trematodes other than Schistosomatidae. So far no autochthonous cases of schistosomiasis have been identified in the city. The presence of B. glabrata in Parnaíba extends by 20 Km eastward its range on the Northern Coastal region of the Great Northeastern region of Brazil, where it had been found as far as Araioses, on the eastern extreme of the state of Maranhão. Other snail species collected from the same breeding places were Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae and Ampullariidae.

  10. Development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata Desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea e Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the development of Schistosoma mansoni during the intra-molluscan phase was made by means of histological sections of Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabrata from Brazil. Two hundred snails of each species were individually exposed to 50 miracidia of the S. mansoni, AL line. No larvae were observed in the snails fixed 72 h after exposure. In specimens shedding cercariae, 31 days after exposure tissue reactions encapsulating the larvae were seen in B. tenagophila and B. straminea, in the head-foot, mantle collar and renal ducts. No tissue reactions occurred in the digestive glands of these two species. In B. glabrata the presence of numerous sporocysts and cercariae without tissue reactions was observed in the digestive gland, and other organs. The levels of infection of the snails and the average numbers of cercariae shed per day were 32.6% and 79±90 respectively for B. tenagophila, 11.3% and 112±100 for B. straminea and 75.3% and 432±436 for B. glabrata. The lower levels of infection and average numbers of cercariae shed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea are thus related to their more potent internal defense systems.Foi feito estudo comparativo do desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni na fase intra-molusco, através de cortes histológicos, em Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea e B. glabrata. Duzentos moluscos de cada espécie foram expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios de S. mansoni da linhagem AL. Nenhuma larva foi observada nos exemplares fixados 72 horas após a exposição. Nos exemplares eliminando cercárías, 31 dias após a exposição, foram observadas reações teciduais de encapsulamento de larvas em B. tenagophila e B. straminea, na região cefalopodal, colar do manto e dutos renais. Nas glândulas digestivas das duas espécies não foram observadas reações. Em B. glabrata foi registrada a presença de numerosos esporocistos e cercárias sem reação tecidual na gl

  11. Marcacao de caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata por radionuclideos para trabalhos em campos Radionuclide labeling of Biomphalaria glabrata snails for fiel studies

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    Miguel Archanjo Muniz Leal

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores marcam caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata com 75Se, 59Fe, 89Sr e 90Sr e através das curvas de captação, decaimento e distribuição dos radionuclídeos na concha/partes moles do caramujo, concluem que o radioestrõncio pode ser utilizado em experiências em campo sobre dispersão e dinâmica de população de caramujos.The authors mark snails Biomphalaria glabrata with 75Se, 59Fe, 89Sr and 90Sr and through curves of uptake and decay and distribution of the radionuclides in the shell/soft parts conclude that radiostrontium can be used in field experiments on dispersion and dynamics of snail populations.

  12. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

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    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Liana K Jannotti-Passos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  14. On the origin of the Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes

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    Samaly dos Santos Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A histologic, morphometric and ultrastructural study performed on Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to infection with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia failed to provide significant evidences that the so-called amebocyte-producing organ (APO is really the central organ for hemocyte production. In infected snails no general reactive changes appeared in the APO, the mitoses were seen only occasionally, and the possibility of cellular hyperplasia was ruled out by morphometric measurements. Under the electron microscope the APO cells presented an essentially epithelial structure, without features indicative of transition toward hemocytes. On the other hand, the present findings pointed to a multicentric origin for the mollusck hemocytes, as earlier studies had indicated. Dense foci of hemocyte collections appeared sometimes around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae in several organs and tissues of the infected snails, including a curious accumulation of such cells inside the ventricular cavity of the heart. In the heart and other sites, features suggestive of transformation of vascular space endothelial lining cells into hemocytes were apparent. To some extent, the postulated multicentric origin for B. glabrata hemocytes recapitulates earlier embryologic findings in vertebrates, when mesenchymal vascular spaces generate the circulating and phagocytic blood cells.

  15. Contribution to the histology of Biomphalaria glabrata Contribuição à histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A combination of histological techniques applied to the study of Biomphalaria glabrata yielded some interesting new data about the histology of this snail, a major intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. Three kinds of pigments were identified: a dark pigment which bleached following oxidation with potassium permanganate; a lipofuchsin-like, diastase-resistant PAS-positive pigment and an iron-containing pigment, probably related to hemosiderin. Calcium was detected in small deposits within the connective tissue and forming a dense core inside the chitinous radular teeth. The presence of fibrils, staining with sirius-red and birefringence under polarized light strongly suggest primitive collagen tissue. The radular apparatus appeared as a storing site for glycogen, while abundant Alcian-blue positive material (proteoglycans was extremely concentrated in the radular sac.Uma combinação de várias técnicas histológicas permitiu alguns achados de interesse para a histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil. Três tipos de pigmentos foram identificados: um pigmento escuro, que se descora após oxidação pelo permanganato de potássio; outro que é semelhante à lipofuscina, que se cora pelo PAS e é diastase- resistente, e um pigmento que contém ferro, provalvelmente, relacionado com a hemossiderina. O cálcio foi identificado em pequenos depósitos no interior do tecido conjuntivo e formando pequenos núcleos no interior dos dentes quitinosos da rádula. A presença de fibrilas coradas pelo sírius-vermelho, exibindo birrefrigência sob luz polarizada, sugere fortemente a presença de um tecido colágeno primitivo. O aparelho radular foi visto como um local de armazenamento do glicogênio, enquanto a presença de abundante material amorfo positivo para o azul de alciano (proteoglicano apareceu em grande concentração no saco radular.

  16. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coen M Adema

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a novel resource for analysis of the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, members of the international Biomphalaria glabrata Genome Initiative (biology.unm.edu/biomphalaria-genome.html, working with the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, produced a high quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library. The BB02 strain B. glabrata, a field isolate (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil that is susceptible to several strains of Schistosoma mansoni, was selfed for two generations to reduce haplotype diversity in the offspring. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from ovotestes of 40 snails, partially digested with HindIII, and ligated into pAGIBAC1 vector. The resulting B. glabrata BAC library (BG_BBa consists of 61824 clones (136.3 kb average insert size and provides 9.05 × coverage of the 931 Mb genome. Probing with single/low copy number genes from B. glabrata and fingerprinting of selected BAC clones indicated that the BAC library sufficiently represents the gene complement. BAC end sequence data (514 reads, 299860 nt indicated that the genome of B. glabrata contains ~ 63% AT, and disclosed several novel genes, transposable elements, and groups of high frequency sequence elements. This BG_BBa BAC library, available from AGI at cost to the research community, gains in relevance because BB02 strain B. glabrata is targeted whole genome sequencing by NHGRI.

  17. A New Method for Fixing Biomphalaria glabrata for Histologic Studies, Using Shell Perforation

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    Barbosa Luciene

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for fixation of Biomphalaria glabrata for histologic studies is described. It consists in performing several external holes in the shell, before placing the entire snail into the fixative. It is a very practical and quick procedure that showed excellent results when compared to the usual techniques.

  18. Mass migration of juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata snails bred under semi-natural conditions

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    Frederico Simões Barbosa

    1989-01-01

    For the development of studies on snail interspecific competition special in-door laboratory channels were built. In the all five channels seeded with adult specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata mass migration of juvenile snails outside the water was observed. Most of the migrant snails presented apertural lamellae. Data collected during the period of two years, showed the regression of the migration phenomenon and the disappearance of the lamellate snails.

  19. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

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    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2013-06-15

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  20. Antigenic community between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata: on the search of candidate antigens for vaccines

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    N Chacón

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously confirmed the presence of common antigens between Schistosoma mansoni and its vector, Biomphalaria glabrata. Cross-reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Sera from outbred mice immunized with a soluble Biomphalaria glabrata antigen (SBgA of non-infected B. glabrata snails recognized molecules of SBgA itself and S. mansoni AWA by Western blot. Recognition of several molecules of the SBgA were inhibited by pre-incubation with AWA (16, 30, 36, 60 and 155 kDa. The only specific molecule of AWA, inhibited by SBgA, was a 120 kDa protein. In order to determine which epitopes of SBgA were glycoproteins, the antigen was treated with sodium metaperiodate and compared with non-treated antigen. Molecules of 140, 60 and 24 kDa in the SBgA appear to be glycoproteins. Possible protective effects of the SBgA were evaluated immunizing outbred mice in two different experiments using Freund's Adjuvant. In the first one (12 mice/group, we obtained a significant level of protection (46% in the total worm load, with a high variability in worm recovery. In the second experiment (22 mice/group, no significant protection was observed, neither in worm load nor in egg production per female. Our results suggest that SBgA constitutes a rich source of candidate antigens for diagnosis and prophylactic studies.

  1. Molecular identification of symbionts from the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata in Brazil.

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    Hertel, Lynn A; Barbosa, Contança S; Santos, Ricardo A A L; Loker, Eric S

    2004-08-01

    The icthyosporean, Capsaspora owczarzaki, a known predator of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts in vitro, is more prevalent in laboratory-reared strains of the intermediate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata resistant to S. mansoni, than from the susceptible M line strain. We examined whether B. glabrata resistant to the NIH-PR-1 strain of S. mansoni from 2 regions in Brazil were also host to C. owczarzaki. Symbiont presence was examined using hemolymph culturing and nested polymerase chain reaction of snail genomic DNA with primers designed to specifically amplify sequences from relatives of the Icthyosporea. All B. glabrata of the resistant Salvador strain from the laboratory of Dr. Lobato Paraense in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 46) tested negative for symbionts. Three of 18 semiresistant 10-R2 B. glabrata from the laboratory of Dr. Barbosa in Recife, Brazil tested positive for C. owczarzaki. Another icthyosporean, Anurofeca sp., was identified from 1, 10-R2 snail and from 2 of 12 field-collected B. glabrata from Praia do Forte Orange, Ilha de Itamaracá. Snails from 2 other sites, Hotel Colibri, Pontezinha and Praia do Sossego, Ilha de Itamaracá, were negative for Anurofeca. Two genera of ciliates were also identified. Paruroleptus sp. was found in 4, 10-R2 snails and Trichodina sp. was identified in 2 field-collected snails from Praia do Forte Orange and Praia do Sossego.

  2. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  3. Sequential histological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata during the course of Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracidial exposure. Findings were suggestive of a gradual installation of acquired immunity in snails infected with S. mansoni.

  4. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  5. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

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    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  6. Predation of Biomphalaria glabrata during the development of Belostoma anurum (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae Predação de Biomphalaria glabrata durante o desenvolvimento de Belostoma anunan (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae

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    M.H. Pereira

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Belostoma anurum was reared under laboratory conditions. Specimens were exposed to semi-natural conditions of photo period. The mortality rate was 26.3% during the post embryonic period (38.6 ± 0.7 days. During this time the average predation of Biomphalaria glabrata was of 99.0 ± 9.4 snails. The mean increment ratio of length and dry weight per instar was of 1.4 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.5, respectively. The predation by B. anurum adults can be divided into two different periods: phase I (4.8 ± 1.4 snails/day and phase II (1.8 ± 0.5 snails/day. The higher predation in phase I suggested the sexual maturation of the belostomatid.Belostoma anurum foi criada no laboratório em condição semi-natural de fotoperíodo. A taxa de mortalidade durante o período pós-embrionário (38,6 ± 0,7 dias foi de 26,3%. Durante este período a predação média de B. glabrata foi de 99,0 ± 9,4 caramujos. A média de incremento de comprimento e de peso seco por estádio ninfal foi de 1,4 ± 0,1 e 2,8 ± 0,5, respectivamente. A predação por adultos de B. anurum pode ser dividida em duas fases significativamente distintas: fase I (4,8 ± 1,4 caramujos/dia e fase II (1,8 ± 0,5 caramujos/ dia. A maior predação verificada na fase I deve-se provavelmente à maturação sexual do belostomatídeo.

  7. Molluscicidal and ovicidal activities of plant extracts of the Piperaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

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    Rapado, L N; Nakano, E; Ohlweiler, F P; Kato, M J; Yamaguchi, L F; Pereira, C A B; Kawano, T

    2011-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by Schistosoma and occurs in 54 countries, mainly in South America, the Caribbean region, Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Currently, 5 to 6 million Brazilian people are infected and 30,000 are under infection risk. Typical of poor regions, this disease is associated with the lack of basic sanitation and very frequently to the use of contaminated water in agriculture, housework and leisure. One of the most efficient methods of controlling the disease is application of molluscicides to eliminate or to reduce the population of the intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Studies on molluscicidal activity of plant extracts have been stimulated by issues such as environmental preservation, high cost and recurrent resistance of snails to synthetic molluscicides. The aim of this study was to determine the molluscicide action of extracts from Piperaceae species on adult and embryonic stages of B. glabrata. Fifteen extracts from 13 Piperaceae species were obtained from stems, leaves and roots. Toxicity of extracts was evaluated against snails at two different concentrations (500 and 100 ppm) and those causing 100% mortality at 100 ppm concentration were selected to obtain the LC₉₀ (lethal concentration of 90% mortality). Piper aduncum, P. crassinervium, P. cuyabanum, P. diospyrifolium and P. hostmannianum gave 100% mortality of adult snails at concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 ppm. These extracts were also assayed on embryonic stages of B. glabrata and those from P. cuyabanum and P. hostmannianum showed 100% ovicidal action at 20 ppm.

  8. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Ansaldo, Martin [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Direccion Nacional del Antartico, Cerrito 1248, (1010) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: tincho@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Nahabedian, Daniel E. [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Di Fonzo, Carla [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wider, Eva A. [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2009-03-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival.

  9. Compatibility in the Biomphalaria glabrata/Echinostoma caproni model: potential involvement of adhesion genes.

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    Bouchut, A; Roger, E; Coustau, C; Gourbal, B; Mitta, G

    2006-02-01

    Because susceptibility or resistance of Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Echinostoma caproni correlates with differential hemocytic adhesive properties, we compared the expression of genes involved in adhesion processes between hemocytes from susceptible and resistant snails. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed four genes whose transcripts were differentially represented between hemocytes from resistant and susceptible snails. These genes encode two dermatopontin-like, one matrilin-like and one cadherin-like proteins. Expression analyses performed following parasite exposure suggested that dermatopontins may be involved in the compatibility differences between these strains. We also investigated expression levels on whole snails of different genes potentially involved in extracellular matrix structure or coagulation. Our results support the hypothesis that susceptible snails possess a hemolymph coagulation-like system that is more potent than that of resistant snails. This system may prevent hemocyte migration towards the parasite larvae and therefore facilitate parasite settlement in susceptible snails.

  10. Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis

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    Giovanelli Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF, observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata populations. The superior competitor actually gives some benefit to the other species, whose population becomes unstable with progressively increasing oscillations, leading to extinction. A model of ACF using difference equations suggests initial dynamics distinct from traditional interspecific competition. The dynamics of two freshwater snails in the field and in laboratory experiments suggest ACF, and these relations should be considered in studies of schistosomiasis control. ACF could occur in natural populations, but might have gone undetected because the final result is similar to traditional interspecific competition.

  11. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  12. Estudo sobre a cópula interespecífica entre moluscos planorbídeos Biomphalaria glabrata e B. tenagophila Inter-specific mating between planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila

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    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a freqüência da cópula interespecífica entre espécimes de Biomphalaria glabrata e B. tenagophila. Os resultados da experiência levaram a conclusão de que há preferência pela cópula intraespecífica, ocorrendo, contudo, cópulas interespecíficas.An experiment on the inter-specific mating of B. glabrata and B. tenagophila snails was related. The results led to conclude that the snails prefer intra-specific mates, even though inter-specific ones occur.

  13. Sobre o encontro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil The finding of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in two counties of S.Paulo State, Brazil

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil: Capital do Estado (São Paulo e Ribeirão Preto. No primeiro foram capturados exemplares melânicos na Represa Billings; no segundo, indivíduos albinos que colonizavam um aquário de peixes ornamentais.This study reports the finding of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in two counties of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil: in the capital (S.Paulo itself and in Ribeirão Preto. In the former melanic snails were collected from the Billings reservoir, in the latter collection was made of albinic specimens which had established a colony in an aquarium.

  14. Extra-cellular matrix changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Borges Claudia Maria da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivity of snails against parasites exhibits a primitive focal reaction, with encapsulation, phagocytosis and destruction of parasite larvae by macrophage-like cells - the hemocytes. This reaction mimics granulomatous inflammation seen in higher animals. However, different from the latter, little is known about the participation of extra-cellular matrix in such snail defense reactions. Normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata of different strains were submitted to cytological, histological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods in order to investigate the behavior of extra-cellular tissues at the site of anti-parasite reactions. In spite of the presence of two cell-types in peripheral hemolymph, only one cell-type was present at the sites of tissue reactions. Although pre-existent collagen and elastic fibers and microfibrils sometimes appeared slightly compressed around focal reactions, no evidences of duplication, synthesis or deposition of connective-tissue extra-cellular components were observed within or around the zones of reactive cell accumulations. Thus, tissue reactions against S. mansoni in the snail B. glabrata appeared exclusively dependent on one specific population of hemocytes.

  15. Toxicity of some glucose/mannose-binding lectins to Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; da Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2010-01-01

    Schistosomiasis or bilharzia, which affects millions of people living in Africa, Asia and Latin America, is closely associated with certain species of aquatic snails. One way of attacking the disease is to eradicate the host snails. Molluscicidal activities of natural compounds are especially important in the widespread control of this tropical disease. As part of our search for natural compounds with molluscicidal properties for the vector control of schistosomiasis, we are now evaluating for the first time the toxicity of the plant lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Dioclea guianensis (Dgui), Dioclea grandiflora (DGL) and Dioclea virgata (Dvir) to Biomphalaria glabrata Say and Artemia salina Leach. Results indicate that all the samples were toxic to A. salina Leach, some of them with values of lethal concentration that kills 90% of the population (LC(90))<10 microg mL(-1). They are also active against B. glabrata Say, killing 100% of adult snails, at a concentration of 50 microg mL(-1). The lectins CFL and Dgui possess properties lethal to mollusks, with values of LC(90)=50.3 microg mL(-1) and LC(90)=41.0 microg mL(-1), respectively.

  16. H+ channels in embryonic Biomphalaria glabrata cell membranes: Putative roles in snail host-schistosome interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brandon J.; Bickham-Wright, Utibe; Yoshino, Timothy P.; Jackson, Meyer B.

    2017-01-01

    The human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis, a widespread neglected tropical disease. Infection of freshwater snails Biomphalaria spp. is an essential step in the transmission of S. mansoni to humans, although the physiological interactions between the parasite and its obligate snail host that determine success or failure are still poorly understood. In the present study, the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line, a widely used in vitro model for hemocyte-like activity, was used to investigate membrane properties, and assess the impact of larval transformation proteins (LTP) on identified ion channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from Bge cells demonstrated that a Zn2+-sensitive H+ channel serves as the dominant plasma membrane conductance. Moreover, treatment of Bge cells with Zn2+ significantly inhibited an otherwise robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus implicating H+ channels in the regulation of this immune function. A heat-sensitive component of LTP appears to target H+ channels, enhancing Bge cell H+ current over 2-fold. Both Bge cells and B. glabrata hemocytes express mRNA encoding a hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1)-like protein, although its function in hemocytes remains to be determined. This study is the first to identify and characterize an H+ channel in non-neuronal cells of freshwater molluscs. Importantly, the involvement of these channels in ROS production and their modulation by LTP suggest that these channels may function in immune defense responses against larval S. mansoni. PMID:28319196

  17. Polyethyleneimine (PEI mediated siRNA gene silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata.

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    Matty Knight

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds and small interfering (si RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a 'mock' fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease.

  18. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata Bioactivity evaluation of the turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae extracts in Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.The turmeric is the clean rhizome at good conditions, dried and powdered of Curcuma longa L., an herbaceous plant of Zingiberaceae family. Aiming new alternatives for Schistosomiasis control, the Curcuma longa L. extracts were tested for molluscicidal activity evaluation against adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata specie, and the toxicity (Brine Shrimp Lethality-BSL-bioassay. The oleoresin and the essential oil of turmeric were active against Artemia salina (CL50 = 80.43 and CL50 = 319.82 μg.mL-1, respectively and also active against the adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58.3 and CL50 = 46.73 μg.mL-1, respectively. From the obtained results it was concluded that both extracts can constitute an alternative to population control of these snails and in the reduction of Schistosomiasis.

  19. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina.

  20. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  1. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

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    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  2. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

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    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  3. Seleção genética de Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila visando a alteração da suscetibilidade e resistência ao Schistosoma mansoni Genetic selection of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila seeking the alteration of the susceptibility and resistance to the Schistosoma mansoni

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    Nádia Regina Borim Zuim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Gerações de Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila selecionadas geneticamente para resistência e suscetibilidade ao Schistosoma mansoni das linhagens BH e SJ foram utilizadas no estudo da adaptação do trematódeo ao hospedeiro intermediário. As gerações dos planorbídeos foram obtidas por autofecundação dos moluscos que se apresentaram suscetíveis ou resistentes após a exposição aos miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni. Para Biomphalaria glabrata foram obtidas as gerações: Parental, F1S (Suscetível, F1R (Resistente, F2S e F2R. Para a Biomphalaria tenagophila foram estudadas as gerações: Parental, F1S, F1R e F50S. A comparação das taxas de infecção apresentadas pelas diferentes gerações mostrou que, em ambas as espécies, o aumento da suscetibilidade foi mais facilmente obtido do que o aumento da resistência. A dificuldade em aumentar a resistência do molusco ao S. mansoni tem fortes implicações epidemiológicas.Generations of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila selected genetically for resistance and susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni of strains BH and SJ were used in a study of the trematode adaptation to the intermediate host. Descendants of the planorbids were obtained by self-fertilization of the mollusks that became susceptible or resistant after exposure to the miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. For Biomphalaria glabrata they were obtained from the following generations: Parental, F1S (Susceptible, F1R (Resistant, F2S and F2R. For Biomphalaria tenagophila the studied generations were: Parental, F1S, F1R and F50S. The comparison of the infection rates presented by the different generations showed that the increase in susceptibility was more easily obtained in both species. The difficulty in increasing the resistance of the mollusks to Schistosoma mansoni has important epidemiologic implications.

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  5. 3D-ultrastructure, functions and stress responses of gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata rhogocytes.

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    Maria Kokkinopoulou

    Full Text Available Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the "slit apparatus", local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed-though not proven-that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized

  6. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

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    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  7. A novel bacterial pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: a potential weapon for schistosomiasis control?

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    David Duval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects.In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs.This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field.

  8. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satwant; Baynes, Alice; Lockyer, Anne E; Routledge, Edwin J; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  9. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

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    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  10. Influence of experimental illumination and seasonal variation on crossbreending mating in the snail Biomphalaria Glabrata

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    F. Pimentel-Souza

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding activities of the Schistosoma mansoni vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata were counted in a laboratory aquarium throughout the year under two regimes of 12h light: 12h dark from 7 A., M. to 10 P. M. Mating increased significantly in Authmn and Winter and just missed a significant inverse correlation with temperature and a direct one with locomotion. Other similar experiments were carried out to compare mating under various ilumination conditions in complete daily cycle measurements. Mating counts decreased under the regimes which submited snail to a total exposure of 12h light and 12 dark during a daily cycle in the following sequence: 12h light: 12h dark alternating hourly with light gradient, 12h light: 12h dark, 1h light: 1h dark and 12h dark: 12h light. Under two constant illuminations, the mating scored less than under the previous conditions, except under 12h light. Under darkeness the mating count was lower than light conditions. There was no way to differentiate the night and day rhythms of mating on different days in each regime, except for mating under 12h light: 12 dark alternating with light gradient, constant dark and 12h dark: 12h light conditions. Mating increased in certain light and temperature conditions, in wich the intensities, should have an optimum value.

  11. Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation

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    José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.

  12. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:27448327

  13. Parental transfer of the antimicrobial protein LBP/BPI protects Biomphalaria glabrata eggs against oomycete infections.

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    Olga Lucia Baron

    Full Text Available Vertebrate females transfer antibodies via the placenta, colostrum and milk or via the egg yolk to protect their immunologically immature offspring against pathogens. This evolutionarily important transfer of immunity is poorly documented in invertebrates and basic questions remain regarding the nature and extent of parental protection of offspring. In this study, we show that a lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability increasing protein family member from the invertebrate Biomphalaria glabrata (BgLBP/BPI1 is massively loaded into the eggs of this freshwater snail. Native and recombinant proteins displayed conserved LPS-binding, antibacterial and membrane permeabilizing activities. A broad screening of various pathogens revealed a previously unknown biocidal activity of the protein against pathogenic water molds (oomycetes, which is conserved in human BPI. RNAi-dependent silencing of LBP/BPI in the parent snails resulted in a significant reduction of reproductive success and extensive death of eggs through oomycete infections. This work provides the first functional evidence that a LBP/BPI is involved in the parental immune protection of invertebrate offspring and reveals a novel and conserved biocidal activity for LBP/BPI family members.

  14. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

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    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also

  15. Distribuição de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Notes on the distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae in the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações atualizadas sobre a distribuição geográfcia de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, em razão do importante papel que tal espécie de planorbídeo desempenha na epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica. Registrou-se que a maior área colonizada por B. glabrata corresponde à região abrangida pelos municípios dos limites oeste-sudoeste do Estado, enquadrada na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Paranapanema. São comentados os prováveis mecanismos envolvidos na dispersão do caramujo.It is reported the present distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in the S. Paulo State. The presence of this intermediate host of schistosomiasis is at the present time recorded in 27 municipalities. This snail had been identified as the most important transmissor of the disease in several places in Brazil. The probable dispersion mechanisms involved in the distribution of the snail are commented on.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of Moringa oleiferaon Biomphalaria glabrata: integrated dynamics to the control of the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ground seed of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, has been evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against the snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Physa marmorata and Melanoides tuberculatus. The results show that M. oleifera is active against B. glabrata (LC50 0.419 g/l; LC90 1.021 g/l and P. marmorata (LC50 0.339 g/l; LC90 0.789 g/l but has no effect against M. tuberculatus. The great innovation of the use of M. oleifera, in addition to being innocuous to humans, is the present nutritional potential for humans and animals as well as providing an ecosystemic service as water purifier.

  17. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

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    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  18. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

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    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  19. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  20. Study of the snail intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni on Itamaracá Island in northeast Brazil: spatial displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by Biomphalaria straminea

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    Constança S. Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 a malacological survey of the breeding sites of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea, the two intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni, was carried out on Itamaraca Island in Pernambuco, Brazil. This study has now been extended by studying the competition between the two species. Snails were collected and dissected to identify the species and tests were performed to verify S. mansoni infection. Student’s t test was used to compare the proportion between the two species and their breeding sites and a parasitological survey was conducted among local residents, using the Kato-Katz method. The spatial distribution of the two snail species was determined using TerraView, while a snail density map was constructed by Kernel estimate. The survey identified two breeding sites for B. glabrata with 17 specimens and 19 breeding sites for B. straminea with 459 snails, all of them negative for S. mansoni infection. The statistical analysis revealed that the proportion of the numbers of specimens and breeding sites of B. straminea (37.84 ± 9.01 were significantly greater than those of B. glabrata (8.50 ± 6.50. Parasitological examinations from 41 residents diagnosed two cases of schistosomiasis with parasite loads of 60 and 84 eggs per 1 g of stool, respectively. This indiction of a competitive process between the two snail species requires monitoring of schistosomiasis in the resident and travelling human populations occupying this environment, which could potentially result in social and economic changes on the island risking its attraction as a centre for eco-tourism.

  1. Estratégia competitiva entre Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila: estudos de laboratório

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    Mairy Barbosa Loureiro dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation about conhabitation among B. glabrata and B. tenagophila revealed a greater vulnerability of B. tenagophila population during the process of competition when its density was severaly decreased in 12 trials, moderate in 2 trials. It was higher than B. glabrata in only one trial. Some snail water chemical parameters analysed such as pH, alkalinity, conductivity and oxygen dissolve, an the viability rate of batch of eggs didn't give subsidy to explain the competition mechanism. The newly-born survival, in the situation of cohabitation, was low for both species. This reveals the existence of intra and interspecific competitive interacition. The fertility rate reduction of B. tenagophila during the cohabitation was considered as a cause of its exlusion. One of the factors that seems to have influenced the fertility rate was a possible wrong crossing.

  2. Toxic effects of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on Artemia salina, human cells, and the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Silva, Luanna Ribeiro Santos; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the toxicity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) to Artemia salina, human tumour cell lines (larynx epidermoid carcinoma Hep-2, NCI-H292 lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic myelocytic leukaemia K562), and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults. MvRL was toxic to A. salina (LC50=159.9 μg/mL), and exerted cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells (IC50=25.23 μg/mL). The lectin (1-100 μg/mL) did not affect the viability of K562 and Hep-2 tumour cells, as well as of PBMCs. MvRL concentration of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL promoted malformations (mainly exogastrulation) in 7.8%, 22.5%, and 27.7% of embryos, respectively, as well as delayed embryo development in 42.0%, 69.5%, and 54.7% of embryos, respectively. MvRL at a concentration of 100 μg/mL killed B. glabrata embryos (17.7%) and adults (25%). Further, MvRL damaged B. glabrata reproductive processes, which was evidenced by observations that snails exposed to the lectin (100 μg/mL) deposited fewer eggs than those in the control group, and approximately 40% of the deposited eggs exhibited malformations. Comparison of these results with that from A. salina assay indicates that MvRL is adulticidal at the concentration range which is toxic to environment. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of MvRL on tumour cell and absence of toxicity to normal cell indicate its potential as chemotherapeutic drug. Also, the study revealed that the lectin is able to promote deleterious effects on B. glabrata embryos at environmentally safe concentrations.

  3. The lethality of Euphorbia conspicua to adults of Biomphalaria glabrata, cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni and larvae of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Aldenir F; de Azevedo, Denise P L; dos Santos Mata, Rosalina da C; de Mendonça, Dina I M Dinis; Sant'Ana, Antônio E Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Euphorbia conspicua (Euphorbiaceae), together with the latex and fractions derived therefrom, were evaluated for their molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities and their toxicities to brine shrimps. Whilst the leaf extracts were inactive against Biomphalaria glabrata, the latex, its triterpenic fraction and irritant fractions I and II exhibited high activities against adult snails with LC90 values of 4.87, 10.55, 0.64 and 0.10 microg/mL, respectively. The latex and its derived fractions were considered lethal to the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni at concentrations of 100 microg/mL. The toxicities of the latex and the irritant fractions, but not of the triterpenic fraction, against Artemia salina were high with LC50 values < 10 microg/mL. The possible application of the latex of E. conspicua as an alternative natural molluscicide is considered.

  4. Lamella formation and emigration from the water by a laboratory colony of Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY in flow-through system

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    Ricardo D. A. Dannemann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamella formation and emigration from the water were investigated in juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata reared at two temperatures in aquaria with a constant water flow. Most snails (97.4% reared at the lower temperature (21- C formed lamella at the shell aperture and emigrated from the water, whereas only 10.1% did so at 25- C. Eighty percent of emigrations at 21- C occurred within a period of 15 days, 70-85 days after hatching. A comparison of the studies done so far indicates that the phenomenon may be affected by the ageing of snail colonies kept in the laboratory and their geographic origin, rather than the rearing conditions. This hypothesis, however, requires experimental confirmation.

  5. Simultaneous infection of Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini in Biomphalaria glabrata: impact on chronobiology and cercarial behaviour

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    Richards Louisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chances of a schistosome cercaria encountering a suitable definitive host may be enhanced by emergence from the molluscan intermediate host with maximal glycogen stores and by an appropriate chronobiological rhythm. This study aimed to identify and characterize the effects of potential competitive interactions in the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, between the closely-related Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini, on phenotypic behavioural traits. It was predicted that inter-specific competition would affect chronobiological emergence rhythms and reduce the activity of schistosome swimming behavioural traits. Biomphalaria glabrata snails (120 were exposed to either S. mansoni or S. rodhaini single infections, or a mixed infection of both species simultaneously and the resulting cercarial phenotypic traits were characterised. Cercariae were identified from co-exposed snails by amplification and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1. Results S. mansoni and S. rodhaini largely maintained their distinct chronobiological rhythms after mixed exposures and infections. However, inter-specific competition appeared to result in a restriction of the shedding pattern of S. rodhaini and slight shift in the shedding pattern of S. mansoni. Inter-specific competition also significantly lowered hourly cercarial production for both parasite species in comparison to single exposures and infections and reduced cercarial swimming activity. Conclusion Inter-specific competition was shown to influence cercarial production, chronobiology and activity and should therefore be investigated further in field situations to determine the effects of these changes on parasite fitness (incorporating both host finding and infectivity where these two species overlap. Importantly this competition did not result in a large change in chronobiological emergence of cercariae for either species indicating that it would not have a large

  6. Abundância e infecção do molusco Biomphalaria glabrata pelo Schistosoma mansoni no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Abundance and Schistosoma mansoni infection of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, Brazil

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    Alexandre Giovanelli

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a distribuição espacial, a abundância e os índices de infecção natural de Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, em localidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Na localidade de Pamparrão, município de Sumidouro, RJ, as coletas de moluscos foram realizadas bimestralmente no período de junho de 1991 a novembro de 1995. Foram estabelecidos 23 pontos de coleta ao longo do córrego Pamparrão e três de seus afluentes. Os moluscos capturados foram levados ao laboratório para diagnóstico da infecção. Para a análise dos dados, foram usados o coeficiente de Spearman (nível de 0,5% de significância e o teste de qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A abundância populacional de B. glabrata foi bastante variável ao longo do tempo e entre os ambientes amostrados. A maioria dos pontos de coleta apresentou correlação negativa com a pluviosidade. O afluente B destacou-se dos demais corpos d'água por apresentar taxas de infecção de B. glabrata elevadas (acima dos 25% em alguns pontos de coleta e persistentes. Foram encontrados mais moluscos infectados na estação seca do que na chuvosa (chi²=20,08; p=0,001. CONCLUSÕES: A população de moluscos foi influenciada negativamente pelo regime de chuvas, principalmente no córrego Pamparrão. A época de estiagem também parece ter favorecido a ocorrência de infecção, provavelmente devido ao menor volume de água dos córregos, o que aumentaria as chances de encontro do parasita com seu hospedeiro intermediário.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the spatial distribution, abundance and natural schistosomiasis infection levels in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in an area of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: In the Pamparrão area, Sumidouro county, RJ, Brazil, snail captures were carried out every other month from June 1991 to November 1995. There were 23 collecting sites along

  7. A multistrain approach to studying the mechanisms underlying compatibility in the interaction between Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinier, Richard; Roger, Emmanuel; Moné, Yves; Duval, David; Portet, Anaïs; Pinaud, Silvain; Chaparro, Cristian; Grunau, Christoph; Genthon, Clémence; Dubois, Emeric; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Dejean, Bernard; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin; Mitta, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have sought to better understand the mechanisms underlying the compatibility between Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni. The developments of comparative transcriptomics, comparative genomics, interactomics and more targeted approaches have enabled researchers to identify a series of candidate genes. However, no molecular comparative work has yet been performed on multiple populations displaying different levels of compatibility. Here, we seek to fill this gap in the literature. We focused on B. glabrata FREPs and S. mansoni SmPoMucs, which were previously demonstrated to be involved in snail/schistosome compatibility. We studied the expression and polymorphisms of these factors in combinations of snail and schistosome isolates that display different levels of compatibility. We found that the polymorphism and expression levels of FREPs and SmPoMucs could be linked to the compatibility level of S. mansoni. These data and our complementary results obtained by RNA-seq of samples from various snail strains indicate that the mechanism of compatibility is much more complex than previously thought, and that it is likely to be highly variable within and between populations. This complexity must be taken into account if we hope to identify the molecular pathways that are most likely to be good targets for strategies aimed at blocking transmission of the parasite through the snail intermediate host.

  8. Biomphalysin, a new β pore-forming toxin involved in Biomphalaria glabrata immune defense against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinier, Richard; Portela, Julien; Moné, Yves; Allienne, Jean François; Henri, Hélène; Delbecq, Stéphane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

    2013-03-01

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the β pore-forming toxin (β-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, β-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this β-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic β-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni.

  9. Comparative study of the fecundity and fertility of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 and Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 in a laboratory through self-fertilization and cross-fertilization Estudo comparativo da fecundidade e fertilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 em laboratório por autofecundação e fecundação cruzada

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    Marta Julia F.S. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the fecundity and fertility of B. glabrata and B. straminea by cross- and self-fertilization. To attain this objective, laboratory-raised strains of B. glabrata and B. straminea were used. The former originated from natural breeding grounds in the municipality Paulista, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The latter originated from irrigation ditches in the municipality of Petrolândia, in the same state. Snail populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea were maintained for 240 days in laboratory. Their fecundity was evaluated by noting the number of egg-masses, eggs and eggs per mass. Their fertility was evaluated by the number of viable eggs and the hatching rate. B. straminea was markedly more fecund than B. glabrata through cross- and self-fertilization, namely: greater egg-mass; higher egg production and more eggs per mass. Regarding fertility, there seemed to be no preferential period for occlusion to occur or a trend in the rhythm of producing viable eggs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a fecundidade e fertilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria straminea em condições de laboratório considerando a autofecundação e a fecundação cruzada. Durante oito meses, foram registrados em laboratório, o número de cápsulas ovíferas (desovas, ovos por cápsula ovífera, ovos totais, taxa de eclosão e percentual de ovos férteis dos moluscos criados individualmente e agrupados. Foram utilizados exemplares de B. glabrata de Paulista, PE e B. straminea oriunda de Petrolândia, PE. As observações foram divididas por faixa etária no periódo de 0 a 240 dias. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostram que B. straminea apresenta um potencial reprodutivo maior do que B. glabrata, tanto para moluscos criados em grupo quanto para os criados individualmentes. A comparação dos valores encontrados para fecundidade dentro da mesma espécie sugere que a autofecundação como estratégia reprodutiva,

  10. Padronização da técnica de marcação de caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata com radioestroncio Standardization of the technic of labeling Biomphalaria glabrata snails with radiostrontium

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    Miguel Archanjo Muniz Leal

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata vetor da esquistossomose mansônica, utilizados em experiências de campo, nas quais se faz necessário sua identificação e/ou localização, devem ser marcados com radioestrôncio 85,89 ou 90. Sua marcação em laboratório deve ser procedida em aquários de vidro sem fundo de areia, temperatura de 26,5 ± 1ºC, pH ajustado ao valor encontrado no "habitat", aeração artificial, alimentação diária com pequenas porções de alface fresca e 25 ml de água desionizada por caramujo. O nível de atividade no caramujo pode ser estimado sabendo-se que para o tempo de marcação de 5 dias e atividades iniciais de 0,036 a 0,362 µCi/ml, a captação global para grupos de 10 caramujos está em torno de 84 ± 2% e que a marcação em água contendo cálcio, praticamente não se altera até concentrações de 50ppm. A sobrevida ao longo de nove semanas não foi influenciada pela presença de radioestrôncio no caramujo.The vector snail of schistosomiasis mansoni, Biomphalaria glabrata, when used in field experiments in which it is to be recovered and/or located, should be labeled with radiostrontium 85,89 or 90. The labeling in laboratory should be carried out in an artificially aerated aquarium with 25 ml of deionized water per snail, without sand at the bottom, at a temperature of 26.5 ± 1ºC, pH adjusted to the value found in the natural habitat, and the snails should be fed with small pieces of fresh lettuce. The level of snail activity can be estimated taking into account that, for a labeling time of 5 days and initial activities of 0.036 to 0.362 µCi/ml, the global uptake for groups of 10 snails is about 84 ± 2% and that labeling in calcium-containing water parctically does not change till a 50 ppm concentration. Survival along 9 weeks was not influenced by the presence of radiostrontium in the snail.

  11. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  12. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  13. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

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    Edilson Alves dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp., and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.. As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  14. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor (TLR Influences Compatibility between the Gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Digenean Trematode Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Emmanuel A Pila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a devastating disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects over 260 million people worldwide especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Schistosomes must undergo their larval development within specific species of snail intermediate hosts, a trait that is shared among almost all digenean trematodes. This unique and long-standing host-parasite relationship presents an opportunity to study both the importance of conserved immunological features in novel immunological roles, as well as new immunological adaptations that have arisen to combat a very specific type of immunological challenge. While it is well supported that the snail immune response is important for protecting against schistosome infection, very few specific snail immune factors have been identified and even fewer have been functionally characterized. Here, we provide the first functional report of a snail Toll-like receptor, which we demonstrate as playing an important role in the cellular immune response of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata following challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. This TLR (BgTLR was identified as part of a peptide screen of snail immune cell surface proteins that differed in abundance between B. glabrata snails that differ in their compatibility phenotype to challenge by S. mansoni. The S. mansoni-resistant strain of B. glabrata (BS-90 displayed higher levels of BgTLR compared to the susceptible (M-line strain. Transcript expression of BgTLR was found to be very responsive in BS-90 snails when challenged with S. mansoni, increasing 27 fold relative to β-actin (non-immune control gene; whereas expression in susceptible M-line snails was not significantly increased. Knockdown of BgTLR in BS-90 snails via targeted siRNA oligonucleotides was confirmed using a specific anti-BgTLR antibody and resulted in a significant alteration of the resistant phenotype, yielding patent infections in 43% of the normally resistant

  15. The molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP70® on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae, a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae

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    Alexandre Giovanelli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of niclosamide (Bayluscide ® on Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions. The latter species is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon 1917. M. tuberculata was successfully used as competitor of B. glabrata in biological control programs in French West Indies. Both molluscicide and biological control using M. tuberculata have proved to be successful in reducing the population density of B. glabrata. The associated use of molluscicide in this area would be an effective measure if M. tuberculata were less susceptibility to the molluscicide than B. glabrata. Three hundreds individuals each of B. glabrata and of M. tuberculata, collected in Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were used in the experiment. The molluscs were exposed to 14 different concentrations of niclosamide as recommended by the World Health Organization. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC 50 and LC 90. The LC 50 and LC 90 values for B. glabrata were 0.077 mg/l and 0.175 mg/l, respectively and the LC 50 and LC 90 values for M. tuberculata were 0.082 mg/l and 0.221 mg/l respectively. As the lethal concentrations of niclosamide were approximately the same to both species, this could be a disadvantage when controlling B. glabrata with niclosamide in an area of M. tuberculata occurrence. It migth therefore be preferable to utilize the latex extracted from the Euphorbia splendens, which presented a much higher efficiency for B. glabrata than to M. tuberculata.

  16. The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae, a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae

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    Alexandre Giovanelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro. However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used 420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22 mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l there was no survival. No significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05 were found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B. glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations.

  17. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

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    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  18. Production of Shistosoma mansoni cercariae by Biomphalaria glabrata from a focus in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Produção de cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni por Biomphalaria glabrata de foco em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The snail density, levels of infection and the monthly production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by Biomphalaria glabrata were determined in a focus of Barreiro de Baixo (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. During a period of 38 months (1984 to 1987 5,366 snails were collected of which 324 (6.03% were infected with S. mansoni. The total number of cercariae shed was 5,667,312. Each snail shed an average of 17,422 cercariae during the time that it was under study in the laboratory. The greatest longevity of infected snails was 218 days. Natural cure was observed in 42 (12.9% of the infected specimens about 130 days after collection. The average snail density in the focus during the period of study was 16.3 snails per scoop. The shedding of cercariae by snails collected from the field was compared with laboratory bred specimens infected in mass with the LE strain of S. mansoni from Belo Horizonte. The laboratory infected snails shed an average of 6,061 cercariae each, a value 2.8 times less than the field specimens due to a shorter life span. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in the focus was 14.3%.A densidade planorbídica, as taxas de infecção e a produção mensal de cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni por Biomphalaria glabrata, foram determinadas em foco do Barreiro de Baixo (Belo Horizonte MG, Brasil. Durante 38 meses, de 1984 a 1987, foram capturados 5.366 moluscos dentre os quais 324 (6,03% estavam infectados com o S. mansoni. O total de cercárias eliminadas foi de 5.667.312. Cada molusco eliminou em média 17.422 cercárias durante sua permanência no laboratório. A maior longevidade dos moluscos infectados foi de 218 dias. Foi observada a cura natural de 42 (12,9% dos exemplares infectados, após cerca de 130 dias de captura. A densidade planorbídica média, no foco durante esse período foi de 16,3 moluscos por conchada. A eliminação de cercárias pelos moluscos do campo foi comparada com a de exemplares criados no laboratório, infectados

  19. Résistance a la dessiccation de Biomphalaria glabrata adultes infestés par plusieurs miracidiums de Schistosoma mansoni

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    F. Lancastre

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont soumis à 6 semaines d'anhydrobiose 1200 Biomphalaria adultes, saines, ou parasitées par 8 ± 2 miracidiums de Schistosoma mansoni depois 3 ou 12 jours, ou émettant des cercaires. Les planorbes étaient placées individuellement sur, ou dans de la terre humide, dans des boîtes closes ou aérées. La survie a été nulle chez les planorbes saines, infestées, ou déjà positives, placées dans les boîtes closes. Chez les mollusques placés dans les boîtes aérées, elle a été de 44% chez les témoins sains, et de 40,6% pour l'emsemble des infestées depuis 3 et 12 jours, avec chez ces derniers une meilleure survie lorsqu'ils étaient en surface. N n'est pas apparu de différence entre les infestations de 3 jours et de 12 jours. La mortalité et la production cercarienne sont infériéures à celles de planorbes infestées et gardées en eau. L'analyse des émissions montre une production des cercaires mâles siginificativement inférieure à celle des cercaires femelles ou mâles et femelles. Chez toutes les B. glabrata positives, les auteurs ont observé des variations périodiques dans la production des cercaires, quel que soit le sexe de celles-ci. De plus, chez les mollusques préalablement soumis à dessiccation, il existe de nombreus arrêts ou pauses dans l'émission des larves.

  20. Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

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    EC Oliveira-Filho

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples.

  1. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

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    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  2. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

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    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  3. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

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    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp

  4. Comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 como critério de toxicidade em ensaios biológicos com moluscicidas Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 as a parameter of toxicity in biological assays with molluscicides

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    Otávio S. Pieri

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando à aplicação sistemática de parâmetros comportamentais como indicadores da ação tóxica de moluscicidas empregados no combate aos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni, um procedimento para avaliação quantitativa do efeito de dose sobre o comprotamento de Biomphalaria glabrata foi desenvolvido, com base no paradigma recomendado pela O.M.S. para ensaios biológicos e envolvendo registro comportamental por cenematografia ocm lapso de tempo: caramujos com 5 7/8 ± 1/8 giros eram subemtidos a diferentes concentrações subletais de sulfato de cobre durante 24 horas e em seguida transferidos para recuperação em água destilada desionizada; a partir da análise dos registros foram computados (a a freqüência total de subidas à superfície por indivíduo, (b a frqüência total de saídas da água por indivíduo e (c a proporção média de indivíduos no terço superior do recipiente de teste. O método Litchfield-Wilcoxon foi empregaod para determinação de índices de referência (denominados "concentrações de efieto comportamental de 50%" ou CEC50 em relação a cada parâmetro, e os valores obtidos - (a 0,010, (b 0,006 e (c 0,029 ppm de cobre - não só evidenciaram a exeqüibilidade da aplicação sistemática de critérios comportamentais de toxidade, como se revelaram capazes de detectar o efieto tóxico do produto em concentrações muito infereiores às obtidas nas determinações convencionais de letalidade. Os dados também mostraram alterações na atividade dos caramujos em decorrência do ciclo de iluminação dia-noite. Embora o esclarecimento dos aspectos etológicos envolvidos no problema do controle químico do vetor dependa da análise das relações entre o indivíduo e seu ambiente natural, estudos de laboratório com mensurações acuradas de parâmetros relacionados a comportamentos de proteção podem fornecer subsídios relevantes a respeito.The possibility of using reliable behavioural

  5. Physiological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata say, 1818 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B (Euphorbiaceae

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    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. Many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of E. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to treatment for 24 h. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid and total proteins in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopodal mass were determined. The LD50 value was 1 mg/l. The highest escape index was found to be at a concentration of 0.6 mg/l. The results showed that the latex of E. splendens var. hislopii caused a sharp reduction in the reserves of glycogen in the digestive gland and elevation of the protein content in the hemolymph of B. glabrata.

  6. Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Rollinson David

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7

  7. Estudo do crescimento de moluscos pertencentes a populações de Biomphalaria glabrata e B. tenagophila

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    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam, comparativamente o crescimento de duas populações de moluscos planorbídeos pertencentes às espécies B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Concluem que não há diferença significativa entre o crescimento dos caramujos oriundos das populações estudadas.

  8. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

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    Si-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter and solute linked carrier (influx transporter. Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70 were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and

  9. Assessment of the impact of changes in temperature in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 melanic and albino variants infected with Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907

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    E. A. F. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract Fluctuations in population density of planorbid hosts of S. mansoni are influenced by climatic factors. The knowledge about interference from changes in water temperature in these populations is an important aspect of the epidemiology of schistosomiasis. In this experiment, it is explored the influence of different temperatures on the development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria glabrata melanic and albino variants. The results indicated an intrinsic relationship between temperature and development of the parasite in the intramollusc phase, independent of the pigmentation of the mantle of the molluscs. The higher the temperature, the shorter the period necessary for the development of the parasite was while the higher the mortality of infected mollusks. It is concluded that, in the presence of climate change, the increasement of temperature in cold and flooded regions may encourage the establishment of new foci of transmission of schistosomiasis by changing the geographic extent and extending the epidemiological transmission potential. In warm climates, higher temperatures, however, could compromise the transmission of the disease because of biological stress suffered by parasite and host. Under these conditions, it can result in the death of the parasite or a change in their ability to infect new host species of molluscs in new areas. Mantle pigmentation patterns in molluscs have not shown significant interference in the development of the parasite.

  10. Controle biológico de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 através de Tilapia nilotica (Hasselquist, 1757, em laboratório (Pulmonata, Planorbidae. Pisces, Cichlidae

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    Roberto Milward de Andrade

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O peixe cichdeo Tilapia nilotica (Hasse/quist, 1757 I = Sarotherodon niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 foi capaz de impedir o crescimento de 4 populações de 20 espécimens (14-16 mm de diâmetro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, mantidas em aquários de vidro, durante cinco semanas, em laboratório. No Aquário nº 1 foi introduzido um alevino com 55 mm de comprimento (não computada a nadadeira caudal; no de nº 2, um com 63 mm; no de nº 3, dois alevinos: com 40 e 46 mm, respectivamente; e, finalmente, no de nº 4, três espécimens: com 38,39 e 42 mm, respectivamente. Os peixes destruíram as desovas dos planorbíneos depositadas nas paredes de vidro dos aquários - impedindo, assim, as eclosões e, consequentemente, o aumento das quatro populações em estudo. Reversamente, quando retirados, as populações de planorbíneos cresceram em número. Não obstante, salienta-se a necessidade de investigações de campo, afim de avaliar a atividade predatória daquele ciclídeo em condições naturais.

  11. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  12. Influence de l'anhydrobiose sur l'infestation de Biomphalaria glabrata par un miracidium de Schistosoma mansoni

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    Félix Lancastre

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur 410 B. glabrata infestées par 1 miracidium de S. mansoni, 300 ont été placées dans des boîtes aérées, sur de la terre humide, et soumises à 6 semaines de dessiccation progressive. Au terme de l'expérience, il y avait 71 survivantes (23.66%, dont 9 positives. Les 110 autres planorbes ont cosntitué le lot témein, avec 106 survivantes (96.36% à la première semaine d'apparition des cercaires. L'étude hebdomadaire des émissions cercariennes a montré des variations périodiques pour les deux sexes, une plus grande production de certaines femelles chez les témoins, mais une production de cercaires mâles ou femelles semblable chez les mollusques ayant subi l'anhydrobiose. Le faible nombre de ces dernies n'a pas permis une étude comparée significative de la survie des porteurs de formes larvaires mâles et femelles. La durée du développement du parasite chez son hôte ne semble pas modifiée si l'on tient compte de la phase d'estivation.

  13. Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

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    Dolcie DeGrandchamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3 mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages.

  14. A comparative parasitologic study on Biomphalaria glabrata snail and C3H/He mice infected with human and murine isolates of Schistosoma mansoni derived from Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilcéa Freire

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to analyze the biological characteristics of two sympatric isolates of Schistosoma mansoni derived from humans and murines in a low endemic transmission area (Sumidouro county, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sympatric reared-laboratory Biomphalaria glabrata and C3H/He mice were used as experimental hosts. Parameters assessed comprised: precercarial period, infectivity and mortality (snails, prepatent period, infectivity (percentage of cercariae maturation into adult worm and intestinal egg count (mice. The murine isolate showed a shorter precercarial period and higher infectivity than human isolate (p 0.05. These data suggest that both isolates are local sub-populations, providing support for the hypotheses that in a same biotope mixed populations or sub-populations circulate among their main host (human beings and/or rodent as an anfixenous infection.

  15. [Intestinal schistosomiasis in the freshwater mangrove of Guadalupe (French Antilles). Ecology of the vector, Biomphalaria glabrata and its parasite Schistosoma mansoni (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Theron, A

    1979-01-01

    In the freshwater mangrove of Dubelloy-Devarieux (Guadalupe), the dynamics of populations of B. glabrata and the transmission of S. mansoni, mostly depends on the alternation of dry and rainy season. The flooding of the mangrove (in september), permits a yearly renewal of the malacological populations. The sizes analysis of the snails shows that the life cycle of B. glabrata include two rainy seasons separated by one dry season. The prevalence of B. glabrata (0,25%) and cercariae densities (0,8 c/l) are very slow. The acrophase of the rhythm of presence in standing waters is reached at 2 pm. Men and rats are infected. The infections of rats is of 20% at the beginning of the rainy season and of 100% at the end of the rainy season. Principal factors involved in the infection of rats are discussed.

  16. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candia Rowel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P<0.001 in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P=0.04 in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert N=6,183, 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  N=13,172 were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.

  17. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  18. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

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    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  19. Strukturelle Charakterisierung hämolymphproteingebundener N-Glykane und immunhistochemische Lokalisierung antigener Strukturen von Biomphalaria glabrata, die mit Glykokonjugaten des Humanparasiten Schistosoma mansoni kreuzreagieren

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden N-Glykane der Zwischenwirtsschnecke Biomphala¬ria glabrata, die mit Glykokonjugaten des Humanparasiten Schistosoma mansoni serolo¬gisch kreuzreagieren, strukturell charakterisiert. Dazu waren die N-Glykane aus Hämolymphproteinen nicht-infizierter Schnecken nach proteolytischem Verdau enzyma¬tisch freigesetzt, durch Immunaffinitätschromatographie unter Verwendung von immobilisierten Antikörpern gegen lösliche Eiantigene von S. mansoni (anti-SEA) angereichert, ...

  20. Determinação do período de desenvolvimento e da viabilidade das desovas de duas populações de Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila (Mollusca, Planorbidae

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    L. A. Magalhães

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas comparativamente as desovas ãe populações de B. glabrata e B. tenagophila, concluindo-se que nas condições da experiência, houve diferença significativa no que se refere ao período de desenvolvimento dos ovos. Foi verificada que a probabilidade de eclosão com relação ao número de dias de desenvolvimento dos ovos apresentou, em ambas as populações, uma distribuição de Poisson.

  1. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

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    Pino Luz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  2. Influência do magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio em desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 Influence of metallic magnesium and various magnesium salts on egg-masses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluções de magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio foram testadas em laboratório, a fim de comprovar a ação das mesmas sobre a oviposição de B. glabrata. Usaram-se, para cada solução, dez caramujos adultos originários da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brasil, criados em laboratório. No experimento I foram estudadas soluções em água desclorada de magnésio elementar (Mg, cloreto de magnésio (MgCl2.6H2O, carbonato de magnésio [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], nitrato de magnésio [Mg(NO32. 6H2O] e sulfato de magnésio (MgSO4.7H2O, e no experimento II, Mg, Mg + latossolo, MgCO3, MgCO3 + latossolo, sempre nas concentrações de 500 e 1.000 ppm. Durante duas semanas os planorbídeos permaneceram em água para adaptação; em seguida, por quatro semanas em exposição com as soluções testadas e, posteriormente, em água por mais duas semanas para recuperação. A cada sete dias as desovas eram contadas, eliminadas e as soluções renovadas. Foi observado que as soluções de Mg e MgCO3, isoladamente ou associada ao latossolo, produziram uma diminuição significativa do número de desovas dos caramujos, mas não parada completa de oviposição, quando comparados os períodos de adaptação com os de exposição. As soluções de Mg e MgCO3 não devem ser consideradas como produtos promissores para o controle da população de B. glabrata, em virtude da diminuição das desovas só terem sido observadas quando foram utilizadas concentrações muito altas.Solutions of magnesium metallic and other salts of magnesium were tested in the laboratory to study the action on B. glabrata oviposition. For each solution, 10 adult snails from Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil, reared in the laboratory, were used. In experiment I solutions, in dechlorinated water, of magnesium (Mg, magnesium chloride (MgCl2. 6H2O, magnesium carbonate [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], magnesium nitrate [Mg(NO32.6H2O] and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O were tested; and in

  3. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iman F Abou-El-Naga

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  4. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  5. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  6. The distribution of Biomphalaria spp. in different habitats in relation to physical, biological, water contact and cognitive factors in a rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Kloos Helmut

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 256 sites in 11 habitats were surveyed for Biomphalaria in Melquiades rural area (State of Minas Gerais in August and November 1999 and in March 2000. Of the 1,780 Biomphalaria collected, 1,721 (96.7% were B. glabrata and 59 (3.3% B. straminea. Snails were found in all habitats except in wells, with the largest mean numbers in tanks, seepage ponds and canals, and the smallest numbers in springs, rice fields and fishponds. People's knowledge of the occurrence of Biomphalaria at the collection sites and the presence of Biomphalaria ova were strongly correlated with the occurrence of snails, and distance between houses and collection sites, as well as water velocity were inversely correlated with Biomphalaria occurrence (p < 0.001. The strongest predictor o f Biomphalaria occurrence was the presence of tilapia fish in fishponds. Fourteen Biomphalaria (0.8% of all snails found at 6 sites were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Suggestions are made for the utilization of local people's knowledge in snail surveys and further studies are recommended on the possible use of tilapia for biological control of Biomphalaria in fishponds, as well as modeling of S. mansoni transmission and reinfection.

  7. Resistência de Biomphalaria peregrina de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, a infecção com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni Resistance of Biomphalaria peregrina from Santa Rita do Sapucaí, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to infection with strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Descendentes do planorbídeo Biomphalaria peregrina, coletados em Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram expostos a miracídios de três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" de Belo Horizonte, MG; "SJ" de São José dos Campos, SP e "AL" do Estado de Alagoas. Dentre 300 exemplares expostos, nenhum se infectou com as três cepas do trematódeo. Por outro lado, 300 exemplares de B. glabrata, dos grupos de controle, apresentaram taxas de infecção de 61,1 a 95,3% com as três cepas do trematódeo. As taxas de mortalidade de B. peregrina e de B. glabrata foram de 20,0 e de 28,0%, respectivamente.The descendants of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria peregrina, collected in the region of Santa rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia of three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" strain from Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais; "SJ", strain from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL" strain from State of Alagoas. Of 300 snails exposed to miracidia of the three strains, none was infected. On the other hand, 300 Biomphalaria glabrata of the control groups showed infection rates of 61.1 to 95.3% with three strains. The mortality rates of B. peregrina and B. glabrata were 20% and 28%, respectively.

  8. Ivermectin efficacy against Biomphalaria, intermediate host snail vectors of Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Naftale; Araújo, Neusa; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Linde-Arias, Ana Rosa; Yamada, Takeshi; Horimatsu, Yuki; Suzuki, Koh; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2017-03-15

    The impact of ivermectin on adult snails of the genus Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea), B. glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni, snail egg-masses cercariae and miracidia, as well as on guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) was examined and evaluated. Biomphalaria snails, egg-masses, parasite stages and guppies were all exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin for 24 h, followed by regular observations of mortality. The calculated lethal doses of ivermectin were around an LD50 of 0.03 μg ml(-1), and an LD90 of 0.3 μg ml(-1) for the three species of snails. Specimens of B. glabrata actually shedding parasite cercariae all died when exposed to ivermectin at a concentration of a mere 0.01 μg ml(-1). Ivermectin B1a, the major (80%) component of commercially available ivermectin, proved to be inactive, and it was the minor (20%) component, ivermectin B1b, which caused snail death. Snail egg-masses were not affected, even at the highest concentration of 100 μg ml(-1). With respect to S. mansoni parasite stages, 0.2 μg ml(-1) ivermectin killed 50% of cercariae and miracidia within five minutes, rising to 90% after 30 min. Mortality of guppy fish within 24 h of exposure to ivermectin at concentrations of 0.5 μg ml(-1) and 0.01 μg ml(-1), were 100% and 30%, respectively. The concentration of 0.01 μg ml(-1) that killed Schistosoma mansoni-infected snails only caused 30% mortality in guppy fish. Ivermectin can be considered a promising molluscicide, especially as it is more potent against infected snails than uninfected ones, although it has no impact on egg-masses. Ivermectin and its derivatives could be explored in the search for a new agent to help control schistosomiasis transmission.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.31.

  9. Resistance of Biomphalaria occidentalis from Varzea das Flores dam, Minas Gerais, to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 from Varzea das Flores dam, MG, Brazil, was exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Individual infection was performed with 140 B. occidentalis and 100 B. glabrata snails using LE and SJ strains. Two groups of B. occidentalis were killed after seven day-miracidia exposure to detect S. mansoni DNA, through the low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR, and were negative. The infection rates were 69.2% (LE strain and 96.7% (SJ strain for B. glabrata and 0% for B. occidentalis. LS-PCR enabled early resistance diagnosis.

  10. Interaction between primary and secondary sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni and the internal defence system of Biomphalaria resistant and susceptible to the parasite

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    Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of the interaction between Biomphalaria and Schistosoma mansoni depends on the response of the host internal defence system (IDS and the escape mechanisms of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the IDS (haemocytes and soluble haemolymph factors of resistant and susceptible Biomphalaria tenagophila lineages and Biomphalaria glabrata lineages in the presence of in vitro-transformed primary sporocysts and secondary sporocysts obtained from infected B. glabrata. To do this, we assayed the cellular adhesion index (CAI, analysed viability/mortality, used fluorescent markers to evaluate the tegumental damage and transplanted secondary sporocysts. B. tenagophila Taim was more effective against primary and secondary sporocystes than the susceptible lineage and B. glabrata. Compared with secondary sporocysts exposed to B. tenagophila, primary sporocysts showed a higher CAI, a greater percentage of dead sporocysts and were labelled by lectin from Glycine max and Alexa-Fluor 488 fluorescent probes at a higher rate than the secondary sporocysts. However, the two B. tenagophila lineages showed no cercarial shedding after inoculation with secondary sporocysts. Our hypothesis that secondary sporocysts can escape the B. tenagophila IDS cannot be confirmed by the transplantation experiments. These data suggest that there are additional mechanisms involved in the lower susceptibilty of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni infection.

  11. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria spp., the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S; Malone, John B; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni remains an important parasitic disease of man, endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. The aetiological agent is the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, whereas aquatic snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. In Brazil, the distribution of Biomphalaria spp. is closely associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of S. mansoni across Brazil. We assembled snail "presenceonly" data and used a maximum entropy approach, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce predictive risk maps. We identified a series of risk factors that govern the distribution of Biomphalaria snails. We find that high-risk areas for B. glabrata are concentrated in the regions of Northeast and Southeast and the northern part of the South region. B. straminea are found in the Northeast and Southeast regions, and B. tenagophila are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions. Our findings confirm that the presence of the intermediate host snails is correlated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis mansoni. The generated risk maps of intermediate host snails might assist the national control programme for spatial targeting of control interventions and to ultimately move towards schistosomiasis elimination in Brazil.

  12. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. METHODS: The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. RESULTS: Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  13. Estudo da potencialidade de populações de Biomphalaria straminea do Estado de Minas Gerais, como hospedeiras do Schistosoma mansoni Potentiality of the Biomphalaria straminea populations of the State of Minas Gerais, as hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos de Biomphalaria straminea, descendentes de exemplares coletados em nove municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram infectados experimentalmente com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", procedente de Belo Horizonte (MG; "SJ", procedente de São José dos Campos (SP e "AL" procedente do Nordeste (AL. As taxas de infeção variaram de 0,0 a 24,0% com a cepa "LE"; de 0,0 a 16% com a cepa "SJ" e de 2,0 a 9,0% com a cepa "AL". Os índices de infecção experimental obtidos foram semelhantes aos registrados por outros autores, para B. straminea dessa região. Comparou-se o número de cercárias de cepa "LE", eliminadas por oito exemplares de B. straminea de Baldim e oito Biomphalaria glabrata do controle, após 30 minutos de exposição à luz. O número de cercárias eliminadas por B. straminea foi de 4.550, aproximadamente cinco vezes menor que o de B. glabrata, 22.679. Discute-se a potencialidade desses moluscos como hospedeiros do S. mansoni nessa região.The decendents of Biomphalaria straminea snails collected in nine regions from the State of Minas Gerais were experimentally infected with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; "SJ", from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL", from State of Alagoas. The infection rates obtained were of 0 to 24% (LE strain, 0 to 16% (SJ strain and 2 to 9% (AL strain. These infection rates were similar to those obtained by other authors for B. straminea from this region. Comparation were made between the numbers of cercariae (LE strain shed by eight specimens of B. straminea from Baldim and eight B. glabrata of the control group, after 30 minutes of exposure to light. B. straminea shed 4,550 cercariae, about five times less than B. glabrata (22,679. The authors discuss the potentiality of theses molluscs as hosts of S. mansoni in this region.

  14. Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907 and Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827 in an urban eutrophic watershed

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    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidaeby Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae. The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the laboratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified fivemollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus,and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni,presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population.

  15. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Pesquisa malacológica de Biomphalaria em municípios da Estrada Real, situados no sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. METHODS: The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. RESULTS: Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento das práticas de ecoturismo e turismo rural, em Minas Gerais, Brasil, evidencia a importância de se realizarem estudos sobre a ocorrência de hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni, no estado. O

  16. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae) and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Tatiana Maria; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Lira-Moreira, Pollanah M.; Goveia, Christiane De Oliveira; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni. PMID:27981045

  17. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

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    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni.

  18. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  19. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  20. Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale

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    Florence Mara Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010. Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m, with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions.

  1. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity.

  2. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  3. Toxicity of lapachol and isolapachol and their potassium salts against Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, Artemia salina and Tilapia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nadja Maria Fernandes; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Porfírio, Zenaldo; Goulart, Marília O F; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio G

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of soluble derivatives (potassium salt) of lapachol and isolapachol in different stages of the life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni is evaluated. The potassium salts of isolapachol and lapachol showed significant molluscicidal activity against the adult snail (LC90Artemia salina Leach) indicated very high toxicity for the potassium salt of isolapachol (LC90=1.54 ppm), differently from the potassium salt of lapachol that can be considered non toxic (LC90=176.3 ppm). The same tendency is observed with piscicidal activity, for which the isolapachol salt has showed higher toxicity. The obtained selectivity ratios concerning LC50 and LC90 for lapachol, in relation to Tilapia nilotica lethality assay are 2.33 and 1.26, respectively. Despite the piscicidal toxicity, the use of the salt of lapachol can be recommended for field tests in Schistosomiasis, with caution.

  4. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

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    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  5. Habitat preferences of coral-associated wentletrap snails (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Examination of about 60,000 scleractinian corals of the families Dendrophylliidae, Euphylliidae and Fungiidae for the presence of associated wentletrap snails (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) revealed various ectoparasitic life history strategies. Twenty Indo-Pacific wentletrap species were found, which we

  6. First report on the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report on occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in the district of São José de Almeida (municipality of Jaboticatubas) State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of B. glabrata and B. tenagophila had already been reported in this area. Such municipality is part of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte and comprises 60% of the Tourist Complex of Serra do Cipó. Since the 1950s throughout the 1990s, a schistosomiasis prevalence ranging from 15 to 40% has been observed. Although no B. straminea specimen has been found naturally infected in the region, descendants of these snails collected in the area, showed to be experimentally susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni infection reaching rates from 14.6 to 28.6%. Even not being found naturally infected, in the State of Minas Gerais, the possibility that the species B. straminea may keep endemicity foci of schistosomiasis should be regarded, as in the Northeastern region of Brazil where the high density of this planorbid and the social-economic and sanitary conditions enable to the transmission.

  7. First report on the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in the district of São José de Almeida (municipality of Jaboticatubas State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of B. glabrata and B. tenagophila had already been reported in this area. Such municipality is part of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte and comprises 60% of the Tourist Complex of Serra do Cipó. Since the 1950s throughout the 1990s, a schistosomiasis prevalence ranging from 15 to 40% has been observed. Although no B. straminea specimen has been found naturally infected in the region, descendants of these snails collected in the area, showed to be experimentally susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni infection reaching rates from 14.6 to 28.6%. Even not being found naturally infected, in the State of Minas Gerais, the possibility that the species B. straminea may keep endemicity foci of schistosomiasis should be regarded, as in the Northeastern region of Brazil where the high density of this planorbid and the social-economic and sanitary conditions enable to the transmission.

  8. [Physiological function in Torulopsis glabrata--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2012-11-04

    A multi-vitamin auxotrophic yeast of Torulopsis glabrata was the most competitive strain for industrial production of pyruvate. Given its genomic characterizations and physiological functions, it was an efficient way to redirect carbon flux to the target metabolites through manipulating nutritional and environmental conditions, intracellular cofactor form and level. In this review, we summarized the progress on the elucidation and manipulation of physiological function of T. glabrata. Furthermore, we also evaluated the potential of T. glabrata as cell factory for production of fine chemicals.

  9. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    OpenAIRE

    Iman F Abou El Naga; Eissa, Maha M.; Shereen F Mossallam; Safaa I Abd El-Halim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails,...

  10. Differentiation of the sibling species Biomphalaria occidentalis and Biomphalaria tenagophila by the electrophoretic patterns of their hemoglobin

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    James B. Bailey

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for differentialing the sibling species Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE is described. Snail hemolymph is used as the test sample and the red colaration of the hemoglobin fraction permits visualization of the migration patterns without resorting to specific stains. Moreover, hemolymph samples may be obtained without killing the snail, thus permitting its use for other studies for breeding.É descrito um método simples e rápido para distinguir as espécies crípticas Biomphalaria tenagophila e B. occidentalis por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A prova é feita com hemolinfa do molusco, permitindo a cor vermelha da fração hemoglobina visualizar os padrões de migração sem necessidade de recorrer a colorações específicas. Além disso, as amostras de hemolinfa podem ser obtidas sem sacrificar o molusco, que poderá ser usado para outros estudos ou para criação.

  11. Assessment of the In Vitro Kinetic Activity of Caspofungin against Candida glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Nagappan, V.; Boikov, D; Vazquez, J A

    2009-01-01

    Echinocandins have become the drug of choice in infections caused by Candida glabrata. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of caspofungin alone and in combination against C. glabrata. In vitro assays demonstrated that caspofungin alone showed excellent fungicidal activity against C. glabrata, including fluconazole-resistant strains. The combination of caspofungin and azole antifungals showed potential synergy against C. glabrata. Overall, caspofungin demonstrated...

  12. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Naohito; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshioka, Shinji; Yamano, Masahiro; Henmi, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole. PMID:25215255

  13. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

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    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  14. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

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    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  15. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism characterization of Biomphalaria kuhniana and Biomphalaria amazonica from Colombia

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    Luz E Velásquez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, five Biomphalaria planorbid species are known: B. kuhniana, B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. canonica and B. oligoza(var. B. philippiana. Among them, B. straminea is intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni and B. peregrina has been found to be experimentally susceptible to this parasite. B. straminea is commonly confused with B. kuhniana and they have been clustered together with B. intermedia in the complex named B. straminea. The difficulties involved in the specific identification, based on morphological data, have motivated the use of new techniques as auxiliary tools in cases of inconclusive morphological identification of such planorbid. In the present study, five Biomphalaria populations from the Colombian Amazon region and from Interandian Valleys were morphologically identified and characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism directed at the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene, followed by digestion of the generated fragment with restriction enzymes (DdeI, AluI, RsaI, MvaI and HaeIII. Known profiles of the Brazilian species B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. kuhniana, B. intermedia and B. amazonica, besides B. kuhniana from Colombia, were used for comparison. The five populations under study were morphologically and molecularly identified as B. kuhniana and B. amazonica.

  16. Identification of Biomphalaria havanensis and Biomphalaria obstructa populations from Cuba using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found.

  17. Dose escalation studies with caspofungin against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2015-09-01

    Echinocandins are recommended as first-line agents against invasive fungal infections caused by Candida glabrata, which still carry a high mortality rate. Dose escalation of echinocandins has been suggested to improve the clinical outcome against C. glabrata. To address this possibility, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments with caspofungin against four WT C. glabrata clinical isolates, a drug-susceptible ATCC 90030 reference strain and two echinocandin-resistant strains with known FKS mutations. MIC values for the clinical isolates in RPMI 1640 were ≤ 0.03 mg l(-1 ) but increased to 0.125-0.25 mg l(-1 )in RPMI 1640+50% serum. In RPMI 1640+50% serum, the replication of C. glabrata was weaker than in RPMI 1640.Caspofungin in RPMI 1640 at 1 and 4 mg l(-1) showed a fungicidal effect within 7 h against three of the four clinical isolates but was only fungistatic at 16 and 32 mg l(-1) (paradoxically decreased killing activity). In RPMI 1640+50% serum, caspofungin at ≥ 1 mg l(-1) was rapidly fungicidal (within 3.31 h) against three of the four isolates. In a profoundly neutropenic murine model, all caspofungin doses (1, 2, 3, 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) daily) decreased the fungal tissue burdens significantly (P caspofungin dose escalation does not improve efficacy.

  18. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Torulopsis glabrata for malate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Guoqiang; Xu, Nan; Zou, Wei; Zhu, Pan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2013-09-01

    The yeast Torulopsis glabrata CCTCC M202019, which is used for industrial pyruvate production, was chosen to explore the suitability of engineering this multi-vitamin auxotrophic yeast for increased malate production. Various metabolic engineering strategies were used to manipulate carbon flux from pyruvate to malate: (i) overexpression of pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase; (ii) identification of the bottleneck in malate production by model iNX804; (iii) simultaneous overexpression of genes RoPYC, RoMDH and SpMAE1. Using these strategies, 8.5gL(-1) malate was accumulated in the engineered strain T.G-PMS, which was about 10-fold greater than that of the control strain T.G-26. The results presented here suggest that T. glabrata CCTCC M202019 is a promising candidate for industrial malate production.

  20. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  1. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J.; Tinkitina, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non......-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin...... is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all...

  2. Cercarial production from Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, K Y; Dawood, I K

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with longitudinal and cross-sectional methods of counting cercariae shed from Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt, both experimentally and naturally infected with schistosomes. By the longitudinal method, the daily output of cercariae was counted from the first shedding from experimentally infected snails and from the day of collection from naturally infected ones. The results show that the size of the snails at the time of shedding exerts a very large effect on the output of cercariae and that the numbers obtained in the laboratory are not representative of cercarial output in the field. By the cross-sectional method, the cercarial output in the first 24 hours from infected snails collected in different months from the field was counted. The results show that output is size-specific. When the size-specific output is adjusted to the size-composition of infected snails taken from the field, it is estimated that the daily output from infected snails in the field may be 957.7 cercariae. However, this number may vary with the season.

  3. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  4. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  5. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  6. Studi Penilaian Ekosistem Mangrove Hasil Tanam Berdasarkan Keberadaan Gastropoda di Pulau Pramuka, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

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    Yayan Mardiansyah Assuyuti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of mangrove replanted are to protect and good quality of coastal ecosystems and small islands, but it is have influenced to change of habitat and ecology function. This study conducted at Pramuka Island, Seribu islands, Jakarta, in June 2016. Data of gastropoda using 1 m2 square random sampling and divide depend on height are 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 m. The aims of study are to determine (i diversity, density, (ii vertical distribution, (iii size shell, (iv correlation of density with distribution, (v correlation of size shell with vertical distribution, (vi correlation of individual with height gastropoda, and (vii assessment of mangrove replanted depend on gastropoda. The species of Terebralia sp. and Littorina sp. are found in mangrove replanted. The total value of diversity and density of mangrove gastropoda are 0.6 and 31.3 ind/m2, respectively. Vertical distribution of gastropoda Terebralia sp. found in 0-1 m and Littorina sp. in 0-3 m. The density and individual of Terebralia sp. have high value and size shell largest than Littorina sp. Gastropoda found indicated that the mangrove ecosystem in Pramuka island is still young and is in a transition state.

  7. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    OpenAIRE

    Si-Ming Zhang; Buddenborg, Sarah K.; Adema, Coen M.; John T Sullivan; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biolog...

  8. Two new records of Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiyun; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports two species of the family Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda,Heterobranchia),Otopleura nitida (A.Adams,1854) and Rugadentia manzakiana (Yokoyama,1922).The former was from the South China Sea and the latter was from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.The study was based on the collections deposited in the Marine Biological Museum,Chinese Academy of Sciences.This is for the first time that these species have been recorded in China seas.In the current contribution,we describe and illustrate these two species,and compare them with similar species.

  9. Role of Dectin-2 for Host Defense against Systemic Infection with Candida glabrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.; Bain, J.M.; Reid, D.M.; Oosting, M.; Verschueren, I.; Gow, N.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Brown, G.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Koentgen, F.; Erwig, L.P.; Quintin, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here, we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C.

  10. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host.

  11. Human neutrophils dump Candida glabrata after intracellular killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Dietrich, Stefanie; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between fungal pathogens and human phagocytes can lead to remarkably variable outcomes, ranging from intracellular killing to prolonged survival and replication of the pathogen in the host cell. Using live cell imaging we observed primary human neutrophils that release phagocytosed Candida glabrata yeast cells after intracellular killing. This process, for which we propose the name "dumping", adds a new outcome to phagocyte-fungus interaction which may be of potential immunological importance as it allows professional antigen presenting cells to take up and process neutrophil-inactivated pathogens that in their viable state are able to evade intracellular degradation in these cells.

  12. Primeira ocorrência de Biomphalaria straminea no Sul Goiano, Brasil First occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in the South Goiano, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do Biomphalaria straminea no Sul do Estado de Goiás, em ambiente natural. Trinta exemplares de Biomphalaria straminea foram coletados em janeiro de 1998, em Cachoeira Dourada de Goiás. Verificou-se que a falta de saneamento e de educação sanitária da população e a presença do caramujo são condições fundamentais para o estabelecimento de um foco de transmissão.The objective of this note is to report the occurrence of the Biomphalaria straminea in the county of Cachoeira Dourada in the south of Goiás, and with that enhance the knowledge about its geographical distribution in the state. More than identify the species, the collection of thirty samples helped study and verify the presence of cercariae, especially because they were found in a setting which offers proper conditions to the development of a focal transmission site of schistosomiasis.

  13. Susceptibility of Argentinean Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the possibility of geographic expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Franceschi Simoes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human migration and the presence of natural vectors (mollusks of Schistosoma mansoni are the primary causes of the expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis into southern areas of South America. Water conditions are favorable for the expansion of this disease because of the extensive hydrographic network, which includes the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers and favors mollusk reproduction. These rivers also aid agriculture and tourism in the area. Despite these favorable conditions, natural infection by S. mansoni has not yet been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, or Paraguay. Methods Two species of planorbid from Argentina, Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila, were exposed to the miracidia of five Brazilian strains of S. mansoni. Results Biomphalaria tenagophila (Atalaya, Buenos Aires province was infected with the SJS strain (infection rate 3.3%, confirming the experimental susceptibility of this Argentinian species. Biomphalaria straminea (Rio Santa Lucía, Corrientes province was susceptible to two Brazilian strains: SJS (infection rate 6.7% and Sergipe (infection rate 6.7%. Conclusions These results demonstrate that species from Argentina have the potential to be natural hosts of S. mansoni and that the appearance of foci of mansoni schistosomiasis in Argentina is possible.

  14. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  15. Genetic variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nassery, Suzanne M F; Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Allam, Sonia R; Shaat, Eman A; Mady, Rasha F M

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers) random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  16. Candida glabrata Esophagitis: Are We Seeing the Emergence of a New Azole-Resistant Pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aze Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata has become a recognized pathogen in fungal esophagitis. A proportion of these isolates are azole-resistant which may have treatment implications. Variability in the prevalence of this organism exists in the limited data available. Objective. To determine the incidence of C. glabrata esophagitis in a North American hospital setting and to highlight factors that may predispose patients to this condition. Methods. Patient charts were collected from January 1, 2009 to July 30, 2011. Any charts of patients identified as having esophagitis with a positive fungal culture were reviewed for the species of Candida and the presence of factors that would predispose them to esophageal candidiasis. Results. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis based on culture was 2.2% (37 subjects. C. glabrata was the 2nd most prevalent pathogen identified (24.3% or 9 subjects. Of the C. glabrata cohort, all patients had at least one factor predisposing them to candidiasis. Conclusion. C. glabrata esophagitis makes up a large portion of the candidal esophagitis seen in hospital. C. glabrata infections were associated with at least one risk factor for candidal infection. Given its resistance to azole-based therapy, this may have treatment implications for how candidal esophagitis is approached by the clinician.

  17. MALDI-TOF typing highlights geographical and fluconazole resistance clusters in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, C; Normand, A C; Al-Yasiri, M; Chaker, E; El Euch, D; Vranckx, K; Hendrickx, M; Sadfi, N; Piarroux, R; Ranque, S

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra for Candida glabrata typing would be a cost-effective and easy-to-use alternative to classical DNA-based typing methods. This study aimed to use MALDI-TOF for the typing of C. glabrata clinical isolates from various geographical origins and test its capacity to differentiate between fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strains.Both microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 58 C. glabrata isolates originating from Marseilles (France) and Tunis (Tunisia) as well as collection strains from diverse geographic origins were analyzed. The same analysis was conducted on a subset of C. glabrata isolates that were either susceptible (MIC ≤ 8 mg/l) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 mg/l) to fluconazole.According to the seminal results, both MALDI-TOF and MLP classifications could highlight C. glabrata population structures associated with either geographical dispersal barriers (p fluconazole susceptibility in C. glabrata. Furthermore, although MALDI-TOF and MLP resulted in distinct classifications, MALDI-TOF also classified the isolates with respect to their fluconazole susceptibility profile. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate the capacity of MALDI-TOF typing to investigate C. glabrata infection outbreaks and predict the antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical laboratory isolates.

  18. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  19. Recurrent arthritis by Candida glabrata, a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erami, Mahzad; Afzali, Hasan; Heravi, Mansoureh Momen; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Moazeni, Maryam; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Hosseinpour, Leila

    2014-06-01

    Infectious arthritis due to Candida glabrata is very rare. A 40-year-old Iranian man had developed a painful swelling on the left knee since a year ago. A surgery (meniscectomy) was performed on his knee. However, in follow-up visit after 2 months, the patient's condition was deteriorated. Direct examination of synovial fluid with Gram and hematoxylin-eosin stains were negative for any bacterial or fungal infection or crystal elements; however, inoculation into BACTEC™ Mycosis IC/F and Plus Aerobic/F culture bottles led to the isolation of a yeast strain. The macroscopic examination on CHROMagar™ Candida medium combined with microscopical examination on CMT80 agar made a presumptive identification of the isolate to be considered as C. glabrata, and it was later on confirmed by ITS sequencing. Initial empirical treatment was started with intravenous amphotericin B for 4 weeks followed by oral itraconazole which was unsuccessful. Prescription of an oral 150-mg tablet of fluconazole was considered for a 2-month course. All symptoms completely declined, and no recurrence of infection was detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed for this isolate, and the result showed sensitivity to both amphotericin B and itraconazole and less susceptibility to fluconazole while clinical recovery was achieved by fluconazole. In any suspected clinical case caused by infectious agents, application of an effective fungal diagnostic test should be considered to avoid complications due to misdiagnosis. The correlation of AFST result with real in vivo therapeutic responses can be strain or patient dependent, and this should be considered for a successive treatment.

  20. Diversity and taxonomy of Vietnamese Pollicaria (Gastropoda, Pupinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Minton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Pollicaria (Gastropoda: Pupinidae are conspicuous members of the southeast Asian land snail fauna. Originally erected in 1856, both the genus and its constituent species have been reorganized multiple times with the most recent treatment published in 2013. Collections of Vietnamese Pollicaria during 2014 and 2015 raised questions of the utility of currently used diagnostic shell characters and identification keys in species identification. An examination of the authors’ collections, combined with museum specimens, suggested that at least three species of Pollicaria occur or have historically occurred in Vietnam. It is suggested that P. rochebruni is a senior synonym of P. crossei and treat both taxa as conspecific. A second species, P. mouhoti, was believed to only occur in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. A possible third species, based only on previous karyotypic work, is discussed. Our data further suggest that shell features such as color and size lack consistent utility in species-level identifications in Pollicaria.

  1. Partial Decay of Thiamine Signal Transduction Pathway Alters Growth Properties of Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Noor F.; Neal, Erin M.; Leone, Sarah G.; Cali, Brian J.; Peel, Michael T.; Grannas, Amanda M.; Wykoff, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of thiamine (Vitamin B1), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential for the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates in all organisms. Plants and microorganisms, such as yeast, synthesize thiamine de novo whereas animals do not. The thiamine signal transduction (THI) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well characterized. The ~10 genes required for thiamine biosynthesis and uptake are transcriptionally upregulated during thiamine starvation by THI2, THI3, and PDC2. Candida glabrata, a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is closely related to S. cerevisiae but is missing half of the biosynthetic pathway, which limits its ability to make thiamine. We investigated the changes to the THI pathway in C. glabrata, confirming orthologous functions. We found that C. glabrata is unable to synthesize the pyrimidine subunit of thiamine as well as the thiamine precursor vitamin B6. In addition, THI2 (the gene encoding a transcription factor) is not present in C. glabrata, indicating a difference in the transcriptional regulation of the pathway. Although the pathway is upregulated by thiamine starvation in both species, C. glabrata appears to upregulate genes involved in thiamine uptake to a greater extent than S. cerevisiae. However, the altered regulation of the THI pathway does not alter the concentration of thiamine and its vitamers in the two species as measured by HPLC. Finally, we demonstrate potential consequences to having a partial decay of the THI biosynthetic and regulatory pathway. When the two species are co-cultured, the presence of thiamine allows C. glabrata to rapidly outcompete S. cerevisiae, while absence of thiamine allows S. cerevisiae to outcompete C. glabrata. This simplification of the THI pathway in C. glabrata suggests its environment provides thiamine and/or its precursors to cells, whereas S. cerevisiae is not as reliant on environmental sources of thiamine. PMID:27015653

  2. [In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole against Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M T; Cañadas, J; García-Martos, P; Marín, P; García-Tapia, A; Rodríguez, J

    2009-09-01

    This study has been conducted to asses the in vitro activity of the novel triazole antifungal agent posaconazole against 123 clinically important isolates of yeasts. Susceptibility was tested using the Sensititre YeastOne microdilution commercial method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined at the recommended endpoints and time intervals. The activity of posaconazole against Candida glabrata was compared with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. The most susceptible species to posaconazole were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis. Candida glabrata was the least susceptible. The percentage of strains with MIC for posaconazole >or= 1 mg/L was 9%, all of them were C. glabrata. The species with MIC for itraconazole >or= 0.5 mg/L were 36% (41 C. glabrata, 1 C. krusei, 1 C. guilliermondii, 1 C. ciferrii). Candida glabrata strains resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole were 8%, 4% and 4%, respectively. Posaconazole exhibited good activity to the majority of Candida species. However, it was similar to itraconazole and less active than ketoconazole and voriconazole against C. glabrata.

  3. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Castaño, Irene; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase), while in a stationary phase (SP), Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs) are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  4. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

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    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  5. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baoquan; ZHANG Suping; LI Xinzheng

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANG, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp.nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  6. Resistance reversal induced by a combination of fluconazole and tacrolimus (FK506) in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Zuozhong; Zhang, Caiqing; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing concern about Candida glabrata due to its high isolation frequency in candidiasis recently and notorious drug resistance to fluconazole. Drug combination is one effective approach to counteract drug resistance. This study aimed to test whether a combination of fluconazole and tacrolimus (FK506) had a synergistic effect on C. glabrata, and to seek the potential mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects. In vitro effects of fluconazole and FK506 against C. glabrata with different susceptibilities were investigated by a chequerboard method and a time-kill curve method. The mechanistic studies against the resistant C. glabrata were performed from two aspects: quantification of expression levels of fluconazole resistance genes (ERG11, CDR1, PDH1 and SNQ2) by real-time quantitative PCR and functional assays of drug efflux pumps. The addition of FK506 resulted in a decrease in the MIC of fluconazole from 32 to 8 µg ml(-1) against the dose-dependent susceptible C. glabrata, and from 256 to 16 µg ml(-1) against the resistant C. glabrata, respectively. The synergy was further confirmed by the time-kill assay. The expression levels of the ERG11 and SNQ2 genes were significantly downregulated after exposure to the drug combination, whereas that of the CDR1 gene was significantly upregulated, and no significant change in expression of PDH1 gene was observed. Flow cytometric assays showed that FK506 reduced the efflux of fluconazole. Tacrolimus enhanced the susceptibility of fluconazole against resistant C. glabrata by reducing the expression levels of the ERG11 and SNQ2 genes and inhibiting fluconazole efflux.

  7. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

    2012-02-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative

  8. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  9. Genome engineering in the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata using the CRISPR-Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkler, Ludovic; Richer, Delphine; Marchand, Anthony L.; Ferrandon, Dominique; Jossinet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Among Candida species, the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata has become the second most common causative agent of candidiasis in the world and a major public health concern. Yet, few molecular tools and resources are available to explore the biology of C. glabrata and to better understand its virulence during infection. In this study, we describe a robust experimental strategy to generate loss-of-function mutants in C. glabrata. The procedure is based on the development of three main tools: (i) a recombinant strain of C. glabrata constitutively expressing the CRISPR-Cas9 system, (ii) an online program facilitating the selection of the most efficient guide RNAs for a given C. glabrata gene, and (iii) the identification of mutant strains by the Surveyor technique and sequencing. As a proof-of-concept, we have tested the virulence of some mutants in vivo in a Drosophila melanogaster infection model. Our results suggest that yps11 and a previously uncharacterized serine/threonine kinase are involved, directly or indirectly, in the ability of the pathogenic yeast to infect this model host organism. PMID:27767081

  10. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  11. Sorbic acid stress activates the Candida glabrata high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandric, Zeljkica; Gregori, Christa; Klopf, Eva; Radolf, Martin; Schüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid are important food preservatives and powerful fungistatic agents. These compounds accumulate in the cytosol and disturb the cellular pH and energy homeostasis. Candida glabrata is in many aspects similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, with regard to confrontation to sorbic acid, two of the principal response pathways behave differently in C. glabrata. In yeast, sorbic acid stress causes activation of many genes via the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. The C. glabrata homologs CgMsn2 and CgMsn4 are apparently not activated by sorbic acid. In contrast, in C. glabrata the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is activated by sorbic acid. Here we show that the MAP kinase of the HOG pathway, CgHog1, becomes phosphorylated and has a function for weak acid stress resistance. Transcript profiling of weak acid treated C. glabrata cells suggests a broad and very similar response pattern of cells lacking CgHog1 compared to wild type which is over lapping with but distinct from S. cerevisiae. The PDR12 gene was the highest induced gene in both species and it required CgHog1 for full expression. Our results support flexibility of the response cues for general stress signaling pathways, even between closely related yeasts, and functional extension of a specific response pathway. PMID:24324463

  12. Differentially expressed proteins in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Lijun; Jia, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yongxin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-06-01

    The current study aimed to identify the differences presented in the proteome of fluconazole-susceptible isolates of Candida glabrata compared to those with fluconazole-resistant ones. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was applied to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant isolates of C. glabrata. Eight proteins including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, translation elongation factor 3, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, ribosomal protein L5, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, pyruvate kinase, G-beta like protein, and F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit were found to be more abundantly represented, while four proteins including vitamin B12-(cobalamin)-independent isozyme of methionine synthase, microtubule-associated protein, adenylosuccinate synthetase, and aldose reductase were found to be less abundantly represented in fluconazole-resistant strains versus those with fluconazole-susceptible ones. These differentially expressed proteins were primarily associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis. Proteins associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis may play a role in the development of fluconazole resistance in the clinical isolates of C. glabrata. Multiple different mechanisms are involved in the development of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata. These findings provide a scientific basis for discovering new genes and mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata.

  13. Sorbic acid stress activates the Candida glabrata high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljkica eJandric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid are important food preservatives and powerful fungistatic agents. These compounds accumulate in the cytosol and disturb the cellular pH and energy homeostasis. Candida glabrata is in many aspects similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, with regard to confrontation to sorbic acid, two of the principal response pathways behave differently in Candida glabrata. In yeast, sorbic acid stress causes activation of many genes via the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. The C. glabrata homologues CgMsn2 and CgMsn4 are apparently not activated by sorbic acid. In contrast, in C. glabrata the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway is activated by sorbic acid. Here we show that the MAP kinase of the HOG pathway, CgHog1, becomes phosphorylated and has a function for weak acid stress resistance. Transcript profiling of weak acid treated C. glabrata cells suggests a broad and very similar response pattern of cells lacking CgHog1 compared to wild type which is over lapping with but distinct from S. cerevisiae. The PDR12 gene was the highest induced gene in both species, and required CgHog1 for full expression. Our results support flexibility of the response cues for general stress signaling pathways, even between closely related yeasts, and functional extension of a specific response pathway.

  14. Biomphalaria Tenagophila Guaibensis ssp. n. from Southern Brazil and Uruguay (pulmonata: Planorbidae. I. Morphology

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies of planorbid snail, biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, is described. It has been found along the coastal belt of the Brazilian state of rio grande do Sul and the middle part of Uruguay, from Porto Alegre to Mercedes. It differs from the nominate subspecies, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, in the appearance of the penial complex (prepuce longer and proportionally slenderer in B. t. guaibensis, shorter and proportionally stouter in b. t. tenagophila, in the ratio between the lengths of the penial sheath and the prepuce, in the ratio between the lengths of the uterine complex and the penial complex, and in a coefficient of difference of 2.44 for the ratio between the penis sheath and prepuce and of 2.02 for the ratio between the uterine complex and penial complex. The shell and the other organs of the genital system are similar in both subspecies. B. t. guaibensis is very similar to Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981, but is readily separated from it by the presence of a vaginal pouch, which is lacking in the latter, besides showing highly significant difference in the penis sheath: prepuce and uterine complex: penial complex ratios. Crossbreeding experiments which lend additional support to the recognition of B. t. guaibensis as a subspecies will be reported elsewhere.É descrita uma nova subespécie de molusco planorbídeo, Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, que tem sido encontrada ao longo da faixa costeira do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e da parte média do Uruguai, de Porto Alegre a Mercedes. Distingue-se da espécie nominativa, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, pelo aspecto do complexo peniano (prepúcio mais longo e proporcionalmente mais delgado em B. t. guaibensis, mais curto e proporcionalmente mais grosso em b. t. tenagophila0, pela razão entre os comprimentos da bainha do pênis e do prepúcio, pela razão entre os comprimentos do complexo uterino e do complexo peniano, e por um coeficiente de

  15. Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883, planorbid mollusc from South America Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883, molusco planorbídeo da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The validity of Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883 is confirmed through morphological study of specimens from Surinam (type locality and the area of Tucurui (Tocantins river, state of Pará, Brazil in comparison with B. straminea (Dunker, 1848, and throught crossing experiments which revealed complete reproductive isolation between the two species. The full-grown shell of kuhniana is smaller (about 7.5 mm than that of straminea (11 mm to 16.5 mm. Anatomically they differ in the degree of corrugation of the vaginal wall (little developed in kuhniana, conspicuous in straminea, number and shape of prostatic diverticula (kuhniana 4 to 9, shorter and less branched; straminea 9 to 18, longer and more branched,number of muscle layers at the middle of the penis (two in kuhniana, three in straminea, distal segment of the spermiduct usually straight or slightly wavy in kuhniana, more or less curly in straminea. Differences between B. kuhniana and B. intermedia (paraense & Deslandes, 1962 are less marked. The latter has a shell up to about 12 mm in diameter, 7 to 15 prostatic diverticula, two muscle layers at the middle of the penis, and a vaginal wall with a combination of a more or less developed corrugation (or sometimes a mere swelling on the left of the spermathecal duct and a rudimentary pouch on the right of the duct. A Biomphalaria straminea complex is proposed to include that species as well as B. kuhniana and B. intermedia.A validade de Biomphalaria Kuhniana (Clessin, 1883 é confirmada pelo estudo morfológico de espécimes do Suriname (localidade tipo e da área de Tucuruí (rio Tocantins, Estado do Pará, Brasil, em comparação com B. straminea (Dunker, 1848, e por experiências de cruzamento que revelaram completo isolamento reprodutivo entre as duas espécies. A concha adulta de Kuhniana é menor (cerca de 7,5 mm que a de straminea (11 mm a 16.5 mm. As duas espécies distinguem-se anatomicamente pelo grau de enrugamento da parede vaginal

  16. Contribuição ao estudo da biologia de Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 e de Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, em condições de laboratório A contribution to the study of the biology of Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 and of Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Rose Domenico Elmor

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a duração do período embrionário, a fecundidade e a fertilidade de Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 com a de B, tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, exemplares de ambas as espécies foram criados em aquários dotados das mesmas características. Os ovos depostos pelos caramujos foram contados sob lupa binocular e seu desenvolvimento embrionário foi observado até a eclosão. Assim foi obtido o número total de posturas e de ovos por caramujo, bem como o número total de ovos eclodidos por postura para cada período de trinta dias, ou seja, a taxa de eclosão por período. O experimento teve a duração de doze meses e os resultados obtidos são válidos para condições de laboratório.Specimens of Biomphalaria occidentalis and Biomphalaria tenagophila were reared in S.Paulo, Brazil under laboratory conditions, with a view to know their biological characteristics. Oviposition and eggs/oviposition ratio were recorded over twelve months so as to obtain information on the number of egg-masses per animal and the number of eggs per egg-mass, as also the number of hatched eggs per egg-mass for each period of 30 days, i.e., the hatching-rate per period. The incubation period was about the same for both species, but the oviposition and egg oviposition ratio were greater in B. tenagophila.

  17. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  18. Ciclo biológico de Paraibatrema inesperata n.g., n.sp. (Trematoda, Paramphistomidae, a partir de metacercárias desenvolvidas em Biomphalaria tenagophila (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Planorbidae

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    Marlene Tiduko Ueta

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Em exemplares de B. tenagophila, capturados em ambiente natural, foram encontradas paranfistomocercárias de precoce encistamento. Procedeu-se à infecção, per os, de animais de biotério; em camundongos e ratos, verificou-se o desenvolviemnto de trematóide paranfistomídeo desconhecido e que, por suas características, não se enquadra nos g~eneros conhecidos de Paramphistomidae de mamíferos. Para o parasito em apreço é proposta a denominação Paraibatema inesperata n.g, n.sp.. A partir de miracídios, oriundos de ovos eliminados pelos roedores em experiência, procurou-se infectar B. tenagophila e B. glabrata, criadas no moluscário. Verificou-se ser ativa a penetração dos miracídios no tecido do molusco, sendo freqüente a formação de tumorações nas antenas. A evolução experimental no hospedeiro intermediário apresenta-se lenta; ao fim de 40 dias de pós-infecção, não se observou a formação de esporocistos, rédias e cercárias.The new genus and new species of paramphistomid trematode, Paraibatrema inesperata n.g, n.sp., are proposed. The parasite was originally found as a quickly encysting paramphistome cercaria from specimens of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria tenagophila caught in natural habitats. Experimental infection resulted from intubation of metacercariae into the stomach of white mice and rats, which passed eggs in the feces 20 days later. Specimens of B. tenagophila and B. glabrata have been exposed to miracidia from eggs passed by mice. Penetration of the molluscan tegument was observed, but it seems that the larval development of the parasite is slow, inasmuch as no rediae and cercariae have been obtained as yet.

  19. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    . Peak production times in both species were between 12.00 and 14.00h indicating greatest infection risk from lake water exposure is during the early afternoon. Laboratory-bred snails were exposed to locally hatched miracidia and susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. was confirmed experimentally......) were culled and S. mansoni adult worms were retrieved from 10 animals. Taken as a whole, these observations highlight the local importance of B. stanleyi in transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis and clearly demonstrate the risk of infection on the Lake Albert shoreline. To mitigate this risk local...

  20. Effect of self-fertilization on Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Roseli

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria tenagophila is a simultaneous hermaphrodite freshwater snail, which can breed by self and cross-fertilization. It is, therefore, well suited for studying reproduction as an evolutive strategy. Several characteristics (shell size and age at sexual maturity, egg fecundity and fertility were analyzed in four consecutive self-fertilized generations and compared to cross-fertilized individuals. The reproductive parameters were similar in the two groups. Shell size was significantly greater in the fourth self-fertilized generation than in the cross-fertilized individuals.

  1. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Anidulafungin and Caspofungin against Candida glabrata Isolates, Including Strains with Decreased Caspofungin Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cota, Jason; Carden, Michael; Graybill, John R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Burgess, David S.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of anidulafungin and caspofungin against Candida glabrata were evaluated. MICs, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), and IC90 values for anidulafungin were lower than those for caspofungin for 16 of 18 strains tested. Anidulafungin has potent in vitro activity against C. glabrata that is maintained against isolates with elevated caspofungin MICs.

  2. Engineering of carboligase activity reaction in Candida glabrata for acetoin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Utilization of Candida glabrata overproducing pyruvate is a promising strategy for high-level acetoin production. Based on the known regulatory and metabolic information, acetaldehyde and thiamine were fed to identify the key nodes of carboligase activity reaction (CAR) pathway and provide a direction for engineering C. glabrata. Accordingly, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase were selected to be manipulated for strengthening the CAR pathway. Following the rational metabolic engineering, the engineered strain exhibited increased acetoin biosynthesis (2.24 g/L). In addition, through in silico simulation and redox balance analysis, NADH was identified as the key factor restricting higher acetoin production. Correspondingly, after introduction of NADH oxidase, the final acetoin production was further increased to 7.33 g/L. By combining the rational metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, the acetoin-producing C. glabrata was improved stepwise, opening a novel pathway for rational development of microorganisms for bioproduction.

  3. New Eugenol Glucoside-based Derivative Shows Fungistatic and Fungicidal Activity against Opportunistic Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Brito, Keila Mercês de Oliveira; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Rocha, Raissa Prado; de Sousa, Grasiely Faria; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Dias, Amanda Latércia Tranches; Veloso, Marcia Paranho; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    A new series of glucosides modified in their saccharide units were synthesized, evaluated against Candida sp., and compared to prototype 1, an eugenol tetracetyl glucoside previously synthesized and shown to be active against Candida glabrata. Among the new glucosides, benzyl derivative 5 was the most promising, showing fungistatic activity at IC50 18.1 μm against Candida glabrata (threefold higher than fluconazole) and fungicidal activity with a low IC90 value of 36.2 μm. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of compound 5 (CC50 : 580.9 μm), tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggests its potential as an agent to treat Candida glabrata infections, with a selectivity index of 32. The new eugenol glucoside 5 may be considered as a novel structural pattern in the development of new anti-Candida drugs.

  4. Histidine degradation via an aminotransferase increases the nutritional flexibility of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Richter, Martin Ernst; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Ramachandra, Shruthi; Kiehntopf, Michael; Brock, Matthias; Hube, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    The ability to acquire nutrients during infections is an important attribute in microbial pathogenesis. Amino acids are a valuable source of nitrogen if they can be degraded by the infecting organism. In this work, we analyzed histidine utilization in the fungal pathogen of humans Candida glabrata. Hemiascomycete fungi, like C. glabrata or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess no gene coding for a histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first step of a major histidine degradation pathway in most other organisms. We show that C. glabrata instead initializes histidine degradation via the aromatic amino acid aminotransferase Aro8. Although ARO8 is also present in S. cerevisiae and is induced by extracellular histidine, the yeast cannot use histidine as its sole nitrogen source, possibly due to growth inhibition by a downstream degradation product. Furthermore, C. glabrata relies only on Aro8 for phenylalanine and tryptophan utilization, since ARO8, but not its homologue ARO9, was transcriptionally activated in the presence of these amino acids. Accordingly, an ARO9 deletion had no effect on growth with aromatic amino acids. In contrast, in S. cerevisiae, ARO9 is strongly induced by tryptophan and is known to support growth on aromatic amino acids. Differences in the genomic structure of the ARO9 gene between C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae indicate a possible disruption in the regulatory upstream region. Thus, we show that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata has adapted to use histidine as a sole source of nitrogen and that the aromatic amino acid aminotransferase Aro8, but not Aro9, is the enzyme required for this process.

  5. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  6. Predicting the spatial distribution of Biomphalaria straminea, a potential intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Habib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases impacting human health in the tropics and sub-tropics. The geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni, the most widespread species, includes areas in Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. Snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate host for S. mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea is not indigenous in China but was accidentally introduced to Hong Kong from South America and has spread to other habitats in the southern parts of the country. This species is known for its great dispersal capacity that highlights the importance of the snail as a potential host for S. mansoni in China. In this connection, although no such infection has been recorded in the field so far, the continuous expansion of China’s projects in endemic areas of Africa and import of the infection via returning workers or visitors deserve attention. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of B. straminea in China. Snail occurrence data were assembled and investigated using MaxEnt software, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce a predictive risk map. Of the environmental variables tested, the precipitation of warmest quarter was the most contribution factor for snail’s spatial distribution. Risk areas were found in southeastern China and it is expected that they will guide policies and control programmes to potential areas area of snail abundance and used for spatial targeting of control interventions for this invasive species.

  7. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  8. The Drosophila Toll Pathway Controls but Does Not Clear Candida glabrata Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintin, J.; Asmar, J.; Matskevich, A.A.; Lafarge, M.C.; Ferrandon, D.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in verteb

  9. Environmental azole fungicide, prochloraz, can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Ramos, Isabel; Tavares, Pedro R; Farinha, Sofia; Neves-Maia, João; Miranda, Isabel M; Silva, Raquel M; Estevinho, Letícia M; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2014-11-01

    Acquisition of azole resistance by clinically relevant yeasts in nature may result in a significant, yet undetermined, impact in human health. The main goal of this study was to assess the development of cross-resistance between agricultural and clinical azoles by Candida spp. An in vitro induction assay was performed, for a period of 90 days, with prochloraz (PCZ) - an agricultural antifungal. Afterward, the induced molecular resistance mechanisms were unveiled. MIC value of PCZ increased significantly in all Candida spp. isolates. However, only C. glabrata developed cross-resistance to fluconazole and posaconazole. The increased MIC values were stable. Candida glabrata azole resistance acquisition triggered by PCZ exposure involved the upregulation of the ATP binding cassette multidrug transporter genes and the transcription factor, PDR1. Single mutation previously implicated in azole resistance was found in PDR1 while ERG11 showed several synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results might explain why C. glabrata is so commonly less susceptible to clinical azoles, suggesting that its exposure to agricultural azole antifungals may be associated to the emergence of cross-resistance. Such studies forward potential explanations for the worldwide increasing clinical prevalence of C. glabrata and the associated worse prognosis of an infection by this species.

  10. A network of paralogous stress response transcription factors in the human pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad eMerhej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq, transcriptome analyses and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1 transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption and iron metabolism.

  11. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  12. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...

  13. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini...

  14. Small chromosomes among Danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Khadija Mohamed; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Hellborg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 192 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985–1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained small...

  15. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  16. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G.; Keenan, Kendra E.; Updike, Wanda S.; Oliver, Marquam R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement). His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1) placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained), and (2) chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis). To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections. PMID:25431708

  17. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement. His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1 placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained, and (2 chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis. To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections.

  18. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  19. Proteomic analysis of cytosolic proteins associated with petite mutations in Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Loureiro y Penha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of superficial or deep-seated infections due to Candida glabrata has increased markedly, probably because of the low intrinsic susceptibility of this microorganism to azole antifungals and its relatively high propensity to acquire azole resistance. To determine changes in the C. glabrata proteome associated with petite mutations, cytosolic extracts from an azole-resistant petite mutant of C. glabrata induced by exposure to ethidium bromide, and from its azole-susceptible parent isolate were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteins of interest were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting or sequence tagging using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Tryptic peptides from a total of 160 Coomassie-positive spots were analyzed for each strain. Sixty-five different proteins were identified in the cytosolic extracts of the parent strain and 58 in the petite mutant. Among the proteins identified, 10 were higher in the mutant strain, whereas 23 were lower compared to the parent strain. The results revealed a significant decrease in the enzymes associated with the metabolic rate of mutant cells such as aconitase, transaldolase, and pyruvate kinase, and changes in the levels of specific heat shock proteins. Moreover, transketolase, aconitase and catalase activity measurements decreased significantly in the ethidium bromide-induced petite mutant. These data may be useful for designing experiments to obtain a better understanding of the nuclear response to impairment of mitochondrial function associated with this mutation in C. glabrata.

  20. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  1. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomicall...

  2. Gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delos Santos, Francisco J; Riego-Ruiz, Lina

    2016-08-01

    After Candida albicans, the yeast Candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-Candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. Transcriptome analysis in C. albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease Gap1, the dicarboxylic amino acid permease Dip5, the basic amino acid permease Can1 and the ammonium permeases Mep1 and Mep2. Nitrogen assimilation has been well studied in model species of fungi, such as Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, little is known about nitrogen assimilation in C. glabrata. In the present study, we report a major role for Gln3 in the assimilation of glutamine, ammonium and proline. Ure2 also has a role in nitrogen assimilation, but it is only observable in ammonium and glutamine. In addition, Gat1 has a minor role, which is only observable in the absence of Ure2 and Gln3. Gln3 is absolutely necessary for full ammonium uptake from media. We have also shown that MEP2 gene expression in C. glabrata is completely dependent on Gln3, whereas GAP1 regulation is mainly exerted by Gln3, with the exception of proline where Gat1 has a minor role. In addition, in C. glabrata Ure2 appears to be a negative regulator of these NCR-sensitive genes, similarly to what has been described in S. cerevisiae. Our data place Gln3 as a key regulator of nitrogen assimilation.

  3. Molecular approach for detecting early prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Adel; Saleh, Ayman A; Mahdy, Soad; Abd El-Khalik, Dalia; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Salama, Marwa A

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S. mansoni fructose-1,6-bus phosphate aldolase (SMALDO). SMALDO gene was detected in the infected laboratory snails with 70, 85, and 100 % positivity at the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of infection, respectively. In contrast, the ordinary method was not sensitive enough in detection of early prepatent infection even after 7 days of infection which showed only 25 % positivity. By comparing the sensitivity of the three methods, it was found that the average sensitivity of shedding method compared to PCR was 23.8 % and the average sensitivity of crushing method compared to PCR was 46.4 % while the sensitivity of PCR was 100 %. We conclude that PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. This can help in detection of the areas and times of high transmission which in turn will be very beneficial in planning of the exact timing of the proper control strategy.

  4. The activity of echinocandins, amphotericin B and voriconazole against fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Brazilian Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Alves Nunes Mario

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of azole antifungal agents has promoted the resistance of Candida spp to these drugs. Candida glabrata is a problematic yeast because it presents a high degree of primary or secondary resistance to fluconazole. In Brazil, C. glabrata has been less studied than other species. In this paper, we compared the activity of three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes against fluconazole-susceptible (FS and fluconazole-resistant (FR C. glabrata strains. Cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole was remarkable. Among the antifungal agents, the echinocandins were the most effective against FS and FR C. glabrata and micafungin showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations.

  5. Histamine Immunoreactive Elements in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Snail, Biomphalaria spp., Intermediate Host for Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Mohamed R; Mohamed, Azza H; Osman, Gamalat Y; Sharaf El-Din, Ahmed T; Mossalem, Hanan S; Delgado, Nadia; Torres, Grace; Rolón-Martínez, Solymar; Miller, Mark W; Croll, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    Histamine appears to be an important transmitter throughout the Animal Kingdom. Gastropods, in particular, have been used in numerous studies establishing potential roles for this biogenic amine in the nervous system and showing its involvement in the generation of diverse behaviours. And yet, the distribution of histamine has only previously been described in a small number of molluscan species. The present study examined the localization of histamine-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. This investigation demonstrates immunoreactive cells throughout the buccal, cerebral, pedal, left parietal and visceral ganglia, indicative of diverse regulatory functions in Biomphalaria. Immunoreactivity was also present in statocyst hair cells, supporting a role for histamine in graviception. In the periphery, dense innervation by immunoreactive fibers was observed in the anterior foot, perioral zone, and other regions of the body wall. This study thus shows that histamine is an abundant transmitter in these snails and its distribution suggest involvement in numerous neural circuits. In addition to providing novel subjects for comparative studies of histaminegic neurons in gastropods, Biomphalaria is also the major intermediate host for the digenetic trematode parasite, which causes human schistosomiasis. The study therefore provides a foundation for understanding potential roles for histamine in interactions between the snail hosts and their trematode parasites.

  6. Biofilm formation in Candida glabrata: What have we learnt from functional genomics approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Enfert, Christophe; Janbon, Guilhem

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are a source of therapeutic failures because of their intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials. Candida glabrata is one of the pathogenic yeasts that is responsible for life-threatening disseminated infections and able to form biofilms on medical devices such as vascular and urinary catheters. Recent progresses in the functional genomics of C. glabrata have been applied to the study of biofilm formation, revealing the contribution of an array of genes to this process. In particular, the Yak1 kinase and the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex have been shown to relieve the repression exerted by subtelomeric silencing on the expression of the EPA6 and EPA7 genes, thus allowing the encoded adhesins to exert their key roles in biofilm formation. This provides a framework to evaluate the contribution of other genes that have been genetically linked to biofilm development and, based on the function of their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, appear to have roles in adaptation to nutrient deprivation, calcium signaling, cell wall remodeling and adherence. Future studies combining the use of in vitro and animal models of biofilm formation, omics approaches and forward or reverse genetics are needed to expand the current knowledge of C. glabrata biofilm formation and reveal the mechanisms underlying their antifungal tolerance.

  7. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

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    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  8. Die Nacktschneckengesellschaften in NW-Deutschland (Gastropoda: Milacidae, Boettgerillidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, Arionidae): ein Ergebnis der NRW-Kartierung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappes, H.; Kobialka, H.

    2009-01-01

    Slug assemblages in NW Germany (Gastropoda: Milacidae, Boettgerillidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, Arionidae): a result of the mapping survey of Northrhine-Westphalia. This survey provides information on inter-specific associations of slugs on a regional data base. Most of the data originate from th

  9. The CgHaa1-Regulon Mediates Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ruben T; Cunha, Diana V; Wang, Can; Pereira, Leonel; Silva, Sónia; Salazar, Sara B; Schröder, Markus S; Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Aoyama, Toshihiro; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Azeredo, Joana; Butler, Geraldine; Mira, Nuno Pereira

    2017-01-05

    To thrive in the acidic vaginal tract, Candida glabrata has to cope with high concentrations of acetic acid. The mechanisms underlying C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid at low pH remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, the essential role of the CgHaa1 transcription factor (encoded by ORF CAGL0L09339g) in the response and tolerance of C. glabrata to acetic acid is demonstrated. Transcriptomic analysis showed that CgHaa1 regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of about 75% of the genes activated under acetic acid stress. CgHaa1-activated targets are involved in multiple physiological functions including membrane transport, metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, regulation of the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and adhesion. Under acetic acid stress, CgHaa1 increased the activity and the expression of the CgPma1 proton pump and contributed to increased colonization of vaginal epithelial cells by C. glabrata CgHAA1, and two identified CgHaa1-activated targets, CgTPO3 and CgHSP30, are herein demonstrated to be determinants of C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid. The protective effect of CgTpo3 and of CgHaa1 was linked to a role of these proteins in reducing the accumulation of acetic acid inside C. glabrata cells. In response to acetic acid stress, marked differences were found in the regulons controlled by CgHaa1 and by its S. cerevisiae ScHaa1 ortholog, demonstrating a clear divergent evolution of the two regulatory networks. The results gathered in this study significantly advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the success of C. glabrata as a vaginal colonizer.

  10. LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae in Medellín, Colombia

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    DANIELA VERGARA

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

  11. New scope on the relationship between rotifers and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shereen Farouk Mossallam; Eglal Ibrahim Amer; Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rotifer internalization into snail tissue on the development of schistosomes. Methods:Susceptible laboratory-bred Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina) snails were exposed to lab-maintained rotifers; Philodina spp., two weeks before and after being infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) miracidia. The consequent histopathological impact on snail tissues and cercarial biology were investigated before and after emergence from snails. Results:Contamination of B. alexandrina snails with philodina, two weeks before miracidial exposure, was found to hinder the preliminary development of S. mansoni cercariae inside the snail tissues. Furthermore, when snails were contaminated with rotifers two weeks post miracidial exposure; growth of already established cercariae was found to be retarded. The consequent influence of internalized rotifers within the snail tissue was clearly reflected on cercarial emergence, activity and infectivity along the four weeks duration of shedding. In the present study, comparison of snail histopathological findings and altered cercarial biology observed between the experimental and control groups indicated that the rotifers may have affected the levels of snail's energy reservoirs, which eventually was found to have had an adverse impact on reproduction, growth and survival of the parasite within the snail host, coupled with its performance outside the snail. Conclusions:In future biological control strategies of schistosomiasis, ritifers should be considered as a parasitic scourge of humanity.

  12. Spatial and seasonal trends of a natural population of Biomphalaria occidentalis in northeastern Argentina

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    Alejandra Rumi

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the age of a population of Biomphalaria occidentalis on a pound of Riachuelo river basin, wich is one of the three most important Middle Paraná river affluents in Corrientes province. Samples were drawn from three stations, were spatial and temporal numerical variations of the snail, as well as its relation with different environmental parameters, mainly temperature, rainfall, pH and conductivity, were analyzed. Snail abundance is given in number of individuals/hour. The differences between the three sampling stations, estimated by nonparametric tests, was nonsignificant. A relative scale to the greatest shell diameter was employed to build the age pyramids. Temporal fluctuations of snail abundance correlated negatively with the highest monthly accumulated temperatures (P < 0.05. Although different floristic compositions were observed at the three stations, no significant numerical variations were detected in B. occidentalis spatial distribution. Reproductive activity took place between March-April and November with overlapping cohort system. During summer (December-Febuary mortality increased along with temperature and reproductive activity was not evident.

  13. Growth changes induced by gamma radiation on Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848

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    Motta Mauricy A da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Doses of 60Co gamma radiation with 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320 and 640 Gy were applied to 1,080 snails Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, divided in groups containing 30 mollusks. In addition, 60 non irradiated snails were kept as control. Fifty percent of the population was kept in colonies (allowing cross fertilization while the other half was maintained in sexual isolation (allowing self fertilization and during one month their growth was observed through the daily measurement of the shell diameter. Results showed that after 20 Gy doses the growth in shell diameter of irradiated snails was greater than that of the control group after 30 days. At this dose the snail size was the greatest, among all isolated groups. The 80 Gy doses also induced the final shell diameter of isolated snails to be greater then that observed in the control groups. As this effect was most evident among the isolated snails, a possible hormonal role may have been involved in the observed phenomena, which is under investigation with the objective of identifying any future applications that this could have to schistosomiasis control.

  14. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

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    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  15. Mechanistic Insights Underlying Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in Vaginal Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana V.; Salazar, Sara B.; Lopes, Maria M.; Mira, Nuno P.

    2017-01-01

    During colonization of the vaginal tract Candida glabrata cells are challenged with the presence of acetic acid at a low pH, specially when dysbiosis occurs. To avoid exclusion from this niche C. glabrata cells are expected to evolve efficient adaptive responses to cope with this stress; however, these responses remain largely uncharacterized, especially in vaginal strains. In this work a cohort of 18 vaginal strains and 2 laboratory strains (CBS138 and KUE100) were phenotyped for their tolerance against inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid at pH 4. Despite some heterogeneity has been observed among the vaginal strains tested, in general these strains were considerably more tolerant to acetic acid than the laboratory strains. To tackle the mechanistic insights behind this differential level of tolerance observed, a set of vaginal strains differently tolerant to acetic acid (VG281∼VG49 < VG99 < VG216) and the highly susceptible laboratory strain KUE100 were selected for further studies. When suddenly challenged with acetic acid the more tolerant vaginal strains exhibited a higher activity of the plasma membrane proton pump CgPma1 and a reduced internal accumulation of the acid, these being two essential features to maximize tolerance. Based on the higher level of resistance exhibited by the vaginal strains against the action of a β-1,3-glucanase, it is hypothesized that the reduced internal accumulation of acetic acid inside these strains may originate from them having a different cell wall structure resulting in a reduced porosity to undissociated acetic acid molecules. Both the vaginal and the two laboratory strains were found to consume acetic acid in the presence of glucose indicating that metabolization of the acid is used by C. glabrata species as a detoxification mechanism. The results gathered in this study advance the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the increased competitiveness of C. glabrata in the vaginal tract, a knowledge that can

  16. Crz1p regulates pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata by altering membrane lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongni; Lin, Xiaobao; Qi, Yanli; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-23

    The asexual facultative aerobic haploid yeast Candida glabrata is widely used in the industrial production of various organic acids. To elucidate the physiological function of the transcription factor CgCrz1p and its role in tolerance to acid stress we deleted or overexpressed the corresponding gene CgCRZ1 Deletion of CgCRZ1 resulted in a 60% decrease in dry cell weight (DCW) and a 50% drop in cell viability compared to the wild type at pH 2.0. Expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes was also significantly down-regulated. Consequently, the proportion of C18:1 fatty acids, ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and ergosterol content decreased by 30%, 46%, and 30%, respectively. Additionally, membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity were reduced by 45%, 9%, and 50%, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of CgCrz1p increased C18:1 and ergosterol content by 16% and 40%, respectively. Overexpression also enhanced membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity by 31%, 6%, and 20%, respectively. Moreover, in the absence of pH buffering, DCW and pyruvate titer increased by 48% and 60%, respectively, compared to the wild type. Together, these results suggest that CgCrz1p regulates tolerance to acidic conditions by altering membrane lipid composition in C. glabrata IMPORTANCE: The present study provides an insight into the metabolism of Candida glabrata under acidic conditions, such as those encountered during industrial production of organic acids. We found that overexpression of the transcription factor CgCrz1p improved viability, biomass, and pyruvate yields at low pH. Analysis of plasma membrane lipid composition indicated that CgCrz1p might play an important role in its integrity and fluidity, and enhanced the pumping of protons in acidic environments. We propose that altering the structure of the cell membrane may provide a successful strategy for increasing C glabrata productivity at low pH.

  17. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

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    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  18. Dispersão de Biomphalaria straminea, hospedeira intermediária do Schistosoma mansoni, através da distribuição de peixes The spreading of Biomphalaria straminea, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni through the distribution of fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de R. Corrêa

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi focalizado, pela primeira vez o encontro de B. straminea no Estado de São Paulo. Esta espécie vem juntar-se aos planorbídeos já assinalados em nosso Estado. Foram descritos os criadouros, onde a B. straminea foi coletada, localizados em tanques de criação de peixes nas Estações de Piscicultura de Barra Bonita e Americana, Estado de São Paulo, e em um aquário particular na capital dêsse Estado. Fêz-se referência ao transporte de peixes oriundos de zonas do país onde ocorre aquela espécie, Amazonas e Ceará, como responsável pela introdução daquele molusco no Estado. Destacou-se êsse achado pelo perigo que representa a distribuição de peixes da maneira como vem sendo feita atualmente em nosso país, tendo sido julgado necessário o estabelecimento de quarentena para aquêles vindos de zonas infestadas por espécies hospedeiras intermediárias do S. mansoni. Foram relatadas as medidas de combate aos caramujos efetuadas imediatamente após aquela descoberta e os resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que a dispersão passiva da B. straminea pelo transporte de peixes, deve ampliar a distribuição geográfica dêsse planorbídeo, já assinalado na Venezuela, Guianas e no Brasil, sendo que neste último ocorre em tôdas as Unidades Federativas, exceto, no Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro e Territórios.Up the present, the works of collecting planorbids done in 226 municipalities for the elaboration of the geographical distribution chart in the State of São Paulo (Brazil, showed the presence of two intermediate host species of Schistosoma mansoni: Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biompralaria glabrata. Although the technicians from the Psiculture Stations, have not found snails in the water inside the containers used for the transportation of fishes, the ecological conditions of B. straminea in the latest researches are such as to indicate that they have been introduced, in our State through fish transportation imported

  19. Intestinal Resident Yeast Candida glabrata Requires Cyb2p-Mediated Lactate Assimilation to Adapt in Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Keigo Ueno; Yasuhiko Matsumoto; Jun Uno; Kaname Sasamoto; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Yuki Kinjo; Hiroji Chibana

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose med...

  20. Force nanoscopy of hydrophobic interactions in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Derclaye, Sylvie; Alsteens, David; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-24

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which binds to surfaces mainly through the Epa family of cell adhesion proteins. While some Epa proteins mediate specific lectin-like interactions with human epithelial cells, others promote adhesion and biofilm formation on plastic surfaces via nonspecific interactions that are not yet elucidated. We report the measurement of hydrophobic forces engaged in Epa6-mediated cell adhesion by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we found that C. glabrata wild-type (WT) cells attach to hydrophobic surfaces via strongly adhesive macromolecular bonds, while mutant cells impaired in Epa6 expression are weakly adhesive. Nanoscale mapping of yeast cells using AFM tips functionalized with hydrophobic groups shows that Epa6 is massively exposed on WT cells and conveys strong hydrophobic properties to the cell surface. Our results demonstrate that Epa6 mediates strong hydrophobic interactions, thereby providing a molecular basis for the ability of this adhesin to drive biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces.

  1. Effects of endosulfan and ethanol on the reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila: a multigeneration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma

    2009-04-01

    Endosulfan (END) is an insecticide used in agriculture and as a wood preservative. Since END is practically insoluble in water, ethanol (ETOH) is often employed as a carrier solvent to spike it in the test medium in aquatic toxicity assays. In this study were investigated the effects of END and ETOH on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria tenagophila exposed over three successive generations. END (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mg L(-1)) was dissolved in the medium water using ETOH (up to 19.8 mg L(-1)) as carrier solvent. ETOH (19.8, 198, 1980 mg L(-1)) alone was tested as well. Adult snails (F(0)-generation) were exposed to END and ETOH for 8 weeks. The F(1)-generation continued to be exposed from embryo to reproductive maturity, while their descendants (F(2)) were exposed until day 10 after spawning. Effects on the fecundity (8-week production of eggs and egg-masses) of mature F(0) and F(1) snails were evaluated. Developmental toxicity was investigated in F(1) and F(2) embryos. END at the highest level tested (0.1 mg L(-1)) inhibited egg production by F(0) and F(1) snails. ETOH at levels 198 mg L(-1) also reduced fecundity of F(0) and F(1) an effect that was apparently aggravated by exposure over successive generations. END 0.1 mg L(-1) increased mortality and malformations and decreased hatching among F(1) embryos. ETOH drastically reduced the proportion of hatchings among F(2) embryos. The study-derived NOECs (no-observed-effect-concentrations) for END was 0.01 mg L(-1) (reduction in fecundity), and for ETOH were 19.8 mg L(-1) for reduction in fecundity and toxicity (hatching retardation).

  2. Crystallization in organo-mineral micro-domains in the crossed-lamellar layer of Nerita undata (Gastropoda, Neritopsina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouet, Julius; Baronnet, Alain; Howard, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Crossed-lamellar shell microstructure consists of a sophisticated arrangement of interspersed lamellae, which is very commonly found in Gastropoda or Bivalvia shell layers. Its smallest constitutive microstructural units are usually described as sub-micrometric fibers, or rods, and form very ordered and regular patterns. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging confirms the presence of even smaller building units in the form of organo-mineral granules, and we further investigate their internal structure within aragonite crossed-lamellar internal layer of Nerita undata (Gastropoda, Neritopsina) shell. Their coalescence may have controlled anisotropically the propagation of the crystallographic coherence through this complex microstructure, as suggested by the propagation of the microtwinning pattern between neighboring granules.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-fertilization-lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascara, D; Kawano, T; Magnanelli, A C; Silva, R P; Sant' Anna, O A; Morgante, J S

    1999-11-01

    Mascara, D., Kawano, T., Magnanelli, A. C., Silva, R. P. S., Sant' Anna, O. A., and Morgante, J. S. 1999. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-Fertilization-Lineage. Experimental Parasitology 93, 133-141. Artificial selection of Biomphalaria tenagophila snails for susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma mansoni (Brazilian SJ strain) was carried out from natural populations. After five self-fertilization generations, two lineages were isolated and were designated as SUSC (highly susceptible 93-100%) and RES (nonsusceptible 5-0%). Length of the prepatent period, cercarial production, and mortality of the hosts in postexposure were determined in all generations (F(1)-F(8)) and were analyzed as quantitative traits related to host susceptibility. Distribution patterns of frequencies were observed within snail families (samples derived from one F(0) snail), these traits showing a significant influence by selection applied to susceptibility. The multiple quantitative classes were described in terms of continuous variation. During the selection of SUSC lineage, classes with higher values of prepatent length and lower cercarial production were eliminated, and the heritability calculated for these two traits was 0.811 and 0.709, respectively. Experimental results were correlated with an increase in the level of susceptibility in the generations selected and are discussed in relation to inheritance patterns as well as the quantitative variation of susceptibility.

  4. Oral mucositis caused by Candida glabrata biofilms: failure of the concomitant use of fluconazole and ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Candida glabrata is becoming one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeasts in cases of oral diseases. Mucositis is an recurrent oral infection in immunocompromised patients, and the actual guidelines recommend the use of fluconazole (Flu) for many cases. However, the azole resistance by C. glabrata is renowned, causing a reduced therapeutic response, especially when it occurs in biofilms. In this study, we performed an in vitro evaluation of an alternative pharmacotherapy for C. glabrata biofilm infections, combining ascorbic acid (AA) with Flu. AA is recognized for degrading β-glucans, an important compound of the biofilm matrices, which prevent drug diffusion. Materials and Methods: Routine clinical 30 or 40 mg/l doses of Flu were applied to C. glabrata biofilms simultaneously with 200 or 300 mg/l of AA. Results: The results showed that this combination effectively promoted the degradation of the biofilm network, but unfortunately, also stimulated the growth of the yeasts population due to release of several glucose monomers during β-glucans hydrolysis. Discussion: AA lead to the hydrolysis of the β-glucans of the matrix, liberating glucose molecules which are used as carbon souce by the yeasts, thus suppressing the desired antifungal effect of the drug combination with Flu. Conclusions: Unlike to what happens in treatment of bacterial infection, AA should not be used together with Flu in the treating oral mucositis caused by Candida. PMID:28357061

  5. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates.

  6. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis.

  7. Comparative effects of micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin against a difficult-to-treat fungal opportunistic pathogen, Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreghini, Elisabetta; Orlando, Fiorenza; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Giannini, Daniele; Manso, Esther; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo activities of micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin against Candida glabrata. The MICs against 28 clinical isolates showed that the overall susceptibilities to caspofungin and to micafungin were not statistically different in the absence of human serum, whereas the isolates were less susceptible to micafungin than to caspofungin in its presence. Minimum fungicidal concentrations, as well as time-kill experiments, showed that caspofungin was more active than anidulafungin, while micafungin was superior to either caspofungin or anidulafungin without serum; its addition rendered caspofungin and micafungin equally effective. A murine model of systemic candidiasis against a C. glabrata-susceptible isolate was performed to study the effects of all three echinocandins, and kidney burden counts showed that caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were active starting from 0.25, 1, and 5 mg/kg of body weight/day, respectively. Two echinocandin-resistant strains of C. glabrata were selected: C. glabrata 30, a laboratory strain harboring the mutation Fks2p-P667T, and C. glabrata 51, a clinical isolate harboring the mutation Fks2p-D666G. Micafungin activity was shown to be as effective as or more effective than that of caspofungin or anidulafungin in terms of MICs. In vivo studies against these resistant strains showed that micafungin was active starting from 1 mg/kg/day, while caspofungin was effective only when administrated at higher doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day. Although a trend toward colony reduction was observed with the highest doses of anidulafungin, a significant statistical difference was never reached.

  8. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic

  9. Repeated applications of photodynamic therapy on Candida glabrata biofilms formed in acrylic resin polymerized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Freitas, Lírian Silva; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have been suggested that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be used as an adjuvant treatment for denture stomatitis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of multiple sessions of PDT on Candida glabrata biofilms in specimens of polymerized acrylic resin formed after 5 days. Subsequently, four applications of PDT were performed on biofilms in 24-h intervals (days 6-9). Also, we evaluated two types of PDT, including application of laser and methylene blue or light-emitting diode (LED) and erythrosine. The control groups were treated with physiological solution. The effects of PDT on biofilm were evaluated after the first and fourth application of PDT. The biofilm analysis was performed by counting the colony-forming units. The results showed that between the days 6 and 9, the biofilms not treated by PDT had an increase of 5.53 to 6.05 log (p = 0.0271). Regarding the treatments, after one application of PDT, the biofilms decreased from 5.53 to 0.89 log. When it was done four applications, the microbial reduction ranged from 6.05 log to 0.11 log. We observed that one application of PDT with laser or LED caused a reduction of 3.36 and 4.64 compared to the control groups, respectively (p = 0.1708). When it was done four applications of PDT, the reductions achieved were 1.57 for laser and 5.94 for LED (p = 0.0001). It was concluded that repeated applications of PDT on C. glabrata biofilms showed higher antimicrobial activity compared to single application. PDT mediated by LED and erythrosine was more efficient than the PDT mediated by laser and methylene blue.

  10. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea Immunological and parasitological aspects of Biomphalaria tenagophila infected by Schistosoma mansoni and other Digenea

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    Doralice de Souza Luro Balan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.The behavior of Biomphalaria tenagophila amoebocytes was studied in infections produced by Schistosoma mansoni and other Digenea, The resistance to superinfection was also verified in mixed infections. Data on amoebocyte phagocytic activity, on the number of amoebocytes in hemolymph, and on amoebocyte tissue ractions were obtained and eletrophoretic and imunodiffusion examinations of the hemolymph were carried out. It was concluded that the snails infected with Digenea show resistance to superinfection with S. mansoni. Apparently sporocysts are not destroyed by the action of amoebocytes. An increase in amoebocyte phagocytic activity was discovered in infected snails. Immunoeletrophoresis shows quantitative and qualitative differences in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  11. Molluscicidal activity of Physalis angulata L. extracts and fractions on Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835 under laboratory conditions

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    Santos José Augusto A dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to evaluate the molluscicide activity of Physalis angulata L. Biomphalaria tenagophila specimens under laboratory conditions. Extracts and fractions were supplied by the Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais, Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz. Experiments were performed according to the methodology described by the World Health Organization for molluscicide tests using the concentrations from 0.1 to 500 mg/l of the extracts, fractions and of a pool of physalins modified steroids present in this species. The results show that ethyl acetate and acetone extracts from the whole plant, the ethanolic extracts of the roots and the physalins pool from stems and leaves were active. Only the whole plant extracts were available in sufficient quantity for the determination of LD50 and LD90 values.

  12. Dominant character of the molecular marker of a Biomphalaria tenagophila strain (Mollusca: Planorbidae resistant to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Rosa Florence Mara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria tenagophila population from Taim (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil is totally resistant toSchistosoma mansoni, and presents a molecular marker of 350 bp by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the entire rDNA internal transcriber spacer. The scope of this work was to determine the heritage pattern of this marker. A series of cross-breedings between B. tenagophila from Taim (resistant and B. tenagophila from Joinville, state of Santa Catarina (susceptible was carried out, and their descendants F1 and F2 were submitted to this technique. It was possible to demonstrate that the specific fragment from Taim is endowed with dominant character, since the obtained segregation was typically mendelian.

  13. Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Drepanocephalus spp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Brazil: a morphological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M; Ware, Cynthia; Melo, Alan L

    2016-01-01

    Species of trematodes belonging to the genus Drepanocephalus are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds, primarily cormorants (Phalachrocorax spp.), and are widely reported in the Americas. During a 4-year malacological study conducted on an urban lake in Brazil, 27-collar-spined echinostome cercariae were found in 1665/15,459 (10.7 %) specimens of Biomphalaria straminea collected. The cercariae were identified as Drepanocephalus spp. by sequencing the 18S (SSU) rDNA, ITS1/5.8S rDNA/ITS2 (ITS), 28S (LSU) rDNA region, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) markers. In experimental life cycle studies, metacercariae developed in laboratory-reared guppies (Poecilia reticulata); however, attempts to infect birds and rodents were unsuccessful. Two closely related morphotypes of cercariae were characterized. One species, identified by molecular markers as a genetic variant of Drepanocephalus auritus (99.9 % similarity at SSU, ITS, LSU; 97.2 % at CO1; 95.8 % at ND1), differs slightly from an archived North American isolate of this species also sequenced as part of this study. A second species, putatively identified as Drepanocephalus sp., has smaller cercariae and demonstrates significant differences from D. auritus at the CO1 (11.0 %) and ND1 (13.6 %) markers. Aspects related to the morphological taxonomic identification of 27-collar-spined echinostome metacercariae are briefly discussed. This is the first report of the involvement of molluscs of the genus Biomphalaria in the transmission of Drepanocephalus and the first report of D. auritus in South America.

  14. Ocorrência de Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae na estação de aqüicultura do IBAMA em Uberlândia, MG

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    Elisângela de Paula Silveira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de moluscos planorbídeos na estação de psicultura do IBAMA em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Constatou-se a presença de Biomphalaria straminea em 39,5% dos tanques de criação. Nenhum dos caramujos estava infectado por Schistosoma mansoni, mas investigações complementares devem ser realizadas na área.This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but futher investigation should be done in the area.

  15. Induction of ROS generation by fluconazole in Candida glabrata: activation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Camila Donato; Behling, Camile Saul; Hackenhaar, Fernanda S; de Carvalho e Silva, Mélany Natuane; Putti, Jordana; Salomon, Tiago B; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Fuentefria, Alexandre; Benfato, Mara S

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we assessed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole in susceptible and resistant Candida glabrata strains at stationary growth phase and measured their oxidative responses parameters: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), consumption of hydrogen peroxide, and total glutathione, as well as oxidative damage in lipids, proteins, and DNA. Data showed that fluconazole increased generation of ROS and GPx and SOD enzymatic activity in treated cells; however, these enzymatic activities did not differ between resistant and susceptible strains. Susceptible strains exhibited higher GST activity than resistant, and when susceptible cells were treated with fluconazole, GST activity decreased. Fluconazole treatment cause oxidative damage only in DNA. There are a possible participation of ROS, as organic peroxides and O2(•-), in antifungal mechanism of fluconazole, which results in higher GPx and SOD enzymatic activities and oxidative DNA damage in C. glabrata.

  16. Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Uno, Jun; Sasamoto, Kaname; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kinjo, Yuki; Chibana, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the Δcyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The Δcyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata.

  17. Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.

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    Keigo Ueno

    Full Text Available The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the Δcyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The Δcyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata.

  18. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Celia Bustos-Brito; Valeria J. Vázquez-Heredia; Fernando Calzada; Lilian Yépez-Mulia; José S. Calderón; Simón Hernández-Ortega; Baldomero Esquivel; Normand García-Hernández; Leovigildo Quijano

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4), 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5), 10-benzoyloxythymol (6) and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7). In addition, (8S)-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1), together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2) and 10-be...

  19. PRIMARY CHARACTERIZATION OF SPONGE ASSOCIATED BACTERIA OF MARINE SPONGES- HALICHONDRIA GLABRATA, CLIONA LOBATA, SPIRASTRELLA PACHYSPIRA AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES

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    Maushmi Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge associated bacterias have been recognized as an important and untapped resource for novel bioactive compounds. In the present study four strains of microorganisms were isolated from three different varieties of marine sponge viz. Halichondria glabrata, Cliona lobata and Spirastrella pachyspira. They showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative indicator organisms. From the biochemical tests and cetrimide agar test, it was concluded that the Strain B isolated from Cliona lobata is a Pseudomonas species. Strain A (gram negative culture product isolated from Halichondria glabrata showed the antibiotic activity against Gram positive (B. subtillis and Gram negative (S. typhi, P. vulgaris, E.coli organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for showing antibacterial activity on all the standard strain was found to be 40 µL of culture broth supernatant. This strain was further identified by ABIS software based on biochemical tests and confirmation of the strain was done after 16S r RNA gene sequencing. The strain showed close similarity with E. coli and Enterobacteria strains and most of the uncultured bacterium from different hosts, which confirmed its nature of being it a symbiont from sponge Halichondria glabrata with antimicrobial activity.

  20. Global analysis of the evolution and mechanism of echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata.

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    Sheena D Singh-Babak

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistance has a profound impact on human health. Candida glabrata is a leading human fungal pathogen that can rapidly evolve resistance to echinocandins, which target cell wall biosynthesis and are front-line therapeutics for Candida infections. Here, we provide the first global analysis of mutations accompanying the evolution of fungal drug resistance in a human host utilizing a series of C. glabrata isolates that evolved echinocandin resistance in a patient treated with the echinocandin caspofungin for recurring bloodstream candidemia. Whole genome sequencing identified a mutation in the drug target, FKS2, accompanying a major resistance increase, and 8 additional non-synonymous mutations. The FKS2-T1987C mutation was sufficient for echinocandin resistance, and associated with a fitness cost that was mitigated with further evolution, observed in vitro and in a murine model of systemic candidemia. A CDC6-A511G(K171E mutation acquired before FKS2-T1987C(S663P, conferred a small resistance increase. Elevated dosage of CDC55, which acquired a C463T(P155S mutation after FKS2-T1987C(S663P, ameliorated fitness. To discover strategies to abrogate echinocandin resistance, we focused on the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and downstream effector calcineurin. Genetic or pharmacological compromise of Hsp90 or calcineurin function reduced basal tolerance and resistance. Hsp90 and calcineurin were required for caspofungin-dependent FKS2 induction, providing a mechanism governing echinocandin resistance. A mitochondrial respiration-defective petite mutant in the series revealed that the petite phenotype does not confer echinocandin resistance, but renders strains refractory to synergy between echinocandins and Hsp90 or calcineurin inhibitors. The kidneys of mice infected with the petite mutant were sterile, while those infected with the HSP90-repressible strain had reduced fungal burden. We provide the first global view of mutations

  1. Limitations of caspofungin in the treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis due to Candida glabrata infection

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    Ross Calum N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspofungin is a new antifungal agent with high-level activity against a number of Candida species including those that are resistant to azoles. Its good safety profile and low nephrotoxicity makes it an attractive drug to treat fungal infections in patients with compromised renal function. However, little is known about the clinical efficacy in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections due to Candida species such as pyonephrosis. Case presentation We report a case of obstructive pyonephrosis due to an azole (fluconazole and itraconazole resistant Candida glabrata strain that failed to respond to intravenous treatment with caspofungin. A sustained clinical and microbiological response was only achieved after percutaneous drainage and instillation of amphotericin B deoxycholate into the renal pelvis in combination with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusion This case demonstrates the limitation of intravenous antifungal agents such as caspofungin as the sole treatment of an obstructive upper urinary tract infection due to Candida species. In order to achieve long term sustained cure from an obstructive pyonephrosis, pus and fungal balls should be drained and an anti-fungal agent such as amphotericin B deoxycholate instilled locally. The pharmacokinetics and role of caspofungin in the treatment of complicated Candida urinary tract infection is reviewed.

  2. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  3. Fluconazole exposure rather than clonal spreading is correlated with the emergence of Candida glabrata with cross-resistance to triazole antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of antifungal resistance in Candida species has raised concern in recent years, especially resistance toward triazole. Several newer triazole antifungal agents have been introduced which have a broader spectrum for fungal infections, such as voriconazole. However, cross-resistance among triazoles is a major concern with regard to their clinical application. Antifungal susceptibility was performed using E-test for 166 clinical isolates (29 blood and 137 nonblood isolates) in 2003 and 2004. We applied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genotyping. Ninety isolates of C. albicans, 47 isolates of C. tropicalis, 27 isolates of C. glabrata, and two isolates of C. krusei were included. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. Eleven (40.7%) of the 27 C. glabrata had intermediate resistance to caspofungin. Forty-seven (28.3%) of the 166 isolates were not susceptible to fluconazole, including two C. albicans, 16 C. tropicalis, 27 C. glabrata, and two C. krusei isolates. All except seven of the C. glabrata isolates were susceptible to voriconazole. All the triazole drugs had a positive correlation among their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Fluconazole MIC was a good predictor for susceptibility to voriconazole, as determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Furthermore, a high diversity of pulsotypes for the 27 clinical isolates of C. glabrata was observed. Previous fluconazole exposure within 3 months was associated with reduced triazole susceptibility for C. glabrata. We demonstrated a significant positive correlation of MIC values among the four tested triazole drugs. No amphotericin B and caspofungin resistant isolates were found in this study. The cross-resistance to triazole among C. glabrata isolates was associated with previous fluconazole exposure as opposed to clonal spreading. Selection pressure due to fluconazole use may play a major role in triazole cross-resistance.

  4. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-02-15

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies.

  6. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

  7. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto-Reductase in Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Glabrata Determined by cDNA-AFLP

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    Mansour Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata.Methods: The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection inimmunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazoleand itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns ofthe organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potentialgene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains.Results and conclusions: The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinicalisolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  8. Contribuição ao estudo da biologia de Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 e de Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, em condições de laboratório

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    Maísa Rose Domenico Elmor

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a duração do período embrionário, a fecundidade e a fertilidade de Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 com a de B, tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, exemplares de ambas as espécies foram criados em aquários dotados das mesmas características. Os ovos depostos pelos caramujos foram contados sob lupa binocular e seu desenvolvimento embrionário foi observado até a eclosão. Assim foi obtido o número total de posturas e de ovos por caramujo, bem como o número total de ovos eclodidos por postura para cada período de trinta dias, ou seja, a taxa de eclosão por período. O experimento teve a duração de doze meses e os resultados obtidos são válidos para condições de laboratório.

  9. Enhancement of pyruvate production by Torulopsis glabrata using a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Hugenholtz, J; Chen, J; Lun, S-Y

    2002-10-01

    The effect of agitation speeds on the performance of producing pyruvate by a multi-vitamin auxotrophic yeast, Torulopsis glabrata, was investigated in batch fermentation. High pyruvate yield on glucose (0.797 g g(-1)) was achieved under high agitation speed (700 rpm), but the glucose consumption rate was rather low (1.14 g l(-1) h(-1)). Glucose consumption was enhanced under low agitation speed (500 rpm), but the pyruvate yield on glucose decreased to 0.483 g g(-1). Glycerol production was observed under low agitation speed and decreased with increasing agitation speed. Based on process analysis and carbon flux distribution calculation, a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy was proposed, in which the agitation speed was controlled at 700 rpm in the first 16 h and then switched to 500 rpm. This was experimentally proven to be successful. Relatively high concentration of pyruvate (69.4 g l(-1)), high pyruvate yield on glucose (0.636 g g(-1)), and high glucose consumption rate (1.95 g l(-1)h(-1)) were achieved by applying this strategy. The productivity (1.24 g l(-1) h(-1)) was improved by 36%, 23% and 31%, respectively, compared with fermentations in which agitation speeds were kept constant at 700 rpm, 600 rpm, and 500 rpm. Experimental results indicate that the difference between the performances for producing pyruvate under a favorable state of oxygen supply (dissolved oxygen concentration >50%) was caused by the different regeneration pathways of NADH generated from glycolysis.

  10. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

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    Doralice de Souza Luro Balan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  11. Comparative Study of the Molluscicidal Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Snail Vector of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina

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    M. Al-Hazmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is considered as one of the most important trematode disease of man. The most important goal of the present study is to use the natural plants as cheaper and available sources for snail control. The present investigation concerned with the evaluation of toxicological, biological and physiological effects of water suspension, cold water and boiled water extracts of Agave filifera whole plant, Ammi majus flowers and leaves and Canna indica flowers and leaves comparing with the effect of different sulphate compounds. The present work revealed that, copper sulphate as well as the water suspension of Ammi majus flowers and leaves disclosed the most potent effect on the cumulative mortality after 6 weeks exposure periods. Also, egg laying capacity and egg hatchability of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were affected with the exposure to CuSO4 and water suspension of Ammi majus flowers. The sublethal doses (LC10 of copper sulphate and water suspension of the tested plants reduced the total protein and total lipid contents of the hemolymph of B. alexandrina snails. The activity of transaminases enzymes as well as acetylcholinesterase had been affected by the exposure to the sublethal doses of copper sulphate and the water suspension of the tested plants. Also, histopathological changes were recorded in hermaphrodite gland of B. alexandrina snails post 6 weeks of exposure.

  12. Biomphalaria tenagophila potencial vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Paraná River basin (Argentina and Paraguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, C Edgardo; Rea, María Josefa F

    2007-05-01

    Susceptibility and compatibility experiments were carried out with 700 Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Paraná River basin exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Individual infection was performed with 10 miracidia of SJ2 strain from the Paraiba valley (Brazil) originally infective to B. tenagophila. These snails were laboratory-breed progeny of B. tenagophila collected from six localities of Argentina and one from Paraguay. From Argentina: Rincón de Vences (7%) and Posadas (11%) became infected with S. mansoni and the calculation of Frandsen's index (TCP/100) shows that they were Class II poorly compatible. Those snails from Goya (22%), Maloyas (5%), and Berón de Astrada (3%) were Class III compatible to the S. mansoni. None of the 100 snails exposed from Caá-Catí became infected (Class 0 incompatible). Tested samples from Paraguay (Encarnación) were infected (20%) and compatible (Class III). It was also studied the persistence of the infection in 244 snails of the first generation (F1) of those that were susceptible from three places. It was demonstrated an increment of the susceptibility in the F1 from Maloyas (chi2 = 27.22; p = 0.0001) and Posadas (chi2 = 4.24; p = 0.04). The results point out the possibility that schistosomiasis might be able to spread into the Paraná River basin where B. tenagophila exists.

  13. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Doralice de Souza Luro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  14. Experimental and molecular study of cercariae of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) from Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L; Melo, A L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the large number of reports of species of Clinostomum from vertebrate hosts in South America, studies evaluating the molluscan transmitters of these parasites are scarce. In the present study, clinostomatoid cercariae shed from 0.02% (4/17,485) specimens of Biomphalaria spp., collected at the Pampulha reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata . Samples of cercariae from molluscs and metacercariae experimentally obtained from fish were subjected to morphological and molecular analyses and compared with species of Clinostomum reported in the Americas. The cercariae and metacercariae, here identified as Clinostomum sp., present general morphology similar to that reported for Clinostomum marginatum , however, from molecular point of view, differ significantly from North American C. marginatum and other species of Clinostomum reported in South America. These results suggest that the diversity of Clinostomum found in Brazil may be underestimated. Additional studies aimed at molecular characterization of South American species of Clinostomum, including the finding of specimens with sequences similar to that reported for C. marginatum in North America are required.

  15. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  16. Identification of signature volatiles to discriminate Candida albicans, glabrata, krusei and tropicalis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Moritz; Hartwig, Stefan; Schütte, Eyke; Gillissen, Bernhard; Preissner, Robert; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Kastner, Isabell; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection of the oral cavity. Clinical diagnoses require mycological confirmation, which is time-consuming in case of culture testing. The aim of the study was to identify signature volatiles to develop a chairside breath test to diagnose oral candidiasis. Headspaces above Candida albicans, glabrata, tropicalis, krusei cultures, and growth media as control were analysed after eight and 24 h using offline gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The identification of signature volatiles was assisted using various microbial databases. Retrieved volatile patterns enabled Candida species discrimination in vitro. For C. albicans 3-methyl-2-butanone and styrene and for C. krusei a combination of p-xylene, 2-octanone, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate were found to be specific. 1-hexanol was found in C. tropicalis, but is emitted by a variety of other microorganisms. C. glabrata was characterised through the absence of these volatiles. The development of a breath test is a promising approach in confirming suspicions of oral candidiasis. To confirm the retrieved results in vivo, breath tests in affected and healthy subjects have to be performed.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata with anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessio; Leewattanapasuk, Worraanong; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Mastrolorenzo, Antonio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-08-15

    A beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), the protein encoded by the NCE103 gene of Candida glabrata which also present in Candida albicans and Saccharomycescerevisiae, was cloned, purified, characterized kinetically and investigated for its inhibition by a series simple, inorganic anions such as halogenides, pseudohalogenides, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, bisulfite, perchlorate, sulfate and some isosteric species. The enzyme showed significant CO(2) hydrase activity, with a k(cat) of 3.8 x 10(5)s(-1) and k(cat)/K(M) of 4.8 x 10(7)M(-1)s(-1). The Cà glabrata CA (CgCA) was moderately inhibited by metal poisons (cyanide, azide, cyanate, thiocyanate, K(I)s of 0.60-1.12 mM) but strongly inhibited by bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite and phenylarsonic acid (K(I)s of 86-98 microM). The other anions investigated showed inhibition constants in the low millimolar range, with the exception of bromide and iodide (K(I)s of 27-42 mM).

  18. Transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p regulate pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata

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    Jing eWu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an important microorganism used in commercial fermentation to produce pyruvate, but very little is known about its mechanisms for surviving acid stress in culture. In this study, it was shown that transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p play essential roles in C. glabrata in the tolerance of acid stress, as the deletion of CgASG1 or CgHAL9 resulted in the inability to survive in an acidic environment. Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains are unable to maintain pH homeostasis, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular pH and an increase in reactive oxygen species production, which results in metabolic disorders. The results showed that intracellular acidification was partly due to the diminished activity of the plasma membrane proton pump, CgPma1p. In addition, transcriptome sequencing revealed that Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains displayed a variety of changes in gene expression under acidic conditions, including genes in the MAPK signaling pathway, plasma membrane or cell wall organization, trehalose accumulation, and the RIM101 signaling pathway. Lastly, quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR and cellular localization showed that CgAsg1p and CgHal9p played independent roles in response to acid stress.

  19. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

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    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  20. Low genetic diversity in a snail intermediate host (Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krass, 1848) and schistosomiasis transmission in the Senegal River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D; Southgate, V R; Webster, J P; Jones, C S

    2010-01-01

    Population genetic perturbations of intermediate hosts, often a consequence of human pressure on environmental resources, can precipitate unexpectedly severe disease outbreaks. Such disturbances are set to become increasingly common following range changes concomitant with climate shifts, dwindling natural resources and major infrastructure changes such as hydroprojects. Construction of the Diama dam in the Senegal River Basin (SRB) reduced river salinity, enabling the freshwater snail intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi to rapidly expand its distribution. A serious public health problem ensued, with an epidemic of intestinal schistosomiasis occurring in the previously schistosome-free Richard-Toll region within 2 years. The current study aimed to assess the population variability of B. pfeifferi in the SRB, and speculate upon its subsequent impact on host-parasite interactions following such engineered ecological change. Genetic variation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed little population differentiation in SRB snails compared with those from natural habitats in Zimbabwe, where Schistosoma mansoni transmission is much lower. 'Open' SRB habitats are associated with greater water contact, smaller population sizes and less genetic diversity, with sites downstream of Richard-Toll showing greater inter- and intrapopulation variation, concomitant with less frequent human contact. These observations may be explained by rapid expansion into pristine habitat selecting for high fecundity genotypes at the expense of schistosome resistance, presenting S. mansoni with genetically homogenous highly fecund susceptible populations around the focal point, promoting development of a highly compatible host-parasite relationship. Longitudinal study of such systems may prove important in predicting public health risks engendered by future environmental engineering projects.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni in susceptible and resistant snail strains Biomphalaria tenagophila: in vivo tissue response and in vitro hemocyte interactions.

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    Rafael Nacif-Pimenta

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that is highly prevalent, especially in developing countries. Biomphalaria tenagophila is an important invertebrate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, with some strains (e.g. Cabo Frio being highly susceptible to the parasite, whereas others (e.g. Taim are completely resistant to infection. Therefore, B. tenagophila is an important research model for studying immune defense mechanisms against S. mansoni. The internal defense system (IDS of the snail comprises hemocytes and hemolymph factors acting together to recognize self from non-self molecular patterns to eliminate the threat of infection. We performed experiments to understand the cellular defenses related to the resistance and/or susceptibility of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni. During the early stages of infection, fibrous host cells of both snail strains were arranged as a thin layer surrounding the sporocysts. However, at later stages of infection, the cellular reactions in resistant snails were increasingly more intense, with thicker layers surrounding the parasites, in contrast to susceptible strains. All parasites were damaged or destroyed inside resistant snails after 10 h of infection. By contrast, parasites inside susceptible snails appeared to be morphologically healthy. We also performed experiments using isolated hemocytes from the two strains interacting with sporocysts. Hemocyte attachment started as early as 1 h after initial infection in both strains, but the killing of sporocysts was exclusive to hemocytes from the resistant strain and was time course dependent. The resistant strain was able to kill all sporocysts. In conclusion, our study revealed important aspects of the initial process of infection related to immune defense responses of strains of B. tenagophila that were resistant to S. mansoni compared with strains that were susceptible. Such information is relevant for the survival or death of the parasites and so is important

  2. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  3. Izolované populace praménky Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae v okolí Prahy

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    Luboš Beran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper completes the knowledge of an occurrence of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae in surroundings of Prague – capital of the Czech Republic. However, this species is not rare in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, sites on north-western otskirts of Prague are isolated far from the main distribution area. Altogether, 63 sites potentially suitable for B. austriaca were investigated in this area, and occurrence of this species was confirmed in 11 of them. B. austriaca was found in springs, rivulets and small brooks, more numerous populations were found in springs. Historical occurrence data in this area were compared with results of research done in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Actual situation of this species in Prague surroundings is problematic and survival of some populations is not guaranteed.

  4. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania. The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts.

  5. [The occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on an aquaculture farm of IBAMA in Uberlândia, MG. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente a dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, E de P; Marçal Júnior, O; Machado, M I

    1997-01-01

    This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but further investigation should be done in the area.

  6. Identification of Components of the SUMOylation Machinery in Candida glabrata: ROLE OF THE DESUMOYLATION PEPTIDASE CgUlp2 IN VIRULENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjula, Rahul; Veeraiah, Sangeetha; Kumar, Kundan; Thakur, Suman S; Mishra, Krishnaveni; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-09-01

    Regulation of protein function by reversible post-translational modification, SUMOylation, is widely conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom. SUMOylation is essential for cell growth, division, and adaptation to stress in most organisms, including fungi. As these are key factors in determination of fungal virulence, in this study, we have investigated the importance of SUMOylation in the human pathogen, Candida glabrata We identified the enzymes involved in small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugation and show that there is strong conservation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. glabrata We demonstrate that SUMOylation is an essential process and that adaptation to stress involves changes in global SUMOylation in C. glabrata Importantly, loss of the deSUMOylating enzyme CgUlp2 leads to highly reduced small ubiquitin-like modifier protein levels, and impaired growth, sensitivity to multiple stress conditions, reduced adherence to epithelial cells, and poor colonization of specific tissues in mice. Our study thus demonstrates a key role for protein SUMOylation in the life cycle and pathobiology of C. glabrata.

  7. The Rho1 GTPase-activating Protein CgBem2 Is Required for Survival of Azole Stress in Candida glabrata*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Sapan; Shivarathri, Raju; Kaur, Rupinder

    2011-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are common clinical complications of neonates, critically ill, and immunocompromised patients worldwide. Candida species are the leading cause of disseminated fungal infections, with Candida albicans being the most prevalent species. Candida glabrata, the second/third most common cause of candidemia, shows reduced susceptibility to a widely used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we present findings from a screen of 9134 C. glabrata Tn7 insertion mutants for altered survival profiles in the presence of fluconazole. We have identified two components of RNA polymerase II mediator complex, three players of Rho GTPase-mediated signaling cascade, and two proteins implicated in actin cytoskeleton biogenesis and ergosterol biosynthesis that are required to sustain viability during fluconazole stress. We show that exposure to fluconazole leads to activation of the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated cell wall integrity pathway in C. glabrata. Our data demonstrate that disruption of a RhoGAP (GTPase activating protein) domain-containing protein, CgBem2, results in bud-emergence defects, azole susceptibility, and constitutive activation of CgRho1-regulated CgPkc1 signaling cascade and cell wall-related phenotypes. The viability loss of Cgbem2Δ mutant upon fluconazole treatment could be partially rescued by the PKC inhibitor staurosporine. Additionally, we present evidence that CgBEM2 is required for the transcriptional activation of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps in response to fluconazole exposure. Last, we report that Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin renders fluconazole a fungicidal drug in C. glabrata. PMID:21832071

  8. Effect of the plant Azolla pinnata on survival, growth rate, fecundity and hatchability of egg-masses of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hafez, A M; Zidan, Z H; Abdel-Megeed, M I; el-Emam, M A; Ragab, F M; el-Deeb, F A

    1997-12-01

    Data indicated that Azolla pinnata plants variously reduce the growth rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails expressed as net increase in shell diameter (direct or indirect exposure). The plant density played an important role in this respect. The higher the plant density was the lower the growth rate and vice versa. Too, indirect exposure of newly hatched B. alexandrina resulted from exposed treated eggs reduced the growth rate of these snails. Data revealed that direct and/or indirect exposure to the abnormal high density (50,000 plants/L) resulted in complete kill of B. alexandrina snails after two weeks from continuous exposure. Snails exposed directly to Azolla at 50,000 and 25,000 plants/L failed to lay eggs. On the other hand, sanils exposed to 10,000 plants/L laid few eggs, resulted in low reproductive rate (57.94) compared with unexposed ones (110.6). The same trend of results was recorded with hatchability of Biomphalaria eggs.

  9. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  10. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species: risk of misclassification of susceptible isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei when adopting the revised CLSI caspofungin breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species.

  11. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  12. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  13. Dos nuevas localizaciones para España de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, hospedador intermediario de Schistosomiasis urinaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ortí, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new locations in Spain of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, intermediate host of urinary Schistosomiasis Two new populations of the planorbid snail species Bulinus truncatus were found in Spain in 2014. The first consisted of shells only, found in the lagoon of Villena (province of Alicante, which had dried up at the beginning of the 19th century. This finding is of important biogeographic interest because it links the presence of this species in northern Catalonia with its detection in southern Andalucia as this species had not been found previously in the regions of Murcia or Valencia. The second population was found in El Ejido (province of Almeria, and thousands of living specimens were found here. This allowed a complete shell characterisation and molecular assessment by means of sequencing the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which showed 100% homology with sequences of other populations of the same snail species available in the GenBank. The finding of B. truncatus in Almeria is of additional value given the applied importance of this planorbid species as a vector of urinary Schistosomiasis, thus representing a risk of introduction and autochthonous transmission of the disease in Spain, as has occurred in other southern European countries in the past and recently.

  14. Establishment of an In vitro System to Study Intracellular Behavior of Candida glabrata in Human THP-1 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Maruti Nandan; Borah, Sapan; Gorityala, Neelima; Kaur, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    A cell culture model system, if a close mimic of host environmental conditions, can serve as an inexpensive, reproducible and easily manipulatable alternative to animal model systems for the study of a specific step of microbial pathogen infection. A human monocytic cell line THP-1 which, upon phorbol ester treatment, is differentiated into macrophages, has previously been used to study virulence strategies of many intracellular pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we discuss a protocol to enact an in vitro cell culture model system using THP-1 macrophages to delineate the interaction of an opportunistic human yeast pathogen Candida glabrata with host phagocytic cells. This model system is simple, fast, amenable to high-throughput mutant screens, and requires no sophisticated equipment. A typical THP-1 macrophage infection experiment takes approximately 24 hr with an additional 24-48 hr to allow recovered intracellular yeast to grow on rich medium for colony forming unit-based viability analysis. Like other in vitro model systems, a possible limitation of this approach is difficulty in extrapolating the results obtained to a highly complex immune cell circuitry existing in the human host. However, despite this, the current protocol is very useful to elucidate the strategies that a fungal pathogen may employ to evade/counteract antimicrobial response and survive, adapt, and proliferate in the nutrient-poor environment of host immune cells. PMID:24378622

  15. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    -hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two of the saponins were submitted to a preliminary screening for molluscicidal activity against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata and showed, respectively, strong and weak activity. In addition, four saponins previously reported from other strains of Phytolacca...

  16. Atração miraxonal exercida por Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella e Physa sp, sobre miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni da linhagem BH The miraxonal attraction exercised by Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella and Physa sp over miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se um artefato de vidro composto de duas câmaras unidas por um canal, testamos a atração miraxonal exercida por Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella e Physa sp, sobre larvas de Schistosoma mansoni da linhagem BH. Os moluscos, ou suas águas de condicionamento (SCW, foram colocados aleatoriamente em uma das câmaras, contendo o restante do artefato somente água declorada. Dez miracídios foram depositados no centro do canal. O comportamento dos miracídios foi observado por 15 min. Foram feitas dez replicações de cada experimento, utilizando-se espécimens de moluscos e miracídios diferentes. Verificou-se que todos os moluscos e suas SCW exerceram atração miraxonal, sendo que Physa sp atraiu mais que Lymnaea columella. Foi isolado um único exemplar de B. straminea que exerceu efeito repulsivo sobre os miracídios de S. mansoni.The attraction exercised over Schistosoma mansoni miracidia by Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella and Physa sp using a specially designed apparatus consisting of two circular glass chambers joined by an open channel were studied. The molluscs or their snail-conditioned water (SCW was placed in one of the chambers (randomly chosen. In the channel ten miracidia was deposited and the count of miracidia in each of the three compartments (the two chambers and the channel was recorded during fifteen minutes. Ten replications of each experiment with different specimens of molluscs and miracidia were made. Statistical and ad-hoc exploratory data analysis showed that: a the three species of molluscs and their SCW attract the miracidia; b Physa sp attract more miracidia then L. columella. There was an isolated single B. straminea specimen that had a repulsive effect to the miracidia.

  17. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-11-01

    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  18. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Jackson, Matthew D; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species' life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  19. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality. PMID:28168118

  20. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  1. Pivotal Role for a Tail Subunit of the RNA Polymerase II Mediator Complex CgMed2 in Azole Tolerance and Adherence in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Sapan; Shivarathri, Raju; Srivastava, Vivek Kumar; Ferrari, Sélène; Sanglard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal therapy failure can be associated with increased resistance to the employed antifungal agents. Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of invasive candidiasis, is intrinsically less susceptible to the azole class of antifungals and accounts for 15% of all Candida bloodstream infections. Here, we show that C. glabrata MED2 (CgMED2), which codes for a tail subunit of the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex, is required for resistance to azole antifungal drugs in C. glabrata. An inability to transcriptionally activate genes encoding a zinc finger transcriptional factor, CgPdr1, and multidrug efflux pump, CgCdr1, primarily contributes to the elevated susceptibility of the Cgmed2Δ mutant toward azole antifungals. We also report for the first time that the Cgmed2Δ mutant exhibits sensitivity to caspofungin, a constitutively activated protein kinase C-mediated cell wall integrity pathway, and elevated adherence to epithelial cells. The increased adherence of the Cgmed2Δ mutant was attributed to the elevated expression of the EPA1 and EPA7 genes. Further, our data demonstrate that CgMED2 is required for intracellular proliferation in human macrophages and modulates survival in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Lastly, we show an essential requirement for CgMed2, along with the Mediator middle subunit CgNut1 and the Mediator cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin subunit CgSrb8, for the high-level fluconazole resistance conferred by the hyperactive allele of CgPdr1. Together, our findings underscore a pivotal role for CgMed2 in basal tolerance and acquired resistance to azole antifungals. PMID:25070095

  2. Assessment of caspofungin susceptibility of Candida glabrata by the Etest®, CLSI, and EUCAST methods, and detection of FKS1 and FKS2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N; Laurens, C; Bertout, S; Balard, Y; Krasteva, D; Rispail, P; Lachaud, L

    2014-07-01

    Candida glabrata has emerged as a major pathogen in invasive candidiasis in recent years. Currently, guidelines for invasive candidiasis treatment recommend fluconazole or an echinocandin as the first-line therapy. Nevertheless, the resistance of Candida glabrata to echinocandin is an emerging problem and has been partly associated with mutations in the FKS1 and FKS2 genes. The Etest® is an appropriate method for determining antifungal susceptibility in emergency routine diagnosis. In this work, we evaluated the reliability of the Etest® in comparison with the two reference broth microdilution methods, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), to assess the caspofungin resistance of 193 isolates of Candida glabrata. The interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values was also discussed according to different breakpoints. Moreover, FKS1 and FKS2 mutations were investigated for isolates with high MICs. Our results showed that the MIC50 value was similar to the MIC90 value for each method. The Etest® method showed the lowest MIC values, whereas EUCAST presented the highest. Categorical agreement between the Etest® and CLSI methods was 100 % and 36 % using the breakpoints proposed by Arendrup et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(7):3965-3968, 2012) and Pfaller et al. (Int J Antimicrob Agents 38(1):65-69, 2011), respectively. Two isolates showed high MIC values with the three methods and both presented FKS2 mutations. A novel FKS2 mutation was also reported for one isolate. Future epidemiological studies should also evaluate the reliability of the Etest® to detect echinocandin resistance, as it remains a routine method.

  3. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eCosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms.In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  4. The dual role of candida glabrata drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g) in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catarina; Henriques, André; Pires, Carla; Nunes, Joana; Ohno, Michiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the drug:H(+) antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g), from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a green fluorescent protein fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of (3)H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of (3)H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization

  5. Estudo dos dados obtidos de uma população de Biomphalaria glabrata de Belo Horizonte infectada por schistosoma mansoni da mesma cidade, e de uma população de B. tenagophila de Campinas. infectada por S. mansoni de São José dos Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor estuda os dados obtidos pela infecção de moluscos de Campinas e de Belo Horizonte por miracídios de S. mansoni. Chega à conclusão de que a população de Belo Horizonte mostrou-se mais susceptível à infecção pelo helminto do que a população de moluscos Campinas.

  6. Molluscicidal effect of suspension concentrate of niclosamide against Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni%氯硝柳胺悬浮剂杀灭曼氏血吸虫中间宿主光滑双脐螺效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建荣; 汪伟; 李洪军; 陶永辉; Gerald C Coles; 梁幼生

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察氯硝柳胺悬浮剂(SCN)对光滑双脐螺的杀灭效果.方法 用SCN、50%氯硝柳胺乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂(WPN)和氯硝柳胺原药分别配制成药物有效浓度为1.000、0.500、0.250、0.125 mg/L和0.063 mg/L的溶液,在实验室浸泡光滑双脐螺成螺,计算LC50.采用上述3种剂型的氯硝柳胺分别配制成药物有效浓度为0.500、0.250、0.125、0.063mg/L和0.032 mg/L的溶液,浸泡螺卵,计算LC50.结果 将成螺浸泡在SCN、WPN和氯硝柳胺溶液中,24 h LC50分别为0.218、0.218 mg/L和0.203 mg/L;48 h LC50分别为0.189、0.203 mg/L和0.189 me,/L;72 h LC50分别为0.165、0.218 mg/L和0.177 mg/L.将螺卵浸泡在SCN、WPN和氯硝柳胺溶液中,24 h LC50分别为0.153、0.173 mg/L和0.171 mg/L;48 hLC50分别为0.085、0.096 mg/L和0.155 mg/L;72 h LC50分别为0.077、0.097 mg/L和0.087 mg/L.结论 SCN对光滑双脐螺成螺和螺卵均具有与WPN和原药相同的杀灭效果.

  7. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB) originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3%) and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Agua, EC strain), Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains), Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain), Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain), Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain) and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains). These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area.

  8. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  9. The Influence of Self-fertilization performance and Copulation Behaviour in Reproduction by Cross-fertilization in Groups of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Mollusca, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas June Springer de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The following hypotheses were tested for groups of simultaneous hermaphrodites Biomphalaria tenagophila: (a snails that have low reproductive success during the process of self-fertilization do not increase their reproductive success after the end of grouping; (b the copulation behaviour and the presence of one snail whose eggs have a low viability rate influence the partner's reproductive success by cross-fertilization. Groups were constituted by a homozygous pigmented snail and two albinos: one with a viability rate higher than 70% ("good reproducers" and the other less than 10% ("bad reproducers". All pigmented snails had viability rates higher than 70%. The "good" and "bad" reproducer albino snails had similar copulation behaviour. However, after the end of grouping, the "bad reproducers" continued to have viability rates less than 10% over 30 days. In 100% of the cases that pigmented snails copulated (performing either a male role or simultaneously male and female roles exclusively with "good" reproducer albinos, they presented high reproductive success (producing, on average of 8.4 pigmented embryos/egg-mass. However, in 100% of the cases that pigmented snails copulated with both partners, the "good" reproducer albino snails produced none or very few embryos (the highest average was 2.2 pigmented embryos/egg-mass. Therefore, the production of viable embryos by cross-fertilization was more influenced by self-fertilization performance than by copulation behaviour. The presence of a snail whose eggs have a low viability rate could decrease their partners reproductive success

  10. Discussion on candidate species of gastropoda organisms in toxicity testing%腹足纲动物毒性测试候选物种的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑师梅; 周启星; 熊红霞

    2011-01-01

    随着对内分泌干扰物在腹足纲动物中危害性的关注,软体动物污染生态问题逐渐受到重视.基于该研究方向现有进展,就几种典型腹足纲动物作为化学品测试受试生物的候选物种进行了论述,认为4种前鳃亚纲生物(新西兰泥蜗、鱼盘螺、福寿螺和铜锈环棱螺)和1种肺螺亚纲生物(静水椎实螺)具有生态意义,可以作为标准受试生物来发展.相对于其他国外学者提议的4种生物,我国学者提议的铜锈环棱螺具有本土意义,在化学品毒性测试过程中应该受到重视.在以上论述基础上,对腹足纲动物毒性测试今后研究的发展方向进行了展望.%With an attention to the hazard of endocrine disrupters on gastropoda organisms, the pollution-ecological problem of mollusks is being concerned gradually. Based on the current progress in the research area, several typical gastropoda organisms were discussed as the candidate species of testing organisms in the toxicity testing of chemicals. In view of their ecological significance, the four candidate prosobranchia species (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Valvata piscinalis, Pomacea lineate and Bellamya aeruginosa) and one pulmonata organism (Lymnaea stagnalis) were suggested to develop as the standard testing organisms. Compared with the four other organisms proposed by foreign scholars, Bellamya aeruginosa proposed by Chinese scholars is of indigenous significance. Thus, attentions should be paid to the species in the toxicity testing of chemicals. On the basis of above discussions, the aspects of research on gastropoda organisms as candidate species in the toxicity testing in the future were prospected.

  11. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  12. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  13. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves de; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  14. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  15. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  16. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  17. Rapid detection and identification of Candida albicans and Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata in clinical specimens by species-specific nested PCR amplification of a cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (L1A1) gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener-Kairuz, P; Zuber, J P; Jaunin, P; Buchman, T G; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1994-08-01

    PCR of a Candida albicans cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (P450-L1A1) gene segment is a rapid and sensitive method of detection in clinical specimens. This enzyme is a target for azole antifungal action. In order to directly detect and identify the clinically most important species of Candida, we cloned and sequenced 1.3-kbp fragments of the cytochrome P450-L1A1 genes from Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata and from Candida krusei. These segments were compared with the published sequences from C. albicans and Candida tropicalis. Amplimers for gene sequences highly conserved throughout the fungal kingdom were first used; positive PCR results were obtained for C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii DNA extracts. Primers were then selected for a highly variable region of the gene, allowing the species-specific detection from purified DNA of C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. The assay sensitivity as tested for C. albicans in seeded clinical specimens such as blood, peritoneal fluid, or urine was 10 to 20 cells per 0.1 ml. Compared with results obtained by culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the species-specific nested PCR tested with 80 clinical specimens were 71, 95, and 83% for C. albicans and 100, 97, and 98% for T. glabrata, respectively.

  18. Differentiation of Candida glabrata, C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis based on fragment length polymorphism of ITS1 and ITS2 and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS and D1/D2 regions in rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, H; Bruun, B; Schønheyder, H C

    2011-01-01

    Different molecular methods for the discrimination of Candida glabrata, C. bracarensis and C. nivariensis were evaluated and the prevalence of these species among Danish blood isolates investigated. Control strains were used to determine fragment length polymorphism in the ITS1, ITS2, ITS1-5.8S...

  19. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC

  20. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails.

  1. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  2. Avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 e E. coli (ATCC 8739. A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS, foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda, não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35% de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1. Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and E. coli (ATCC 8739

  3. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  4. Resistência de cepa de Biomphalaria tenagophila, originária de Londrina (Paraná, Brasil à infecção por duas cepas de Schistosoma mansoni

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    Pedro P. Chieffi

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, originários de Londrina, mostraram-se resistentes à infecção por cepa simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni e por cepa originária de Belo Horizonte (MG. Variando-se o diâmetro e a idade dos caramujos submetidos à infecção e aumentando-se o número de miracidios a que cada caramujo foi exposto, não se conseguiu obter cercárias de S. mansoni, 70 dias após a tentativa de infecção.Strains of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Londrina showed complete resistence to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, when the snails were exposed to the sympatric strain of the trematode or to the strain from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State. The resistence has been retained even when the diameter of the shell of the snails and the number of miracidia used to infect each snail, were altered.

  5. A nonsense mutation in the ERG6 gene leads to reduced susceptibility to polyenes in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Tronchin, Guy; Larcher, Gérald; Ernoult, Emilie; Bergès, Thierry; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Unlike the molecular mechanisms that lead to azole drug resistance, the molecular mechanisms that lead to polyene resistance are poorly documented, especially in pathogenic yeasts. We investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduced susceptibility to polyenes of a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata. Sterol content was analyzed by gas-phase chromatography, and we determined the sequences and levels of expression of several genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. We also investigated the effects of the mutation harbored by this isolate on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cell, cell viability, and vitality and susceptibility to cell wall-perturbing agents. The isolate had a lower ergosterol content in its membranes than the wild type, and the lower ergosterol content was found to be associated with a nonsense mutation in the ERG6 gene and induction of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Modifications of the cell wall were also seen, accompanied by increased susceptibility to cell wall-perturbing agents. Finally, this mutation, which resulted in a marked fitness cost, was associated with a higher rate of cell mortality. Wild-type properties were restored by complementation of the isolate with a centromeric plasmid containing a wild-type copy of the ERG6 gene. In conclusion, we have identified the molecular event responsible for decreased susceptibility to polyenes in a clinical isolate of C. glabrata. The nonsense mutation detected in the ERG6 gene of this isolate led to a decrease in ergosterol content. This isolate may constitute a useful tool for analysis of the relevance of protein trafficking in the phenomena of azole resistance and pseudohyphal growth.

  6. The effect of increasing water temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics: an agent-based modelling study.

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    Nicky McCreesh

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission.We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection.The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15-31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14-32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16-18°C and 1pm and 6-10pm in calm water, and 20-25°C and 12-4pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission.The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour--proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading

  7. Review of palaeozygopleurid gastropods (Palaeozygopleuridae, Gastropoda) from Devonian strata of the Perunica microplate (Bohemia), with a re-evaluation of their stratigraphic distribution, notes on their ontogeny, and descriptions of new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frýda, Jiři; Ferrová, Lenka; Frýdová, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Review of all species of the family Palaeozygopleuridae Horný, 1955 (Gastropoda) known from the Perunica microplate (Bohemia) is presented with a description of three new species, Palaeozygopleura lukesi sp. nov., Cimrmaniela sveraki gen. et sp. nov. and Cimrmaniela smoljaki gen. et sp. nov. The stratigraphic distributions of the most of Bohemian palaeozygopleurid species are either corrected or refined, based on new records or modern stratigraphic studies. A complete list of the geographic occurrences of all known palaeozygopleurid gastropods from the Perunica microplate is also given together with notes on their ontogeny.

  8. 光滑念珠菌 Cdc42基因生物信息分析%Bioinformatics Analysis of Cdc42 Gene from Candida Glabrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 黄怀球; 袁立燕; 钟毅; 张静; 张晓辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析和预测光滑念珠菌Cdc42基因及其编码蛋白的结构和特性。方法:利用NCBI、Ex-PASy和CBS网站中的各种信息分析工具,并结合Vector NTI suite 8.0生物信息学分析软件包,分析预测光滑念珠菌Cdc42基因并预测该基因编码蛋白结构的特征和功能。结果:Cdc42基因全长为576 bp,编码区具有191个氨基酸,在GenBank同源序列中,其与酵母 Cdc42氨基酸序列一致性达到99%,且有Cdc42保守域。 Cdc42蛋白相对分子量预测为21420.83,理论等电点为6.31。预测Cdc42编码蛋白ɑ螺旋(H)、β折叠(E)、无规则卷(L)的比例分别是29.84%、28.70%、41.88%,1个GTP/ATP结合位点。 Cdc42蛋白为疏水蛋白,无跨膜区,无信号肽。结论:成功预测Cdc42基因及编码蛋白生化及结构特征,为下一步对其进行克隆和表达奠定基础。%Objective:To analyze and predict the structure and properties about encoding pro-tein of cell division cycle 42(Cdc42) from Candida glabrata by bioinformatics.Methods:A full-length cDNA sequence encoding Cdc 42 from Candida glabrata was identified by using tools of bioinformatics at webs sites of NCBI , ExPASy, CBS and software Vector NTI suite 8.0.The char-acteristics of the protein were predicted by employing bioinformatics software package supplied by the website of ExPaSy .Results:The full length of Cdc42 is 576 bp, and its ORF encodes 191 ami-no acid.The relationship of phylogenesis between Candida glabrata and other fungus is close .The prediction shows that Cdc 42 had a Cdc42 conserved domain , the molecular weight and theoretical pI of Cg.Cdc42 was 21 420.83 and 6.31 respectively, and the coding protein contains 29.84%ɑ-helix, 28.70%extended strand,41.88% random coil,and one GTP/ATP motif.Cdc42 enco-ding protein is hydrophobic , extra-membrane protein , without signal peptide .Conclusion:The structure and characteristics of the gene and protein of Cg .Cdc42 was

  9. A new approach to an old conundrum--DNA barcoding sheds new light on phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis in microsnails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Carychiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Alexander M; Jochum, Adrienne; Pfenninger, Markus; Steinke, Dirk; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The identification of microsnail taxa based on morphological characters is often a time-consuming and inconclusive process. Aspects such as morphological stasis and phenotypic plasticity further complicate their taxonomic designation. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of DNA barcoding can alleviate these problems within the Carychiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). These microsnails are a taxon of the pulmonate lineage and most likely migrated onto land independently of the Stylommatophora clade. Their taxonomical classification is currently based on conchological and anatomical characters only. Despite much confusion about historic species assignments, the Carychiidae can be unambiguously subdivided into two taxa: (i) Zospeum species, which are restricted to karst caves, and (ii) Carychium species, which occur in a broad range of environmental conditions. The implementation of discrete molecular data (COI marker) enabled us to correctly designate 90% of the carychiid microsnails. The remaining cases were probably cryptic Zospeum and Carychium taxa and incipient species, which require further investigation into their species status. Because conventional reliance upon mostly continuous (i.e. nondiscrete) conchological characters is subject to fallibility for many gastropod species assignments, we highly recommend the use of DNA barcoding as a taxonomic, cutting-edge method for delimiting microsnail taxa.

  10. Comportamento reológico de méis de florada de silvestre Rheological behavior of honey from Serjania glabrata flowers

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    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento reológico de méis de Apis mellifera produzidos no estado do Piauí, no semi-árido brasileiro, elaborados com florada predominante de silvestre (Serjania glabrata. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo do ano 2000, a partir de coletas realizadas por apicultores, associações e cooperativas de apicultura da região abrangida pelos municípios de Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes e Isaías Coelho. Após as coletas as amostras passaram pelos processos de centrifugação, filtragem e decantação. As medidas reológicas foram feitas nas temperaturas de 20 a 40 ºC utilizando-se um viscosímetro Brookfield, modelo RVT. As leituras de velocidade de rotação e torque foram transformadas em valores de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento. Os dados de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento foram ajustados pelas equações da Lei-da-Potência e de Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico. As equações se ajustaram adequadamente aos resultados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento em função da taxa de deformação. O aumento de temperatura reduziu a viscosidade aparente em níveis próximos de 80%. Os valores de viscosidade aparente foram bem ajustados por uma equação do tipo Arrhenius.The rheological behavior of Apis mellifera honey produced in the State of Piauí, in the Brazilian semi-arid, obtained with predominance of Serjania glabrata flowers was studied. The samples were collected in the year 2000 by beekeepers and associations and cooperatives of beekeepers in the area covered by the municipal districts of Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes and Isaías Coelho. The samples were centrifuged, filtered, decanted and the rheological measures at temperatures of 20 to 40 ºC using a Brookfield Viscometer RVT model were made. The readings of rotation speed and torque were transformed in shear rate and shear stress values. The data of shear rate and shear stress were fitted

  11. New insights into the structure of (1→3,1→6-β-D-glucan side chains in the Candida glabrata cell wall.

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    Douglas W Lowman

    Full Text Available β-Glucan is a (1→3-β-linked glucose polymer with (1→6-β-linked side chains and a major component of fungal cell walls. β-Glucans provide structural integrity to the fungal cell wall. The nature of the (1-6-β-linked side chain structure of fungal (1→3,1→6-β-D-glucans has been very difficult to elucidate. Herein, we report the first detailed structural characterization of the (1→6-β-linked side chains of Candida glabrata using high-field NMR. The (1→6-β-linked side chains have an average length of 4 to 5 repeat units spaced every 21 repeat units along the (1→3-linked polymer backbone. Computer modeling suggests that the side chains have a bent curve structure that allows for a flexible interconnection with parallel (1→3-β-D-glucan polymers, and/or as a point of attachment for proteins. Based on these observations we propose new approaches to how (1→6-β-linked side chains interconnect with neighboring glucan polymers in a manner that maximizes fungal cell wall strength, while also allowing for flexibility, or plasticity.

  12. Reduced susceptibility to polyenes associated with a missense mutation in the ERG6 gene in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with pseudohyphal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Tronchin, Guy; Bergès, Thierry; Hennequin, Christophe; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Little information is available about the molecular mechanisms responsible for polyene resistance in pathogenic yeasts. A clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with a poor susceptibility to polyenes, as determined by disk diffusion method and confirmed by determination of MIC, was recovered from a patient treated with amphotericin B. Quantitative analysis of sterols revealed a lack of ergosterol and an accumulation of late sterol intermediates, suggesting a defect in the final steps of the ergosterol pathway. Sequencing of CgERG11, CgERG6, CgERG5, and CgERG4 genes revealed exclusively a unique missense mutation in CgERG6 leading to the substitution of a cysteine by a phenylalanine in the corresponding protein. In addition, real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated an overexpression of genes encoding enzymes involved in late steps of the ergosterol pathway. Moreover, this isolate exhibited a pseudohyphal growth whatever the culture medium used, and ultrastructural changes of the cell wall of blastoconidia were seen consisting in a thinner inner layer. Cell wall alterations were also suggested by the higher susceptibility of growing cells to Calcofluor white. Additionally, complementation of this isolate with a wild-type copy of the CgERG6 gene restored susceptibility to polyenes and a classical morphology. Together, these results demonstrated that mutation in the CgERG6 gene may lead to a reduced susceptibility to polyenes and to a pseudohyphal growth due to the subsequent changes in sterol content of the plasma membrane.

  13. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  14. The proteome of the Torulopsis glabrata under hyperosmotic stress%高渗胁迫对光滑球拟酵母蛋白质组的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐沙; 刘立明

    2014-01-01

    光滑球拟酵母(Torulopsis glabrata)在生产丙酮酸的过程中,发酵液渗透压不断提高,导致细胞生长缓慢,影响丙酮酸的持续积累.实验通过二维电泳和同位素标记相对和绝对定量(iTRAQ)技术,比较不同渗透压条件下蛋白质组的差异.结果表明,在渗透压为1 765、2 603和3 324 mOsmol/kg时,相对于对照条件(860mOsmol/kg),分别有125、91和109个蛋白表达水平上调,94、89和78个蛋白表达水平下调,其中中心代谢和能量代谢途径的蛋白质表达量明显提高.此外,研究还发现,渗透压胁迫可诱导超氧化物歧化酶和富脯蛋白的表达量增加,前者可能和高渗环境下活性氧簇的积累有关,而后者可能与胞内脯氨酸的积累有关.该文为后续研究如何提高T.glabrata抵御高渗胁迫的能力提供理论依据.

  15. Analysis of ERG11 gene mutations in fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata strains%耐氟康唑光滑念珠菌ERG11基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈银忠; 卢洪洲; 张永信

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the mutations of ERG11 gene which encodes P450 lanosterol 14-α demethylase, and to explore the possible role of ERG11 gene in inducing fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata. Methods ERG11 genes of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates and 10 fluconazole-sensitive Candida glabrata isolates were cloned into pUC57-T vector. The open reading frame of ERG11 gene were sequenced by two directional sequencing using universal primers. All sequences were compared with the published sequence. Results Ten kinds of synonymous point mutation were found. Neither missense mutation nor frame-shifting mutation was found. Among the 10 kinds of synonymous point mutation, 5 were found in both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazolesensitive Candida glabrata isolates, and 3 were only found in fluconazole-resistant isolates, 2 were only found in fluconazole-sensitive ones. The majority of the point mutations were located between 1320-2200 base pair of ERG11 gene. Conclusions There are ERG11 gene polymorphisms in clinical strains of Candida glabrata. ERG11 gene mutations are not found to be involved in the development of fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata.%目的 分析耐药氟康唑光滑念珠菌ERG11基因突变情况,探讨ERG11基因突变在光滑念珠菌耐药性形成中的作用.方法 分别将氟康唑耐药光滑念珠菌株9株和敏感株10株的ERG11基因克隆至pUC57-T载体,利用载体上的通用引物对其ERG11基因整个开放读码框进行双向测序,将测序结果与网上公布的标准序列进行比对.结果 19株光滑念珠菌耐药株和敏感株ERG11基因共存在10个点突变,均为同义突变,无错义突变和移码突变.其中5个点突变在耐药株和敏感株中均出现,3个只出现在耐药株,2个只出现在敏感株.点突变主要位于ERG11基因1320~2200 bp,出现频率最高的3个点突变为T2117A、A1583G、T1328C.结论 光滑念珠菌ERG11基因序列

  16. A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Rapado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, “in silico” studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  17. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  18. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Gasparotto Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (- mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR ¹H, NMR 13C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (- mammea A/BB showed LD50 = 0.67 ppm and LD90 = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV.

  19. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincón, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-04-23

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  20. Diagnóstico da esquistossomose mansônica mediante técnica de imunofluorescência com esporocistos em tecidos de planorbídeos Diagnosis of mansoni schistosomiasis by means of immunofluorescent technique using sporocysts in planorbid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Aparecida Guaraldo

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se uma técnica de imunofluorescência para diagnóstico da esquistossomose mansônica, adotando-se tecidos de Biomphalaria glabrata contendo esporocistos secundários de Schistosoma mansoni. A reação de imunofluorescência indireta é executada sobre cortes histológicos preparados por inclusão em parafina.An immunofluorescent technique is proposed for diagnosis of mansoni schistosomiasis using Biomphalaria glabrata tissue with secondary sporocysts. The indirect immunofluorescent reaction is carried out on histological sections prepared by embedding in paraffin.

  1. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  2. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan

  3. Characterization of the Life Cycle of a Fish Eye Fluke, Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae (Digenea: Diplostomidae), with Notes on Two Other Diplostomids Infecting Biomphalaria havanensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae) from Catfish Aquaculture Ponds in Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Thomas G; Alberson, Neely R; Khoo, Lester H; Woodyard, Ethan T; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-04-01

    Ocular diplostomiasis is caused by trematode species in the family Diplostomidae, specifically those in the genera Austrodiplostomum, Diplostomum, and Tylodelphys. Diplostomid trematodes are globally distributed parasites of fish. Heavy infections of diplostomids that parasitize the eyes of fish can result in acute mortality while chronic infections are often characterized by impaired vision or blindness. In the southeastern United States, commercial catfish production is threatened by piscivorous birds and the many trematode species that parasitize them. The life cycles typically involve a piscivorous avian definitive host, a mollusk first intermediate host, and a fish second intermediate host. A survey of parasites infecting the snail host Biomphalaria havanensis (= B. obstructa ) in catfish production ponds was undertaken. Snails were collected from 2 separate ponds during the summer of 2014 and observed for the release of trematode cercariae. A total of 1,740 snails were collected. Three distinct longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were observed and these cercariae were characterized morphologically and molecularly. Sequencing of ∼4,200 base pairs (bp) of the nuclear ribosomal genes and ∼450 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene revealed 3 genetically distinct species. One morphotype shared 99-100% sequence identity with metacercariae from the aqueous and vitreous humors of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus as well as an adult trematode, Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae, a parasite of the double-crested cormorant Nannopterum auritus. The remaining 2 cercariae morphotypes shared 99-100% sequence identity with an unidentified Tylodelphys sp. and Austrodiplostomum sp. metacercaria from the brain and eyes of several freshwater fish. Herein we molecularly link the cercaria, metacercaria, and adult stage of the life cycle of A. ostrowskiae, identifying the snail host for this parasite, in addition to providing notes

  4. Physiological function of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in Torulopsis glabrata%光滑球拟酵母中α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶系生理作用解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旦旦; 刘立明; 堵国成; 陈坚

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]We studied the physiological function of a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex ( KGDH) on the metabolism of Torulopsis glabrata .[Methods]With manipulation of KGDH in Torulopsis glabrata, we screened a mutant strain T. Glabrata kgdl: : kan, in which the kgd1 gene encoding the El subunit of KGDH was deleted.[Results]Disruption of KGDH resulted in: (a) the enhancement of glyoxalate pathway as a complementarity for carbon metabolism in TCA cycle; (b) compared with that of the control, the ratio of NADH/NAD + and ATP/ADP decreased by 33.7% and 31.8% , respectively. But the specific activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase increased by 58.1 % , 33.3% and 32.5%, respectively; (c) the intracellular concentration of pyruvate was reduced by 49.9%, while the intracellular concentration of succinate, malate and a-ketoglutarate was higher 172.7%, 66.1% and 41.1% than the corresponding values of the control; (d) The content of pyruvate-family amino acid was 29.3% lower while the level of glutamate-family amino acid and aspartate-family amino acid were 34.7% and 26.8% higher than that of control.[Conclusions]Those results present here demonstrated that a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex plays essential role on the metabolism of yeast.%[目的]研究α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶系在光滑球拟酵母碳代谢流、能量代谢和氨基酸代谢中的生理作用.[方法]通过敲除光滑球拟酵母中编码α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶系中E1酶的基因kgd1,构建α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶活性缺失菌株T.glabrata kgd1::kan,并考察KGDH缺失引起TCA循环关键酶活性,碳代谢流量以及胞内氨基酸和能荷水平等方面的变化.[结果]光滑球拟酵母中α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶活性的缺失导致:(1)细胞启动乙醛酸途径,通过形成TCA-乙醛酸循环实现TCA循环的正常代谢;(2)胞内NADH/NAD+水平下降33.7%,ATP/ADP水平下降31.8%,而与NADH代谢相关的丙酮酸脱氢酶、异柠檬

  5. Fluconazole and Echinocandin Resistance of Candida glabrata Correlates Better with Antifungal Drug Exposure Rather than with MSH2 Mutator Genotype in a French Cohort of Patients Harboring Low Rates of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellière, Sarah; Healey, Kelley; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Carrara, Bastien; Barbaro, Alessandro; Guigue, Nicolas; Lecefel, Christophe; Touratier, Sophie; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Perlin, David S.; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a major pathogenic yeast in humans that is known to rapidly acquire resistance to triazole and echinocandin antifungal drugs. A mutator genotype (MSH2 polymorphism) inducing a mismatch repair defect has been recently proposed to be responsible for resistance acquisition in C. glabrata clinical isolates. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of antifungal resistance in a large cohort of patients in Saint-Louis hospital, Paris, France, some of whom were pre-exposed to antifungal drugs, as well as to determine whether MSH2 polymorphisms are associated with an increased rate of fluconazole or echinocandin resistance. We collected 268 isolates from 147 patients along with clinical data and previous antifungal exposure. Fluconazole and micafungin minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) were tested, short tandem repeat genotyping was performed, and the MSH2 gene was sequenced. According to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility breakpoints, 15.7% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC > 32 mg/L) and 0.7% were resistant to micafungin (MIC > 0.03 mg/L). A non-synonymous mutation within MSH2 occurred in 44% of the isolates, and 17% were fluconazole resistant. In comparison, fluconazole resistant isolates with no MSH2 mutation represented 15% (P = 0.65). MSH2 polymorphisms were associated with the short tandem repeat genotype. The rate of echinocandin resistance is low and correlates with prior exposure to echinocandin. The mutator genotype was not associated with enrichment in fluconazole resistance but instead corresponded to rare and specific genotypes. PMID:28066361

  6. The molluscicidal activity of coumarins from Ethulia conyzoides and of dicumarol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kady, M M; Brimer, L; Furu, P

    1992-01-01

    The molluscicidal principles of Ethulia conyzoides were identified as ethuliacoumarin A (1) and isoethuliacoumarin A (2). Ethuliacoumarin A possessed an LC90 between 19 and 23.5 ppm depending on the age of the snail against Biomphalaria glabrata, and between 12 and 15 ppm against Bulinus truncatu...

  7. 藁杆双脐螺在中国内陆的分布现状与传病风险%Distribution and schistosomiasis transmission risks of Biomphalaria stra-minea in inland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄少玉; 张启明; 李晓恒; 邓卓晖

    2014-01-01

    藁杆双脐螺可作为曼氏血吸虫中间宿主,1981年证实在深圳市局部地区有该螺孳生;2013年再次调查发现,该螺已在深圳市、以及周边的东莞市和惠州市等地大范围蔓延扩散,并已在当地形成较优势种群,有进一步扩散的趋势。由于深圳市及周边地区与国际交流密切,劳务输出等人口流动性大,且目前我国由境外输入的曼氏血吸虫病病例报道亦逐渐增多,因此曼氏血吸虫病在我国传播或流行的潜在风险因素正在逐步增加,必须引起高度重视,及早采取相应的防控措施,加强监测,降低该病在我国传播或流行的风险。本文就藁杆双脐螺在中国内陆的发现、分布、扩散蔓延及传病风险等进行了综述,并提出相关的防控建议。%Biomphalaria straminea,the intermediary host of Schistosoma mansoni,was found by survey in local areas of Shen-zhen City in 1981,which was the first finding of the snail in inland China. By 2013,the snail had spread in large range of Shen-zhen City and overspread to the surrounding regions,Dongguan City and Huizhou City. Due to the facts that Shenzhen City has many international communications and is a key area of labor export,with high population mobility,while the reports of S. manso-ni infection in the returnees of our country from Africa have been increasing recently,it must be paid a high attention to whether the epidemic or transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni may happen under the present circumstance. This paper initially discusses the finding,distribution,spreading and overspreading and transmission risk of B. straminea in inland China and puts forward some related control suggestions.

  8. Lab-scale preparations of Candida albicans and dual Candida albicans-Candida glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) perfusion tube using a modified gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Lu, KeQiao; Tian, Ge; Cui, YanYan; Yan, YuanYuan; Wang, TianMing; Zhang, XinLong; Wang, ChangZhong

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of a man-made gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI) was described, which was composed of a gas cushion injector and four incubators. The GS-FFBI had the characteristics of (i) a bottom-up flow direction, and (ii) lab-scale biofilm preparation without the use of a multichannel pump. Two opportunistic fungal strains, namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, were employed to incubate C. albicans and dual C. albicans-C. glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride perfusion tube. In terms of the results from {2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} (XTT) assay, dry weight measurement, colony-forming unit counting, susceptibility test, and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that GS-FFBI could form both stable single and dual Candida biofilms with no significant variations among the four incubators or the three daily incubations within 21h, and could operate for at least 96h smoothly with no contamination of stock medium. The results also indicated, for the first time, that C. albicans and C. glabrata might be co-existent competitively and symbiotically in the dual biofilms with flowing media. GS-FFBI would be a useful device to study in vitro morphological and physiological features of microbial biofilms in the medical settings.

  9. 医院感染光滑念珠菌耐药性及流行病学分析%Epidemiology and drug-resistance analysis of nosocomial infection of Candida glabrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冰; 姚冬婷; 应春妹; 汪雅萍; 张灏旻; 杨俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析仁济医院光滑念珠菌的基因分型以及不同基因型光滑念珠菌的药物敏感性结果,以了解仁济医院光滑念珠菌的耐药性和流行情况,并探讨两者间是否存在相关性.方法 运用多位点序列分型(MLST)技术,对34株光滑念珠菌的6个管家基因进行测序分析,利用Clustalx软件与MLST数据库进行序列比对,确定其等位基因谱型及菌株序列型(ST).利用Clustalx软件绘制进化树,同时通过eBURST程序将菌株分为各个克隆系,以比较不同基因型之间亲缘关系的远近.采用ATB FUNGUS半自动真菌鉴定和药物敏感性分析系统进行药物敏感性试验,结合基因分型结果,运用Ridit分析方法探究两者的联系.结果 34株光滑念珠菌经MLST分型,得到6个ST,其中ST-7 27株,占总数的79.4% (27/34);ST-10 3株,占总数的8.8% (3/34),其余4型(ST-3、ST-15、ST-43、ST-55)各1株.34株光滑念珠菌对氟胞嘧啶、两性霉素B 100.0%敏感,对伏立康唑和氟康唑的敏感率分别为97.1%和91.2%,伊曲康唑抑菌效果差,敏感率仅11.8%.以ST-7为标准组,氟康唑、伏立康唑及伊曲康唑药物组中ST-10组及其他ST组均包含标准组的平均Ridit值.结论 ST-7为仁济医院光滑念珠菌中优势菌株;光滑念珠菌的耐药谱与基因型相关性差.%Objective To investigate genotypes and drug susceptibility of Candida glabrata isolated from Renji Hospital in order to study its drug-resistance and epidemic situation, and investigate their correlation. Methods Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique was introduced to identify sequences of 6 housekeeping genes from 34 isolates of Candida glabrata. The results were compared with sequence information in MLST databases by Clustalx software lo determine a strain allelic profile and sequence type(ST). By drawing the phylogenetic Iree by Clustalx software, the isolates were classified into various clonal complexes by eBURST program to compare

  10. 光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的分子机制%Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈银忠; 卢洪洲; 张永信

    2010-01-01

    目的 明确光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的主要分子机制.方法 采用实时荧光定量RT.PCR技术对光滑念珠菌临床分离株ERG11、CDR1和CDR2基因表达的mRNA进行相对定量,比较氟康唑耐药株与敏感株基因表达水平的差异.结果 在光滑念珠菌氟康唑耐药株、剂量依赖性敏感株及敏感株中,ERG11基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:121.4±96.8、102.9±78.8、51.2±20.7:CDR1基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:3.1±1.4、1.9±0.7、1.1±0.4;CDR2基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:3.7±2.2、3.4±2.4、1.9±0.9.耐药株ERGll基因mRNA表达量高于敏感株(P=0.041);耐药株(P<0.001)和剂量依赖性敏感株(P=0.009)CDR1基因mRNA表达量均高于敏感株;耐药株CDR2基因mRNA表达量高于敏感株(P=0.018).随着光滑念珠菌对氟康唑敏感性的降低,ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因mRNA的表达量均不同程度上升.结论 ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因mRNA的上调表达与光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑的耐药性有关,ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因上调表达是光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的主要分子机制.%Objective To determine if changes in the levels of expression of ERG11, CDR1 and CDR2 genes could be associated with resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Candida glbrata (C. glabrata). Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR analysis to evaluate the expression of the ERG11, CDR1 and CDR2 genes in clinical isolates including 9 fluconazole-resistant, 9 flueonazole-susceptible dose dependent (S-DD) and 10 fluconazole-sensitive C glabrata isolates. Results In the fluconazole-resistant isolates. The S-DD isolates and the fluconazole-sensitive isolates, the levels of expression of ERG11 gene were 21.4±96.8, 102.9±78.8, 51.2±20.7, respectively; the levels of expression of CDR1 gene were 3.1±1.4, 1.9±0.7,1.1±0.4, respectively; the levels of expression of CDR2 gene were 3.7±2.2,3.4±2.4,1.9±0.9, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed

  11. Molluscicidal properties of some species of Annona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

    2001-03-01

    In search for plant molluscicides for the vector control of schistosomiasis, ethanolic extracts from different parts of six species of the Annonaceae family were evaluated against adult forms and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata. Results from accurate experiments indicate that the majority of analyzed extracts possess properties lethal to Biomphalaria glabrata, some of them with significant LD90 values (Annona crassiflora M: [pulp and seed (LD50 = 13.21), steem (2.34), root bark (3.79)], Annona glabra L. [seed (17.02)], Annona muricata [leaf (8.75)]. Emphasis is held mainly into Annona muricata L. (leaf) and Annona squamosa Veil. (root) for presenting additional toxicity toward snail egg masses.

  12. Population dynamics of aquatic snails in Pampulha reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Freitas

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine more accurately the density of molluskan populations in the Pampulha reservoir, using the quadrate method, intending to detect the fluctuation of the populations density, the habitat conditions and the possible competitive interactions among Biomphalaria tenagophila, Melanoides tuberculata, Pomacea haustrum and Biomphalaria glabrata, through the analysis of populational parameters. Among the most significative facts observed in the reservoir it has to be mentioned: the almost disappearance of B. glabrata; the invasion, colonization, fixation and fast growing of M. tuberculata population until reaching about 11,000 individuals/[square metre]; the density fluctuations of B. tenagophila, P. haustrum and M. tuberculata alives and deads; differences on the habitat preference of these three molluskan species at the edge (at the limit earth-water, at 0.70m and 1.40m from the shore line; monthly mortality rates and reproduction seasons of the species.

  13. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b. (Euphorbiaceae - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  15. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  16. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  17. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  18. Chromosome Behavior of Pollen Mother Cell Meiosis in the Hybrid Progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat%提莫菲维小麦与光稃野燕麦远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安洪周; 胡梅; 郑会敏; 张素勤; 张庆勤

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomic meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat was researched by general cytology and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study.The results showed that the PMCs meiotic index of the F3 line was 87.46,indicating some genetic instability.4 pairs of red hybridization signals were found in the PMCs at the metaphase Ⅰ by GISH analysis,and there was a red signal in each dissociative univalent.Some lagging chromosome,chromosome bridges and micronuclei were discovered at the anaphase Ⅰ,anaphase Ⅱ and telophase Ⅱ,with the percentage of 10.58%,1.92% and 12.36%,respectively.Wheat homologues or homoeologues normally pairing was interfered by the wild oat chromatin might lead to these abnormal phenomena.%通过普通细胞学和基因组原位杂交(GISH)研究提莫菲维小麦(Triticum timopheevi)与光稃野燕麦(Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat)远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞染色体减数分裂行为.结果表明,该R株系花粉母细胞的减数分裂指数为87.46,表现出一定的遗传不稳定性.GISH分析发现该F3株系中期I细胞中有4对红色杂交信号,且游离的单价体上各有1个杂交信号;后期Ⅰ、后期Ⅱ和末期Ⅱ出现落后染色体、染色体桥、微核等现象,分别占观察数的10.58%、1.92%和12.36%,这些异常现象可能是由于光稃野燕麦遗传物质干扰了小麦同源染色体或部分同源染色体的正常配对造成的.

  19. Karyotype Analysis of the Parents and Progenies from the Wide Cross Israel Wild Emmer Wheat × Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat%以色列野生二粒小麦和光稃野燕麦杂交本与后代核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海鹏; 郑会敏; 张素勤; 耿广东; 张庆勤

    2012-01-01

    对以色列野生二粒小麦(母本)和光稃野燕麦(父本)远缘杂交亲本与后代的核型及进化关系进行了分析.结果表明:母本的染色体长度比为1.626,核型公式为2n =4x =28=18m(2SAT)+10sm(2SAT),核型为1A.父本的染色体长度比为2.526,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =20m(2SAT)+22sm(4SAT),核型类型为2B.以色列野生二粒小麦和光稃野燕麦杂交后代0878株系的染色体数目为42,染色体长度比为1.802,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =22m(2SAT)+20sm(2SAT),核型为2A.0878-1株系的染色体数目为42,染色体长度比为2.057,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =38m +4sm(4SAT),核型为2B.由于光稃野燕麦遗传物质渗入到该杂交后代,获得了进化程度高于其母本的普通小麦型小麦新种质.%The karyotype and evolutional relationship of wild emmer wheat from Israel (female parent) , Avena fatua L var. Glabrata pat (male parent) and their offsprings were analyzed in the present study. The maternal chromosome length ratio was 1.626, its karyotype formula was 2n =4x = 28 = 18m (2SAT) + 10sm (2SAT), and belonged to the type 1 A. The paternal chromosome length ratio was 2. 526, its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =20m (2SAT) +22sm (4SAT), and attributed to the type 2B. The chromosome number of the line 0878 was 42, its chromosome length ratio was1. 802, its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =22m (2SAT) +20sm (2SAT) , and pertained to the type 2A. The chromosome number of the line 0878 - 1 was 42, its chromosome length ratio was2. 057, and its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =38m +4sm (4SAT), classified to the type 2B. A new wheat germplasm, more evolutive than its female parent, was achieved due to chromatin intro-gression of A. Fatua L. Var. Glabrata pat.

  20. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

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    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  1. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida da Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., (Asclepiadaceae Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., (Asclepiadaceae

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    Andréa Brustolin

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae é uma trepadeira lenhosa nativa da Índia. As folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como antidiabética, estomáquica, diurética refrigerante, adstringente e tônica. O extrato metanólico bruto e suas frações das partes aéreas foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. O extrato metanólico bruto e suas frações foram analisados em cromatografia em camada delgada, determinados os índices hemolítico e de espuma; e realizados os ensaios físico-químicos das partes aéreas desta espécie. Das cinco frações obtidas do extrato metanólico bruto, a fração metanólica apresentou maior atividade moluscicida e demonstrou a presença de compostos hemolíticos em cromatografia de camada delgadaGymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a native plant found in India. The leaves are used in folk medicine as antidiabetic, stomachic, diuretic, astringent and tonic. The methanolic extract and fractions obtained from aerial parts were used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the snail (Biomphalaria glabrata. The methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, foam and the hemolitic index were measured, and the physical and chemical characteristics of aerial parts of this species were analyzed. The methanolic extract yielded five fractions, the methanolic fraction presented moluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and showed content of hemolitic compound by thin-layer chromatography

  2. Molluscicidal acridone alkaloids from Angostura paniculata: isolation, structures, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, P C; Kubo, I; Kujime, H; Yamagiwa, Y; Kamikawa, T

    1992-08-01

    Two novel acridone alkaloids, cuspanine [1] and cusculine [2], were isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of the leaves of Angostura paniculata (Rutaceae). Their structures were established as 1-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-9-acridone for 1 and 1,2,3,5,6-pentamethoxy-9-acridone for 2 by means of spectroscopic studies, in particular nmr. These structural assignments were confirmed by synthesis, using a direct metallation method as a key reaction. Both alkaloids exhibited moderate molluscicidal activity against an aquatic snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and cytotoxicity against several types of carcinoma cell lines.

  3. Detection and quantification of fluconazole within Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Candida infections are often associated with biofilms and consequent high resistance to most common drugs (e.g. azoles). These resistance mechanisms are not only associated with the biofilm yeast physiology, but also with the presence of a diffusional barrier imposed by the biofilm matrix; however, the real biochemical role of the biofilm components remains very unclear. So, in order to further clarify this issue, we intend to determine, for the first time, fluconazole in biofilms within both supernatants and matrices. Candida biofilms were formed in the presence of fluconazole, and it was recovered from both supernatant and matrix cell-free fractions. Then, high-pressure liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the amount of drug that was present in the two fractions. Moreover, this study also showed that the presence of fluconazole in both fractions indicated that the drug administrated did not completely reach the cells, so this phenomena can easily be associated with lower biofilm susceptibility, since the drug administered did not completely reach the cells.

  4. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

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    Selma Patricia Diniz Cantanhede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. This paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species, which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1% from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  5. Schistosomiasis mansoni in areas of low transmission: epidemiological characterization of Venezuelan foci

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    Alarcón de Noya B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe schistosomiasis is a rare event in Venezuela nowadays, after a successful national campaign by the Schistosomiasis Control Program. Unfortunately, this program has practically disappeared, and snail surveillance in field is not a priority, anymore. Thus, schistosomiasis has become a neglected disease in this country. However, surveys in different populations from the endemic area have shown particular epidemiological features described herein. In five communities we evaluated 2,175 persons and searched for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Some markers were used for classifying schistosomiasis foci: mean age of the persons with Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the stools, serological tests, presence of B. glabrata snails, and intensity of infection. Places without B. glabrata snails and with few schistosomiasis cases were defined as "past transmission sites"; a site with abundant snails but few cases was defined as "potential risk"; "new transmission" foci were characterized by the presence of infected snails and young people passing eggs in the stools. A "re-emergent" focus has shared these last features, showing in addition a place where schistosomiasis had been reported before. Recent evidences of active transmission with the increasing dispersion of B. glabrata snails, point out the necessity for the re-establishment of the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Venezuela.

  6. Levantamento malacológico da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, (Minas Gerais, Brasil Malacological survey at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco (Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Roney Elias da Silva

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo malacológico realizado na Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, MG, no período de setembro de 1986 a março de 1991, foram coletados 46.579 moluscos, representados por 07 espécies de 05 famílias. Foram coletados 39.176 exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, 1.296 de B. glabrata, sete exemplares de Drepanotrema cimex, 2.527 de Physa sp, 417 de Lymnaea sp, 92 de Pomacea haustrum e, a partir de março/1990, 3.064 exemplares de Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae = Thiaridae. Dos moluscos que apresentaram positividade para diversas larvas de trematódeos, quatro exemplares de B. tenagophila estavam positivos para S. mansoni.A malacological survey was carried out at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco, State of Minas Gerais, for the period 1986-1991. A total amount of 46,579 mollusks was collected, and among them seven species corresponding to five families could be found, as follows: 39,176 specimens of Biomphalaria tenagophila; 1,296 B. glabrata; 7 Drepanotrema cimex; 2,527 Physa sp; 417 Lymnaea sp; 92 Pomacea hastrum, and 3,064 specimens of Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae=Thiaridae were collected from March/1990 onwards. Four specimens of B. tenagophila were found to be positive for Schistosoma mansoni.

  7. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

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    Otávio S. Pieri

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and derivatives

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    Celso A. Camara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic profile of lawsone (2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and a series of [1,4]naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against the brine shrimp Artemia salina and against the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, the main transmitting vector of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Of the seventeen compounds tested nine fell below the threshold of 100 µg/mL set for potential molluscicidal activity by the World Health Organization. As a general rule derivatives with non-polar substituents presented the highest molluscicidal activities. These substances showed significant toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay.A toxicidade da lausona (2-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona e de diversos derivados foi avaliada frente à Artemia salina e ao molusco Biomphalaria glabrata, o principal vetor de transmissão da esquistossomose no Brasil. Entre os dezessete compostos testados, nove apresentaram um perfil de toxicidade menor que 100 µg/mL, sendo potenciais agentes moluscicidas de acordo com as designações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. No presente estudo, os compostos contendo substituintes apolares exibiram as maiores atividades. Estes compostos também se mostraram significantemente tóxicos frente à A. salina.

  9. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  10. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  11. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia

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    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia. A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 from Tramandaí river basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  12. Miscellaneous notes on Southern African Gastropoda Euthyneura (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY The following new distribution records of southern African terrestrial molluscs seem to be of particular interest: Pupilla fontana (Krss.), Rachis jejuna (M. & P.), Guppya rumrutiensis (Prest.), Xerocerastus burchelli (Gray) (all four new for Rhodesia), Euonyma damarica Jaeck. (new for Cape

  13. Untersuchungen zum Harnsäuremetabolismus von Littorina littorea (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, K. P.; Eichelberg, D.

    1983-12-01

    Periwinkles, as typical inhabitants of sea-shores, are subjected to extreme changes of environmental conditions, which affect their excretion. In Littorina littorea uric acid, urea and ammonium were detected particularly in the kidney, but the only metabolite excreted was ammonium. Only the concentration of uric acid was dependent on the availability of water; decreasing periods of submersion during low tide and raised salinities caused a higher concentration of uric acid, while increasing periods of submersion and lowered salinities effected the opposite. Transfer of periwinkles within their intertidal habitat and laboratory experiments to test the effect of salinity showed that the concentration of uric acid in the kidney is adaptable. The dependence of uric acid concentration in the kidney on environmental conditions and the ammoniotelic excretion of L. littorea are discussed with regard to its particular living conditions. It is suggested that uric acid serves as nitrogen depot and has a particular function in osmoregulation.

  14. Two new species of Enidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pupillacea) from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two new species of Enidae, viz. Zebrina (Ramusculus) mienisi spec. nov. and Turanena tuccari spec. nov., are described from the Turkish provinces of Erzurum and Antalya, respectively. The former species is unknown anatomically and, therefore, its (sub)generic assignment is uncertain. The latter new

  15. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  16. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two

  18. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  19. Evidence for the validity of Protatlanta sculpta (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Burridge, A.K.; Peijnenburg, K.C.T.A.; Janssen, A.; Goetze, E.; Kirby, R.; Hart, M.B.; Smart, C.W.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Protatlanta is thought to be monotypic and is part of the Atlantidae, a family of shelled heteropods. These microscopic planktonic gastropods are poorly known, although research on their ecology is now increasing in response to concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on calcareou

  20. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puillandre, N; Bouchet, P; Duda, T F; Kauferstein, S; Kohn, A J; Olivera, B M; Watkins, M; Meyer, C

    2014-09-01

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (∼12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (∼3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

  1. Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887, from Ecuador (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the shell, renal organ, reproductive system and radula of topotypic specimens of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887. A diagnosis between it and four other lymnaeids which also occur in South America and were previously studied by the author (L. columella, L. diaphana, L. viatrix and L. rupestris is presented.

  2. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

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    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  3. Sobre dos Cassiopidae (Gastropoda del Neocomiense español.

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    MENNESSIER, G., CALZADA, S.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 2 gasterópodos neocomienses (Cretácico Inferior, provenientes del Weald de Cameros. Uno de ellos, Paraglauconia vierai se considera nueva especie. El otro es una especie descrita hace poco en el Hauteriviense francés.

  4. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  5. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  6. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

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    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  7. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  8. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  9. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  10. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

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    Norma Campos Salgado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  11. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  12. Verificação da resposta de miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni a substâncias provenientes de moluscos planorbídeos: pesquisa de substâncias quimiotáxicas Response of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia to snail substance: research on chemiotaxic substances

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    Beatriz de Camargo Brasio

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi testada a atividade miraxonal da água de condicionamento (SCW e da hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata e de B. tenagophila frente a miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram pesquisados e isolados alguns componentes de SCW. Com os componentes isolados de SCW e com a hemolinfa foram preparados blocos de ágar. Esses blocos, assim preparados, foram colocados frente a miracídios de S. mansoni para avaliação da atividade miraxonal. Foram detectadas diferenças entre a ação miraxonal da hemolinfa e das substâncias isoladas de SCW. Observaram-se diferenças significativas entre os efeitos miraxonais das duas espécies de moluscos pesquisados frente a miracídios das linhagens BH e SJ.Several substances isolated from SCW (snail conditioned water and from snail hemolymph were tested for a possible chemiotaxic effect on Schistosoma mansoni miracidia. Two strains of miracidia were considered (SJ and BH. Agar plates prepared with one of the substances were exposed to sixty miracidia for five minutes. The number of contacts and contacts with return were counted. Ten replications were made. Eight types (and four sub types of agar plates were prepared: normal water (control, SCW (Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila, hemolymph (B. glabrata and B. tenagophila and amonia, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Log-linear models were fitted to the data to study the proportions of attraction to each substance and to compare them. Any possible differences in proportions of attraction between the two S. mansoni strains were tested.

  13. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  14. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  15. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil Factores biológicos y ambientales asociados al riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis mansoni en la localidad de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil Fatores biológicos e ambientais associados ao risco de transmissão da esquistossomose mansoni na localidade de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata snails were captured in 36 breeding sites, and 11 schistosomiasis transmission foci were identified. A negative correlation was found between breeding site temperature and snail density and infection rate, and a positive correlation with pH and salinity. The rainy season showed a positive correlation with snail density and infection rate. The study emphasizes the factors involved in the maintenance of schistosomiasis breeding sites, in light of persistence of this disease in Porto de Galinhas for more than 10 years.La esquistosomiasis se expande hacia el litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, donde han sido frecuentes los registros de caracoles Biomphalaria glabrata y casos humanos de la enfermedad. Este estudio presenta factores relacionados con el riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis en la localidad Porto de Galinhas. Durante un año se llevó a cabo una investigación malacológica para identificar factores biológicos, abióticos y ambientales, relacionados con los criaderos de los moluscos huéspedes. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron los softwares Excel 2010, GTM Pro y ArcGis 10. Se recogieron 11.012 caracoles B. glabrata en los 36 criaderos identificados, siendo diagnosticados 11 focos de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis. Se verificó la correlación negativa entre la temperatura de los criaderos, densidad y tasa de infección de los caracoles, y la correlación positiva entre el pH y salinidad. El período de lluvia presentó una

  16. A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay, in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains. Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%. The prepatent (precercaria period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2 and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3% not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26. No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94% and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of

  17. Ocorrência de linhagens humana e silvestre de Schistosoma mansoni, na pré-amazônia: I - estudo em moluscos Occurrence of wild and human strains of Schistosoma mansoni in lower Amazonia: I - study in moluscs

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas na região da Baixada Maranhense (Brasil, linhagens humana (H e silvestre(S de Schistosoma mansoni a partir de miracídios eclodidos de ovos encontrados em fezes de doentes humanos autóctones da Região e de fígados de roedores silvestres naturalmente infectados. Biomphalaria glabrata, descentes de caramujos coletados no campo, foram expostos, isoladamente, aos miracídios H e S, mantidos isolados em moluscário e observados durante 100 dias. Moluscos normais foram mantidos nas mesmas condições de ambiente em que foram submetidos os infectados e tomados como controle da experiência. Foram anotados os indices de infecção dos moluscos, as datas da eliminação de cercárias, quantidade de larvas eliminadas e mortalidade dos moluscos. Os dados sugeriram melhor adaptação do esquistossomo da linhagem H à B. glabrata. A linhagem S, por sua vez, foi três vezes mais virulenta do que a linhagem H. Estes dados foram comparados com os encontrados na literatura especializada e verificado diversidades nos comportamentos parasitológicos das linhagens em estudo, quando comparados com os encontrados nas linhagens H e S oriundas do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil.The wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the Lowland Region of the Maranhão State (Brazil. The snail progenies from Biomphalaria glabrata collected from that region were exposed to the W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents, and H miracidia from eggs in human stools. A control gruop of normal snails was kept in the same conditions as the infected one. The date of the elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. These data suggested better adaptation of the H strain to B. glabrata. The W strain presented three times more virulence to snails than the H strain. These results were compared with published

  18. Levantamento malacológico em parques urbanos de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil A malacological survey in city parks in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Existem atualmente na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte 18 parques urbanos (também denominados "parques ecológicos" com coleções hídricas (lagoas, nascentes, córregos etc. Pesquisas iniciais em 17 destes parques mostraram a ocorrência de moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni em pelo menos quatro deles. Capturas mensais nestes parques, de agosto/94 a fevereiro/96, mostraram os seguintes resultados em relação aos planorbíneos: Parque Julien Rien: 1.145 exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata (2 mm a 13 mm; Parque Betânia: 149 exemplares de B. glabrata (4 mm a 13 mm; Parque Santa Lúcia: 2.431 exemplares de B. straminea (3 mm a 9 mm e Parque Lagoa do Nado: três exemplares de B. tenagophila (3 mm a 10 mm. As visitas aos parques terão prosseguimento e, após um diagnóstico sobre a situação de cada parque, serão sugeridas às autoridades municipais medidas de controle e/ou erradicação adequadas a cada área.The Greater Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte currently contains 18 city parks (also known as "ecological parks" with various bodies of water (lakes, springs, streams, etc. Initial research in 17 of these parks showed the occurrence of intermediate mollusk hosts for Schistosoma mansoni in at least 4. Monthly captures done from August 1994 to February 1996 showed the following results for these planorbids: Julien Rien Park: 1,145 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata (2 to 13 mm; Betânia Park: 149 specimens of B. glabrata (4 to 13 mm; Santa Lúcia Park: 2,431 specimens of B. straminea (3 to 9 mm; and Lagoa do Nado Park: 3 specimens of B. tenagophila (3 to 10 mm. Visits to the parks will continue, and after a diagnosis of each park's situation, control and/or eradication measures suitable for each one will be proposed to the municipal authorities.

  19. Atual distribuição geográfica dos moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil Current geographic distribution of intermediate hosts mollusca of Schistosoma mansoni in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

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    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao levantamento malacológico do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição, densidade e taxa de infecção dos moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni. Foram coletadas 3.261 Biomphalaria glabrata em 1979-81, das quais 100 (3,1% estavam infectadas com S. mansoni. Registrou-se a existência de 36 criadouros (35,0% de B. glabrata em 102 locais pesquisados, sendo 23 na bacia hidrográfica de Pampulha e 13 na do ribeirão do Arrudas. Foram encontrados 2 criadouros de B. tenagophila e 2 de B. straminea. Registrou-se também a presenca de exemplares de Pomacea haustrum, Physa sp e Drepanotrema cimex. Compararam-se os dados obtidos atualmente com os publicados em 1967. Houve reducao de mais de 50% no número de criadouros de B.glabrata, principalmente em decorrencias da expansão e progresso da cidade. Na zona periférica a esquistossomose continua endêmica, havendo necessidade de novas obras de saneamento básico para se conseguir o controle da doença.Malacological surveys were conducted in Belo Horizonte with a view to obtain new data on the distribution and density of schistosomose bearing snails and their natural rate of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Of 3.261 Biomphalaria glabrata collected during 1979-81, 100 (3,1% were found naturally infected. One hundred and two water collections were surveyed and 36 (35% were found harboring the mentioned snail species (23 of them in the watershed of Pampulha, 13 in the tributaires of the Arrudas creek. The species B. tenagophila was found in two waterbodies, and B. straminea in two other. Other snail species collected were Pomacea haustrum, Physa sp and Drepanotrema cimex. Data of this survey were compared with data published in 1967 and 50% reduction in the snail breeding places was observed. This reduction was due mainly to public works and engineering activities accompanying the growth of city. Schistosomiasis is still present in the

  20. [Molluscacide activity of a mixture of 6-n-alkyl salicylic acids (anacardic acid) and 2 of its complexes with copper (II) and lead (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, N M; de Oliveira, A B; Guimarães, J E; Pereira, J P; Katz, N

    1990-01-01

    The molluscicide activity of hexanic extract from Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) nut shell, of copper (II) complex, of lead (II) complex and anacardic acid has been compared in the laboratory in an attempt to obtain better stability than anacardic acid. This was obtained from the hexanic extract of the cashew nut shell by precipitation with lead (II) hydroxide or cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide or (II) cupric hydroxide followed by treatment of lead (II) complex with a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. Ten products of the mixture obtained were tested on adults snails of Biomphalaria glabrata at 1 to 10 ppm. The most active products were copper (II) complex, obtained by cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide, and anacardic acid (sodium hydroxide) which presented activity at 4 ppm. The anacardic acid's lead content was above the limits accepted by the United States standards.

  1. Cloning and Characterization of an Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Actin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hongming; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; LIUFU Zhiguo; CHEN Hong

    2004-01-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3' untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5' untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin(β-actin)than to human muscle actin.

  2. Hemozoin formation in Echinostoma trivolvis rediae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, John M; Ponder, Elizabeth L; Fried, Bernard; Sullivan, David

    2005-09-01

    Rediae of the trematode Echinostoma trivolvis, from naturally infected Helisoma trivolvis snails, form a black pigment while inside the snail host. Here we examine the black pigment to show that the insolubility characteristics in detergent and weak base solution are identical to Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin. Laser desorption mass spectrometry of the purified pigment demonstrates the presence of heme. Examination of purified pigment under polarized light microscopy illuminates ordered birefringent crystals. Field emission in lens scanning electron microscopy reveals irregular ovoid crystals of 200-300 nm in diameter. The purified pigment crystals seeded extension of monomeric heme onto the crystal which by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis is beta-hematin. Rediae of a second echinostome parasite, Echinostoma caproni, from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata, do not produce measurable or recoverable heme crystals. These observations are consistent with heme crystal formation by a hematophagous parasite within a non-vertebrate intermediate host.

  3. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  4. Anacardic acid: molluscicide in cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J T; Richards, C S; Lloyd, H A; Krishna, G

    1982-03-01

    The components of anacardic acid, (a mixture of 6-n-C (15) alkylsalicylic acids whose side chains vary in degrees of unsaturation) have been isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography from a crude extract of cashew nut shell, Anacardium occidentale, and tested for toxicity to fresh water snails, Biomphalaria glabrata. The triene component is the most toxic form (LC (50) 0.35 ppm), the diene and monoene components are less toxic (LC (50) 0.9 and 1.4 ppm), and the saturated component is relatively nontoxic (LC (50) > 5 ppm). Since decarboxylated anacardic acid (cardanol) and salicylic acid do not kill snails at concentrations up to 5 ppm, it appears that both, carboxyl group and unsaturated side chain are absolutely required for molluscicidal activity. The mechanism of toxicity of anacardic acid to snails is unknown.

  5. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  6. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Enk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  7. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  8. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aurélio Euzébio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains. The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzébio, Antônio Aurélio; Zuim, Nádia Regina Borim; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain) and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains) was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain) in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil) formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains) and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains). The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  11. A geoprocessing approach for studying and controlling schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are tools that have been recently tested for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution of disease. The objective of this paper was to further develop the GIS technology to model and control schistosomiasis using environmental, social, biological and remote-sensing variables. A final regression model (R² = 0.39 was established, after a variable selection phase, with a set of spatial variables including the presence or absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, winter enhanced vegetation index, summer minimum temperature and percentage of houses with water coming from a spring or well. A regional model was also developed by splitting the state of Minas Gerais (MG into four regions and establishing a linear regression model for each of the four regions: 1 (R² = 0.97, 2 (R² = 0.60, 3 (R² = 0.63 and 4 (R² = 0.76. Based on these models, a schistosomiasis risk map was built for MG. In this paper, geostatistics was also used to make inferences about the presence of Biomphalaria spp. The result was a map of species and risk areas. The obtained risk map permits the association of uncertainties, which can be used to qualify the inferences and it can be thought of as an auxiliary tool for public health strategies.

  12. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.Bromocetamide has been tested as molluscicide, with good results, in the People's Republic of China, on Oncomelania, host of Schistosoma japonicum. We have conducted preliminary assays with bromoacetamide on adult snails (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea, newly hatched smails and egg-masses. This product has been also tested on fishes (Lebistes reticulatus. Comparative assays have been made with pentaclorophenol to evaluate the suceptibility of the snails. Snails tested had a diameter of 8-10 mm; the newly hatched were 1-3 days old and the eggs-masses. 0-1 day old. The temperature of the water varied from 24.3 to 27.5° C. Bromoacetamide was active on adult and newly hatched snails and egg-masses, in concentrations from 1-4ppm. The product was less toxic for jish (LC90 = 7,5 ppm. These results indicate that bromoacetamide has promising molluscicide

  13. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  14. Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field.

  15. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

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    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  16. Levantamento malacológico em parques urbanos de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Existem atualmente na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte 18 parques urbanos (também denominados "parques ecológicos" com coleções hídricas (lagoas, nascentes, córregos etc. Pesquisas iniciais em 17 destes parques mostraram a ocorrência de moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni em pelo menos quatro deles. Capturas mensais nestes parques, de agosto/94 a fevereiro/96, mostraram os seguintes resultados em relação aos planorbíneos: Parque Julien Rien: 1.145 exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata (2 mm a 13 mm; Parque Betânia: 149 exemplares de B. glabrata (4 mm a 13 mm; Parque Santa Lúcia: 2.431 exemplares de B. straminea (3 mm a 9 mm e Parque Lagoa do Nado: três exemplares de B. tenagophila (3 mm a 10 mm. As visitas aos parques terão prosseguimento e, após um diagnóstico sobre a situação de cada parque, serão sugeridas às autoridades municipais medidas de controle e/ou erradicação adequadas a cada área.

  17. Levantamento malacológico em parques urbanos de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Carlos Tito

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem atualmente na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte 18 parques urbanos (também denominados "parques ecológicos" com coleções hídricas (lagoas, nascentes, córregos etc. Pesquisas iniciais em 17 destes parques mostraram a ocorrência de moluscos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni em pelo menos quatro deles. Capturas mensais nestes parques, de agosto/94 a fevereiro/96, mostraram os seguintes resultados em relação aos planorbíneos: Parque Julien Rien: 1.145 exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata (2 mm a 13 mm; Parque Betânia: 149 exemplares de B. glabrata (4 mm a 13 mm; Parque Santa Lúcia: 2.431 exemplares de B. straminea (3 mm a 9 mm e Parque Lagoa do Nado: três exemplares de B. tenagophila (3 mm a 10 mm. As visitas aos parques terão prosseguimento e, após um diagnóstico sobre a situação de cada parque, serão sugeridas às autoridades municipais medidas de controle e/ou erradicação adequadas a cada área.

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  19. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Amancio, Francisco F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of {sup 60}Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  20. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  1. O uso da casca da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, como moluscicida alternativo The use of cashew nut shell of caju (Anacardium occidentale as alternative molluscicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioensaios usando extratos hexânicos de cascas da castanha do caju, Anacardium occidentale, coletadas no Ceará em 1972 (amostra 1 e em 1987 (amostra 2 foram feitos sobre moluscos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, no laboratório e no campo. As cascas, 18,5 g, sem triturar amostra 1, também foram testadas sobre moluscos adultos e desovas das três espécies. A toxidez do extrato foi testada ainda sobre peixes (Poecilia reticulata e girinos. As concentrações letais CL90, amostra 1, foram de 2,0 a 2,2 ppm para os moluscos das três espécies. Para B. glabrata adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas as CL90, amostra 2, foram de 2,0, 0,5 e 30,0 ppm respectivamente. As cascas causaram mortalidade de 40 a 80% dos moluscos e de 22 a 35% dos embriões, ocasionando redução de 40 a 55% na oviposição das três espécies. O extrato hexânico, amostra 2, foi inócuo para girinos e peixes até 2 ppm. No campo, em poços com água parada, tratados com 20 ppm do extrato, amostra 1, ocorreu 97,1% de mortalidade de B. straminea e 100% de B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Com a niclosamida a 3 ppm ocorreu 100% de mortalidade das três espécies.Bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of Anacardium occidentale, collected in Ceará in 1972 (Sample 1 and 1987 (Sample 2 were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. Non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. The toxicity of extract was tested with fish (Poecilia reticulata and tadpoles. The lethal concentration, CL90, of sample 1 was from 2.0 to 2.2 ppm for adult snails of the three species. With sample 2, the CL90 was 2.0, 0.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. glabrata adults, newly hatched snails and egg mass respectively. Non extracted shells caused 40 - 80% mortality of adult snails, 22 - 35% mortality

  2. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments.

  3. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774, Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774 and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774, and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881 is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a cell type which is probably undifferentiated. The secretory cell types are classified into two groups, mucous and serous cells. Two types of mucous cells and two to three types of serous cells are distinguished. The salivary glands of the herein studied Limacoidea and Milacidae show a duct system composed of intralobular, interlobular and main ducts, each one presenting a characteristic type of epithelial lining. The results are comparatively discussed with the data available in the literature, in order to verify the correspondence between the different cell types described for other Pulmonata.

  4. Development of a new sediment bioassay with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia); Entwicklung eines Sedimentbiotests mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.

    2002-07-01

    Currently, only few organismic biotest systems are available for the assessment of effects on reproduction, which consider an exposure toward whole sediments. A well-suited test organism is the parthenogenetic mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This ovoviviparous prosobranch snail lives in the upper layers of freshwater and brackish sediments. The number of (unshelled) embryos turned out to be a very sensitive parameter for the indication of sediment components affecting reproduction. Additionally, this endpoint allows to signal possible estrogenic sediment compounds. With this 28-day bioassay, laboratory tests on the effects of various chemicals on P. antipodarum were performed, e.g. triphenyltin and bisphenol A, in relevant environmental concentration ranges. Furthermore, the suitability of our test system for the investigation of complex and multiple level ranged contaminations was examined by means of various natural sediments from the Neisse and Odra rivers. (orig.) [German] Derzeit bestehen nur wenige etablierte organismische Testverfahren zur Erfassung von reproduktionstoxischen Effekten, die eine Exposition gegenueber Gesamtsedimenten beruecksichtigen. Ein hierfuer gut geeigneter Testorganismus ist die parthenogenetische Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Sie gehoert zu den ovoviviparen (lebendgebaerenden) Prosobranchiern und lebt in den obersten Schichten von Suess- und Brackwassersedimenten. Als empfindlicher Parameter zur Indikation reproduktionstoxisch wirkender Sedimentkomponenten erwies sich die Anzahl der (neugebildeten) Embryonen im Brutraum - dieser Endpunkt vermag zudem auf eventuell vorhandene oestrogene Wirkstoffe im Sediment hinzuweisen. Mit Hilfe dieses 28 Tage umfassenden Biotests wurden in Laboruntersuchungen die Wirkungen verschiedener Umweltchemikalien, wie z.B. Triphenylzinn und Bisphenol A, auf P. antipodarum in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationsreihen getestet. Darueber hinaus wurde die Eignung des Biotests fuer die Ermittlung und Untersuchung der Wirkung komplexer Kontaminanten anhand von verschiedenen realen Flusssedimenten unterschiedlichen Belastungsgrades - aus Neisse und Oder - erprobt. (orig.)

  5. Schistosoma mansoni mucin gene (SmPoMuc expression: epigenetic control to shape adaptation to a new host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Perrin

    Full Text Available The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a human parasite that uses the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata as intermediate host. Specific S. mansoni strains can infect efficiently only certain B. glabrata strains (compatible strain while others are incompatible. Strain-specific differences in transcription of a conserved family of polymorphic mucins (SmPoMucs in S. mansoni are the principle determinants for this compatibility. In the present study, we investigated the bases of the control of SmPoMuc expression that evolved to evade B. glabrata diversified antigen recognition molecules. We compared the DNA sequences and chromatin structure of SmPoMuc promoters of two S. mansoni strains that are either compatible (C or incompatible (IC with a reference snail host. We reveal that although sequence differences are observed between active promoter regions of SmPoMuc genes, the sequences of the promoters are not diverse and are conserved between IC and C strains, suggesting that genetics alone cannot explain the evolution of compatibility polymorphism. In contrast, promoters carry epigenetic marks that are significantly different between the C and IC strains. Moreover, we show that modifications of the structure of the chromatin of the parasite modify transcription of SmPoMuc in the IC strain compared to the C strain and correlate with the presence of additional combinations of SmPoMuc transcripts only observed in the IC phenotype. Our results indicate that transcription polymorphism of a gene family that is responsible for an important adaptive trait of the parasite is epigenetically encoded. These strain-specific epigenetic marks are heritable, but can change while the underlying genetic information remains stable. This suggests that epigenetic changes may be important for the early steps in the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts, and might be an initial step in adaptive evolution in general.

  6. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  7. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating...... purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough sampling...

  8. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  9. Milax Clerxi nov. spec., eine neue Nacktschnecke aus Südjugoslawien (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Milacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Durch das Entgegenkommen von Herrn Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Leiden, erhielt der Verfasser eine Serie juveniler, fast erwachsener und erwachsener Nacktschnecken aus der Gattung Milax zur Bearbeitung, welche aus der Umgebung der Stadt Ohrid in Mazedonien stammen und dort im Sommer 1974 von Drs.

  10. Pseudo-imposex: male features in female volutes not TBT-induced (Gastropoda: Volutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.; Horpet, P.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a penis in female gastropods of the superfamily Muricoidea (infraorder Neogastropoda) has commonly been accepted as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Some species seem less sensitive than others, and one belonging to the family Columbellidae has been reported that it lac

  11. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  12. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  13. Molecular identification of Austrobilharzia species parasitizing Cerithidea cingulata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) from Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, W Y; Al-Bustan, S A; Isaac, A M; George, B A; Chandy, B S

    2012-12-01

    Avian schistosomes belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) are among the causative agents of cercarial dermatitis in humans. In this paper, ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to study schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay that have been identified morphologically as Austrobilharzia sp. Sequence comparison of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 28S and 18S regions of the collected schistosome cercariae with corresponding sequences of other schistosomes in GenBank revealed high sequence similarity. This confirmed the morphological identification of schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay as belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia. The finding was further supported by the phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the combined data set 18S-28S-mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCO1) sequences in which Austrobilharzia sp. clustered with A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis. Sequence comparison of the Austrobilharzia sp. from Kuwait Bay with A. variglandis and A. terrigalensis based on mtCO1 showed a variation of 10% and 11%, respectively. Since the sequence variation in the mtCO1 was within the interspecific range among trematodes, it seems that the Austrobilharzia species from Kuwait Bay is different from the two species reported in GenBank, A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis.

  14. A revision of Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) cingulata (Gmelin) and some related species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1940-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Engaged in the study of fossil shells belonging to Thiele's sectio Cerithideopsilla of the genus Cerithidea Swainson and deriving from plio-pleistocene beds in East Java, I failed to find a satisfying account on the recent species of this group. Therefore I resolved to examine as large

  15. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  16. Not so sluggish: the success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Almada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI. A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distributions designated here as the Felimare picta complex. Three major groups were identified: one Mediterranean and amphi-Atlantic group; a western Atlantic group and a tropical eastern Atlantic group. F. picta forms a paraphyletic group since some subspecies are more closely related with taxa traditionaly classified as independent species (e.g. F. zebra than with other subspecies with allopatric distributions (e.g. F. picta picta and F. picta tema. Usually, nudibranchs have adhesive demersal eggs, short planktonic larval phases and low mobility as adults unless rafting on floating materials occurs. Surprisingly however, the phylogeny of the F. picta complex suggests that they successfully cross main Atlantic biogeographic barriers including the mid-Atlantic barrier. This ability to cross different biogeographic barriers may be related to F. picta’s distinct life history and ecological traits. Compared to other Chromodorididae F. picta has larger eggs and planktotrophic larvae which could be related to a longer planktonic phase.

  17. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) from the western Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new species of Nassarius from the South China Sea,which was recognized when re-sorting the collection of Nassariidae in the Marine Biological Museum,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao,China.The shells were collected during several investigations,including the National Comprehensive Oceanic Survey in 1958-1959,and the China-Vietnam Co-Investigation on Marine Resource of the Beibu Gulf during 1959-1962.The morphology of the shell and the radula places the new species of Nassarius within the subgenus Zeuxis.It is named Nassarius (Zeuxis) nanhaiensis sp.nov.

  18. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1 reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed.

  19. Gymnodoris pattani, a new dorid nudibranch from Pattani Bay, Gulf of Thailand (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1996-01-01

    Several specimens of a new dorid nudibranch have been found in Yaring River, Pattani Province in southern Thailand. The species clearly belongs to the genus Gymnodoris, and is described and named G. pattani. It can be distinguished from all other species described in the genus by its translucently g

  20. Sense organs in Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1964-01-01

    The sense organs: the labial tentacles, eyes, rhinophores, osphradium and statocysts of Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 are described together with their innervation. The descriptions are based on serial sections of three animals.

  1. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Fourdrilis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758, the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001, high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001, and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677. Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation, whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495 probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated.

  3. Chondrina tatrica Ložek, 1948: new species for the Romanian fauna (Gastropoda: Chondrinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Farkas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chondrina tatrica Ložek, 1948 is reported for the first time for Romania. The species was thought to be endemic to the Western Carpathian Mountains. The Romanian locality (Boga valley, Bihor County is situated approximately 260 km from the nearest known site of the species in a straight line. The zoogeographical significance of this finding and the possible route of the ancestors of C. tatrica to the Carpathians is discussed.

  4. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  5. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  6. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  7. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  8. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  9. Reversal of density dependence of juvenile Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) growth in response to periphyton nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ulrich

    2001-05-01

    Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.

  10. [Inheritance of the background shell color in the snails Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozminsky, E V

    2014-10-01

    We investigated in a gastropod mollusk Littorina obtusata (L. obtusata) the inheritance of background shell coloration of the shell, which arises on the basis of three pigments: purple, orange, and yellow. We found that the hypothesis on polyallelic inheritance, as in the genus Cepaea, cannot explain the inheritance of shell color in periwinkles. We demonstrated that a separate genetic system is responsible for incorporation of each pigment into the shell. The composition of these genetic systems includes at least tw genes each in the case of the yellow and purple pigments. Our analysis shows that caution should be applied when extending the results obtained in the studies of the Cepaea genus to the other species of gastropods.

  11. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakrinskaia, I O

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given.

  12. Rediae of echinostomatid and heterophyid trematodes suppress phagocytosis of haemocytes in Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Shaposhnikova, Tania G; Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2006-05-01

    A modulation of the phagocytic activity of hemocytes from the common periwinkle Littorina littorea by secretory-excretory products (SEP) released by trematode rediae during axenic in vitro cultivation was studied. The SEP released by the parasites Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) and Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae) were found to inhibit the phagocytosis of zymozan particles by periwinkle hemocytes. The specificity of SEP effects was assessed: SEP of Himasthla militaris and Cryptocotyle concavum, two trematodes belonging to the same genera but infecting another closely related prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae, were also shown to be able to suppress L. littorea hemocytes phagocytic activity. However, no decrease in phagocytosis rate was observed when SEP of H. elongata and C. lingua were applied to monolayers of hemocytes from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. SEP from H. elongata was fractionated; only those fractions containing proteins of molecular weight more than 50 kDa were shown to possess inhibitory activity. Different H. elongata SEP concentrations were tested in for their ability to suppress phagocytosis by L. littorea hemocytes. Even very low SEP concentrations were shown to retain their ability to decrease phagocytosis rate, the inhibitory effect being dose-dependent. Hemocytes derived from snails naturally infected with H. elongata were also found to have lower phagocytic ability as compared to healthy individuals.

  13. [Inheritance of longitudinal shell bands in the snails Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozminskiĭ, E V

    2011-08-01

    The hypothesis of a monogenic inheritance of dark longitudinal bands on the shell in the gastropods Littorina obtusata and L. saxatilis was checked. One gene having two alleles proved to be responsible for the shell banding pattern in both of the species. The presence of bands was a dominant character in either case.

  14. [Inheritance of white spots on the shell of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozminskiĭ, E V; Lezin, P A; Fokin, M V

    2010-12-01

    The hypothesis on monogenic inheritance of white spot pattern on the shell of the gastropod snail Littorina obtusata was tested. Although in most cases our results did not contradict this assumption, the hypothesis cannot explain the observed segregation in general. An alternative hypothesis was suggested, according to which the presence of spot pattern is controlled by two complementary biallelic genes.

  15. Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Fedosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic Hemilienardia, H. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.

  16. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  17. A revision of the Neogene Conidae and Conorbidae (Gastropoda) of the Paratethys Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Landau, Bernard

    2016-12-22

    The Miocene Conidae and Conorbidae of the central- and south-eastern European Paratethys Sea are revised. In total, 74 species are described of which 10 are new species and 5 are documented for the first time from Paratethyan localities. Species descriptions and delimitations are partly based on morphometric data. In addition, colour patterns are described for the first time for the majority of species. In respect to the ongoing discussion on the supraspecific treatment of extant Conidae, we strongly focus on generic allocations and provide a key for the genera as understood herein. Biogeographically, the larger part of the assemblage indicates affiliation with modern western African faunas as indicated by the occurrence of genera such as Lautoconus, Kalloconus, Monteiroconus and Pseudonoduloconus. The relationship with Indo-West Pacific faunas is comparatively low. The high alpha-diversities observed for localities in the Pannonian, Transylvanian and Vienna basins, with up to 44 species, is a marker of tropical conditions in the Paratethys Sea during middle Miocene times.        Conasprella minutissima nov. sp., Kalloconus hendricksi nov. sp., Kalloconus letkesensis nov. sp., Kalloconus pseudohungaricus nov. sp., Lautoconus kovacsi nov. sp., Lautoconus pestensis nov. sp., Lautoconus quaggaoides nov. sp., Leporiconus paratethyianus nov. sp., Plagioconus breitenbergeri nov. sp. and Plagioconus bellissimus nov. sp. are described as new species; Conilithes eichwaldi nov. nom. is proposed as new name for Conus exiguus Eichwald, 1830 [non Lamarck, 1810].

  18. A hitherto unnoticed adaptive radiation: epitoniid species (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) associated with corals (Scleractinia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Gittenberger, E.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-two epitoniid species that live associated with various hard coral species are described. Three genera, viz. Epidendrium gen. nov., Epifungium gen. nov., and Surrepifungium gen. nov., and ten species are introduced as new to science, viz. Epidendrium aureum spec. nov., E. sordidum spec. nov.,

  19. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of two pelagic opisthobranch species (Gastropoda: Gymnosomata and Thecosomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, A; Haszprunar, G

    2000-04-01

    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of Pneumoderma sp. (Gymnosomata) and Creseis virgula Rang, 1828 (Thecosomata) have been investigated by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed a functional metanephridial system consisting of a heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a pericardial cavity and a single kidney in both species. Podocytes in the atrial wall of the pericardial epithelium are the site of ultrafiltration, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with numerous basal infoldings and a dense microvillous border on the luminal surface suggests modification of the ultrafiltrate. In Pneumoderma sp., additional loci of ultrafiltration with identical fine structure (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix) occur in the solitary rhogocytes (pore cells). The presence of podocytes situated on the atrial wall in representatives of two higher opisthobranch taxa contradicts former ideas on the loss of the primary site of ultrafiltration in the ancestors of the Opisthobranchia.

  20. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  2. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  3. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  4. Family matters: The first molecular phylogeny of the Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2015-07-01

    Recent investigations into the evolution of the Onchidorididae using morphological based methods have resulted in low support for relationships among genera. This study aims to determine if molecular data corroborates recent morphological interpretations of the evolution of Onchidorididae. Five genetic markers: 16S, 18S, 28S, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and histone 3 (H3), were sequenced from 32 species comprising Onchidorididae and five other families, three from Phanerobranchia and two from Cryptobranchia. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses; with both yielding similar topologies. Molecular analyses resulted in high support for the monophyly of the suctorian clade and the placement of the genera within Onchidorididae. However, the Onchidorididae forms a paraphyletic grouping due to the recovery of the Goniodorididae and the Akiodorididae nested within family. In addition, the placement of Corambe as the most derived member of Onchidorididae is contradicted by the present study. Rather it is sister to a large clade that includes Acanthodoris and the species traditionally placed in Onchidoris and Adalaria, now defined as Onchidorididae. We have chosen to maintain Corambidae as a distinct taxon (including Corambe and Loy), sister to Onchidorididae. We also maintain Goniodorididae, Akiodorididae and Calycidoridae (including Calycidoris and Diaphorodoris), which along with the Onchidorididae and Corambidae comprise the suctorian superfamily Onchidoridoidea. Ancestral character reconstruction also suggests that the formation of a gill pocket, a character that currently defines the Cryptobranchia, may have evolved multiple times from an ancestor that lacked the ability to retract its gills into a fully formed gill pocket. The diversity of gill morphology displayed by the Onchidoridoidea will help give new insight into the evolution of this complex character within the Nudibranchia.

  5. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  6. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C.; Apte, Deepak; Bhave, Vishal; Joseph Comendador; Qua,ng, Ngô Xuân; Tan, Siong Kiat; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species Onchidium typhae Buchannan, 1800, Onchidium stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883), and Onchidium reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850). With the exception of a re-description of Onchidium typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935) and Onchidium nigrum (Plate, 1893) are regarded as junior synonyms of Onchidium stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species. PMID:27917062

  7. Gastropoda(Mollusca) of Huaibei Region%淮北市的螺类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓道贵; 金宏; 陈海峰

    2002-01-01

    报道了淮北市螺类共17种,其中淡水螺类15种,陆生螺类2种,分别隶属于腹足纲的6科、10属,有3种为安徽省首次记录.作者还阐述了17种螺类的生态分布、区域分布及优势种等情况.并根据淮北市的特点,对它们的开发与利用进行了初步探讨.

  8. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  9. A new Taheitia species (Mollusca: Gastropoda Prosobranchia: Truncatellidae) from Irian Jaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shells and an operculum of Taheitia heinrichi spec. nov. are described from the Vogelkop area in western Irian Jaya. This new species, dedicated to the late Heinrich C. Kavelaars, is somewhat similar to T. orrae, known from the island of Biak.

  10. Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., eine neue Nacktschneckenart aus Griechenland (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1986-01-01

    Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., probably belonging to the subgenus Deroceras s.str., is described. The species is known from the islands of Aegina and Moni (Saronic Gulf) and from the adjacent NE. Peloponnesus, Greece. It is compared with Deroceras maltzani (SIMROTH), a similar species from southern

  11. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Simison, W Brian; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32 Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5 Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105 Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina.

  12. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  13. A Pyrenean Monacha species Monacha (Metatheba) Atacis spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monacha (Metatheba) atacis spec. nov. is described from the French NE Pyrenees. The status of Metatheba, hitherto known from Caucasia and Asia Minor only, as well as that of other Monacha "subgenera" is discussed.

  14. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  15. The first record of Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Croatia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A threatened planorbid gastropod Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834, listed in the EU Habitat Directive, was found in the Krka National Park in Croatia in August 2009. This find is the first known record at least in the western part of Croatia belonging to the Adriatic Sea drainage area.

  16. Prestonellinae-validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggen, A C Van; Herbert, David G; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-02-29

    The affinities of the enigmatic South African land snail genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929 were discussed by Herbert (2007) and Herbert & Mitchell (2009), who showed, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, that the genus is referable to the superfamily Orthalicoidea. Currently, the three described species of Prestonella are the only known African representatives of this diverse superfamily. Earlier, van Bruggen (1978) had recognized that these species formed a distinct group and had placed them in the (new) family Prestonellidae. However, as noted by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 140), no diagnosis was provided by van Bruggen; the name Prestonellidae thus does not meet the requirements of ICZN Art. 13.1, and is not an available name. In this paper we will redress this issue, also taking into account more recent research which has shed light on the systematic position of this genus within the Orthalicoidea.

  17. Holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Campillo, Orso; Aceves Medina, Gerardo; Avendaño Ibarra, Raymundo

    2011-01-01

    We compiled a checklist of holoplanktonic mollusks obtained from seven oceanographic surveys performed between 2005 and 2007 in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The checklist comprises five orders,15 families, 28 genera and 62 species, including 39 new records and two range extensions within the Gulf.

  18. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Daniel L

    2016-02-29

    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region.

  19. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Birol [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: birol_engin65@yahoo.com; Kapan-Yesilyurt, Sevinc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geological Engineering, Canakkale (Turkey); Taner, Gueler [Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Demirtas, Hayruennisa [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Eken, Mahmut [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-02-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and {gamma}-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime ({tau}) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 {+-} 0.01 eV (3.6 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 13} s{sup -1} and 2.02 x 10{sup 8} years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional {gamma}-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 {+-} 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.

  20. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  1. [Expression of genes encoding defense factors in the snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) infested with trematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, E E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Ataev, G L

    2010-01-01

    Because many species of gastropods are intermediate hosts for trematodes, these molluscs are often used as model-organisms in the studies of invertebrate immune system. Revealing of the ways in which the defense factors functioning became possible due to the use of the methods of molecular biology. Contemporary molecular methods allow analyzing the defense factors allocations and levels of their expression. We investigated the expression of genes encoding defense factors in gastropods by the example of the snail Planorbarius corneus from water bodies of the Leningrad Oblast under infestation with trematods. The snails naturally infested with the parthenites of trematode species belonging to the families Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Schistosomatida were used as the experimental sample. Uninfested snails were used as a control sample. Several genes encoding the factors, which have been recently found involved in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates, were chosen, namely fibrinogen-related protein, C-lectin, calcium-binding protein, and cystatin-like protein. The genes' expression was analyzed on total mRNA samples by the reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown than expression levels of the genes under consideration are different in uninfested snails and in the snails infested with different trematode species. Thus, in the mollusks infested with the parthenites of Cotylurus sp. and Bilharziella polonica, the expression levels of the genes of all factors under study were increased, while in the infested Notocotylus sp. n Plagiorchis sp., only expression levels of C-lectin and cystatin-like protein were increased. Results of the expression analysis confirm the role of hemocytes and cells of hepatopancreas in the production of humoral defense factors. In the snails infested with trematodes, the expression levels of C-lectin and calcium-binding protein genes are increased in haemocytes, while the genes of fibrinogen-related and cystatin-like proteins are activated in the hepatopancreas. Our data also confirm the role of the factors examined in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Panpulmonata) supports independent terrestrial invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pedro E; Pfenninger, Markus; Kano, Yasunori; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Gastropods of the family Ellobiidae are an interesting group in which to study transitions from intertidal to terrestrial realms. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this family still lack resolution. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ellobiidae based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms. We used nuclear (18S, 28S, H3) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, COI) data, increasing the numbers of markers and data, and making this the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the family to date. Our results support phylogenetic hypotheses derived from morphological data, and provide a supported framework to evaluate the internal relationships within Ellobiidae. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the previous hypothesis that the Ellobiidae are monophyletic only if the Trimusculinae (Otina, Smeagol and Trimusculus) are considered part of this family. In addition, we found that the Carychiinae, Ellobiinae and Pythiinae are reciprocally monophyletic and closely related, with the Carychiinae as sister group to Ellobiinae. Relationships within Melampodinae and Pedipedinae and their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Land invasion by the Ellobiidae occurred independently in Carychiinae and Pythia during different geological times (Mesozoic and Cenozoic, respectively). Diversification in the family does not appear to be related to past climate and biotic changes, neither the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary nor the lowering of the sea level in the Oligocene.

  3. Two problematic, troglophilous gastropods from the Peloponnese, Greece (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Zonitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    2008-01-01

    Two species of pulmonate gastropods are described as new to science although their generic classification remains uncertain since only shells are available for study. The species might be troglodytes. Their shells indicate the presence of subterraneous material.

  4. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  5. Transcriptome analysis in Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda, Muricidae): mining and characterization of new genomic and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Leyla; Sánchez, Roland; Gomez, Daniela; Fuenzalida, Gonzalo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristián; Tanguy, Arnaud

    2011-09-01

    The marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, locally known as the "loco", is the main target species of the benthonic Chilean fisheries. Genetic and genomic tools are necessary to study the genome of this species in order to understand the molecular basis of its development, growth, and other key traits to improve the management strategies and to identify local adaptation to prevent loss of biodiversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first transcriptomic database from adult specimens of the loco. After trimming, a total of 140,756 Expressed Sequence Tag sequences were achieved. Clustering and assembly analysis identified 19,219 contigs and 105,435 singleton sequences. BlastN analysis showed a significant identity with Expressed Sequence Tags of different gastropod species available in public databases. Similarly, BlastX results showed that only 895 out of the total 124,654 had significant hits and may represent novel genes for marine gastropods. From this database, simple sequence repeat motifs were also identified and a total of 38 primer pairs were designed and tested to assess their potential as informative markers and to investigate their cross-species amplification in different related gastropod species. This dataset represents the first publicly available 454 data for a marine gastropod endemic to the southeastern Pacific coast, providing a valuable transcriptomic resource for future efforts of gene discovery and development of functional markers in other marine gastropods.

  6. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca:Gastropoda from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAILO K. DEDOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastropods fauna from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains (= Vrachanska Planina, Northwest Bulgaria, as well it presents the up to now unpublished results of several research trips of the authors and further collectors in the region. In total 90 terrestrial gastropods species are now known from this mountain area. 78 species were published from the beginning of research in this area up to recently. 56 species were confirmed with new findings and 22 species were not found again while the courses of our investigations. 12 gastropod species are newly recorded for the range.

  8. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hy...

  10. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37-48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m(3) water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region.

  11. Recent history of the European Nassarius nitidus (Gastropoda) : phylogeographic evidence of glacial refugia and colonization pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albaina, Naiara; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Couceiro, Lucia; Miguel Ruiz, Jose; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Because marine species respond differentially to factors governing survival and gene flow, closely related taxa may display dissimilar phylogeographic histories. New data for the patchily distributed gastropod Nassarius nitidus throughout its Atlantic-Mediterranean range (collected during 2008 and 2

  12. Systematics and Distribution of Siphocypraea mus and Propustularia surinamensis (Gastropoda, Cypraeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    The systematic place of “Cypraea” mus Linné is discussed, and it is concluded that the species belongs in Siphocypraea (Akleistostoma). The “varieties” tuberculata Gray and bicornis Sowerby should be withdrawn; they are only forms with callosities. Callus formations are often found in Cypraeidae. Th

  13. A new Deroceras species from North_Western spain (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Deroceras ercinae spec. nov. is described from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. The characters used to define the subgenera of Deroceras are discussed. It is demonstrated that the present subdivision of this genus into subgenera is not based on synapomorphic characters.

  14. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Hepatopancreas of Bellamya aeruginosa (Gastropoda Fed with Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate ultrastructural alterations and biochemical responses in the hepatopancreas of the freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa after exposure to two treatments: toxic cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa and toxic cyanobacterial cells mixed with a non-toxic green alga (Scendesmus quadricauda for a period of 15 days of intoxication, followed by a 15-day detoxification period. The toxic algal suspension induced a very pronounced increase of the activities of acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases and glutathione S-transferases (ACP, ALP and GST in the liver at the later stage of intoxication. During the depuration, enzymatic activity tended to return to the levels close to those in the control. The activity of GST displayed the most pronounced response among different algal suspensions. Severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, condensation and deformation of nucleus, dilation and myeloid-like in mitochondria, disruption of rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of lysosome, telolysosomes and apoptotic body were observed in the tissues. All cellular organelles began recovery after the snails were transferred to the S. quadricauda. The occurrence of a large amount of activated lysosomes and heterolysosomes and augment in activity of detoxification enzyme GST might be an adaptive mechanism to eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by hepatotoxicity to B. aeruginosa.

  15. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  16. Notes on Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve, 1865) from Lampung, South Sumatra (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz; Coomans, Henry E.

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of the freshwater marginellid Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve) were collected in South Sumatra. The erroneous spelling of the type locality is corrected into Lake Jepara. The animal, radula and ecology are described for the first time; living specimens were observed in an aquarium. The spec

  17. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception.

  18. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  19. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Littorinid snails are one particular group of gastropods identified as important intermediate hosts for a wide range of digenean parasite species, at least throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However nothing is known of trematode species infecting these snails in the Southern Hemisphere. This study is the first attempt at cataloguing the digenean parasites infecting littorinids in New Zealand. Examination of over 5,000 individuals of two species of the genus Austrolittorina Rosewater, A. cincta Quoy & Gaimard and A. antipodum Philippi, from intertidal rocky shores, revealed infections with four digenean species representative of a diverse range of families: Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899, Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 and Microphallidae Ward, 1901. This paper provides detailed morphological descriptions of the cercariae and intramolluscan stages of these parasites. Furthermore, partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) for varying numbers of isolates of each species were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out at the superfamily level and along with the morphological data were used to infer the generic affiliation of the species.

  20. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available.

  1. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  2. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    -biocides into the North sea—an estimation. Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrite, 46, 355–364. Kelly, J. R., Rudnick, D. T., Dana-Morton, R., Buttel, L. A., Levine, S. N., & Carr, K. A. (1990). Tri- butyltin and invertebrates of a seagrass ecosystem: exposure and response...

  3. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. A. Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  4. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  5. Imposex in Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin (Gastropoda, Olividae from a Southeastern Brazilian sandy beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Soares Caetano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Imposex, the development of male sex organs on the female, is registered and described for Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin, 1791 at Restinga da Marambaia beach, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

  6. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und erm

  7. Caracoles terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Sandoval, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Catorce especies de caracoles terrestres son informadas del municipio de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. El tipo de vegetación más rico en moluscos (11 especies) es el bosque de galería de Populus-Quercus-Juglans, con cobertura vegetal total y escasa pendiente. La distribución panamericana es el principal componente zoogeográfico Fourteen species of land snails are reported from the municipality of Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. The vegetation type with more species ( 1 1) is the Populus-Quer...

  8. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  9. Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; Mogollón Avila, V.

    2010-01-01

    The family Orthalicidae is well represented in Peru but, like in other families, some species are wellknown and others have not been reported on since their original descriptions. In this paper we present new records for well-known species and elucidate the status of several lesser known taxa. Four

  10. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some s

  11. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  12. Iron-encrusted diatoms and bacteria epibiotic on Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, D. C.; Cadée, G. C.

    2000-02-01

    Rust-coloured shells of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae collected in the Wadden Sea near Texel and in the Jade Busen were analysed under the scanning electron microscope. Most of the shells were found to be covered with a microbial community encrusted with an iron-rich mineral containing traces of Mn, Mg, Ca and Si (EDAX analysis). The community formed a biofilm including two morphotypes of diatoms identified as Cocconeis placentula and Achnanthes lemmermanni, two morphotypes of slender filamentous bacteria resembling Leucothrix and Flexibacter, aggregates of coccoid cells and large trichomes resembling members of the cyanobacterial orders Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales, respectively. The most frequent microorganisms of the biofilm were diatoms and filamentous bacteria.

  13. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  14. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  15. [Effect of an altered magnetic field on the development of great ramshorn Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Planorbidae)].

    Science.gov (U