WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomonitoring results communication

  1. Communicating Results in Post-Belmont Era Biomonitoring Studies: Lessons from Genetics and Neuroimaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Varshavsky, Julia; Liboiron, Max; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring is a critical tool to assess the effects of chemicals on health, as scientists seek to better characterize life-course exposures from diverse environments. This trend, coupled with increased institutional support for community-engaged environmental health research, challenge established ethical norms related to biomonitoring results communication and data sharing between scientists, study participants, and their wider communities. Methods Through a literature review, participant observation at workshops, and interviews, we examine ethical tensions related to reporting individual data from chemical biomonitoring studies by drawing relevant lessons from the genetics and neuroimaging fields. Results In all three fields ethical debates about whether/how to report-back results to study participants are precipitated by two trends. First, changes in analytical methods have made more data accessible to stakeholders. For biomonitoring, improved techniques enable detection of more chemicals at lower levels, and diverse groups of scientists and health advocates now conduct exposure studies. Similarly, innovations in genetics have catalyzed large-scale projects and broadened the scope of who has access to genetic information. Second, increasing public interest in personal medical information has compelled imaging researchers to address demands by participants to know their personal data, despite uncertainties about their clinical significance. Four ethical arenas relevant to biomonitoring results communication emerged from our review: Tensions between participants’ right-to-know their personal results versus their ability or right-to-act to protect their health; whether and how to report incidental findings; informed consent in biobanking; and open-access data sharing. Conclusion Ethically engaging participants in biomonitoring studies requires consideration of several issues, including scientific uncertainty about health implications and exposure

  2. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  3. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-03-01

    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  4. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  5. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  6. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  7. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique;

    2015-01-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were ...

  8. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loots Ilse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. Methods In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public. Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. Results The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. Conclusion With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring

  9. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  10. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  11. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    OpenAIRE

    Loots Ilse; Morrens Bert; Keune Hans

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. M...

  12. Mercury Exposure in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cullen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children’s samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair and children (0.149 µg /g hair did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were significantly higher for those with higher education, and those who consumed more fish. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the benefit of human biomonitoring for assessing and comparing internal exposure levels, both on a population and an individual basis. It enables the potential harmful impact of mercury to be minimised in those highly exposed, and can therefore significantly contribute to population health.

  13. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    data respecting data protection including the right to know or not to know. Data protection is important because stakeholders may also ask for insight at various steps during human biomonitoring activities including children. Finally it is generally recommended that aim, methods, and results from...... biomonitoring studies should be communicated and study persons notified for further use of data and samples....

  14. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  15. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  16. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

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    Suchara Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  17. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Suchara Ivan; Sucharová Julie; Holá Marie

    2015-01-01

    Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  18. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  19. Communicating the rigor behind science results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R.; Callery, S.

    2015-12-01

    Communicating the rigor behind science resultsNASA's Global Climate Change website and companion Facebook page have an exceptionally large reach. Moderating the vast quantity of questions, feedback and comments from these public platforms has provided a unique perspective on the way the public views science, the scientific method and how science is funded. Email feedback and social media interactions reveal widespread misperceptions about how science is carried out: There is considerable criticism and suspicion surrounding methods of funding, and the difficulty of obtaining grants is underestimated. There appears to be limited public awareness of the peer review process. This talk will highlight the need for better communication not only of science results, but the process of science--from proposal writing and getting funded to peer-review and fundamental science terminology. As a community of science communicators, we also need to highlight the inaccuracies sometimes introduced by media reports of peer-reviewed science papers.

  20. Ethics in biomonitoring for occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, M; Sito, F; Licciardi, L

    2014-12-01

    Biological monitoring, i.e., the use of biomarkers for the measurement of systemic human exposure, effects and susceptibility to chemicals has increased considerably in recent years. Biomonitoring techniques, originally limited to a few metals and other chemicals in the workplace, are currently applied to a large number of exposure situations and have become a useful tool for occupational and environmental health risk assessment. Almost any biomonitoring program, however, entails a number of relevant ethical issues, which concern all the phases of the entire process, from the selection of the biomarker to the study design, from the collection, storage and analysis of the biological sample to the interpretation, communication and management of the results, from the (truly?) informed consent of the worker to the independence and autonomy of the occupational health professional. These issues require a balanced assessment of the interests and responsibilities of all the parties, the worker primarily, but also the employer, the occupational health professional, the health authorities and, for research studies on new biomarkers, also the scientists involved. Ideally, decisions of ethical relevance concerning biomarkers should be based on, and respectful of the best scientific, legal and ethical evidence available. When, however, a conflict should arise, before any decision is taken a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be done, at the beginning of the process and after listening to the workers and the management involved, by the occupational physician or scientist, based on his/her professional experience, independent judgement and individual responsibility. PMID:25447455

  1. Market survey results for alternate sensor communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a system analysis and market survey of commercially available alarm communication systems for potential use as an alternate sensor communication system. Only those systems that report alarm/sensor information to a central control panel were considered. The communication systems surveyed include wireless radio frequency (RF) systems, spread spectrum systems, fiber optic systems, twisted pair/copper wire, cellular systems, and other types of communication equipment. All systems are commercially available, and most information was obtained by telephone conversations with the manufacturer, personal interviews at security conferences, and countless reviews of the manufacturers' data sheets. Many systems were identified, but only those that met a minimum set of system requirements were included. Other systems that appeared to be applicable usually did not provide adequate data encryption or could not interface directly to the system. While such features could be incorporated using additional hardware, doing so would make the system more expensive and conflict with the idea of purchasing a single unit that meets the minimum set of requirements. Several systems greatly exceed the scope of this project and utilizing such systems would mean investing in more capacity than is really needed

  2. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  3. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I.; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  4. Communicating for results - organizations in albanian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Shkurti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, have changed many concepts, and perspectives, on decision-making; from the normative theories that wanted to improve their decision-making technology because of the limited human rationality, to descriptive theories that have studied the reasons for human actions, with the assumption that these were supplied with the content or meaning in the fact that they had, or that the link between action and its meaning was too poor. Organizational theories recognize the central role of information in organizations. Research gets access to communication information, to analyze how an organization is seeking information about alternative courses of action, to develop principles for designing the organizational structure and to understand the processes by which it creates a common interpretation of its environment. But the main concern of this research is managerial decision making in Albanian context and communication of information then is treated as a contribution to this primary activity. Access to information processing in organizational analysis seeks to understand and predict how organizations perceive the incentives, as they interpret as conserve, recover and transmit information, how form judgments and solve problems. A communication model of organizational information will provide us with a theoretical framework for analyzing organizational needs for information in Albanian context, the processes by which information is obtained and used, and the purposes on the basis of which use information. Focusing on organizational behavior using information, this perspective would be a modest contribution to the large number of studies on the application of information technology and information systems in organizations. The paper aims to compare a selection of perspectives and information in organizations in Albanian context in order to identify some conceptual elements that can be used to build a model of the organization of

  5. Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution: Principles, possibilities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses the biomonitoring of trace element air pollution. Much attention is given to both lichens and mosses as the dominant plant species used in biomonitoring surveys. Biomonitoring is regarded as a means to assess trace element concentrations in aerosols and deposition. This implies that the monitor should concentrate the elements of interest and quantitatively reflect its elemental ambient conditions. Environmental impact on the biomonitor's behaviour is viewed as resulting in changes in the dose-response relationships. The current literature is briefly reviewed, for plant's behaviour modelling, for laboratory studies on physiological processes responsible for accumulation, retention, and release, and for fieldwork on quantification of dose-response relationships. Monitoring of elemental atmospheric availability is presented as deriving its relevance from presumed impact on both ecosystem performance and human health; source apportionment is regarded as an important parallel result for purposes of emission regulatory management. For source apportionment, the paper argues in favour of multi-elemental determinations, supplemented by information on organic compounds and elemental chemical forms. Furthermore, the discussion points towards more explicit coupling of biomonitoring data to knowledge and databases on emission registration, ecosystem performance, and human health. This means that multidisciplinary programs should be set up, which accommodate expert inputs from biomonitoring, emission control programs, analytical chemistry, ecology, and epidemiology. (author)

  6. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  7. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  8. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  9. Biomonitoring plan for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposed biomonitoring plan is for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge in Sweetwater county, Wyoming. Biomonitoring is needed for the refuge especially due to...

  10. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  11. Propagation modeling results for narrow-beam undersea laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Andrew S.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Hamilton, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    Communication links through ocean waters are challenging due to undersea propagation physics. Undersea optical communications at blue or green wavelengths can achieve high data rates (megabit- to gigabit-per-second class links) despite the challenging undersea medium. Absorption and scattering in ocean waters attenuate optical signals and distort the waveform through dense multipath. The exponential propagation loss and the temporal spread due to multipath limit the achievable link distance and data rate. In this paper, we describe the Monte Carlo modeling of the undersea scattering and absorption channel. We model photon signal attenuation levels, spatial photon distributions, time of arrival statistics, and angle of arrival statistics for a variety of lasercom scenarios through both clear and turbid water environments. Modeling results inform the design options for an undersea optical communication system, particularly illustrating the advantages of narrow-beam lasers compared to wide beam methods (e.g. LED sources). The modeled pupil plane and focal plane photon arrival distributions enable beam tracking techniques for robust pointing solutions, even in highly scattering harbor waters. Laser communication with collimated beams maximizes the photon transfer through the scattering medium and enables spatial and temporal filters to minimize waveform distortion and background interference.

  12. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  13. The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative-FNBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Elsa; Wuttke, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) pilot study was implemented in the winter 2010/2011, sampling 252 First Nations people on reserve in Canada for a suite of chemical contaminants following Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Results will be sent confidentially to participants and a community report will be presented after the analysis of results, expected to be completed by fall of 2011. The national scale of the study will take place during the summer 2011/2012 and aims to sample thirteen communities with a participation of 42 First Nations people per community. Results are expected for spring 2012/2013.

  14. Lichens as biomonitors at indoor environments of primary schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomonitoring study, using transplanted lichens Flavoparmelia caperata, was conducted to assess the indoor air quality in primary schools in urban (Lisbon) and rural (Ponte de Sor) Portuguese sites. The lichens exposure period occurred between April and June 2010 and two types of environments of the primary schools were studied: classrooms and outdoor/courtyard. Afterwards, the lichen samples were processed and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to assess a total of 20 chemical elements. Accumulated elements in the exposed lichens were assessed and enrichment factors (EF) were determined. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring results were compared to evaluate how biomonitors (as lichens) react at indoor environments and to assess the type of pollutants that are prevalent in those environments. (author)

  15. Internationally harmonised approach to biomonitoring trace element atmospheric deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting work on airborne particulate matter since 1992 through various co-ordinated research and technical co-operation projects. In 1997, biomonitoring air pollution using plants, became officially a part of the IAEA project on environmental pollution monitoring and research. Based on: (1) positive experience in using biomonitors, especially lower plants such as mosses and lichens in several developed countries; (2) the continuous use of biomonitors in several Member States; and (3) the fact that nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be particularly appropriate for the analysis of air pollution biomonitors, such studies are now being supported by the IAEA in 14 countries within a co-ordinated research project. The main emphasis of this project is on (1) identification of suitable biomonitors of atmospheric pollution for local and/or regional application, and (2) their validation for general environmental monitoring, whenever possible. Although the participants are using different plants as biomonitors in their research in geographically and climatically diverse parts of the world, they are harmonising sampling approaches and analytical procedures. In this paper, an overview of these activities is given, along with the details, where possible. In all of these activities, proficiency testing and analytical quality assurance are important issue, which merits special attention. To this end, a variety of analytical quality control materials have been used in intercomparison exercises and proficiency testing. Within the scope of the NAT-5 intercomparison exercise, two lichen materials were distributed among 15 participating laboratories and a proficiency test was organised. The results obtained proved satisfactory performance for most participating laboratories. (author)

  16. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1995-07-01

    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  17. Challenges of communicating safety case results to different audiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, nuclear politics and decision making are often oriented at procedures which are linked to precautionary concepts and which reflect forms of 'knowledge politics'. These precautionary concepts in most cases focus on robust societal decisions, which incorporate the principles of sustainability as a topic of public debate. The issue of high-level nuclear waste is under debate and confronted with public discourse, which integrates not only the knowledge of different stakeholders, but also accept certain forms of 'Nichtwissen' ('non-knowledge'). Interdisciplinary research has to observe these normative trends and also has to 'contextualise' these questions before interpreting its research results for giving answers with practical relevance, especially in communication with different social actors. Issues which are brought up in this field of nuclear waste management and their social context have to be analysed in two dimensions: i) the dimension of professionalism and expertise; ii) the dimension of managing controversial debates ('knowledge politics') and the preparation and implementing of robust decisions mostly by responsible governmental organisations. In this context on the one hand complex aspects of safety have to be communicated in their internal scientific logic and structure. On the other hand the different functional systems and collective actors of highly differentiated modern societies are engaged in controversial debates on advanced technologies like nuclear energy and technologies for waste disposal over long-lasting time periods. Most safety and construction issues for final disposal of high-level waste, but also of waste management in general, are debated within professional 'communities' of scientists and experts. But if their technological artefacts and their conceptual planning become issues of controversial and political debates in spheres which are outside the closed circle of high-level professionals and party politicians (who are in the

  18. Study on Communication Mode of Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Effective Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key challenge in wireless sensor networks is maximizing network lifetime. It will significantly reduce energy consumption of communication and prolong networks lifetime to choose appropriate communication mode. In this paper, energy model and communication topology are proposed, and then from the viewpoint of effective result, expression for communication energy cost of single sensor node and overall system in different communication mode is derived, impact that sensor nodes amount, communication radius and propagation loss exponent pose on communication mode based on simulations is analyzed, and the justification for choosing communication mode is summarized

  19. Human biomonitoring data interpretation and ethics; obstacles or surmountable challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepai Ovnair

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of human samples to assess environmental exposure and uptake of chemicals is more than an analytical exercise and requires consideration of the utility and interpretation of data as well as due consideration of ethical issues. These aspects are inextricably linked. In 2004 the EC expressed its commitment to the development of a harmonised approach to human biomonitoring (HBM by including an action in the EU Environment and Health Strategy to develop a Human Biomonitoring Pilot Study. This further underlined the need for interpretation strategies as well as guidance on ethical issues. A workshop held in December 2006 brought together stakeholders from academia, policy makers as well as non-governmental organisations and chemical industry associations to a two day workshop built a mutual understanding of the issues in an open and frank discussion forum. This paper describes the discussion and recommendations from the workshop. The workshop developed key recommendations for a Pan-European HBM Study: 1. A strategy for the interpretation of human biomonitoring data should be developed. 2. The pilot study should include the development of a strategy to integrate health data and environmental monitoring with human biomonitoring data at national and international levels. 3. Communication strategies should be developed when designing the study and evolve as the study continues. 4. Early communication with stakeholders is essential to achieve maximum efficacy of policy developments and facilitate subsequent monitoring. 5. Member states will have to apply individually for project approval from their National Research Ethics Committees. 6. The study population needs to have sufficient information on the way data will be gathered, interpreted and disseminated and how samples will be stored and used in the future (if biobanking before they can give informed consent. 7. The participants must be given the option of anonymity. This has an impact

  20. Biomonitoring of nitrogen pollution. Possibilities and limitations of bioindication techniques; Biomonitoring von Stickstoffimmissionen. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen von Bioindikationsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K. [Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background and aim. Air pollution caused by oxidized and reduced nitrogen is distributed over wide areas of Europe at a high level. As an alternative or complement to physical measurements and modelling calculations, biomonitoring with plants provides techniques to assess amounts and effects of pollution from oxidized and reduced nitrogen compounds (depositions and concentrations). Many of the previously implemented techniques are based on well-proven standardised methods, e.g. documented in VDI guidelines, modified more or less for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution. This paper gives a review of the techniques for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution, their possibilities as well as their limitations. Main features - diversity of the ground vegetation - nitrogen accumulation in vascular plants - exposure of vascular plants - mapping of epiphytic lichens, bryophytes and algae - nitrogen accumulation in lichens and bryophytes - exposure of lichens and bryophytes. Results and Discussion. Important response parameters are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissue (shoot, needle, leave) and biodiversity of plant species. These responses of vascular plants in many cases are influenced by other local varying conditions, in particular the soil. The exposure of vascular plants over a short period provides a standardised quantification of the total atmospheric nitrogen input in a model ecosystem. The enrichment of nitrogen in the plant tissue of bryophytes and lichens from the ground vegetation is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen deposition. The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the response of exposed Hypogymnia physodes is more sensitive to ammonia than to nitrous oxide, whereas with the diversity of epiphytic bryophytes or the abundance of algae no significant correlation with atmospheric N pollution were found. Conclusions. Some bioindication techniques provide a cause-effect related, partly standardised biomonitoring of nitrogen

  1. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  2. STRATEGIC BIOMONITORING INITIATIVES: MOVING THE SCIENCE FORWARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomonitoring programs in the United States and Europe demonstrate the vast array of data that are publicly available for the evaluation of exposure trends, identification of susceptible populations, detection of emerging chemical risks, the conduct of epidemiology studies, and ...

  3. Results of computer network experiment via the Japanese communication satellite CS - Performance evaluation of communication protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Kakinuma, Y.; Uchida, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-03-01

    Computer network experiments have been performed by using the Japanese communication satellite CS. The network is of a centralized (star) type, consisting of one center station and many user stations. The protocols are determined taking into consideration the long round trip delay of a satellite channel. This paper treats the communication protocol aspects of the experiments. Performances of the burst level and the link protocols (which correspond nearly to data link layer of OSI 7 layer model) are evaluated. System performances of throughput, delay, link level overhead are measured by using the statistically generated traffic.

  4. Communication preferences in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: descriptive results and patient characteristics as predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antje Ullrich, Johannes Hauer, Erik Farin Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Institute for Quality Management and Social Medicine, Freiburg, Germany Background: Communication with patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is often considered difficult. The primary objective of this explorative study was to describe the communication preferences of FMS patients in comparison with other chronic diseases, and the secondary objective was to identify patient-related predictors of those communication preferences. Methods: A total of 256 FMS patients were asked to fill out the KOPRA [(Kommunikationspraeferenzen, communication preferences of patients with chronic illness] questionnaire at the beginning of their rehabilitation, answering questions about their communication preferences. The KOPRA’s descriptive parameters were calculated and compared with other diagnosis groups. In order to include as many influencing factors as possible, data on patient-related sociodemographic, medical, pain impact and psychologic variables were gathered. A hierarchical regression analysis with four steps was performed to identify patient-related predictors of patients’ communication preferences. Results: FMS patients consider an open and patient-centered communication style to be especially important. Emotionally supportive communication and communication about personal circumstances are important for FMS patients, but the preferences of individual patients vary widely. FMS patients reveal higher values in all the subdimensions of communication preferences compared with patients with low back pain or chronic ischemic heart disease. Only a few variables appear to predict patient communication preferences. The explained variance ranged from 3.1% to 9.7%. Psychologic variables have been identified as predictors in conjunction with all communication preferences. Conclusion: Health care providers who communicate with FMS patients should employ an open and patient

  5. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huifeng; JI Chenglong; WANG Qing; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; FENG Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology.Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however,little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees.In this study,we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology.Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities.In addition,we found that hypotaurine,malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills,while alanine,arginine,glutamate,succinate,4-aminobutyrate,taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills.Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn,as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles,but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn.Therefore,we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution,whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  6. Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, François; Rimet, Frédéric; Franc, Alain; Bouchez, Agnés

    2016-04-01

    Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal trade-off between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new, more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima of 127 diatom species for 19 environmental parameters using count data from 2119 diatom communities sampled during eight years in eastern France. Using uni- and multivariate analyses, we explored the relationships between freshwater diatom phylogeny and ecology (i.e., the phylogenetic signal). We found a significant phylogenetic signal for many of the ecological optima that were tested, but the strength of the signal varied significantly from one trait to another. Multivariate analysis also showed that the multidimensional ecological niche of diatoms can be strongly related to phylogeny. The presence of clades containing species that exhibit homogeneous ecology suggests that phylogenetic information can be useful for aquatic biomonitoring. This study highlights the presence of significant patterns of ecological optima for freshwater diatoms in relation to their phylogeny. These results suggest the presence of a signal above the species level, which is encouraging for the development of simplified methods for biomonitoring survey. PMID:27411256

  7. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  8. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  9. Libraries and Inter-Generational Communication Good Practices and Their Educational Results

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova - Vasileva, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    The process of changes today, on the border between traditional and digital culture, is a clear sign for a change of the communication characteristics and habits of man. As a result of the expansion of new information technologies people who have different communication skills are born and brought up, and rapid technological changes create communication gap between generations living together in a common period of time. Availability and / or lack of information literacy nowaday...

  10. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  11. First steps toward harmonized human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. OBJECTIVES: We developed and applied a harmonized...... biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health.......-2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and lifestyle. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. RESULTS: Biomarker...

  12. The effect of educational intervention on intercultural communication: results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Harmsen; L. Meeuwesen; S. Thomas (Siep); G. Dorrenboom; D. Pinto; M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Due to worldwide migration to Western countries, physicians are increasingly encountering patients with different ethnic backgrounds. Communication problems can arise as a result of differences in cultural backgrounds and poor language proficiency. AIMS: To

  13. CIUDENs Pilot Project for CO2 Biomonitoring Tools (PISCO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D.; Bruno, J.; Credoz, A.; Grandia, F.; Fuentes, J.; Calabuig, E.; Montoto, M.; Ciuden's Co2 Geological Storage Programme

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes CIUDENs Pilot Project for CO2 Biomonitoring Tools (PISCO2) in NW Spain; focusing on the development of biomonitoring of potential CO2 leakages through testing biogeochemical effects of CO2 injection in soils. CIUDEN is a Spanish National foundation created in 2006 dedicated to different projects related to energy and environment. One of the main activities is the construction and operation of various facilities for Research and Development in CCS. The PISCO2 installation consists of 18 cells excavated in the ground and isolated by concrete. Each cell has a 40 m3. The cells will be filled with different soils from various sites in Spain including the Hontomín site in Burgos, where CIUDENs CO2 Storage Technological Development Plant is under construction. The cells are be equipped with systems for (i) controlled CO2 injection at different depths, (ii) control of irrigation and drainage in the unsaturated soil, (iii) sampling of groundwater and gases, and (iv) monitoring of different parameters; such as water content, pH, CO2 flux, microbiological, botanical, and biogeochemical alterations and the chemical composition of water. The main objectives are: the detection of potential diffuse leakage during/after the injection operations; the use of native species as bio-indicators of early leakage; the calibration and optimization of monitoring sensors & methodologies; the optimization of existing multiphase reactive transport models and the comprehension improvement of the biogeochemical processes. The facility is planned to be fully operational in November 2011. Its configuration makes it unique and suitable for international R&D programs. CIUDEN is open for cooperative research projects with institutions all over the world. Results are expected to significantly contribute to the development of new, useful, economical and ecological biomonitoring tools for wide areas. The paper will focus on the presentation of the technical caracteristics and the

  14. Lichens as biomonitors with special reference to Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens are effective biomonitors of metal deposition. Lichens are slow growing and assimilate metals at a rapid rate but release them at a low rate. Metal concentrations in lichen thalli have been shown to correlate with atmospheric levels. Lichens have been first used as bioaccumulative indicators in relation to point emission sources. Lichens have also been used to assess deposition patterns and heavy metal burdens for larger scale monitoring purposes. There are two problems to be kept in mind if lichens are to be effectively used as biomonitors. The first one is concerned with the chemical analyses. Results are more useful when background elemental levels are obtained. The choice of analytical method will depend on the purpose of the respective survey. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) are among the most commonly used methods. The second problem arises from the variability of lichens. Sources of variability include intra-individual variation, intra-species variation and variation due to microhabitat, locality or edaphic factors. Apart from individual variation, many of these sources of variation can be overcome by careful and thoughtful sampling and analysis of the selected species. Lichens and mosses are the only vegetation in Antarctica. The absence of air pollution in Antarctica suggests that lichens can be used as biomonitors of pollution at small scales around research bases. However, the unpolluted Antarctic environment presents opportunity for baseline studies on heavy metal bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation in Antarctic lichens can allow a larger (global) scale insight into the airborne heavy metal circulation and deposition. Both high precision analytical methods and biological studies will be needed. (author)

  15. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  16. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. PMID:26803787

  17. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeters G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that

  18. Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2008-06-01

    A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

  19. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.

  20. Biomonitoring for Improving Alcohol Consumption Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess alcohol consumption levels in large populations, researchers often rely on self-report measures. However, these approaches are associated with several limitations, particularly underreporting. Use of noninvasive biomonitoring approaches may help validate self-report alcohol consumption measurements and thus improve their accuracy. Two such devices currently are available, the WrisTAS™ and SCRAM™ devices, both of which measure alcohol vapors emitted through the skin after alcohol con...

  1. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  2. Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: gianlorenzo.calzoni@unibo.it; Antognoni, Fabiana [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: fabiana.antognoni@unibo.it; Pari, Elena [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: epari@csaricerche.com; Fonti, Paolo [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: pfonti@csaricerche.com; Gnes, Antonio [ARPA - Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambientale, Sez. Provinciale di Ravenna, via Alberoni 17, Ravenna (Italy)], E-mail: agnes@ra.arpa.emr.it; Speranza, Anna [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.it

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. - Rosa rugosa leaves and pollen are - to different extents - suitable monitoring tools for heavy metal pollution.

  3. Communication of Pulmonary Function Test Results: A Survey of Patient's Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Zagami

    Full Text Available Physician-patient communication in patients suffering from common chronic respiratory disease should encompass discussion about pulmonary function test (PFT results, diagnosis, disease education, smoking cessation and optimising inhaler technique. Previous studies have identified that patients with chronic respiratory disease/s often express dissatisfaction about physician communication. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding patient awareness of their PFT results (among those who have undergone PFTs previously or patient preferences about PFT result communication.We undertook a three-month prospective study on outpatients referred to two Pulmonary Function Laboratories. If subjects had undergone PFTs previously, the awareness of their previous test results was evaluated. All subjects were asked about their preferences for PFT result communication. Subjects were determined to have chronic respiratory disease based on their past medical history.300 subjects (50% male with a median age (± SD of 65 (± 14 years participated in the study. 99% of the study participants stated that they were at least moderately interested in knowing their PFT results. 72% (217/300 of the subjects had undergone at least one PFT in the past, 48% of whom stated they had not been made aware of their results. Fewer subjects with chronic respiratory disease preferred that only a doctor discuss their PFT results with them (28% vs. 41%, p = 0.021.Our study demonstrates that while almost all subjects want to be informed of their PFT results, this does not occur in a large number of patients. Many subjects are agreeable for their PFT results to be communicated to them by clinicians other than doctors. Further research is required to develop an efficient method of conveying PFT results that will improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes.

  4. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TL Murphy

    2006-02-16

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  5. Young patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences in paediatric oncology: Results of online focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamps Willem A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17, 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents.

  6. Specific elements of communication on agri-food products resulting from EU legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Timiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.

  7. A Parent-Adolescent Intervention to Increase Sexual Risk Communication: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6-…

  8. Use of hyperlinks in electronic test result communication: a survey study in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukai Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information is essential in healthcare. Recording, handling and sharing healthcare information is important in order to ensure high quality of delivered healthcare. Information and communication technology (ICT may be a valuable tool for handling these challenges. One way of enhancing the exchange of information could be to establish a link between patient-specific and general information sent to the general practitioner (GP. The aim of the present paper is to study GPs' use of a hyperlink inserted into electronic test result communication. Methods We inserted a hyperlink into the electronic test result communication sent to the patients’ GPs who participated in a regional, systematic breast cancer screening program. The hyperlink target was a web-site with information on the breast cancer screening program and breast cancer in general. Different strategies were used to increase the GPs’ use of this hyperlink. The outcome measure was the GPs’ self-reported use of the link. Data were collected by means of a one-page paper-based questionnaire. Results The response rate was 73% (n=242. In total, 108 (45% of the GPs reported to have used the link. In all, 22% (n=53 of the GPs used the web-address from a paper letter and 37% (n=89 used the hyperlink in the electronic test result communication (Δ = 15%[95%confidence  int erval(CI = 8 − 22%P  Conclusions The results suggest that hyperlinks in electronic test result communication could be a feasible strategy for combining and sharing different types of healthcare information.

  9. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  10. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors biomonitoring studies of heavy metals speciation around mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Biomonitoring may be defined as the use of organisms and biomaterial to obtain information on pollution in the biosphere. There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of lichens as a biomonitoring species. Their morphology does not vary with seasons; thus the accumulation can occur throughout the year. There is known lichens specific sensitivity to gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, and CO2), fluorides and strongly oxidizing compounds. Chemical and physical properties of lichens also enable them to be used as monitors of metal deposition from the atmosphere, since they can accumulate trace elements to the levels far greater than their expected physiological needs. Passive and active biomonitoring using lichens can be used on national scale as well as around particular pollution sources. However, there are not known biomonitoring studies using lichens in South Africa. Also no reports are available on using lichens for monitoring of metals speciation in the environment. This study presents the use of lichens for biomonitoring of air pollution due to chromium and uranium containing dust around a ferrochrome smelter and gold mines respectively in SA. The optimized lichens treatment and extraction procedures were developed to determine not only the total metal concentration but also, for the first time, the Cr(III)/(VI) speciation. Leaching has significant influence on the uptake of metals. It has been shown experimentally that leaching strongly affects the uptake of Mn and Cr and less Ni, V, and Fe. Also reducing properties of many soils strongly alter the chromium speciation in the environment making it less toxic. The current gold tailings reclamation activities in the Central Rand goldfield generate significant loads of dust containing uranium. High concentrations of this highly soluble radionuclide were obtained in the lichens sampled in dust-prone areas. The traditionally used soil samples were included in the study and

  11. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring bioavailable contaminants and determining baseline conditions in aquatic environments has become an important aspect of ecology and ecotoxicology. Since the mid-1970s and the initiation of the Mussel Watch program, this has been successfully accomplished with bivalve mollusks. These (mostly) sessile organisms reliably and proportionately record changes of a range of organic and inorganic pollutants occurring in the water, food or sediment. The great majority of studies have measured the concentration of pollutants in soft tissues and, to a much lesser extent, in whole shells or fractions thereof. Both approaches come with several drawbacks. Neither soft tissues nor whole shells can resolve temporal changes of the pollution history, except through the analysis of multiple specimens collected at different times. Soft tissues and shell fractions provide time-averaged data spanning months or years, and whole shells time-averaged data over the entire lifespan of the animal. Even with regular sampling of multiple specimens over long intervals of time, the resulting chronology may not faithfully resolve short-term changes of water quality. Compounding the problem, whole shell averages tend to be non-arithmetic and non-linear, because shell growth rate varies through seasons and lifetime, and different shell layers often vary ultrastructurally and can thus be chemically different from each other. Mussel Watch could greatly benefit from the potential of bivalve shells in providing high-resolution, temporally aligned archives of environmental variability. So far, only circa a dozen studies have demonstrated that the sclerochronological approach - i.e., combined growth pattern and high-resolution chemical analyses - can provide sub-seasonally to annually resolved time-series documenting the history of pollution over centuries and even millennia. On the other hand, the sclerochronological community has failed to fully appreciate that the formation of the shell and

  12. Harmonised human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Reinhard; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Biot, Pierre;

    2012-01-01

    health concerns, and political and health priorities. The harmonised approach includes sampling recruitment, and analytical procedures, communication strategies and biobanking initiatives. The protocols and the harmonised approach are a means to increase acceptance and policy support and to in the future...... for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists...... their experiences and expertise and developed harmonized approaches and recommendations for better comparability of HBM data in Europe via the elaboration of a harmonized study protocol. This protocol is the product of discussion and compromises on the selection of environmental exposures, national environmental...

  13. Radiology reporting: a closed-loop cycle from order entry to results communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David L; Kim, Woojin; Branstetter, Barton F; Prevedello, Luciano M

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing prevalence of PACS over the past decade, face-to-face image review among health care providers has become a rarity. This change has resulted in increasing dependence on fast and accurate communication in radiology. Turnaround time expectations are now conveyed in minutes rather than hours or even days. Ideal modern radiology communication is a closed-loop cycle with multiple interoperable applications contributing to the final product. The cycle starts with physician order entry, now often performed through the electronic medical record, with clinical decision support to ensure that the most effective imaging study is ordered. Radiology reports are now almost all in electronic format. The majority are produced using speech recognition systems. Optimization of this software use can alleviate some, if not all, of the inherent user inefficiencies in this type of reporting. Integrated third-party software applications that provide data mining capability are extremely helpful in both academic and clinical settings. The closed-loop ends with automated communication of imaging results. Software products for this purpose should facilitate use of levels of alert, automated escalation to providers, and recording of audit trails of reports received. The multiple components of reporting should be completely interoperable with each other, as well as with the PACS, the RIS, and the electronic medical record. This integration will maximize radiologist efficiency and minimize the possibility of communication error. PMID:25467899

  14. European communication monitor 2009: trends in communication management and public relations; results of a survey in 34 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zerfass; A. Moreno; R. Tench; D. Verčič; P. Verhoeven

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the last years, research into communication management, strategic communication and public relations (which are used as synonyms here) has evolved as a broad and strong discipline in Europe. Original theories and concepts have been developed - ranging from overall frameworks based on soci

  15. “Effective organizational communication – an imperative for creating higher business results in contemporary business trends”

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasceva, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Effective organizational communication focuses on open and direct relationship between employees and managers in organizations, thereby resulting in improvement of their commitment, productivity and organizational performance. Organizational communication entails enduring force that brings together all organization members and leads them towards achieving the set goals. Only organizations that manage to establish principles of effective communication have the privilege to play a role of su...

  16. Assertive Communication and Teamwork: Results of an Intervention Program to the Supervisors of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H. Montes de Oca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" in competence assertive communication skills and teamwork. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pre-test - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors of a private company, 13 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. A type of purposive sample was used. The results suggest a positive impact of the program to significantly increase competition achievement assertive communication (U = 3.5, Z = 4.58, *** P <.000, just as in effective dialogue dimensions (U = 8.0, feedback (U = 10.0, conflict resolution (U= 7.0 and non-verbal communication (U = 4.0, the skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were effective dialogue and nonverbal communication. In the other, the increase was lower. Regarding competition teamwork (U = 0.00, Z = 4.837, *** P <.000, just as in the dimensions (U = 9.0, Goal Achievement (U = 15.0, democratic environment (U= 12.0 and decision making (U = 7.0. The skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were the subject property, democratic environment and goal achievement. Minor increase in decision-making for managing consensus.

  17. Biomonitors for pollution assay using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosses are multicellular, chlorophyll bearing plants, which are not complex but have a highly developed reproductive system. They occur in damp conditions, such as in woods and also on walls. The stems contain a central core of elongated membrane. The intricate branching system with many leaves provides large surface area on which particles can be trapped. This structure means that mosses can accumulate airborne pollutants. In India most of the air pollution studies so for been based on atmospheric aerosols collected on air particulate matters. In the present study an attempt has been made to see the feasibility of mosses to be used as a biomonitors for air pollution studies in Mumbai

  18. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around Ulan Bator city studied by moss and lichen biomonitoring technique and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (Rhytidium rugosum, Thuidium abietinum, Entodon concinnus) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris, Parmelia separata) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries

  19. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  20. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  1. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  2. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium in the Balkan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppi, S.; Riccobono, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Savic, S.; Ivanov, D.; Pirintsos, S.A

    2003-09-01

    Widespread contamination by depleted uranium was not detected in the Balkan area. - The contribution of the conflict of 1999 to the environmental levels of uranium in the Balkan area was evaluated by means of lichens used as biomonitors. The average U concentration found in lichens in the present study was in line with the values reported for lichens from other countries and well below the levels found in lichens collected in areas with natural or anthropogenic sources of U. Measurement of isotopic ratios {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U allowed to exclude the presence of depleted uranium. According to these results, we could not detect widespread environmental contamination by depleted uranium in the Balkan area.

  3. Hair Biomonitoring for Exposure to Selected Toxic Elements: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we conducted a thorough study of hair biomonitoring that has been reported worldwide and that we consider to show that hair analysis, done properly, is a very sensitive and reliable method for assessing exposure of affected individuals and population groups. This study yielded results that clearly mirrored relative environmental exposure, especially for Pb, As, Cd, and Hg. In this paper, the various questions raised about the validity and interpretation of hair trace-element content are addressed, and means to obviate them are presented and discussed. Further, examples of particularly convincing uses of hair monitoring to assess the intake--particularly of four especially hazardous environmental pollutants: As, Cd, Pb, Hg--are outlined in some detail

  4. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood c...... correlation of frequencies was seen when comparing fresh with cryopreserved samples. Furthermore we recommend fresh human plasma used in UDS incubation media........ We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B....../T-lymphocytes and monocytes was measured in phytohemaglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures at different time intervals. The results showed a higher DNA repair activity in cryopreserved samples compared with fresh samples. We also found differences in mutant frequencies with higher values in fresh samples. A significant...

  5. Front end evaluation research results. Communications and concept planning: Hatfield Marine Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Holland, Dana

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation for the renovation of the existing visitor center at the Hatfield Marine Sciences Center (HMSC) was undertaken, in conjunction with the communications planning phase of the project. The outcome is expected to be the development of a communications plan and selection of concepts for visitors' interpretive experience. In the course of the evaluation, data were collected from 140 visitors to HMSC using both a questionnaire and face to face semi-structured interviews. Major results of the evaluation covered: 1, reasons for attending the HMSC; 2, visitor expectations; 3, visitors's knowledge of general science and of marine life and environments; 4, visitors' level of interest and attitudes toward exhibit themes; 5, issue areas of greatest interest; and 6, research areas of greatest interest.Visitors to t he HMSC had a strong orientation toward seeing and closely interacting with marine life and environments.

  6. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  7. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

  8. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of silver biomonitoring data in a risk assessment context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Poddalgoda, Devika; Hays, Sean M; Nong, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Silver is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in both ionic and nanoparticle forms, and general population exposure to silver can occur through the presence of trace levels in foods and dusts, through dermal contact with treated textiles, from use of wound care products, and other sources. Biomonitoring for silver in blood or urine in persons in the general population is being conducted by the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Tolerable exposure guidance values for silver designed to prevent adverse effects of excess exposure are available from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (an oral reference dose, or RfD), from the United States Food and Drug Administration (a draft provisional tolerable intake, or TI) and from literature evaluations of recent data on responses to nanoparticle silver (a recommended tolerable daily intake, or TDI). A current physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model is used to estimate Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for silver, which are steady-state biomarker concentrations consistent with the RfD, provisional TI, or recommended TDI (BERfD, BETI, or BETDI, respectively). The BE values based on silver in whole blood range from 0.2 to 0.9μg/L. BE values for silver in urine were not derived due to low confidence in the predicted steady-state urinary silver excretion rates. Comparison of general population biomonitoring data from Canada to the derived BE values indicate that general population exposure levels are generally below levels consistent with current risk assessment-derived exposure guidance values. PMID:27283208

  9. Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  10. Potential biomonitors for atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable influence of air pollution on the human health and the ecosystem has led to an increased interest in toxic emission monitoring programs. To fingerprint the countrywide and regional transboundary pollution profiles, extensive direct monitoring network is needed, which is very expensive and laborious. Plant leaves. Mosses and epiphytic lichens are regarded as potential alternate tools for monitoring levels of atmospheric pollution. Mosses and epiphytic lichens, unlike higher plants have no roots and waxy cuticle nor stomata; hence for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere. This unique feature has been exploited to predict the pollution levels of the areas in which they are grown by analyzing the embodied toxic elements. Sampling of such naturally growing bioindicators is relatively easier and no sophisticated equipment are needed. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the response of such plants, when exposed in the vicinity of highly polluted areas and subsequently to confirm the agreement between elemental levels in bioindicators and those measured in atmospheric deposition collected directly with air samplers. INAA and AAS techniques were employed for multielement analysis of exposed samples. Definite influence of pollution on the studied bioindicators was observed for some of the heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results obtained in this work indicate the feasibility of using Broussonetia Papyrifera levels and moss as bioindicators for environmental pollution monitoring. This pattern was also confirmed by analyzing the air particulate matters (APM) collected on filters using Gent air sampler. (author)

  11. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  12. Mapping elements distribution in carapace of Caretta caretta: A strategy for biomonitoring contamination in sea turtles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyzed 11 elements in one carapace of Caretta caretta. • The distribution of the elements in carapace was studied. • Mapping elements as a strategy for biomonitoring contamination in sea turtles. • Some elements resulted representative for central and lateral areas of carapace. - Abstract: This study analyzed the carapace distribution of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn by GF-AAS and ICP-AES in one specimen of Caretta caretta from Mediterranean Sea. Calcium, Mg, Mn, Pb, U, Zn were mainly distributed in the central area while Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, V in lateral areas. Cadmium, Cr, Mg, Mn, Sb, U and V were different between lateral areas. The different distribution may be related to several exposures during lifetime and/or the shell ossification during growth. Carapace may be a suitable matrix for metal biomonitoring, however, further studies are required to confirm these findings

  13. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  14. Use of Biomonitoring Data to Evaluate Methyl Eugenol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Robison, Steven H.; Barr, Dana B.

    2006-01-01

    Methyl eugenol is a naturally occurring material found in a variety of food sources, including spices, oils, and nutritionally important foods such as bananas and oranges. Given its natural occurrence, a broad cross-section of the population is likely exposed. The availability of biomonitoring and toxicology data offers an opportunity to examine how biomonitoring data can be integrated into risk assessment. Methyl eugenol has been used as a biomarker of exposure. An analytical method to detec...

  15. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

  16. Results of innovative communication processes on productivity gains in a high technology environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology which resulted in performance breakthroughs at engineering and management services is discussed. As a result of the innovative approaches of communicating productivity concepts to the employees, specific outcomes can now be pinpointed at all levels of the organization such as: (1) employee-headed program; (2) performance feedback processes; and (3) an investigative approach to creating leadership. The Lockheed Corporation began the innovative trend in 1974 when they became the first company to introduce quality circles in America. Although some of Lockheed-EMSCO's processes may sound different from traditional improvement processes, the context out of which those to be presented evolved has sustained more than 10 years of positive results through employee involvement activities.

  17. Active biomonitoring of palladium, platinum, and rhodium emissions from road traffic using transplanted moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Meisel, Thomas; Perämäki, Paavo

    2016-08-01

    The use of transplanted moss (Pleurozium schreberi) in active biomonitoring of traffic-related emissions of Pd, Pt, and Rh was studied. Moss mats were transplanted to three locations along highway E75 (in Oulu, Finland) at three different distances from the highway. Five samples were collected from a background site after the same exposure period. Mass fractions of Pd, Pt, and Rh as well as mass fractions of 18 other elements were determined in these samples. The results indicated that P. schreberi is well suited for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Mass fractions above the background values were observed in the samples exposed to traffic-related emissions. When the results were compared with those of the other elements, high correlations of Pd, Pt, and Rh with commonly traffic-related elements (e.g., Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn, etc.) were found. It was also found that the amounts of Pd, Pt, and Rh in moss samples decreased when the distance to the highway increased. This trend gives evidence for the suitability of P. schreberi for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the mass fractions determined in this study provide valuable evidence about the current state of Pd, Pt, and Rh emissions in Oulu, Finland. PMID:27189454

  18. Biomedical soft contact-lens sensor for in situ ocular biomonitoring of tear contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, MingXing; Shirai, Takayuki; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kenji; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Mochizuki, Manabu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2011-08-01

    A soft contact-lens biosensor (SCL-biosensor) for novel non-invasive biomonitoring of tear fluids was fabricated and tested. Wearing a biosensor on eye enabled the in situ monitoring of tear contents. The biosensor has an enzyme immobilized electrode on the surface of a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) contact lens. The SCL-biosensor was fabricated using microfabrication techniques for functional polymers (PDMS and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer). In investigation of in vitro characterization, the SCL-biosensor showed excellent relationship between the output current and glucose concentration from 0.03 to 5.0 mmol·L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.994. The calibration range covered the reported tear glucose concentrations (0.14 mmol·L(-1)). Based on the result, ocular biomonitoring with the SCL-biosensor was carried out. The SCL-biosensor well worked both in the static state and the dynamic state. The tear glucose level of rabbit was estimated to 0.12 mmol·L(-1) at first and then the tear turnover was successfully calculated to be 29.6 ± 8.42% min(-1). The result indicated that SCL-biosensor is useful for advanced biomonitoring on eye. PMID:21475940

  19. Management Challenges in Developing Performance Assessments and Effectively Communicating Their Results - 13612

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the cleaned waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making, performance assessments have been developed for the low-level waste disposal facility and for the SRS Tank Farms. Although these performance assessments share many similar features, the nature of the hazards and associated containments differ. As a management team, we are challenged to effectively communicate both the similarities and differences of these performance assessments, how they should be used to support sound decision making for treatment, disposal and waste tank cleaning decisions, and in defending their respective assumptions to the regulatory community and the public but, equally important, to our own corporate decision makers and operations personnel. Effective development and defense of these performance assessments, and effective interpretation and communication of the results are key to making cost-effective, pragmatic decisions for the safe disposal of the low-level waste and stabilization and operational closure of the cleaned tanks and associated structures. This paper will focus on the importance and challenges in communicating key attributes, conclusions and operational implications within a company. (authors)

  20. Results of an Iridium-Based Data Communication System Providing Internet Access to Polar Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A.; Frost, V.; Braaten, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project at the University of Kansas has developed and field-tested a versatile communications system for use by researchers in high-latitude Polar Regions. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. We also have a very strong public outreach and educational program aimed at K-12 educators and students that requires data, voice and video feeds from Polar field locations in near real time. Hence, PRISM requires a robust communications system for use in the field between a base camp and the mobile remote sensing system, and from the field back to the University of Kansas and onto the Internet. The communication system that has been developed is truly mobile and is relatively inexpensive. We initially considered various satellite services during the design phase of this project. The two feasible options for high-latitude locations were Iridium, with its low-bit-rate service (2.4 Kb/s), and Inmarsat/Intelsat with broadband service. We selected the Iridium option for testing and development because it provided coverage in both Antarctica and Greenland. To achieve higher capacity communications, the multilink point-to-point protocol (MLPPP) implemented in Linux was tuned to operate efficiently over the Iridium satellite system. This mechanism combines multiple channels to obtain a seamless data connection with a capacity equal to the sum of the individual link rates. We used four Iridium modems to obtain an aggregate capacity of about 9.6 Kb/s. Standard Internet protocols (TCP/IP) were then used to provide end-to-end connectivity. The communications system field experiments were conducted at the NorthGRIP ice core drilling camp in Greenland (75° 06' N, 42° 20

  1. Initial communication survey results for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the public communication efforts of the Technical Steering Panel of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a public survey was conducted. The survey was intended to provide information about the public's knowledge and interest in the project and the best ways to communicate project results. Questions about the project were included as part of an omnibus survey conducted by Washington State University. The survey was conducted by phone to Washington State residents in the spring of 1990. This report gives the HEDR-related questions and summary data of responses. Questions associated with the HEDR Project were grouped into four categories: knowledge of the HEDR Project; interest in the project; preferred ways of receiving information about the project (including public information meetings, a newsletter mailed to homes, presentations to civic groups in the respondent's community, a computer bulletin board respondent could access with a modem, information displays at public buildings and shopping malls, and an information video sent to respondent); and level of concern over past exposure from Hanford operations. Questions abut whom state residents are most likely to trust about radiation issues were also part of the omnibus survey, and responses are included in this report

  2. Use of homing pigeons as biomonitors of atmospheric metal concentrations in Beijing and Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; You, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring provides direct evidence of the bioavailability and accumulation of toxic elements in the environment and in the current study, homing pigeons were used as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Beijing and Guangzhou, China. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in lung, kidney, and liver tissues of 25 homing pigeons collected from Beijing (n = 15) and Guangzhou (n = 10). Cadmium concentrations in all tissue and lung Pb concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Guangzhou compared to those collected from Beijing. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations corresponded to differences in ambient air concentrations between the two cities, suggesting that homing pigeons are valuable biomonitors of atmospheric metal contamination. Liver and kidney Hg concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Beijing compared to those collected from Guangzhou, while Hg concentrations in lung tissue were not significantly different. Results of the current study support a conclusion that homing pigeons provide valuable data for evaluating exposure and potential effects to environmental metal concentrations. PMID:26703383

  3. The novel approach to the biomonitor survey using one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Tomašević, Milica; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2015-10-01

    To compare the applicability of the leaves of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and linden (Tilia spp.) as biomonitors of trace element concentrations, a coupled approach of one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks was applied for the first time. The self-organizing networks (SONs) and the self-organizing maps (SOMs) were applied on the database obtained for the element accumulation (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, V, As, Cd) and the SOM for the Pb isotopes in the leaves for a multiyear period (2002-2006). A. hippocastanum seems to be a more appropriate biomonitor since it showed more consistent results in the analysis of trace elements and Pb isotopes. The SOM proved to be a suitable and sensitive tool for assessing differences in trace element concentrations and for the Pb isotopic composition in leaves of different species. In addition, the SON provided more clear data on seasonal and temporal accumulation of trace elements in the leaves and could be recommended complementary to the SOM analysis of trace elements in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26353966

  4. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail: fortincl@ete.inrs.ca

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  5. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  7. In-Orbit Test Results of the Optical Intersatellite Link, SILEX. A Milestone in Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolker-Nielsen, T.; Oppenhaeuser, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Semi conductor Inter satellite Link EXperiment, SILEX, consists of two terminals, one terminal embarked on the French LEO observation satellite SPOT4 and one terminal embarked on ESA's GEO telecommunication satellite ARTEMIS. The objective of SILEX is to perform optical communication experiments in orbit and on an operational basis transmit SPOT4 Earth observation data to ARTEMIS, which will relay the data to ground via its Ka band feeder link. SPOT4 was successfully launched on 22nd March 1998. The ARTEMIS launch on 12th July 2001 left ARTEMIS in an orbit with too low apogee, necessitating orbit raising to a circular parking orbit, altitude 31000km, using a large fraction of the chemical propellant on board. The remaining 5000km to GEO stationary orbit will be achieved using the low thrust innovative electric propulsion system necessitating specific attitude control software. The final orbit raising will last about 6 months and the expected lifetime of ARTEMIS after station acquisition is 5 years. While waiting for the establishment of the new attitude control software and the beginning of the final orbit raising maneuvers a test program has been undertaken in November/December 2001 to characterize the performances of the SILEX system. Testing was performed every fifth day when ARTEMIS was visible over Europe. The test program involves Optical Ground Station acquisition and tracking, inter-satellite link acquisition and tracking, bit error rate measurements and transmission of Earth observation data. The paper reports on results of the in orbit testing, giving comparisons with predictions. The conclusion of the test program is that the SILEX system has excellent performances qualifying the system for operational use by SPOTIMAGE in parallel with a detailed technological experimentation program involving the two SILEX terminals, ESA's optical ground station on Tenerife, and also NASDA's OICETS, once ARTEMIS has acquired its final orbital position. The results

  8. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Bilić; Branka Marasović; Ivana Tadić

    2011-01-01

    Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheape...

  9. Air pollution biomonitoring in Argentina, application of neutron activation analysis to the study of biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of baseline levels of atmospheric pollutants and the identification of polluted areas is a complex problem, as pollutant contents at a certain geographical location is usually a combination of contributions from various diverse sources, including long-range transport. Elemental chemical characterization of atmospheric pollutants is thus of great importance and Neutron Activation Analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for multielemental determination of trace elements in biomonitors and aerosols. The general objective of this project is to study the use of biomonitors, specially lichens, for evaluating pollutant levels over a wide geographic area of Argentina and for establishing baseline values and assessing time trends. Two lichen species (Usnea sp. and Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot) have been identified as suitable monitors of air pollution, with potential regional application at the central area of the country (province of Cordoba) and pilot studies have been initiated to test the practicability of sampling and sample collection. An area of approximately 40,000 km2 will be covered by a sampling network, using in situ growing lichens. The distribution maps for the two selected species are already drawn and sampling of local soils will also be conducted. Current efforts at the Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory are put on assessing, for the selected lichen species, the influence of sample preparation methods on trace element concentrations. The use of other analytical techniques will allow the evaluation of the bioindicator chemical response and its relationship to different atmospheric quality levels. Source identification and apportionment will be done by statistical fingerprinting of the elemental concentrations, as sources of pollution are characterized by being composed of different mixtures of elements in different proportions. In this way and as a long-term objective, regional maps will be drawn showing the

  10. Concurrent 2,4-D and triclopyr biomonitoring of backpack applicators, mixer/loader and field supervisor in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Acevedo, Sandra; Chao, Yingfu; Chen, Zhenshan; Dinoff, Travis; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John; Williams, Ryan; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Two herbicides, 2,4-D and triclopyr esters (application ratio 1.6:1 acid equivalents) were applied as a tank mix by a crew of 8 backpack sprayer applicators, a mixer/loader, and a field supervisor. The crew was employed in a conifer release program in northern California during the summer of 2002. Biomonitoring (urine, 24 h) utilized 2,4-D and triclopyr (a.e.) as rapidly excreted exposure biomarkers. The absorbed dosages of 2,4-D and triclopyr were calculated based upon cotton whole body suits and biomonitoring. Dosages based upon accumulation of the herbicides on body suits averaged 42.6 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 8.0 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Six consecutive days of concurrent urine collections showed that backpack applicators excreted an average of 11.0 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 18.9 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Estimates based upon curve fitting were 17.1 and 29.3 μg (a.e.)/kg-d, respectively. Results suggest that passive dosimetry for 2,4-D consistently overestimated the dosage measured using biomonitoring by a factor of 2-3 fold, while for triclopyr, passive dosimetry underestimated the absorbed dose based on biomonitoring by a factor of 2-4 fold. PMID:21500074

  11. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  12. Does Communicating (Flood) Risk Affect (Flood) Risk Perceptions? Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    People's risk perceptions are generally regarded as an important determinant of their decisions to adjust to natural hazards. However, few studies have evaluated how risk communication programs affect these risk perceptions. This study evaluates the effects of a small-scale flood risk communication

  13. Recommendations for Biomonitoring of Emergency Responders: Focus on Occupational Health Investigations and Occupational Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, John A.; DeBord, D. Gayle; Bernard, Bruce; Dotson, G. Scott; Halpin, John; Hines, Cynthia J.; Kiefer, Max; Myers, Kyle; Page, Elena; Schulte, Paul; Snawder, John

    2013-01-01

    The disaster environment frequently presents rapidly evolving and unpredictable hazardous exposures to emergency responders. Improved estimates of exposure and effect from biomonitoring can be used to assess exposure–response relationships, potential health consequences, and effectiveness of control measures. Disaster settings, however, pose significant challenges for biomonitoring. A decision process for determining when to conduct biomonitoring during and following disasters was developed. ...

  14. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  15. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive biomonitor to evaluate local

  16. Environmental indicators for communication of life cycle impact assessment results and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed to quantitatively evaluate all environmental impacts from products, systems, processes and services. However, LCIA does not always provide valuable information for choosing among alternatives with different specifications, functionalities and lifetimes. The objectives of this study are (1) to propose environmental indicators to evaluate environmental efficiency and value qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of analogies to financial and economic indicators, and (2) to present the application of the indicators. Incremental evaluation using a reference is employed to obtain the environmental indicators. The environmental efficiency indicators are conceptually based on the ratios of reduced environmental burdens returned to environmental burdens required: environmental return on investment, environmental payback period and environmental internal rate of return. The environmental value indicator is the sum of all reduced and required environmental burdens: i.e., environmental net present value. All the environmental indicators can be used to compare and rank the environmental efficiencies or values of alternatives. The environmental efficiency indicators can be applied to a new environmental labeling. The concept of eco-efficiency labeling is developed by combining the environmental efficiency indicators with financial indicators. A case study is performed to illustrate the necessity and importance of the environmental indicators. These environmental indicators can help easily communicate LCIA results in the field of environmental management.

  17. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  18. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too. PMID:27212940

  19. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  20. Biomonitoring of metal contamination in estuarine ecosystem using seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faridahanim; Azman, Shamila; Said, Mohd Ismid Mohd; Baloo, Lavania

    2015-01-01

    Metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) in seawater, sediment and the seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) were analysed at Pulai River estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this research, Enhalus acoroides was used in order to find it's efficiency in up taking metals with a role in phytoremediation. Seawater, sediment and Enhalus acoroides samples were collected, and data of Pearson's correlation coefficients were analysed using SPSS 16 software. Results show that lead levels were the highest metal content in Enhalus acoroides (202 ± 102 μg/gDW), seawater (268 ± 190 μg/L) and sediment (248 ± 218 μg/gDW), compared to other metals. There was a positive correlation for metal concentrations between Enhalus acoroides and sediment, but no correlation was found between Enhalus acoroides with seawater at estuarine area may be caused by inconsistent metal concentrations in seawater due to the influences of tidal changes and stormy waves. This indicates that Enhalus acoroides is a species possessing the capabilities to uptake metals from sediment, and suitable to act as both a phytoremediator and biomonitor in estuarine ecosystems due to sharp sensitivity to variation in the environment. PMID:26029376

  1. A graphical technique for distinguishing plant material and soil from atmospheric deposition in biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores the limits to which a new graphical technique can distinguish the various hierarchical levels of sources of trace elements within biomonitors. When applied to data from Portuguese lichens, it appears to resolve four levels of sources, from plant material down to individual types of pollution. Careful factor analysis appears to offer very similar results, being weaker than the graphical method in some aspects and stronger in others. As a result, it now seems possible to determine sources for elements in lichens with better precision and confidence than was available previously. (author)

  2. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  3. Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Jakobsen, Bo; Hecksher, Tina;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of dielectric and shear-mechanical studies for amine (2-ethyl-1-hexylamine) and thiol (2-ethyl-1-hexanethiol) derivatives of the monohydroxy alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The amine and thiol can form hydrogen bonds weaker in strength than those of the alcohol. The ...

  4. Communication Between Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Inconclusive Genetic Test Results and Their Daughters and Sisters Years After Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Jessica E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Riel, Els; Kars, Marijke C; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2016-06-01

    Inconclusive genetic test results including screening recommendations for the breast cancer patients and their first-degree relatives are the most common outcomes of BRCA 1/2 testing. Patients themselves should communicate these results to their relatives. Our aim was to explore communication of breast cancer genetic counseling results with daughters and sisters over a long period of time. Breast cancer patients, who had received an inconclusive DNA test result 7-14 years earlier, completed a self-report questionnaire. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Of the 93 respondents, 85 (91 %) considered themselves responsible for communicating genetic test results to relatives. In-depth interviews (n = 14) showed, that counselees wanted 'to hand over' their responsibilities to communicate the test results and screening recommendations to their sisters. Although most patients had informed their daughters and sisters about the genetic test results, usually little is spoken about genetic test results and screening recommendations once the duty of informing is completed. We recommend that, similar to the procedure for BRCA1/2-mutation carriers, a separate letter for first-degree relatives of patients with an inconclusive test result should be provided. In this way information about risks and screening recommendations can be verified by family members years after genetic testing has been completed. PMID:26446011

  5. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  6. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteleyn, L., E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven (Belgium); Dumez, B. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G. [VITO (Belgium); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Ruhr Universität Bochum (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Exley, K.; Sepai, O. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [Kobenhavns Universitet (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [Federal Public Service Health, Food chain safety and Environment (Belgium); Koppen, G. [VITO (Belgium); Dewolf, M-C. [Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire (HVS) and Hygiene Publique in Hainaut (HPH) (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  7. Communication between Older People and Their Health Care Agents: Results of an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Irene A.; Heyman, Janna C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined an intervention to help high-functioning community-dwelling older people communicate their wishes for care at the end of life with someone they would trust to make health care decisions for them if necessary. Groups consisted of dyads of older people and their potential or designated health care agents randomly assigned to the…

  8. The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

  9. UUV - Covert Acoustic Communications Prelininary Results of the First Sea Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, W.; Nissen, I.; Gerdes, F.; Sangfelt, E.; Solberg, C.E.; Walree, P.A. van

    2006-01-01

    The future role of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is expected to include autonomous tasks in environmental assessmenl, route survey, mine hunting, and battlefield preparation. Depending on the mission, there will be a need for a robust communication link between the mother ship and the UUV, wit

  10. [Animal biomonitoring and micropollutants in public health--review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolà, Pasquale; Battisti, Sabrina; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. PMID:23139184

  11. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  12. MIMO communications for inhome PLC networks: measurements and results up to 100 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    HASHMAT, Rehan; Pagani, Pascal; CHONAVEL, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is used for information exchange over the lines installed for delivering the electrical power. Inhome PLC is a technology which delivers telecom services to every corner of a household through already existing electrical wiring. In recent years, PLC has emerged as a potential candidate for domestic high bit rate services. The current inhome PLC technology, based on Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) configuration, under achieves the capacity offered by the physi...

  13. Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender: Results from Adolescent and Emerging Adult Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2011-01-01

    Although parents are assumed to be children’s primary models of socialization when it comes to gender, little is known about direct communication of gendered values in the family. Accordingly, this study assessed the amount and content of recalled parental gender socialization messages using data from 291 U.S. college undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university and 259 U.S. adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the Midwest. The study examined the amount and content of pare...

  14. General cost analysis for scholarly communication in Germany : results of the "Houghton Report" for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, John W.; Dugall, Berndt; Bernius, Steffen; Krönung, Julia; König, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Management Summary: Conducted within the project “Economic Implications of New Models for Information Supply for Science and Research in Germany”, the Houghton Report for Germany provides a general cost and benefit analysis for scientific communication in Germany comparing different scenarios according to their specific costs and explicitly including the German National License Program (NLP). Basing on the scholarly lifecycle process model outlined by Björk (2007), the study compared the f...

  15. Reporting pesticide assessment results to farmworker families: development, implementation, and evaluation of a risk communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Doran, Alicia M; Rao, Pamela; Hoppin, Jane A; Snively, Beverly M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2004-04-01

    The collection of environmental samples presents a responsibility to return information to the affected participants. Explaining complex and often ambiguous scientific information to a lay audience is a challenge. As shown by environmental justice research, this audience frequently has limited formal education, increasing the challenge for researchers to explain the data collected, the risk indicated by the findings, and action the affected community should take. In this study we describe the development and implementation of a risk communication strategy for environmental pesticide samples collected in the homes of Latino/a migrant and seasonal farmworkers in a community-based participatory research project. The communication strategy was developed with community input and was based on face-to-face meetings with members of participating households. Using visual displays of data effectively conveyed information about individual household contamination and placed it in the context of community findings. The lack of national reference data and definitive standards for action necessitated a simplified risk message. We review the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach and suggest areas for future research in risk communication to communities affected by environmental health risks.

  16. Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research.

  17. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans W Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1 estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2 examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Methods Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure and control (no exposure conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Results Norms related to appropriate age for sexual

  18. Application of Biomonitoring in Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards%生物监测任化学危害物风险评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春峰; Richard A.KREUTZER; 刘弘

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment was widely used as a scientific tool around the world to evaluate the probability of human health effects resulting from chemical hazards exposure. However, limited resources increased the uncertainties in most risk assessments such as lack of human exposure and dose data. Biomonitoring was a direct way to provide human data on internal exposure and early effects for a more precise and realistic risk assessment. Many developed countries and international institutes had established biomonitoring progtams and encourage applying biomonitoring data in the risk assessment process. This article addressed the definition and development of biomonitoring, depicts the use of biomonitoring in chemical risk assessment and exposure assessment,illustrates the interpretation of biomonitoring data for risk assessment, and illuminates the limitations of integration of biomonitoring data in risk assessment. In conclusion, biomonitoring has the potential to greatly improve chemical risk assessment with the accumulation of relevant data.%风险评估,是目前国际上推崇的评估暴露于环境化学危害物导致不良人体健康效应概率的科学方法,己在世界各国广泛使用.然而,在大部分的风险评估中,因缺乏人群暴露和剂量的数据而增加了评估的不确定性.生物监测能提高风险评估的准确性和真实性,直接提供人体内暴露和早期效应的信息.目前,许多国际组织和发达国家已建立生物监测项目,并鼓励将生物监测数据应用干风险评估之中.本文将阐述生物监测的定义和发展,详细描述化学危害物风险评估和暴露评估中生物监测的作用,举例说明风险评估中生物监测数据的解释,以及整合生物监测的局限性.总之,随着各类数据的积累,生物监测有能力使化学危害物风险评估更完善.

  19. A Portrait of Non-Tenure-Track Faculty in Technical and Professional Communication: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloncon, Lisa; England, Peter; Ilyasova, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot study that offers the field of technical and professional communication its first look at material working conditions of contingent faculty, such as course loads, compensation, and professional support. Findings include that contingent faculty are more enduring with stable full-time, multi-year contracts; they…

  20. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas.

  1. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-06-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  2. Air biomonitoring by transplanted lichens in the Negev Desert, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalli of the lichen Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory were collected in the Negev Desert in August 1997 and transplanted with their substrate, flintstones, to 24 bio-monitoring sites in the Negev Desert. An assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities was made by measurements of the concentration of mineral elements in the lichen and by an examination of its physiological status. After a transplantation period of nine months, the lichens were retrieved in April 1998 and the concentration of 22 mineral elements in the thallus was determined by ICP-AES. In addition we examined the following parameters determining the status of the lichen: 1. Electric conductivity indicative of cell membrane integrity; 2. Spectral reflectance response of the thallus expressed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) indicative of greenness and health of the thallus; 3. Production of ethylene indicative of stress, 4. Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a means to monitor aspects of photosystem II (PSII) activities in the lichen. Preliminary results show that lichens exposed to air contaminants at a site of toxic waste deposition contain high concentrations of Ca, Cu, Pb and Mn and significant low K concentrations due to leakage of this element from injured cell membranes. Conductivity measurements performed to test the integrity of cell membranes corroborated this assumption. NDVI values indicating damage to chlorophyll were relative low in lichens retrieved from sites near Beer Sheba. The stress-ethylene production was the highest in one site near Beer Sheba. The maximum quantum yield of PSII expressed as fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm was low in two sites in the Ramat Hovav Industrial Area. (author)

  3. Traffic contribution to air pollution in urban street canyons: Integrated application of the OSPM, moss biomonitoring and spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Lazar; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Mijić, Zoran; Vuković, Gordana; Ilić, Luka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the air pollutant distribution within the ambient of urban street canyon, Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) was used to predict hourly content of NOX, NO, NO2, O3, CO, BNZ and PM10. The study was performed in five street canyons in Belgrade (Serbia) during 10-week summer period. The model receptors were located on each side of street canyons at 4 m, 8 m and 16 m height. To monitor airborne trace element content, the moss bag biomonitors were simultaneously exposed with the model receptors at two heights-4 m and 16 m. The results of both methods, modelling and biomonitoring, showed significantly decreasing trend of the air pollutants with height. The results indirectly demonstrate that biomonitoring, i.e., moss bag technique could be a valuable tool to verify model performance. In addition, spectral analysis was applied to investigate weekly variation of the daily background and modelled data set. Typical periodicities and weekend effect, caused by anthropogenic influences, have been identified.

  4. Exposure to BPA in Children—Media-Based and Biomonitoring-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L.Y. Christensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc. combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median to 153 (mean ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median to 53–66 (mean ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.

  5. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z. [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  6. Results from an Integrated Optical/Acoustic Communication System Installed at CORK 857D: Implications for Future Seafloor Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivey, M.; Farr, N.; Ware, J.; Pontbriand, C.

    2011-12-01

    at 1 Hz data-rate, an increase over the normal 15 sec data sample rate. A CTD-mounted OTS lowered by wire from a surface ship established an optical communication link at 100 meters range at rates of 1, 5 and 10 Mbps with no bit errors. This mode of communication demonstrates the effectiveness of using a ship-based system to interrogate the system remotely. The OTS was designed to be installed at the seafloor CORK for a year. In 2011, we will revisit the CORK and OTS using the ROV Jason to test the system, download the data collected during this period and to refurbish the batteries for a further year-long deployment period. We will report on the results of those tests at the meeting. As the need to observe oceanic and earth phenomenon over periods not limited to weather windows or cruise schedules increases, the borehole observatory will provide an important venue for gaining access to such timescales. High data-rate underwater communications will be required to make full use of such observatory infrastructure. The use of free water optical communication methods provides a logical way to accomplish these goals in the future.

  7. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail: f.melville@cqu.edu.au; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  8. Algae as Bio-monitors for Damodar River Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lata Dora; Maiti, S. K.; R. K.Tiwary; Anshumali Singh

    2015-01-01

    Damodar is an important tributary of Ganga river basin and cater the needs of industries and growing human population in the eastern part of India. Assessment of algal diversity was carried out to understand the impact of coal mining and allied industrial activities on the ecological condition of Damodar river basin. Surface water and algal samples were collected in the summer (2009) from ten sites along the Damodar River. Bio-monitoring of algal diversity showed high organic pollution load i...

  9. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  10. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    In this thesis several experiments have been described on the applicability of lichens as biomonitors for trace-element air pollution. The aim of the thesis was to gain knowledge about the relationships between trace-element concentrations in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and/or depositions of trace elements on a regional and national scale, and about the processes involved in the element uptake and release by lichens. (Copyright (c) 1993 by J.E. Sloof.)

  11. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  12. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies. PMID:26160126

  13. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. PMID:25596354

  14. Feasibility of poplar foliages as bio-monitors for organochlorine pesticides in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; WANG Wei; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; LI FaSheng; YANG YongLiang; LIU Feng

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of poplar (P. tomentosa) foliages as passive biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides In air was explored. The accumulation patterns of poplar foliages for HCHs, DDTs and HCB were similar, the amount of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring, and decreased thereafter. There was no obvious distinction in the accumulation styles between the adult leaf and the leaf-litter. This accumulation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the poplar foliage, and was ob-served for the first time in our work, giving an evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. The tech-nical HCH and DDT were used largely in history and not used in recent years, but there was a little usage of lindane and new input of o,p'DDT in recent years, and dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in poplar foliages were similar to those in pine needles at the corresponding period, and there is a positive strong correlation between OCP concen-tration data of two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the poplar foliage reflected the pollution status of OCPs in air. The result of this work showed that the poplar foliage can be used as the bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  15. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  16. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities

  17. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  18. Assessment of communicative abilities of students of pedagogical universities on the results of primary instruction on improving aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synytsya S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of formation of the communicative abilities of students of pedagogical universities. Material : the study involved 50 students. The program included a self-study in the amount of 6 hours dedicated to conducting primary instruction. Students were also present during the primary instruction by experienced professionals. Results : assessment by experts showed that the level of communication skills and psychological preparedness during primary instruction in students study groups vary. Thus, the average score of students of the experimental group was 4.7 points, the control group - 3.9 points. Highlighted areas of formation at students of applied professional knowledge, skills and abilities to conduct studies on improving aerobics. Conclusions : the recommended curriculum for independent work in the amount of 6 hours. Also recommended to determine the level of manifestation of relevant skills and personal qualities and professional students.

  19. Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

  20. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  1. Neural classifier of the communication damage size being a result of collision of vehicles in road traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Krystian WILK; Piotr CZECH; Rafał ŁUKASIK

    2010-01-01

    In the article the results of the attempts of MLP neural network application to define the size of a communication damage being the result of a road collision were presented. The size of the damage was used as a research parameter defined by the coefficient dependent on the cost of repair of the damaged vehicle and its market value. The elements of the damage mechanism determining the way of damage qualification were the inner factors of the system, that is; the technical features of the vehi...

  2. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Sacavem, Portugal and the Universidade dos Acores, Azores Islands, Portugal. The workshop was attended by scientists dealing with general and specific (e.g. biomonitoring) issues of air pollution. Topics included goals and quality assessment of biomonitoring surveys, the applicability of bioorganisms in both qualitative and quantitative senses, response modelling, the use of multielement analytical techniques, interpretation of results for specific pollutants, and the use of appropriate statistical tools for detailed data interpretation. This TECDOC contains the papers presented at the Workshop

  3. European communication monitor 2014: excellence in strategic communication-key issues, leadership, gender and mobile media: results of a survey in 42 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zerfass; R. Tench; D. Verčič; P. Verhoeven; A. Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The European Communication Moniotr is an internationla research initiative conducted by the European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), an autonomous organisation, in partnership with the EACD and the Communication Director magazine. The study is conducted with the aim to

  4. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize...

  5. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda;

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Environment and Health Action Plan an initiative to establish a coherent human biomonitoring approach in Europe was started. The project COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale ) developed recommendations for a harmonized conduct of a human biomon...

  6. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    on man and environment. Two widely applied biomonitoring procedures, namely the standardised ryegrass exposure for monitoring of trace metals, and the standardised exposure of curly kale for monitoring of PAH compounds, is presented taking examples from a Europe-wide biomonitoring study conducted in 11...

  7. Interuniversity Telecollaboration to Improve Academic Results and Identify Preferred Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Arturo; Dominguez, Cesar; Sanchez, Ana; Blanco, Jose Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Telecollaboration is defined as a collaborative activity that involves people from distant geographic locations working together through Internet tools and other resources. This technique has not been frequently used in learning experiences and has produced diverse academic results, as well as degrees of satisfaction. This paper describes a…

  8. Communications on hazards to the ecology, public health and the society as a result of modern technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography covers journals, books and grey literature published since 1980 to date in the field of communications research on the issue of hazards to the ecology, public health and the society as a result of modern technologies. The scientific research disciplines contributing in this context are sociology, psychology, political sciences, appropriate sectors of engineering science and scientific management. The technological subjects covered include: Nuclear energy, fossil energy sources, other energy sources, the chemical industry and pharmaceutical industry, the petrochemical industry, biological engineering, climate research, the CO2 problem and the ozone layer, and medical aspects. (DG)

  9. EHF/SHF (Super High Frequency) SATCOM (satellite communications) antenna and radome test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Allen L.; Fischbach, Wayne O.

    1987-02-01

    The current airborne EHF SATCOM system has a RF power output of 100 watts and an antenna beamwidth of less than 1 degree. As the RF beam from the antenna passes through the dielectric radome it will be refracted at each surface. The resulting change in direction of the beam depends on the frequency, the dielectric constant of the radome, and the shape of the radome surfaces. Tests have been performed to evaluate the beam deflection at 20 and 44 GHz. Other systems effects which were evaluated included antenna beam distortion, RF heating, and Radio Frequency Interference between two antennas (SHF and EHF) under a single radome.

  10. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Vorkamp, Katrin;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need...... for a structured and integrated environmental and human health surveillance program at national level. In Denmark, the initiative to implement such activities has been taken. The proposed framework of the Danish monitoring program constitutes four scientific expert groups, i.e. i. Prioritization of the strategy...

  11. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh: Results from STEPS survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mostafa Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nationally representative data on noncommunicable disease (NCD risk factors are lacking in Bangladesh. This study was done to determine the prevalence of common risk factors for major NCDs among men and women of rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This survey was done with 9,275 individuals aged 25 years or older randomly drawn from all over the country. Information on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol, and treatment history for hypertension and diabetes were collected. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure (BP were measured. Results: There were 4,312 men and 4,963 women with the mean age of 42 years (standard deviation 13 years. Half of them (54% used tobacco in some form, <1% consumed alcohol within the past 30 days, 92% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables (five servings or more, and 35% had low physical activity level [<600 metabolic equivalent (MET min per week]. Documented diabetes was found in 4% of the participants. Seventeen percent were overweight [body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and 21% had abdominal obesity (men ≥94, women ≥80 cm. Overall, 21% people had hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or medication. Physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes were more prevalent in urban areas, as opposed to tobacco. Tobacco intake showed a decreasing gradient, but hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and low physical activity showed an increasing gradient across the wealth quartiles. Conclusion: Risk factors are widely prevalent in Bangladeshi people across sexes and across both rural and urban areas of residences. NCD prevention through risk factor control, and early detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes are warranted.

  12. Treatment decision-making and the form of risk communication: results of a factorial survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes-Rovner Margaret

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective users of preventive therapies often must evaluate complex information about therapeutic risks and benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative and absolute risk information on patient decision-making in scenarios typical of health information for patients. Methods Factorial experiments within a telephone survey of the Michigan adult, non-institutionalized, English-speaking population. Average interview lasted 23 minutes. Subjects and sample design: 952 randomly selected adults within a random-digit dial sample of Michigan households. Completion rate was 54.3%. Results When presented hypothetical information regarding additional risks of breast cancer from a medication to prevent a bone disease, respondents reduced their willingness to recommend a female friend take the medication compared to the baseline rate (66.8% = yes. The decrease was significantly greater with relative risk information. Additional benefit information regarding preventing heart disease from the medication increased willingness to recommend the medication to a female friend relative to the baseline scenario, but did not differ between absolute and relative risk formats. When information about both increased risk of breast cancer and reduced risk of heart disease were provided, typical respondents appeared to make rational decisions consistent with Expected Utility Theory, but the information presentation format affected choices. Those 11% – 33% making decisions contrary to the medical indications were more likely to be Hispanic, older, more educated, smokers, and to have children in the home. Conclusions In scenarios typical of health risk information, relative risk information led respondents to make non-normative decisions that were "corrected" when the frame used absolute risk information. This population sample made generally rational decisions when presented with absolute risk information, even in the

  13. The Use of Biomonitors to Monitor Atmospheric Deposition of 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    time period (3). The objective of the present paper is to present some results of our biomonitoring programme using the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes and mosses (Pleurozium schreberi, Hypnum cupressiforme) to monitor the deposition of 210Pb in Slovenia in order to obtain information about the distribution patterns of natural radioactivity. (author)

  14. Neural classifier of the communication damage size being a result of collision of vehicles in road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian WILK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of the attempts of MLP neural network application to define the size of a communication damage being the result of a road collision were presented. The size of the damage was used as a research parameter defined by the coefficient dependent on the cost of repair of the damaged vehicle and its market value. The elements of the damage mechanism determining the way of damage qualification were the inner factors of the system, that is; the technical features of the vehicles, the character features of the drivers, the influence of the weather conditions and the location of the event in time and space. The research was conducted on one thousand cases reported for liquidation in Silesian branch of one of the insurance companies. In the conducted research the working of the neural networks with the limited input data was checked.

  15. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  16. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  17. Biomonitoring air pollution in the Czech Republic by means of tree bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the point of view of atmospheric pollution some parts of the Czech Republic rank among the most devastated areas in Europe. Heavy industry is the source of exhausts which, especially in North-West Bohemia, have made large pieces of the country nearly dead. Therefore, monitoring air pollution is one of the key questions in environmental studies in the country. Our survey intended to use similar methods like those used in the Netherlands at the end of the 80's, i.e., activation analysis of lichen Parmelia sulcata. However, preliminary investigations have shown that the proper lichens have disappeared in the most polluted areas. Therefore, tree bark has been chosen as a biomonitor. Both activation analysis in the IRI TUDelft and radionuclide X-ray fluorescence in the FNSPE CTU Prague have been used as the methods of trace element analysis. Some methodological remarks are summarised in the first part of the paper. The effort was directed towards optimising the method in the relatively complicated height profile of the Czech landscape. Finally, oak bark was chosen as the biomonitor; investigations of disturbing effects led to the conclusion that they were within the error of measurement. The second part of the paper is devoted to the results of application of the method to a specified area of the Czech Republic. This survey covered the area of nearly 40,000 square kilometres. It included the most important parts of the country from the point of view of atmospheric pollution. The evaluation of both the INAA and RXRFA results is still in progress. Nevertheless, some maps of relative distribution of air pollution over the monitored area can now be presented. They show that for some elements (sulphur, titanium) the range of the concentrations measured is extraordinarily high and that the situation in North-West Bohemia is really alarming. (author)

  18. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions. PMID:22161315

  19. Phtalates in Lithuanian environment and needs for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Balčius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling chemical substances and correct evaluation of danger and risk caused by them, based on scientific research are necessary in order to keep environment and public health safe. Regulation signed by European Parliament and Council to control registration, evaluation, authorization and limitation of chemical substances (REACH is the main juridical act from the new European Union‘s policy regarding regulation of chemical substances. Objective of this research was to gather and analyze data regarding phthalates used in Lithuania‘s industry, to present data on its environmental levels in surface water, sediments, sewage treatment plant effluents, and to discuss the needs for the human biomonitoring in Lithuania. The amount of diethylhexyl phthalate yielded to Lithuania‘s industry and market, incresed 65 times from 3,7t in 2003 to 240,81t in 2007. DEHP concentrations in Lithuania in wastewater exceeded regulated annual average maximum allowable concentrations up to 27 times and maximum allowable concentrations up to 13 times. High environmental concentrations of phthalates pointed out to the needs of establishment of permanent human biomonitoring in Lithuania.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.863

  20. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  1. European communication monitor 2011: empirical insights into strategic communication in Europe: results of an empirical survey in 43 countries (chart version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zerfass; P. Verhoeven; R. Tench; A. Moreno; D. Verčič

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Europe, communication professionals are gaining more influence and formal power in organisations. While specific patterns of decision making and leadership are evolving in the profession, many practitioners still lack a proper understanding of key business terms such as ‘return on investm

  2. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.A

    2003-08-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O{sub 3}-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O{sub 3} (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O{sub 3}. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  3. Biomonitoring in occupational health: Scientific, socio-ethical, and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring is one of the best available tools for the prevention of deleterious effects resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. The availability of analytical techniques having low detection limits allows for the measurement of numerous biomarkers. Complemented with quality control programs, our ability to collect validated information on exposure to toxicants improves. This is important as exposure doses tend to decrease in workplaces. Concurrently, there is an increasing preoccupation towards skin exposure, which cannot currently be reliably assessed through external measurements. Furthermore, as lower exposure doses are encountered, background concentrations of some biomarkers become a serious limitation to their use. This prompts researchers to seek for minor, more specific metabolites, that may however be produced through metabolic pathways that are prone to larger inter-individual variations. Assessment of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is another major challenge. There is a growing interest towards ethical issues in biomonitoring. The understanding of the advantages and of the limits of this preventive approach may be very different among occupational health professionals, but more importantly, between health professionals and those they are seeking to protect, i.e., the workers themselves. Many organizations have proposed guideline values for biomarker concentrations, but these seldom find their way in the various countries' bylaws. One underlying reason might be the greater complexity of the scientific aspects of biomarkers, whose understanding is required to set limit values, compared to the process of setting airborne limit concentrations. But the fact that the latter does not consider all aspects of biological complexity does not make it more reliable

  4. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. PMID:27132251

  5. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O3-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt

  6. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda)-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lis Bach; Laura Ferguson; Vilhelm Feltelius; Jens Sondergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis), for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods:A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) associated to the mining industry in Greenland using:1) a 5-day water-only bioassay;2) a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period;and finally 3) a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results:LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  7. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Bach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis, for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods: A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb associated to the mining industry in Greenland using: 1 a 5-day water-only bioassay; 2 a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period; and finally 3 a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results: LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  8. Assessment of Anodonta cygnea as a Biomonitor Agent for Copper and Zinc in Anzali Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anzali wetland has been subjected to high levels of pollution due to contamination from several industrial sites in addition to agricultural chemicals. Mussels have been widely used for monitoring pollution in aquatic ecosystems, because they, as filter feeders, bioaccumulate pollutants. Therefore we decided to evaluate Anodonta cygnea for its application as a bio-monitor for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. Methods: A. cygnea specimens and their surface sediments were gathered from three locations in Anzali wetland. Afterwards, the collected samples (the soft tissues and shells of A. cygnea as well as surface sediments were analyzed for Cu and Zn by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model 670G. Results: The Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediments obtained from Anzali wetland were in the range of 21.05 to 25.53 for copper and 37.84 to 82.26 μg g-1 dw for zinc. The Cu and Zn levels in the soft tissue were 1.09-1.5 times and 5-7.3 times, respectively, higher than those of the shells. The CV values (% in the soft tissues and shells were 36 and 53 for Cu, and 53.5 and 150.3 for Zn respectively. Conclusions: The lower Zn variability (CV in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and significant correlation between Zn levels in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and the surface sediments indicated that the soft tissues of A. cygnea are more appropriate for bio-monitoring of Zn. Cu concentration in the sediment and Zn levels in the soft tissues were found to be comparatively higher than some of the international standards of reference.

  9. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; WANG Wei; LI FaSheng; LIU Feng; YANG YongLiang; WU DaNian

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980's, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p'-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  10. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl- trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980’s, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p′-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p′-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  11. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae): implications for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Claudio A; Lobos, M Gabriela; Macaya, Erasmo C; Oliva, Doris; Quiroz, Waldo; Brown, Murray T

    2012-01-01

    Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps) is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast), concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al) were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  12. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae: implications for biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Sáez

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast, concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  13. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: jessica_clorofila@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  14. Quality control of INAA-k0 and ICP-MS as bio-monitoring analysis techniques - Application to Moroccan atmospheric pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many studies have been conducted to study atmospheric pollution using different techniques to determine the quality and quantity of pollutant elements. Those techniques differ in their capability of analysing as large spectrum of elements as possible, their sensibility to the presence of trace elements and their accuracy. In this study the interest turns on the INAA-k0 and ICP-MS techniques due to their adequate characteristics to analyse accurately a wide number of elements interesting the bio monitoring. To check the measurement reliability and accuracy of those two techniques, we have analysed samples of reference materials and compared analysis results of divers elements in lichens, mosses and tree barks. The results given by reference materials analysis and bio-monitor comparisons let us conclude that INAA-k0 and ICP-MS are very suitable for the bio-monitoring task, complementary and they can be substituted for analysis of the majority of elements. (author)

  15. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: results from a STEPS survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Luc H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD in Vietnam, information on the prevalence of preventable risk factors for NCD is restricted to the main urban centres of Ha Noi, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. This population-based survey aimed to describe the prevalence of risk factors for NCD in a rural Vietnamese sample. Methods This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS methodology. Participants (n = 1978 were residents of the Mekong Delta region selected by multi-stage sampling. Standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure – BP, fasting blood glucose (BG and total cholesterol (TC. Data were analysed using complex survey analysis methods. Results In this sample, 8.8% of men and 12.6% of women were overweight (body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 2.3% of men and 1.5% of women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension was 27.3% for men and 16.2% for women. There were 1.0% of men and 1.1% of women with raised BG (defined as capillary whole BG of at least 6.1 mmol/L. Conclusion We provide the first NCD risk factor profile of people living in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam using standardised methodology. Our findings for this predominantly rural sample differ from previous studies conducted in Ha Noi and HCMC, and suggest that it is inappropriate to generalise findings from the big-city surveys to the other 80% of the population.

  16. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  17. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  18. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize......Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend...... and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed...

  19. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized Human Biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K;

    2015-01-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability...... steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop, linking biomonitoring surveys with health examination surveys and with research, and coping with the diverse implementations...... data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate...

  20. New wireless data transmission system based on high frequency radio communication: design, development and testing results under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. According to the starting basis of the MoDeRn project (FP7 232598), the design and development of a system capable of transmitting the evolution of the physical parameters inside a repository will be a challenging task due to the harsh working conditions imposed by both the element itself to be monitored (for instance the canister enclosing radioactive waste), the engineered barriers into which they will be embedded and the host rock that contains everything. The measuring devices will work exposed to high pressures, high temperatures, high humidity degrees, presence of radiation, etc., during an expected lifetime of several decades without any possibility of either being powered from any external source or being replaced in case of malfunction, as the operating area will be sealed and inaccessible. Therefore, a main objective of AITEMIN and ENRESA contribution to MoDeRn was focused on the design, development and test under 'real conditions' of a new wireless system, based on high frequency radio transmission (HF), capable of monitoring the physical parameters inside a repository cell independently of the host rock type. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives and to obtain a suitable monitoring system for the target application, the following key points have been addressed: 1. Data transmission technology (transmission media); 2. Communication protocols; 3. Available power sources; 4. Expected environmental conditions; 5. Suitable sensors. The activities carried out for the development of the HF wireless system were structured in three steps: 1. Laboratory work, to select the best solutions under controlled environment. 2. Field testing, to validate under more realistic conditions the solutions selected at lab. 3. Demonstration: long-term evaluation of the real performance of the solutions proved to be applicable during the field testing Obtained results were as follows: 1. A suitable radio communication

  1. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMBUSIA PUNCTATA (POECILIDAE) FOR ITS SELECTION AS BIOMONITOR IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY IN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Argota, George; Iannacone, José; Fimia, Rigoberto

    2013-01-01

    The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae) for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almen...

  3. Elaeagnus angustifoliaL. as a Biomonitor of Heavy Metal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ahmet

    1999-01-01

    The leaves of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) were tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution in Kayseri. Concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn were determined in unwashed and washed leaves and soils. Differences between the unwashed and washed samples varied according to the metal pollutant levels. Significant correlations were obtained between the heavy metal concentrations in surface soil and washed leaf samples. E. angustifoliawas found to be a useful biomonitor of the hea...

  4. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  5. Algae as Bio-monitors for Damodar River Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lata Dora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Damodar is an important tributary of Ganga river basin and cater the needs of industries and growing human population in the eastern part of India. Assessment of algal diversity was carried out to understand the impact of coal mining and allied industrial activities on the ecological condition of Damodar river basin. Surface water and algal samples were collected in the summer (2009 from ten sites along the Damodar River. Bio-monitoring of algal diversity showed high organic pollution load in the Damodar River. These observations were confirmed by statistical analysis. Algal community analysis and multivariate analysis showed influence of organic pollution in the river. Cluster analysis (CA identified the similarity and dissimilarity among sampling sites and discriminate the reference site from rest of the impacted sites in the Damodar river basin.

  6. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women. PMID:27150289

  7. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  8. Incorporating traits in aquatic biomonitoring to enhance causal diagnosis and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Joseph M; Armanini, David G; Dunbar, Michael J; Orlofske, Jessica M; Poff, N LeRoy; Pollard, Amina I; Yates, Adam G; Hose, Grant C

    2011-04-01

    The linkage of trait responses to stressor gradients has potential to expand biomonitoring approaches beyond traditional taxonomically based assessments that identify ecological effect to provide a causal diagnosis. Traits-based information may have several advantages over taxonomically based methods. These include providing mechanistic linkages of biotic responses to environmental conditions, consistent descriptors or metrics across broad spatial scales, more seasonal stability compared with taxonomic measures, and seamless integration of traits-based analysis into assessment programs. A traits-based biomonitoring approach does not require a new biomonitoring framework, because contemporary biomonitoring programs gather the basic site-by-species composition matrices required to link community data to the traits database. Impediments to the adoption of traits-based biomonitoring relate to the availability, consistency, and applicability of existing trait data. For example, traits generalizations among taxa across biogeographical regions are rare, and no consensus exists relative to the required taxonomic resolution and methodology for traits assessment. Similarly, we must determine if traits form suites that are related to particular stressor effects, and whether significant variation of traits occurs among allopatric populations. Finally, to realize the potential of traits-based approaches in biomonitoring, a concerted effort to standardize terminology is required, along with the establishment of protocols to ease the sharing and merging of broad, geographical trait information. PMID:21442732

  9. Biomonitoring of coastal areas: cadmium effect on cytoskeleton of the calcisponge Clathrina clathrus = Monitoraggio costiero: effetto del cadmio sul citoscheletro della calcispongia Clathrina clathrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ledda, Fabio D.; Ramoino, Paola; Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Manconi, Renata

    2011-01-01

    We detected the effect of Cadmium on the cytoskeleton of Clathrina clathrus by immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. Results highlighted the potential of the sponge to resist to the action of heavy metals through the reorganisation of the tubulins and suggest the utilization of sponges for biomonitoring of environmental pollution.

  10. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands. PMID:25253055

  11. Using video games for volcanic hazard education and communication: an assessment of the method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  13. Improved detection of coastal acid sulfate soil hotspots through biomonitoring of metal(loid) accumulation in water lilies (Nymphaea capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-15

    Anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate soils along the east coast of Australia, and worldwide, periodically result in the discharge of acid waters containing high concentrations of metals. Identifying priority sites (hotspots) within a catchment for acid sulfate soil remediation activities typically involves long-term monitoring of drainwater chemistry, including the capture of data on unpredictable rain-induced groundwater discharge events. To improve upon this monitoring approach, this study investigated using the water lily (Nymphaea capensis) as a biomonitor of drainage waters to identify hotspots in three acid sulfate soil impacted catchments (83 km(2)) in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. In one catchment where the location of hotspots was known, water lily lamina concentrations of a suite of metal(loid)s were significantly (pcatchment-scale water lily sampling program undertaken in catchments with unidentified hotspots revealed within catchment variation of plant metal concentrations up to 70-fold. High resolution maps produced from these results, therefore, provided strong evidence for the location of potential hotspots which were confirmed with measurements of drainwater chemistry during rain-induced groundwater discharge events. Median catchment lily accumulation was ca. 160 mg Al kg(-1) and 1,300 mg Fe kg(-1), with hotspots containing up to 6- and 10-fold higher Al and Fe concentrations. These findings suggest that biomonitoring with N. capensis can be an important tool to rapidly identify priority sites for remediation in acid sulfate soil impacted landscapes. PMID:24805963

  14. Study of some marine bivalves as the biomonitor candidates for environmental assessment of the Jianzhou Bay by NAA and AAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangPei-Qun; WangWen-Qi; 等

    1998-01-01

    Some kinds of marine bivalves were selected as the biomonitor candidates to study the possibility of the environmentalassessmentof the jiaozhou Bay with biomonitors.The contents of 29 elements in bivalve samples were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry.It is found that clam is a suitable kind of marine bivalves as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental quality of the Jiaozhou Bay.the environmental status of some sampling sites in this marine area wastentatively assessed by the biomonitors of calm and mussel.

  15. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g-1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g-1 and Ca at mg g-1. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was also

  16. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  17. A new way to contemplate Darwin's tangled bank: how DNA barcodes are reconnecting biodiversity science and biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Baird, Donald J; Fahner, Nicole A; Beiko, Robert; Golding, G Brian

    2016-09-01

    Encompassing the breadth of biodiversity in biomonitoring programmes has been frustrated by an inability to simultaneously identify large numbers of species accurately and in a timely fashion. Biomonitoring infers the state of an ecosystem from samples collected and identified using the best available taxonomic knowledge. The advent of DNA barcoding has now given way to the extraction of bulk DNA from mixed samples of organisms in environmental samples through the development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This DNA metabarcoding approach allows an unprecedented view of the true breadth and depth of biodiversity, but its adoption poses two important challenges. First, bioinformatics techniques must simultaneously perform complex analyses of large datasets and translate the results of these analyses to a range of users. Second, the insights gained from HTS need to be amalgamated with concepts such as Linnaean taxonomy and indicator species, which are less comprehensive but more intuitive. It is clear that we are moving beyond proof-of-concept studies to address the challenge of implementation of this new approach for environmental monitoring and regulation. Interpreting Darwin's 'tangled bank' through a DNA lens is now a reality, but the question remains: how can this information be generated and used reliably, and how does it relate to accepted norms in ecosystem study?This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481782

  18. Oxygen flux as an indicator of physiological stress in aquatic organisms: a real-time biomonitoring system of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Yale, Gowri; Chatni, Rameez; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo G.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Mclamore, Eric S.; Sepúlveda, María S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection of harmful chemicals and biological agents in real time is a critical need for protecting water quality. We studied the real-time effects of five environmental contaminants with differing modes of action (atrazine, pentachlorophenol, cadmium chloride, malathion, and potassium cyanide) on respiratory oxygen consumption in 2-day post-fertilization fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) eggs. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of fathead minnow eggs using the self-referencing micro-optrode technique to detect instantaneous changes in oxygen consumption after brief exposures to low concentrations of contaminants. Oxygen consumption data indicated that the technique is indeed sensitive enough to reliably detect physiological alterations induced by all contaminants. After 2 h of exposure, we identified significant increases in oxygen consumption upon exposure to pentachlorophenol (100 and 1000 μg/L), cadmium chloride (0.0002 and 0.002 μg/L), and atrazine (150 μg/L). In contrast, we observed a significant decrease in oxygen flux after exposures to potassium cyanide (5.2, 22, and 44 μg/L) and atrazine (1500 μg/L). No effects were detected after exposures to malathion (200 and 340 μg/L). We have also tested the sensitivity of Daphnia magna embryos as another animal model for real-time environmental biomonitoring. Our results are so far encouraging and support further development of this technology as a physiologically coupled biomonitoring tool for the detection of environmental toxicants.

  19. A new way to contemplate Darwin's tangled bank: how DNA barcodes are reconnecting biodiversity science and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald J.; Fahner, Nicole A.; Beiko, Robert; Golding, G. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Encompassing the breadth of biodiversity in biomonitoring programmes has been frustrated by an inability to simultaneously identify large numbers of species accurately and in a timely fashion. Biomonitoring infers the state of an ecosystem from samples collected and identified using the best available taxonomic knowledge. The advent of DNA barcoding has now given way to the extraction of bulk DNA from mixed samples of organisms in environmental samples through the development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This DNA metabarcoding approach allows an unprecedented view of the true breadth and depth of biodiversity, but its adoption poses two important challenges. First, bioinformatics techniques must simultaneously perform complex analyses of large datasets and translate the results of these analyses to a range of users. Second, the insights gained from HTS need to be amalgamated with concepts such as Linnaean taxonomy and indicator species, which are less comprehensive but more intuitive. It is clear that we are moving beyond proof-of-concept studies to address the challenge of implementation of this new approach for environmental monitoring and regulation. Interpreting Darwin's ‘tangled bank’ through a DNA lens is now a reality, but the question remains: how can this information be generated and used reliably, and how does it relate to accepted norms in ecosystem study? This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481782

  20. Picture archiving and communication systems lead to sustained improvements in reporting times and productivity: results of a 5-year audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the impact of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) on reporting times and productivity in a large teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Reporting time, defined as the time taken from patient registration to report availability, and productivity, defined as the number of reports issued per whole time equivalent (WTE) radiologist per month, were studied for 2 years pre- and 3 years post-PACS installation. Mean reporting time was calculated for plain radiographs and specialist radiology techniques [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine]. Productivity, total department workload, and unreported film rates were also assessed. Pre- and post-PACS findings were compared. Results: Between 2002-2006 the number of radiological patient episodes increased by 30% from 11,531/month to 15,057/month. This was accompanied by a smaller increase in WTE reporting radiologists, from 32 to 37 (15%). Mean reporting times have improved substantially post-PACS, plain radiograph reporting time decreased by 26% (from 6.8 to 5 days; p = 0.002) and specialty modalities by 24% (4.1 to 3.1 days; p < 0.001). Radiologist productivity has increased by 18% (337 films to 407 films/WTE radiologist/month). Unreported films have decreased from 5 to 4% for plain radiographs and are steady for specialty modalities (< 1%). In most areas improvements have been sustained over a 3-year period. Conclusion: Since the introduction of PACS, reporting times have decreased by 25% and the productivity improved by 18%. Sustained improvements are felt to reflect the efficiencies and cultural change that accompanied the introduction of PACS and digital dictation

  1. Low-Impact Air-to-Ground Free-Space Optical Communication System Design and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Geday, Morten A; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M; Oton, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    An air-to-ground free-space optical communication system has been designed and partially developed. The design covers both the communications between the airborne and the ground station, and the acquisition, tracking and pointing. A strong effort has been made in order to achieve the minimum payload power, size and weight, for which a MEMS modulating retroreflector has been chosen. In the ground station, a new technique for fine pointing, based on a liquid crystal device, is proposed and will be demonstrated, as well as other improvements with the aim of optimizing the ground station performance.

  2. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  3. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

  4. A Simple, Visually Oriented Communication System to Improve Postoperative Care Following Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer: Development, Results, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter W; Landford, Wilmina; Gardenier, Jason; Otterburn, David M; Rohde, Christine H; Spector, Jason A

    2016-07-01

    Background Communication, particularly transmission of information between the surgical and nursing teams, has been identified as one of the most crucial determinants of patient outcomes. Nonetheless, transfer of information among and between the physician and nursing teams in the immediate postoperative period is often informal, verbal, and inconsistent. Methods An iterative process of multidisciplinary information gathering was undertaken to create a novel postoperative communication system (the "Pop-form"). Once developed, nurses were surveyed on multiple measures regarding the perceived likelihood that it would improve their ability to provide directed patient care. Data were quantified using a Likert scale (0-10), and statistically analyzed. Results The Pop-form records and transfers operative details, specific anatomic monitoring parameters, and senior physician contact information. Sixty-eight nurses completed surveys. The perceived usefulness of different components of the Pop-form system was as follows: 8.9 for the description of the procedure; 9.3 for the operative diagram; 9.4 for the monitoring details and parameters; and 9.4 for the direct contact information for the appropriate surgical team member. All respondents were in favor of widespread adoption of the Pop-form. Conclusion This uniform, visual communication system requires less than 1 minute to compose, yet formalizes and standardizes inter-team communication, and therefore shows promise for improving outcomes following microvascular free tissue transfer. We believe that this simple, innovative communication tool has the potential to be more broadly applied to many other health care settings. PMID:26872024

  5. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U

    1999-03-01

    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  6. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata. PMID:26844661

  7. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  8. Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the

  9. Biomonitoring and spatial variability of sulphur dioxide in urban air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Lisandro de Moraes Flores

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are recognized as biological indicators of environmental pollution and also biomonitors of air quality due to their response capacity when exposed to polluted environments especially toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2 carbon dioxide (CO2 heavy metals fluorides ozone nitrogen oxides and peroxyacetyl nitrate. This work evaluated the sulfur dioxide concentration of in the air in Santa Maria city using lichen kind Usnea as biomarker. Extracts including their substrates were collected in an area without the influence of pollutants and exposed in regions of the city with intense automotive traffic. This procedure was repeated throughout four seasons of one year. After each exposure the analysis of sulfur accumulated was done using the turbidimetric technique. The Usnea sp species showed to be good for monitoring of the atmospheric sulfur dioxide. In spite of the fuels commercialized today show low pollutants concentration the increase in the number of automotive vehicles in the urban center in Santa Maria city contributes significantly to the high concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmospheric air.

  10. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast milk.

  11. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government Inform

  12. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  13. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  14. Biomonitoring for creosote and pentachlorophenol in nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, J. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, TX (United States); Phillips, D.H.; Hewer, A. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Takhar, H. [Comprehensive Health Screening Services, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Warshaw, R. [Workers' Disease Detection Services, Inc. (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminated wood treatment sites can result in adverse health effects to nearby residents. Environmental exposure can be estimated by measuring concentrations of pollutants in air, water, food, or wipe tests. This environmental exposure value can be used as a surrogate to estimate individual exposure. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not pentachlorophenol (PCP) could be found in potentially exposed residents and if the dioxin levels are consistent with PCP exposure. A further objective of the study was to determine whether or not PAH-DNA adducts could be found in the potentially exposed residents. We present results of biomonitoring studies in residents living near a wood treatment plant that used coal-derived creosote and PCP to process and treat wood for over 100 years. The plant was built in 1904 and used creosote and PCP. Creosote is a complex mixture that contains numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCP is contaminated with polychlorinated dioxin and furans. The residents' exposure pathways include air, soil and surface water.

  15. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  16. Saliva as an analytical matrix: state of the art and application for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Santoro, Alessia; Papaleo, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Analytical tests to measure chemicals in saliva can be employed for numerous analytes, endogenous compounds or xenobiotics. The objective was to determine which chemicals can be analysed with this matrix, which analytical methods are applicable, and what application is possible for biomonitoring. We reviewed the literature using three databases, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, collecting articles on different kinds of analysis in saliva. Studies were principally about molecules of clinical interest, xenobiotics, especially drugs of abuse, and chemicals used at workplaces; some substances show no relevant correlation with exposure data while others seems to be of particular interest for systematic use for biomonitoring. Currently, saliva is used far less than other biological fluids but its use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals might open up new areas for research and would certainly simplify the collection of biological samples.

  17. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  18. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.n [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J., E-mail: Juha.Piispanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.i [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Aleksiayenak, Y., E-mail: beataa@gmail.co [International Sakharov Environmental University, Minsk (Belarus); Blum, O., E-mail: blum@nbg.kiev.u [National Botanical Garden, Academy of Science of Ukraine, Timiryazevs' ka St. 1, 01014 Kyiv (Ukraine); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.co [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dam, M., E-mail: mariad@us.f [Environment Agency, Traoagota 38, FO-165 Argir (Faroe Islands); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Fernandez, J.A., E-mail: jangel.fernandez@usc.e [University of Santiago de Compestela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.l [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Maskavas Str. 165, Riga LV 1019 (Latvia); Frontasyeva, M., E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.e [University of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. - Since 1990, heavy metal concentrations in mosses have declined in Europe for most metals.

  19. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates

  20. Mosses as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the territory of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regional trace element studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to better distinguish between different source categories. In the present work the moss bio-monitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to elucidate these problems. The total concentrations of 44 individual elements were determined in 86 samples of mosses. The mean, median, standard deviation and range values was determined for each elements. The use of terrestrial mosses as bio monitors is a well-established technique in Europe Comparison with the current median level in Norway shows strong pollution of the examined areas of Slovakia with the most of heavy metals. Strongly elevated Pb values with compare even South Ural Maintains is evident. The Cd value is 1.5 to 9 times higher than in other Europeans regions, only concentration of Zn are approximately equally. The most important feature of the sampling is that it correlates with the European Moss-Survey-2000, and the results obtained will be incorporated in the Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition in Europe. (authors)

  1. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  2. Atmospheric radionuclide deposits biomonitoring in the neighbourhood of NPP Temelin in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of bio-monitoring of atmospheric radionuclide deposits in the neighbourhood of NPP Temelin in the year 2000 are presented.Monitored area contained 27 sampled locations along eight radial profiles interesting the area of interest up to distance of 20 km from NPP Temelin (the measuring points are located 2-5-10-20 km form NPP). The samples were taken from forest humus, surface pine bark, Shreber moss, edible mushrooms and forest berries.The pine bark and moss were sampled at the selected sites twice yearly , at spring and fall of 2000, forest humus once in spring month of 2000, mushrooms and berries once in a growing season of 2000. In total 203 samples were collected. For the determination of radionuclide presence and their activity in samples was selected a method of Iaboratory gamma spectroscopy. The measured values corresponded to nominal values on natural background, depending mainly of geological substrata (soil contents), concentration of radon in soil or air etc. The methodology selected enables identification of individual contaminants and their contribution or occurrence. With the exception of the identified 137Cs it is not possible to identify among the measured spectra any significant contribution of any other radionuclides

  3. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  4. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern. PMID:21240711

  5. Der Comet Assay als Test im Biomonitoring - Untersuchungen zum Nachweis genotoxischer Effekte des Rauchens

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Heike

    2006-01-01

    Der Comet Assay ist ein gut etablierter in vitro- und in vivo-Genotoxizitätstest und wird zunehmend in der Substanzprüfung eingesetzt. Aufgrund seiner einfachen Durchführung und seiner hohen Sensitivität gegenüber verschiedensten DNA-schädigenden Agenzien findet er auch immer mehr Verwendung in Biomonitoring-Untersuchungen. Die Eignung des Comet Assay für Biomonitoring-Studien wurde bisher kaum systematisch untersucht und bisher durchgeführte Studien haben häufig zu widersprüchlichen Ergebnis...

  6. Use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic facts about the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric trace element deposition are reviewed, and advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed, largely on the basis of experience from regular use of this technique in Norway over the last 20 years. Topics discussed include different versions of the moss technique, mechanisms and efficiencies of trace element uptake, conversion of concentrations in moss to bulk deposition rates, and contribution from sources other than air pollution to the elemental composition of different elements. Suggestions are presented for further work in order to extend the use of mosses as biomonitors. (author)

  7. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre;

    2015-01-01

    tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers.......6 μg/L). All measured biomarker levels were similar to or below population-based reference values published by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Germany's GerES surveys. No results were above available health guidance values and were of no concern with regards...

  8. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  9. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.

    1989-06-01

    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  10. Life without plastic: A family experiment and biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Shelton, Janie F; Piegler, Kathrin; Wallner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal and human studies, and human bio-monitoring studies demonstrate widespread exposure in the US and Europe. Out of concern for the environment and health, individuals may attempt to modify their environment, diet, and consumer choices to avoid such exposures, but these natural experiments are rarely if ever quantitatively evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites following an exposure reduction intervention among an Austrian family of five. Urine samples were taken shortly after the family had removed all plastic kitchenware, toys, and bathroom products, and started a concerted effort to eat less food packaged in plastic. Two-months later, urine samples were collected at a follow-up visit, and concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites were compared. Shortly after removal of plastic urinary concentrations of BPA were below limit of quantification in all samples. Phthalate concentrations were low, however, 10 of 14 investigated metabolites could be found above limit of quantification. After the two-month intervention, phthalate urinary concentrations had declined in some but not all family members. In the mother most phthalate metabolites increased. The low levels might be partly due to the environmentally conscious lifestyle of the family and partly due to the fact that body levels had dropped already because of the delay of four days between finishing removal and first measurement. Further two months avoidance of dietary exposure and exposure to environmental plastics reduced urinary concentrations for all but one metabolite in the oldest son only, but decreased somewhat in all family members except the mother. PMID:27235111

  11. Pinus roxburghii plant needles as a three-season biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring along roadside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the determination of 36 elements in Pinus roxburghii plant needles to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The needles of Pinus roxburghii were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad. The method validation was performed by analyzing two certified reference materials i.e., Citrus leaves - NIST-SRM-1572 and IAEA-Soil-7. Pollution level was assessed by using three indicators: enrichment factor, pollution load index and average toxic element concentration. The results indicated that the needles of Pinus roxburghii plant had potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of high traffic areas.

  12. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  13. [Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases: a domiciliary survey in the municipality of São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Methodology and preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, R A; Berardo, F A; Rodrigues, S S; Oliveira, Z M; Oliverira, M B; Vasconcellos, C; Aventurato, L V; Moncau, J E; Ramos, L R

    1990-08-01

    The non-communicable chronic diseases are important causes of death in Brazil, mainly in the great urban centres. There are various risk factors related to these diseases, whose remotion or attenuation would contribute to a fall in mortality. The methodology of the first comprehensive multicenter study into risk factors of non-communicable chronic diseases carried out in Latin America is explained. In Brazil, this study was carried out in the cities of S. Paulo, SP and Porto Alegre, RS. Preliminary results from the city of S. Paulo as to the prevalence of arterial hypertension (22.3%), tabagism (37.9%), obesity (18.0%), alcoholism (7.7%) and sedentarism (69.3%) are presented. These results are compared with existing data from Brazil and other countries, and the relationship between various risk factors and the mortality from cardiovascular diseases in S. Paulo and some developed countries is discussed. PMID:2103645

  14. On the development of a decision support intervention for mothers undergoing BRCA1/2 cancer genetic testing regarding communicating test results to their children

    OpenAIRE

    Peshkin, Beth N.; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2009-01-01

    Parent communication of BRCA1/2 test results to minor-age children is an important, yet understudied, clinical issue that is commonly raised in the management of familial cancer risk. Genetic counseling professionals and others who work with parents undergoing this form of testing often confront questions about the risks/benefits and timing of such disclosures, as well as the psychosocial impact of disclosure and nondisclosure on children’s health and development. This paper briefly reviews l...

  15. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  16. Assessment of air quality in Mangabeiras' Park, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using epiphytic lichens as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring has been used as an alternative method to study the air pollution in several countries. The lichen, or lichenized fungi, is one of the most efficient on air pollution biomonitoring among the biomonitors. However, in Brazil, systematic use of lichens as biomonitors of environmental pollution is quite rare. In order to make an assessment of the air quality of the Mangabeiras' Park, this study was conducted by measuring the concentration of elements accumulated in the lichen thallus. This park, located in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is the greatest green area in the city, and an apparent region of non polluted air. During the development of the study, epiphytic lichens of several species were collected using a steel stainless knife, taking samples of similar sizes from 1.5 m from the soil. The lichens selection was based on morphological similarities, such as color and type of the thallus. The elemental concentration determination was carried out applying the neutron activation technique, k0-standardization method, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor located at CDTN/CNEN. The lichen samples presented expressive concentrations of Ba, Fe, K, Na and Zn. However, the presence of other characteristic soil elements from the region, such as As, Th and U, suggests the influence of the mining activity area, located in the surroundings. (author)

  17. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry. PMID:27040538

  18. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-09-01

    Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed. It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological studies so far have been cross-sectional.

  19. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of th...

  20. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMBUSIA PUNCTATA (POECILIDAE FOR ITS SELECTION AS BIOMONITOR IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almendares -Vento Basin in San Juan Havana and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, respectively. The description of the characteristics of the referred species considered whether they met seven criteria for biomonitoring: 1 cosmopolitan distribution, 2 easy taxonomic identification, 3 appropriate size, 4 limited mobility and relatively long life cycle, 5 tolerant to contamination, 6 easy handling in laboratory studies, and 7 correlation between the contaminant of interest and other environmental matrices. The characteristics were met for each of the seven criteria, and thus have conditional use as biomonitors in ecotoxicology studies and for the ecosystem at San Juan Almendares, Cuba.

  2. 15. APPLICATION OF THE ALKALINE COMET ASSAY IN HUMAN BIOMONITORING: INTERNAL STANDARD AND GLOBAL REPAIR PHENOTYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@An internal standard, composed of untreated an ethy1 methane sulfonate treated K562 cells was validated for its application in comet analysis of human biomonitoring samples. Firstly, the different levels of variability which may influence the damage levels of the internal standards were assessed. Three experimenters performed the comet assay with cells coming from the same set of untreated

  3. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  4. Disparities in Health Information Access: Results of a County-Wide Survey and Implications for Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Megan S; Su, Dejun; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-01-01

    Health knowledge and behavior can be shaped by the extent to which individuals have access to reliable and understandable health information. Based on data from a population-based telephone survey of 1,503 respondents of ages 18 years and older living in Douglas County, Nebraska, in 2013, this study assesses disparities in health information access and their related covariates. The two most frequently reported sources of health information are the Internet and health professionals, followed by print media, peers, and broadcast media. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks are more likely to report health professionals as their primary source of health information (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, p < .001) and less likely to report peers (OR = 0.39, p < .05). A comparison between Whites and Hispanics suggests that Hispanics are less likely to get their health information through the Internet (OR = 0.51, p < .05) and more likely to get it from broadcast media (OR = 4.27, p < .01). Relative to their counterparts, participants with no health insurance had significantly higher odds of reporting no source of health information (OR = 3.46, p < .05). Having no source of health information was also associated with an annual income below $25,000 (OR = 2.78, p < .05 compared to middle income range) and being born outside of the United States (OR = 5.00, p < .05). Access to health information is lowest among society's most vulnerable population groups. Knowledge of the specific outlets through which people are likely to obtain health information can help health program planners utilize the communication channels that are most relevant to the people they intend to reach. PMID:26452300

  5. Chemometrics in biomonitoring: Distribution and correlation of trace elements in tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Bjelajac, Anđelika; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Nikolić, Miroslav; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of 15 elements were measured in the leaf samples of Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia spp., Betula pendula and Acer platanoides collected in May and September of 2014 from four different locations in Belgrade, Serbia. The objective was to assess the chemical characterization of leaf surface and in-wax fractions, as well as the leaf tissue element content, by analyzing untreated, washed with water and washed with chloroform leaf samples, respectively. The combined approach of self-organizing networks (SON) and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) aided by Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA) was used in the interpretation of multiple element loads on/in the tree leaves. The morphological characteristics of the leaf surfaces and the elemental composition of particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector. The results showed that the amounts of retained and accumulated element concentrations depend on several parameters, such as chemical properties of the element and morphological properties of the leaves. Among the studied species, Tilia spp. was found to be the most effective in the accumulation of elements in leaf tissue (70% of the total element concentration), while A. hippocastanum had the lowest accumulation (54%). After water and chloroform washing, the highest percentages of removal were observed for Al, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sb (>40%). The PROMETHEE/SON ranking/classifying results were in accordance with the results obtained from the GAIA clustering techniques. The combination of the techniques enabled extraction of additional information from datasets. Therefore, the use of both the ranking and clustering methods could be a useful tool to be applied in biomonitoring studies of trace elements. PMID:26748000

  6. Clarifying relationships between persistent organic pollutant concentrations and age in wildlife biomonitoring: individuals, cross-sections, and the roles of lifespan and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and age in wildlife biomonitoring are often interpreted as changes in contaminant burden as organisms age. However, cross-sectional body burden-age trends (CBATs) obtained from biomonitoring studies, which sample individuals of different ages at the same time, should not be confused with longitudinal body burden-age trends (LBATs) obtained by sampling the same individuals repeatedly through time. To clarify how CBATs and LBATs for wildlife species deviate from each other, and describe any impact of lifespan and sex, we used mechanistic bioaccumulation models to estimate historic longitudinal exposures of polar cod, ringed seals, beluga whales, and bowhead whales to polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153. Cross-sectional body burden-age trends were then produced by sampling resultant LBATs of successive birth cohorts at specific time points. As found previously for humans, the year of sampling relative to the year of peak environmental contamination was a critical parameter in determining male CBAT shapes. However, a similar cohort effect was not apparent for reproductive females because efficient POP loss through lactation prevented their lipids from retaining a memory of past exposure levels. Thus, lactation loss was not only responsible for the large differences between the CBATs of males and females of the same species, but also the lack of female CBAT variability through time. Cross-sectional body burden-age trend shapes varied little between species by lifespan, as long as equivalent age scales were used. However, lifespan relative to the timescale of environmental contaminant level changes did determine the extent to which CBATs resembled LBATs for males. We suggest that accounting for birth cohort and sex effects is essential when interpreting age trends in POP biomonitoring studies of long-lived species. PMID:24619475

  7. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution. PMID:27321879

  8. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  9. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthra

  10. Harmonized European human biomonitoring in small countries: Challenges, opportunities and lessons learned in Cyprus and Luxembourg from the DEMOCOPHES study

    OpenAIRE

    Katsonouri A.; Fischer M.E.; Hadjipanayis A.; Arendt M.; Lavranos G.; Hoffmann L.; Maurer-Chronakis K.; Guignard C.; Fragopoulou C.; Cocco E; Anastasi E.; Pilavakis D.; Efstathiou E.; Demetriou L.; Hadjiefthychiou A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To advance human biomonitoring (HBM) for policy support in Europe, a harmonized approach was developed (COPHES project, FP7 2009- 2012) and evaluated in 17 countries (DEMOCOPHES project, Life+, 2010-2012). Cyprus (CY) and Luxembourg (LU) tested the hypothesis that the COPHES European Protocol is applicable to small countries.Materials and methods: In 2011-12, the European Protocol was adopted and tested by CY and LU for the harmonized biomonitoring of 60 ch...

  11. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-01-01

    Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  12. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  13. HAIR LEAD BIO-MONITORING AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE PROVINCE OF CAVITE, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet P. Macawile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne lead is one of the pressing environmental problems that cause neuropsychological impairments to people who are exposed to it. In assessing people’s exposure to airborne lead, bio-monitoring techniques has been used as an indicator of chemical exposure. This study aims to determine the hair lead concentrations among school children in the province of Cavite and compare the hair lead concentrations of the school children living and studying in the urban and rural areas of the province of Cavite, Philippines. Consenting public and private school children of the municipalities of Bacoor and Alfonso were involved in the study. Hair strands were obtained from each student and analyzed for lead concentrations. Results of hair lead concentrations were compared for significant differences between the public and private schools in both areas using the t test under the significance level of p<0.05. A total of 922 consenting school children participated in this study. The hair lead concentrations (mean ± SD of all school children surveyed was 0.2814±0.1245 ppm. Hair lead concentrations of children studying in public schools were higher relative to those in private schools. School children residing in the urban areas had higher hair lead concentrations compared with those residing in the rural areas. Hair lead concentrations of school children living in urban and rural areas and those studying in private and public schools in Bacoor and Alfonso were found to be significantly different (t = 9.096 and t = 6.867, respectively; p<0.05. Findings indicate that school children are exposed to airborne lead.

  14. Genes and environment - striking the fine balance between sophisticated biomonitoring and true functional environmental genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian E W; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Menzel, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    This article provides an overview how the application of the gene profiling (mainly via microarray technology) can be used in different organisms to address issues of environmental importance. Only recently, environmental sciences, including ecotoxicology, and molecular biology have started to mutually fertilize each other. This conceptual blend has enabled the identification of the interaction between molecular events and whole animal and population responses. Likewise, striking the fine balance between biomonitoring and functional environmental genomics will allow legislative and administrative measures to be based on a more robust platform. The application of DNA microarrays to ecotoxicogenomics links ecotoxicological effects of exposure with expression profiles of several thousand genes. The gene expression profiles are altered during toxicity, as either a direct or indirect result of toxicant exposure and the comparison of numerous specific expression profiles facilitates the differentiation between intoxication and true responses to environmental stressors. Furthermore, the application of microarrays provides the means to identify complex pathways and strategies that an exposed organism applies in response to environmental stressors. This review will present evidence that the widespread phenomenon of hormesis has a genetic basis that goes beyond an adaptive response. Some more practical advantages emerge: the toxicological assessment of complex mixtures, such as effluents or sediments, as well as drugs seems feasible, especially when classical ecotoxicological tests have failed. The review of available information demonstrates the advantages of microarray application to environmental issues spanning from bacteria, over algae and spermatophytes, to invertebrates (nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, crustacea Daphnia spp., earthworms), and various fish species. Microarrays have also highlighted why populations of a given species respond differently to similar

  15. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Fetri, E-mail: fetrizainal@yahoo.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. 43000 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  16. Pitfalls and new mechanisms in moss isotope biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki

    2012-11-20

    Moss N isotope (δ(15)N(bulk)) has been used to monitor N deposition, but it remains questionable whether inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) by reduced dissolved N (RDN) engenders overestimation of RDN in deposition when using moss δ(15)N(bulk). We tested this question by investigation of δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(15)NO(3)(-) in mosses under the dominance of RDN in N depositions of Guiyang, SW China. The δ(15)N(bulk) of mosses on bare rock (-7.9‰) was unable to integrate total dissolved N (TDN) (δ(15)N = -6.3‰), but it reflected δ(15)N-RDN (-7.5‰) exactly. Moreover, δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) in mosses (-1.7‰) resembled that of wet deposition (-1.9‰). These isotopic approximations, together with low isotopic enrichment with moss [NO(3)(-)] variations, suggest the inhibition of moss NRA by RDN. Moreover, isotopic mixing modeling indicated a negligible contribution from NO(3)(-) to moss δ(15)N(bulk) when the RDN/NO(3)(-) reaches 3.8, at which maximum overestimation (21%) of RDN in N deposition can be generated using moss δ(15)N(bulk) as δ(15)N-TDN. Moss δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) can indicate atmospheric NO(3)(-) under distinctly high RDN/NO(3)(-) in deposition, although moss δ(15)N(bulk) can reflect only the RDN therein. These results reveal pitfalls and new mechanisms associated with moss isotope monitoring of N deposition and underscore the importance of biotic N dynamics in biomonitoring studies. PMID:23050838

  17. Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eva; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Winkler, Aldo; Cascella, Antonio

    We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting that leaves accumulate magnetic pollutants during their whole lifespan. In a second step, leaves from Q. ilex and Platanus sp. trees, both very common in Rome, have been used to monitor traffic emission pollution in two different periods. A Platanus sp. sampling campaign was undertaken in October 2001, at the end of the seasonal vegetational cycle, and 5 Q. ilex monthly sampling campaigns from April to August 2002. The strong difference observed in the magnetic susceptibility from leaves collected in green areas and roads allowed the realization of detailed pollution distribution maps from the south of Rome. Magnetic properties indicate that high concentrations and relatively larger grain-sizes of magnetic particles are observed in trees located along roads with high vehicle traffic and in the vicinity of railways. The decrease in concentration and grain size of magnetic particles with distance from the roadside confirms that magnetic properties of leaves are related to air pollution from vehicle emissions. The results indicate that a magnetic survey of tree leaves, which is relatively rapid and inexpensive, may be used in addition to the classical air quality monitoring systems to identify and delineate high-polluted areas in urban environments.

  18. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios. PMID:26718850

  19. Fatigue strength of high-temperature alloys under conditions of cyclic temperature variation. Communication 1: Experimental procedure and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshchenko, V. T.; Gryaznov, B. A.; Yamshanov, Yu. B.

    1994-03-01

    Determination of the serviceability of the material of gas-turbine engine blades, one of the most loaded elements of the engine, critical for the reliability of the turbine, is discussed. The NUM-3 setup, intended for studying fatigue strength of high-temperature alloys under conditions simulating service ones, is briefly described. The results of the investigation into the fatigue of alloys EP962 and EI698 under isothermal conditions and complex thermal-mechanical loading are presented. The analysis of the findings revealed a number of regularities in the effect of thermal cycling and resulting varying thermal stresses on the fatigue strength of the materials studied.

  20. Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  1. Communications in social networks: results of the monitoring of openness of federal bodies of the executive power

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Dmitrieva

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the results of the first monitoring of web pages of the federal executive authorities in social networks. We used as our hypothesis a theoretical conclusion of I. Mergel that the official governments accounts in social networks are new channels of engagement and a tool to obtain additional knowledge from interested stakeholders. The aim of the research was to give expert evaluation of the implementation of principles and mechanisms of openness by the federal agencies. We d...

  2. Multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective-international networking on the example of bioindication and biomonitoring (B&B technologies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Bernd; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Chudzińska, Ewa; De Marco, Silvia; Diatta, Jean; Ghaffari, Zahra; Gorelova, Svetlana; Marcovecchio, Jorge; Tabors, Guntis; Wang, Meie; Yousef, Naglaa; Fraenzle, Stefan; Wuenschmann, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Living or formerly living organisms are being used to obtain information on the quality of the general health status of our environment by bioindication and biomonitoring methods for many decades. Thus, different roads toward this common scientific goal were developed by a lot of different international research groups. Global cooperation in between various scientific teams throughout the world has produced common ideas, scientific definitions, and highly innovative results of this extremely attractive working field. The transdisciplinary approach of different and multifaceted scientific areas-starting from biology, analytical chemistry, via health physics, up to social and economic issues-have surpassed mental barriers of individual scientists, so that "production" of straightforward common results related to the influence of material and immaterial environmental factors to the well-being of organisms and human life has now reached the forefront of international thinking. For the further sustainable development of our common scientific "hobby" of bioindication and biomonitoring, highest personal energy has to be given by us, being teachers to our students and to convince strategically decision makers as politicians to invest (financially) into the development of education and research of this innovative technique. Young people have to be intensively convinced on the "meaning" of our scientific doing, e.g., by extended forms of education. One example of multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective is given here, which we started about 3 years ago.

  3. Multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective-international networking on the example of bioindication and biomonitoring (B&B technologies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Bernd; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Chudzińska, Ewa; De Marco, Silvia; Diatta, Jean; Ghaffari, Zahra; Gorelova, Svetlana; Marcovecchio, Jorge; Tabors, Guntis; Wang, Meie; Yousef, Naglaa; Fraenzle, Stefan; Wuenschmann, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Living or formerly living organisms are being used to obtain information on the quality of the general health status of our environment by bioindication and biomonitoring methods for many decades. Thus, different roads toward this common scientific goal were developed by a lot of different international research groups. Global cooperation in between various scientific teams throughout the world has produced common ideas, scientific definitions, and highly innovative results of this extremely attractive working field. The transdisciplinary approach of different and multifaceted scientific areas-starting from biology, analytical chemistry, via health physics, up to social and economic issues-have surpassed mental barriers of individual scientists, so that "production" of straightforward common results related to the influence of material and immaterial environmental factors to the well-being of organisms and human life has now reached the forefront of international thinking. For the further sustainable development of our common scientific "hobby" of bioindication and biomonitoring, highest personal energy has to be given by us, being teachers to our students and to convince strategically decision makers as politicians to invest (financially) into the development of education and research of this innovative technique. Young people have to be intensively convinced on the "meaning" of our scientific doing, e.g., by extended forms of education. One example of multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective is given here, which we started about 3 years ago. PMID:24453011

  4. Biomonitoring of exposure to environmental pollutants in newborns and their parents in Madrid, Spain (BioMadrid: study design and field work results Biomonitorización de la exposición a contaminantes ambientales en recién nacidos y sus progenitores en Madrid (BioMadrid: diseño del estudio y resultados del trabajo de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aragonés

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Spain environmental surveillance has mainly relied on measures of selected pollutants in air, water, food and soil. A study was conducted in Madrid to assess the feasibility of implementing a surveillance system of exposure among the general population to specific environmental pollutants, using bio-markers. The project was basically focused on the environment surrounding newborns. Hence, the study population was made up of 145 triplets of pregnant women at around 8 months' gestation, their partners, and newborns from two areas, representing the two main types of urban environments in the region, i.e., the City of Madrid and its outlying metropolitan belt. Multiple biologic substrates were collected from each participant in order to assess the most suitable samples for an environmental surveillance system. The selected contaminants represent the main agents to which a population like that of Madrid is exposed every day, including certain heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as micronuclei in peripheral blood, a commonly used unspecific index of cytogenetic damage. In addition, passive air samplers were placed around subjects' place of residence. This paper reports in detail on the design and response rates, summarizes field work results, and discusses some lessons learned.En España, la vigilancia medioambiental se basa principalmente en medidas de ciertos contaminantes en muestras de aire, agua, alimentos y suelos. En Madrid se ha realizado un estudio para valorar la posibilidad de poner en marcha un sistema de vigilancia de exposiciones a contaminantes ambientales en la población general utilizando biomarcadores. El proyecto ha tenido como eje el estudio del entorno de los recién nacidos. Por tanto, la población de estudio la constituyen 145 «tríos» formados por mujeres en su octavo mes de embarazo, sus parejas y los recién nacidos de dos áreas geográficas, que representan los

  5. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for identifying the important heavy metals present in the road dust and at the same time biomonitor them using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo leaves. The study clearly indicated that both the plants can be used as biomonitor for As, Pb, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The heavy metals were estimated using AAS-7000 (Shimadzu. Reason for selecting the plants were their abundance in the area and high air pollution indices. Presence of these heavy metals in the road dust can be attributed to the red soil and more importantly thermal power plants operating in the study area. Since plants are able to capture the road dust, they can also prevent the particulate pollution which is having adverse health impacts for humans.

  6. Towards improved biomonitoring tools for an intensified sustainable multi-use environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-09-01

    The increasing use of our environment for multiple contrasting activities (e.g. fisheries, tourism) will have to be accompanied by improved monitoring of environmental quality, to avoid transboundary conflicts and ensure long-term sustainable intensified usage. Biomonitoring approaches are appropriate for this, since they can integrate biological effects of environmental exposure rather than measure individual compound concentrations. Recent advances in biomonitoring concepts and tools focus on single-cell assays and purified biological components that can be miniaturized and integrated in automated systems. Despite these advances, we are still very far from being able to deploy bioassays routinely in environmental monitoring, mostly because of lack of experience in interpreting responses and insufficient robustness of the biosensors for their environmental application. Further future challenges include broadening the spectrum of detectable compounds by biosensors, accelerate response times and combining sample pretreatment strategies with bioassays. PMID:27468753

  7. Quantified Bodies in the Checking Loop: Analyzing the Choreographies of Biomonitoring and Generating Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Parviainen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring digital devices have become popular in physical activities and are receiving intensive focus as motivational and support vehicles for health. The aim of this article is to develop a new theoretical framework to analyze biomonitoring from the two perspectives constituting the opposite ends of the big data spectrum: individual (micro and institutional (macro. In applying phenomenology of the body, discussions of choreography, and Latour’s actor–network theory, I seek to evolve a choreography-based approach that can outline feedback systems between embodied practices and the macrolevel choreography of big data. Health informatics data as economic and political assets are illustrated based on netnography. Netnographic methodology pays close attention to online fieldwork and media texts. Emphasizing the lived body in the analysis of knowledge infrastructure, I aim to contribute to the theoretical discussion of human–data interaction. The findings suggest that highly intimate, personal technology can distance people from their lived bodies.

  8. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51% and 35% of the samples collected by children and adults respectively. CIT and its metabolite were present in 72% and 6% of children's urine, whereas they contaminated 59% and 12% of adult's urine. Finally, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol-14-glucuronide were found in respectively one and two samples from adults. The exposure to DON, OTA and CIT was compared between subgroups and urinary mycotoxin concentrations differed significantly among age and gender. Based on the urinary levels, the daily intake of DON and OTA was estimated and evaluated whereby, depending on the used method, 16-69% of the population possibly exceeded the tolerable daily intake for DON and 1% for OTA. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach was applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large-scale. Moreover, it is the first study that described the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. Biomarker analysis showed a clear exposure of a broad segment of the Belgian population to DON, OTA and CIT. The risk assessment based on these data indicates a potential concern for a number of individuals whereby young children need special attention because of the relatively higher food intake per kg body weight.

  9. Robinia pseudo-acacia L. as a Posssible Biomonitor of Heavy Metal Pollution in Kayseri

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Ahmet

    2000-01-01

    The leaves of Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (Fabaceae) were tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution in Kayseri. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were determined in unwashed and washed leaves and soils collected from a wide range of sites with different degrees of metal pollution. Differences between the unwashed and washed samples varied according to the metal pollutant levels. Significant correlations were obtained between the heavy metal concentrations in surface soil and was...

  10. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Ghosh; Jayanta Kumar Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton acts as a primary producer and biological filter of aquatic ecosystem. Jute retting during monsoon is a common anthropological activity in the rural Bengal. Quantitative seasonal bio-monitoring of phytoplankton community composition with relative abundance and its diversity indices was carried out in this study from April 2013 to March 2014 to assess water quality and the impact of jute retting on phytoplankton diversity of a tropical fresh water oxbow lake in Nadia district of ...

  11. POST-REMEDIATION BIOMONITORING OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENT NEAR THE UNITED HECKATHORN SUPERFUND SITE, RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-06

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

  12. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  13. An integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China based on both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jie; Hao, Xuewen

    2016-02-01

    The representativeness of available studies on integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China is lacking. Based on an exhaustive review of the extensive monitoring data available for China, this study presents a large-scale estimation of exposure levels to three typical phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), by applying both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches. The respective median exposure levels from the exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches were 3.80, 3.02 and 1.00 μg/kg bw/day and 3.38, 3.21 and 3.32 μg/kg bw/day for DEHP, DBP and DiBP, which are acceptable levels of exposure with respect to current international guidelines. Evaluation results from the two approaches showed both similarities and differences among the different phthalates, making the exposure assessment comparable and more comprehensive. In terms of sources of exposure, food intake was the largest contributor, while indoor air exposure had greater contribution to the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DiBP than that of the other phthalates. Moreover, more attention should be paid to the higher exposure levels of phthalates in several intensively industrialized and urbanized areas, and the causes of the different exposure levels in the different regions need to be further explored.

  14. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F

    2015-01-01

    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions.

  15. DBS-platform for biomonitoring and toxicokinetics of toxicants: proof of concept using LC-MS/MS analysis of fipronil and its metabolites in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Rashid, Mamunur; Sonkar, Ashish Kumar; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap

    2016-03-01

    A simple, sensitive and high throughput LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantification of fipronil, fipronil sulfone and fipronil desulfinyl in rat and human dried blood spots (DBS). DBS samples were prepared by spiking 10 μl blood on DMPK-C cards followed by drying at room temperature. The whole blood spots were then punched from the card and extracted using acetonitrile. The total chromatographic run time of the method was only 2 min. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ng/ml for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to determine fipronil desulfinyl in DBS samples obtained from its toxicokinetic study in rats following intravenous dose (1 mg/kg). In conclusion, the proposed DBS methodology has significant potential in toxicokinetics and biomonitoring studies of environmental toxicants. This microvolume DBS technique will be an ideal tool for biomonitoring studies, particularly in paediatric population. Small volume requirements, minimally invasive blood sampling method, easier storage and shipping procedure make DBS a suitable technique for such studies. Further, DBS technique contributes towards the principles of 3Rs resulting in significant reduction in the number of rodents used and refinement in sample collection for toxicokinetic studies.

  16. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  17. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies. PMID:27450373

  18. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  19. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  1. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  2. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  3. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  4. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  5. Early Workplace Communication and Problem Solving to Prevent Back Disability: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Among High-Risk Workers and Their Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Steven J; Boersma, Katja; Traczyk, Michal; Shaw, William; Nicholas, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Purpose There is a clear need for interventions that successfully prevent the development of disability due to back pain. We hypothesized that an intervention aimed at both the worker and the workplace could be effective. Hence, we tested the effects of a new early intervention, based on the misdirected problem solving model, aimed at both workers at risk of long-term impairments and their workplace. Methods Supervisors of volunteers with back pain, no red flags, and a high score on a screen (Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire) were randomized to either an evidence based treatment as usual (TAU) or to a worker and workplace package (WWP). The WWP intervention included communication and problem solving skills for the patient and their immediate supervisor. The key outcome variables of work absence due to pain, health-care utilization, perceived health, and pain intensity were collected before, after and at a 6 month follow up. Results The WWP showed significantly larger improvements relative to the TAU for work absence due to pain, perceived health, and health-care utilization. Both groups improved on pain ratings but there was no significant difference between the groups. The WWP not only had significantly fewer participants utilizing health care and work absence due to pain, but the number of health care visits and days absent were also significantly lower than the TAU. Conclusions The WWP with problem solving and communication skills resulted in fewer days off work, fewer health care visits and better perceived health. This supports the misdirected problem solving model and indicates that screening combined with an active intervention to enhance skills is quite successful and likely cost-effective. Future research should replicate and extend these findings with health-economic analyses. PMID:26202039

  6. Early Workplace Communication and Problem Solving to Prevent Back Disability: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Among High-Risk Workers and Their Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Steven J; Boersma, Katja; Traczyk, Michal; Shaw, William; Nicholas, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Purpose There is a clear need for interventions that successfully prevent the development of disability due to back pain. We hypothesized that an intervention aimed at both the worker and the workplace could be effective. Hence, we tested the effects of a new early intervention, based on the misdirected problem solving model, aimed at both workers at risk of long-term impairments and their workplace. Methods Supervisors of volunteers with back pain, no red flags, and a high score on a screen (Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire) were randomized to either an evidence based treatment as usual (TAU) or to a worker and workplace package (WWP). The WWP intervention included communication and problem solving skills for the patient and their immediate supervisor. The key outcome variables of work absence due to pain, health-care utilization, perceived health, and pain intensity were collected before, after and at a 6 month follow up. Results The WWP showed significantly larger improvements relative to the TAU for work absence due to pain, perceived health, and health-care utilization. Both groups improved on pain ratings but there was no significant difference between the groups. The WWP not only had significantly fewer participants utilizing health care and work absence due to pain, but the number of health care visits and days absent were also significantly lower than the TAU. Conclusions The WWP with problem solving and communication skills resulted in fewer days off work, fewer health care visits and better perceived health. This supports the misdirected problem solving model and indicates that screening combined with an active intervention to enhance skills is quite successful and likely cost-effective. Future research should replicate and extend these findings with health-economic analyses.

  7. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of managers' and nonmanagers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices for three of the five assumptions tested. Although aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices, the evidence was neither conclusive nor compelling that the presumption of difference in practices could be attributed to the duties performed by aerospace managers and nonmanagers.

  8. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 3:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of profit managers' and nonprofit managers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community were found to have different technical communications practices for one of the five assumptions tested. It was, therefore, concluded that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community do not have different technical communications practices.

  9. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  10. A real-time biomonitoring system to detect arsenic toxicity by valve movement in freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Jou, Li-John; Chen, Suz-Hsin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is the element of greatest ecotoxicological concern in aquatic environments. Effective monitoring and diagnosis of As pollution via a biological early warning system is a great challenge for As-affected regions. The purpose of this study was to synthesize water chemistry-based bioavailability and valve daily rhythm in Corbicula fluminea to design a biomonitoring system for detecting waterborne As. We integrated valve daily rhythm dynamic patterns and water chemistry-based Hill dose-response model to build into a programmatic mechanism of inductance-based valvometry technique for providing a rapid and cost-effective dynamic detection system. A LabVIEW graphic control program in a personal computer was employed to demonstrate completely the functional presentation of the present dynamic system. We verified the simulated dissolved As concentrations based on the valve daily rhythm behavior with published experimental data. Generally, the performance of this proposed biomonitoring system demonstrates fairly good applicability to detect waterborne As concentrations when the field As concentrations are less than 1 mg L(-1). We also revealed that the detection times were dependent on As exposure concentrations. This biomonitoring system could particularly provide real-time transmitted information on the waterborne As activity under various aquatic environments. This parsimonious C. fluminea valve rhythm behavior-based real-time biomonitoring system presents a valuable effort to promote the automated biomonitoring and offers early warnings on potential ecotoxicological risks in regions with elevated As exposure concentrations. PMID:22359017

  11. Evaluation of Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Langmaier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is focused on marketing communication of the Pension Corto. Work is divided into two main parts. In first, theoretical part are defined terms such as marketing, marketing mix and of course marketing communication together with communication mix with the respect on aspects of tourism. In practical part is introduced the Pension Corto, and analysis of individual parts of its communication mix. Based on personal experience, the marketing communication analysis and on results...

  12. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  13. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, B.; Sarmento, S.; Verburg, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchang

  14. Implementation of Certified EHR, Patient Portal, and "Direct" Messaging Technology in a Radiology Environment Enhances Communication of Radiology Results to Both Referring Physicians and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Joshua Jay; Reicher, Murray Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Since 2009, the Federal government distributed over $29 billion to providers who were adopting compliant electronic health record (EHR) technology. With a focus on radiology, we explore how EHR technology impacts interoperability with referring clinicians' EHRs and patient engagement. We also discuss the high-level details of contributing supporting frameworks, specifically Direct messaging and health information service provider (HISP) technology. We characterized Direct messaging, a secure e-mail-like protocol built to allow exchange of encrypted health information online, and the new supporting HISP infrastructure. Statistics related to both the testing and active use of this framework were obtained from DirectTrust.org, an organization whose framework supports Direct messaging use by healthcare organizations. To evaluate patient engagement, we obtained usage data from a radiology-centric patient portal between 2014 and 2015, which in some cases included access to radiology reports. Statistics from 2013 to 2015 showed a rise in issued secure Direct addresses from 8724 to 752,496; a rise in the number of participating healthcare organizations from 667 to 39,751; and a rise in the secure messages sent from 122,842 to 27,316,438. Regarding patient engagement, an average of 234,679 patients per month were provided portal access, with 86,400 patients per month given access to radiology reports. Availability of radiology reports online was strongly associated with increased system usage, with a likelihood ratio of 2.63. The use of certified EHR technology and Direct messaging in the practice of radiology allows for the communication of patient information and radiology results with referring clinicians and increases patient use of patient portal technology, supporting bidirectional radiologist-patient communication. PMID:26588906

  15. Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and

  16. Atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as a biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Wannaz, E D; Plá, R R; González, C M; Carreras, H A; Orellana, L

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals were evaluated throughout a wide region of Argentina. In addition, the biomonitor performance of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris was studied in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Argentine Republic. This area was subdivided into grids of 25 x 25 km. Pools of T. capillaris, where present, were collected at each intersection point. From each pool three sub-samples were analyzed independently. Furthermore, five replicates were collected at 20% of the points in order to analyze the variability within the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chemical-physiological parameters were also determined to detect symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used to calculate a foliar damage index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and mapping. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn and Co probably originated in the soil. For Pb, the highest values were found in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of Pb in the granitic rocks. Ni showed mainly an anthropogenic origin, with higher values found in places next to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development. The same was observed for Cu, whose presence could be related to the employment of pesticides. The foliar damage index distribution map showed that the central and southeastern zones were the ones where the major damage in the bioindicator was

  17. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  18. I-centric Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbanowski, S; Steglich, S; Popescu-Zeletin, R

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, a variety of concepts for service integration and corresponding systems have gained momentum. On the one hand, they aim for the interworking and integration of classical telecommunications and data communications services. On the other hand, they are focusing on universal service access from a variety of end user systems. Looking at humans' communication behavior and communication space, it is obvious that human beings interact frequently in a set of contexts in their environment (communication space). Following this view, we want to build communication systems on the analysis of the individual communication spaces. The results are communication systems adapted to the specific demands of each individual. The authors introduce I-centric Communication Systems, an approach to design communication systems which adapt to the individual communication space and individual environment and situation. In this context "I" means I, or individual, "Centric" means adaptable to I requirements and a ce...

  19. Lichen Usnea barbata as biomonitor of airborne elements deposition in the Province of Tierra del Fuego (southern Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Pino, Anna; Botrè, Francesco; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2009-05-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata was tested as a possible biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in a supposedly pristine environment Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Lichen samples were collected in 2005 and again in 2006 in 71 sites covering almost the entire region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to define the background levels in the region. The quantification was carried out by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No relevant temporal accumulation patterns between 2005 and 2006 sampling campaigns were observed. Then, the results were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster and principal component analyses). Cluster analysis produced a dendrogram where the 71 sites were divided into four clusters at (Dlink/Dmax)100Ushuaia-Road 3 (E area) and it was characterized by high levels of Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Sb, and W in lichens. The present study has revealed the good capacity of U. barbata to reflect the baseline levels of elements in the environment at a regional scale level. The presence of certain level of elements in lichens agrees with the hypothesis that Tierra del Fuego is not a relatively pristine environment as occasionally supposed. However, when comparing our results with other countries, Tierra del Fuego lichens have a very low content of the measured elements. PMID:19232724

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  2. Interlimb communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    A continual coordination between the two legs is necessary for maintaining a symmetric walking pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that spinal interneuronal circuits under supraspinal control may mediate communication between...... the lower limbs. The overall objective of the present thesis was to further investigate and elucidate neural pathways underlying interlimb communication in humans, focusing primarily on the possible interlimb connections to the biceps femoris muscle. The major aims were 1) to investigate whether interlimb...... walking (Study IV). The results of the this thesis provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying human interlimb communication, as well as their functional relevance to human locomotion. Although it is difficult to propose the exact neural pathways mediating interlimb reflexes...

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  4. On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittow, W G; Panagamuwa, C J; Edwards, R M; Vardaxoglou, J C

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents simulated and measured phantom results for the possible effects that head worn jewellery may have on the relative levels of energy absorbed in the human head with cellular enabled mobile communication devices. The FDTD electromagnetic code used with simple and complex anatomical mathematical phantoms was used to consider the interactions of metallic jewellery, heads and representative sources at 900 and 1800 MHz. Illuminated metallic pins of different lengths were positioned in front of the face. Initially, a homogenous phantom was used to understand the relative enhancement mechanisms. This geometry allowed the results to be validated with the industry standard DASY4 robot SAR measurement system related to the CENELEC head. Jewellery pins were then added to an anatomically realistic head. The relative increase in the 1 g and 10 g SAR, due to a pin with a length 0.4lambda near the eyebrows of a complex, anatomically realistic head was approximately three times at 1800 MHz. Such pins increased the SAR averaged over a 1 g or 10 g mass by redistributing the energy absorbed inside the head and focusing this energy towards the area of the head nearest to the centre of the pin. Although, the pins increased the SAR, the SAR standards were not breached and the jewellery produced lower values than those of previous studies when the source was positioned close to the ear. PMID:18296756

  5. On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittow, W G; Panagamuwa, C J; Edwards, R M; Vardaxoglou, J C [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Department of Loughborough University, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.g.whittow@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: c.j.panagamuwa@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: r.m.edwards@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: j.c.vardaxoglou@lboro.ac.uk

    2008-03-07

    This paper presents simulated and measured phantom results for the possible effects that head worn jewellery may have on the relative levels of energy absorbed in the human head with cellular enabled mobile communication devices. The FDTD electromagnetic code used with simple and complex anatomical mathematical phantoms was used to consider the interactions of metallic jewellery, heads and representative sources at 900 and 1800 MHz. Illuminated metallic pins of different lengths were positioned in front of the face. Initially, a homogenous phantom was used to understand the relative enhancement mechanisms. This geometry allowed the results to be validated with the industry standard DASY4 robot SAR measurement system related to the CENELEC head. Jewellery pins were then added to an anatomically realistic head. The relative increase in the 1 g and 10 g SAR, due to a pin with a length 0.4{lambda} near the eyebrows of a complex, anatomically realistic head was approximately three times at 1800 MHz. Such pins increased the SAR averaged over a 1 g or 10 g mass by redistributing the energy absorbed inside the head and focusing this energy towards the area of the head nearest to the centre of the pin. Although, the pins increased the SAR, the SAR standards were not breached and the jewellery produced lower values than those of previous studies when the source was positioned close to the ear.

  6. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Malekei-Ravasan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures.Methods: In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method. Results: Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abun­dant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality. Conclusion: From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  7. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk Region (Ural Mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition, as well as other toxic elements, in the Chelyabinsk Region (the South Ural Mountains) characterized by intense anthropogenic impact from various industries including plutonium production - the source of radionuclides of great potential hazard. A two years' summer field work followed by the applying two most appropriate analytical techniques to the analyses of the collected moss - NAA and AAS - allowed us to determine the atmospheric deposition of about 40 elements over the examined areas. One on them is considered to be the most polluted place in the world, the copper mining and reprocessing centre of the Russian Federation in Karabash, and the other adjacent area is of no less ecological stress, the area to the north of the Mayak complex for plutonium production, next to the city of Ozersk. The element concentrations in moss samples from the Urals are compared with those available for the Copper Basin in Poland, Tula Region (Russia), Germany and Norway, obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. Information on radionuclides in soils collected during the same fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is given. Plans for moss and soil-survey-2000 are reported. (author)

  8. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  9. Climate biomonitoring. Assessing climate change and its impacts on the biosphere. New focus of the working group bioindication/assessment of effects; Klima-Biomonitoring: Nachweis des Klimawandels und dessen Folgen fuer die belebte Umwelt. Neuer Schwerpunkt des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation/Wirkungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Harald [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rammert, Uwe [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Wolf, Helmut [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Background, aim and scope: The use of biomonitoring is proposed for the identification, assessment and documentation of climate change impacts on the biosphere as requested in the German 'National Adaptation Strategy' (BMU 2009), because - this method succeeds to present climatic changes in especially sensitive areas of Germany including their habitats, ecosystems, and species; - it can reveal relevant information about the migration and dispersal of new pests and diseases threatening humans, animals and plants; - it can provide politicians with information, documents and a basis for decision support to assess climate change impacts and - it is possible to develop new and to evaluate the effectiveness of existing adaptive measures. It is proposed to use the term 'climate biomonitoring' for biomonitoring methods that are able to indicate climate change effects. For several reasons (e.g. unified methods, common data basis, cost reduction) all federal states should participate in it. Today, bioindication is an indispensable method for the early detection of changes in the biosphere, giving information about special hazards (early warning system). Climate biomonitoring preferably makes use of already existing monitoring systems and data collections. Materials and methods: Climate biomonitoring refers back to accepted and tested methods of bioindication to assess environmental changes. Existing methods are enhanced and supplemented in order to meet the particular needs for the indication of climate change conditions. On the basis of an evaluation of relevant and actual monitoring programs on state and national level we identify relevant impacts of climate change and programs providing relevant data, and we propose evaluation methods. Additionally, other data sources are described, that may enable further in depth assessments. Results: An overview table systematically lists the monitoring programs on national and state level and shows their relevance

  10. A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmpetis YAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetry which refers to random deviation from perfect symmetry of bilateral traits resulting from extrinsic and intrinsic perturbations not buffered during development. Fluctuating asymmetry was used as a proxy of developmental stability. We analyzed our data from a Bayesian perspective showing that developmental stability levels are decreased in the natural population. Our results indicate that an attention may be directed towards the conservation of the natural walnut resources of the area. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of developmental stability may contribute especially in the framework of comparative studies as a population biomonitoring tool.

  11. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  12. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  13. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, Onder, E-mail: okilic@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Sayhan, E-mail: sayhantopcuoglu@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kalayci, Guelsah, E-mail: gulsahkalayci@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Pestreli, Didem, E-mail: didempestreli@hotmail.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides.

  14. [Radioecological biomonitoring of the radioactive waste long-term storage territories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypin, V D; Pol'skiĭ, O G; Sobolev, A I; Verbov, V V; Zaĭtsev, V V; Osipov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide release to environment is possible during long-term storage of the low and middle activity radioactive waste on specially equipped territories, which leads to radioactive background increase and to permanent radiation influence to biocenosis. For an ecological situation control in such places it is need to provide a biomonitoring using the method of complex estimation of the morphological changes on whole organism and internal organs levels (presents of tumors, teratogenic effects), the hematological indexes reflected quantifies and qualifies changes in blood, cytogenetic distribution (bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei) and distributions on molecular level (alterations of DNA structure lead to increase in the DPC level). PMID:19637745

  15. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  16. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 1, part 1:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken that explored several aspects of technical communications in aeronautics. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered questionnaire, was sent to 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Six hundred and six usable questionnaires (30.3 percent) were received by the established cut off date. The study had five objectives. The first was to solicit the opinions of aeronautical engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine their use and production of technical communications; third, to seek their views on the content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine their use of libraries/technical information centers; and finally, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. The findings add considerable information to the knowledge of technical communications practices among aeronautical engineers and scientists and reinforce some of the conventional wisdom about technical communications and question other widely-held notions.

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in risk factors for non communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002–2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4. The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65. Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the

  18. How Do Persons with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment Use Information and Communication Technology and E-Services? Results from a Swedish National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfai, Aniko; Oldenburg, Christian; Koch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mild acquired cognitive impairment is a term used to describe a sub-group of persons with mild cognitive impairment who are expected to reach a stable cognitive level over time. One tactic that can be considered for further developing treatment for this group is the use of information and communication technology and e-services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current use of regular e-services and social media by this group as well as their user experiences. Methods and Materials Data were collected through a self-administered survey and analyzed using quantitative methods. The questionnaire included questions regarding the participants’ use of and experience with e-services. Categorization of e-services was based on and cross-validated with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). To estimate participants’ degree and type of impairment, the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ), measuring cognitive difficulties in performing everyday tasks, was added. Results In total, 282 persons with acquired brain injury participated in the survey. The participants’ CFQ scores showed that they were suffering from mild to moderate cognitive impairments, most often acquired from traumatic brain injuries (40%). The majority (89%) used e-services in different categories whereof the most popular and essential ones were communication services (59%) and banking (39%) services. Participants with higher total CFQ scores (>58) used more e-services in most of the categories compared to participants with lower scores (<31). Although participants were interested in social media, they were annoyed by advertisements and the Internet speed in general. Some participants reported privacy concerns and addictive behavior. However, they mostly considered e-services to be trustworthy and supportive in different contexts. The usage of electronic devices decreased by age with the exception of electronic tablets that were used by

  19. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Pollen grains released by plants are dispersed into the air and can become trapped in human nasal mucosa, causing immediate release of allergens triggering severe Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible allergic patients. Recent epidemiologic data show that 11–12% of people suffer from this type of disorders in India. Hence, it is important to examine whether pollen grains have a role in dissipating respiratory problems, including allergy and astma, in a subtropical suburban city. Materials and methods. Meteorological data were collected for a period of two years, together with aerobiological sampling with a Burkard sampler. A pollen calendar was prepared for the city. A health survey and the hospitalization rate of local people for the above problems were documented following statistical analysis between pollen counts and the data from the two above-mentioned sources. Skin Prick Test and Indirect ELISA were performer for the identification of allergenic pollen grains. Results. Bio-monitoring results showed that a total of 36 species of pollen grains were located in the air of the study area, where their presence is controlled by many important meteorological parameters proved from SPSS statistical analysis and by their blooming periods. Statistical analysis showed that there is a high positive correlation of monthly pollen counts with the data from the survey and hospital. Biochemical tests revealed the allergic nature of pollen grains of many local species found in the sampler. Conclusions. Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  20. On the use of Arion ater to biomonitor environmental pollution by Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, with a special insight into the population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, D; Bolón, M; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A

    2015-05-01

    The suitability of Arion ater as a biomonitor of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was assessed. Individual specimens were collected from 22 sampling sites. Slugs from 3 of the sites were analysed individually, whereas the slugs from the other sites were pooled to make a composite sample for each site. The tissue burdens did not differ between individuals from contaminated and uncontaminated sites, and there was no gradient of bioaccumulation of any of the elements in the surroundings of the smelter. Analysis of the individual specimens from the 3 sites revealed very high coefficients of variation for the metal concentrations. As a result of the high level of variation, large numbers of slugs are required to produce a low error in characterizing the mean concentration at each site. Furthermore, as a consequence of the similar mean concentrations and high variability, large numbers of samples are needed to detect significant differences between pairs of sites.

  1. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Venier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  2. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  3. Biomonitoring Climate Change and Pollution in Marine Ecosystems: A Review on Aulacomya ater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Caza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedentarism and wide global distribution of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis have made it a useful bioindicator to assess changes in the health status of the marine ecosystem in response to pollution and other environmental stresses. Effective biomonitoring of an ecosystem requires, however, that multiple biomarkers be used to obtain an accurate measure of the cumulative effects of different sources of environmental stress. Here, we provide a first integrated review of the biological, economical, and geographical characteristics of another species of mussels, the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater. We discuss the use of Aulacomya ater as a complementary biomonitor to the blue mussel to assess the impact of pollutants and climate change. Recent findings have indeed shown that Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya ater have distinctive anatomy and physiology and respond differently to environmental stress. Monitoring of mixed beds containing blue and ribbed mussels may thus represent a unique opportunity to study the effect of environmental stress on the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, most notably in the Southern hemisphere, which is particularly sensitive to climate change and where both species often cohabitate in the same intertidal zones.

  4. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  5. Multielement atmospheric deposition study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring, NAA, AAS and GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique and two complementary analytical techniques - neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to study multielement atmospheric deposition in the Republic of Croatia. Moss samples were collected during the summer 2006 from 98 sites evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. Conventional and epithermal neutron activation analyses made it possible to determine concentrations of 41 elements including key heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu determined by AAS. Principal component analysis (factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation) was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values for Croatia are consistent with the corresponding values for all Europe for most elements. It was shown that the Adriatic coastline of Croatia may be considered as an environmentally pristine area. This study was conducted for providing reliable assessment of air quality throughout Croatia and producing information needed for better identification of pollution sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Croatia associated with toxic metals

  6. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  7. Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae) as a biomonitor of aquatic ecosystems: comparison of cloned genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, M; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-12-01

    We assessed the effects of local environment on survival, growth, and development in six clones (genotypes) of Vallisneria americana grown at five sites in the Huron-Erie Corridor. Detrimental effects of local environment on plant performance (rate of clonal growth, leaf and root production, surface area of leaves and roots, plant biomass, rate of flowering, and turion production) were correlated with sediment toxicity and levels of organic contamination determined in independent studies, and differed among plant genotypes. All surviving clones used in the study ranked environmental quality of the five sites in the same order. Two genotypes, which were tolerant of contaminants, survived the 2 yr of exposure at all sites, while other nontolerant clones died within the 1st yr of study, at the two most contaminated sites. The leaf-to-root surface area ratio was highly indicative of site quality, and was not affected either by year-to-year variation, or by differences between genotypes. The use of cloned plants in this biomonitoring study reduced variance, and increased precision and accuracy of site assessment compared to biomonitoring with genetically variable plants. Clones of V. americana tolerant of contaminants were particularly useful in assessing the most contaminated sites. An approach that uses an array of both tolerant and nontolerant clones is recommended. PMID:21708580

  8. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  9. Comparative biomonitors of coastal trace metal contamination in tropical South America (N. Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Carlos Augusto R; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S

    2006-05-01

    Samples of 5 bivalve molluscs (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella charruana, Anomalocardia brasiliana, Anadara ovalis, Phacoides pectinata), 2 barnacles (Fistulobalanus citerosum, Balanus amphitrite) and leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle were collected from up to 11 sites in two estuaries in Natal, Brazil--the comparatively contaminated Potengi estuary and the comparatively uncontaminated Curimataú estuary. Specimens were analysed for the trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and Ni, and a comparative assessment made of the power of the different species as trace metal biomonitors. Four of the 5 bivalves (not P. pectinata) take up metals from solution and suspended material (food source), while P. pectinata as a lucinid with symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria takes up metals from dissolved sources only. The organisms with the strongest net accumulation of particular metals showed the greatest discrimination between trace metal bioavailabilities between sites. Barnacles (F. citerosum) showed the best discrimination, but oysters (C. rhizophorae) are particularly recommended as biomonitors given their strong accumulation patterns for many trace metals, their large size and their local abundance. PMID:16574213

  10. The Application of Internal Dose Measures, Biokinetics, and Biomonitoring Data in the Risk Assessment of Dioxin-Like Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aylward, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a series of investigations into the biokinetic behavior of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds and the application of biokinetic modeling and biomonitoring data in quantitative risk assessment for these compounds. The biokinetic properties of TCDD an

  11. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  12. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear

  13. Cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, and a combination of the two: Results of an economic evaluation alongside the Vitalum randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. van Keulen (Hilde); B. Bosmans; M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); J.L. Severens (Hans); H. de Vries (Hein); J. Brug (Hans); I. Mesters (Ilse)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication (TPC), telephone motivational interviewing (TMI), a combination of the two, and no intervention on two outcomes in adults aged 45 to 70, half of them having hypertension: incre

  14. Cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, and a combination of the two: results of an economic evaluation alongside the Vitalum randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, H.M. van; Bosmans, J.; Tulder, M.W. van; Severens, J.L.; Vries, S.; Brug, J.; Mesters, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication (TPC), telephone motivational interviewing (TMI), a combination of the two, and no intervention on two outcomes in adults aged 45 to 70, half of them having hypertension: increasing the number of publ

  15. Biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure among stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Boisen, T; Christensen, J M;

    1992-01-01

    -AAF)-induced UDS was lower in 23 never-smoking welders than in 19 unexposed never-smokers. Smoking was a confounding factor resulting in significantly higher CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and mutagenic activity in urine. Age was also a confounder: CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and UDS increased significantly...

  16. Airborne microorganisms associated with waste management and recovery: biomonitoring methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Coccia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from a year-long indoor bioaerosol monitoring performed in three working environments of a municipal composting facility treating green and organic waste. Composting, whereby organic matter is stabilized through aerobic decomposition, requires aeration, causing the dispersion of microbial particles (microorganisms and associated toxins. Waste can, therefore, become a potential source of biological hazard. Bioaerosol samples were collected on a monthly basis. Through a comparison of results obtained using two samplers - the Surface Air System DUO SAS 360 and the BioSampler - the study aimed at assessing the presence of biological pollutants, and at contributing to the definition of standard sampling methods for bioaerosols leading, eventually, to the establishment of exposure limits for these occupational pollutants.

  17. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  18. Cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, and a combination of the two: results of an economic evaluation alongside the Vitalum randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Hilde M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication (TPC, telephone motivational interviewing (TMI, a combination of the two, and no intervention on two outcomes in adults aged 45 to 70, half of them having hypertension: increasing the number of public health guidelines met for three behaviors (physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption, and impact on quality adjusted life years (QALYs. Methods Participants (n = 1,629 from 23 Dutch general practices were randomized into one of four groups, which received 4 TPCs, 4 TMIs, 2 of each (combined, or no intervention (control, respectively. The self-reported outcomes, measured at baseline and 73 weeks follow-up (7 months after the last intervention component, were difference in total number of guidelines met at follow-up compared to baseline, and number of QALYs experienced over 73 weeks. The costs of implementing the intervention were estimated using a bottom-up approach. Results At 73 weeks follow-up participants showed increased adherence with 0.62 (TPC, 0.40 (TMI, 0.50 (combined, and 0.26 (control guidelines compared to baseline, and experienced 1.09, 1.08, 1.08, and 1.07 QALYs, respectively. The costs for the control group were considered to be zero. TMI was more expensive (€107 per person than both the combined intervention (€80 and TPC (€57. The control condition was most cost-effective for lower ceiling ratios, while TPC had the highest probability of being most cost-effective for higher ceiling ratios (more than €160 per additional guideline met, and €2,851 for each individual QALY. Conclusions For low society's willingness to pay, the control group was most cost-effective for the number of QALYs experienced over 73 weeks. This also applied to the increase in the number of guidelines met at lower ceiling ratios, whereas at higher ceiling ratios, TPC had a higher probability of being more cost-effective than

  19. Active moss biomonitoring of small-scale spatial distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the Belgrade urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Goryainova, Zoya; Frontasyeva, Marina; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content. PMID:23430735

  20. Bioaccumulation of HMW PAHs in the roots of wild blackberry from the Bor region (Serbia): Phytoremediation and biomonitoring aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Jovanović, Vesna P Stankov; Mitić, Violeta D; Cvetković, Jelena S; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the samples of roots and soils from the rooting zone of wild blackberry were collected from the urban-industrial and rural locations near "The Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor" (Serbia); they were analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method to determine the content of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). The obtained results were further processed using bio-concentration factor, Pearson's correlation study and hierarchical cluster analysis with the aim of investigating if they may be in favor of wild blackberry as a suitable plant for biomonitoring or phytoremediation purposes. In spite of the fact that numerous complex factors can affect the assimilation and accumulation of PAHs in plants, the obtained data expressed clearly many interesting specifics related to HMW PAH accumulation in roots of wild blackberry that naturally grows in an area, which is heavily polluted by heavy metals. The accumulation of individual PAH compounds in plant roots was at different level. The most abundant compound in all plant samples was benzo[a]pyrene and based on the results obtained for this environmental indicator of carcinogenic PAHs, it was possible to make several central conclusions: wild blackberry showed an excellent potential for its extraction from the soil and further accumulation in root tissues which indicate that this plant species may be applied in phytoremediation procedures based on mechanisms such as phytoextraction/phytoaccumulation in roots; phytostabilization and rhizodegradation are also possible as remediation mechanisms; utilization of plant roots in soil monitoring is possible but in this case, only the combination with soil data can provide correct information. PMID:27110970

  1. Bioaccumulation of Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium by the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum: Involvement in biomonitoring surveys and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Clivot, Aurélie; Palos Ladeiro, Mélissa; Lepoutre, Alexandra; Bastien, Fanny; Bonnard, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Geffard, Olivier; François, Adeline; Geffard, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are public health priorities because their oocysts can persist in recreational, surface, drinking, river, and sea water sources for a long time. To evaluate the capacity of the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum to accumulate T. gondii and C. parvum oocysts, gammarids were exposed to 200, 2000 or 20,000 oocysts per gammarid and per day for 21 days followed by 5 days of depuration. C. parvum DNA was detected by qPCR in G. fossarum in only one out of four pools for the highest concentration and after 14 days of exposure, and T. gondii DNA was detected after 7 days of exposure to the two highest concentrations. Our results document the capacity of G. fossarum to accumulate T. gondii in its tissues proportionally to the ambient concentration; the maximum number of oocysts was detected in gammarid tissues after exposure to 20,000 oocysts per day. Mean values of 3.26 (±3), 21.71 (±15.18), and 17.41 (±10.89) oocysts were detected in gammarids after 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, and after 5 days of depuration, T. gondii oocysts were still present in gammarid tissues. These results show for the first time that a freshwater crustacean can bioaccumulate T. gondii oocysts, suggesting that G. fossarum is a potential effective bioindicator of protozoan contamination in biomonitoring studies. Moreover, due to its key position in freshwater food webs, G. fossarum could also play a role in the trophic transfer of protozoa. PMID:27454203

  2. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk region (Ural mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the first results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk, the center of the iron steel industry of Russia. Moss samples were collected along Bannoe Lake, located 30 km north-west of Magnitogorsk, and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithernal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna, and by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at the Geological Institute of RAS, Moscow. Results for a total of 38 elements were obtained, including Pb, Cd, and Cu determined by AAS. The element concentrations in moss samples from this area were compared with those available for the so-called 'Black Triangle' (the territory bordering Poland, Czechia and Slovakia), obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. The level of the concentrations of Fe, Cr, and V in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk was found to be 2-2.5 times higher than that of the mean values determined for the 'Black Triangle'; the level of Ni and Cd is of the same order as in the most polluted area of Europe. The concentrations of Zn and Cu tend to be higher in the 'Black Triangle'. The level of As is about 3 times higher in the Urals, whereas concentration of Pb is higher in Europe by a factor of 5. It appeared that concentration of Sb in the examined area has the highest ever published for levels in mosses from atmospheric deposition. The scanning electron microscope adjacent to the XRF analyzer (SEM-XRF) was used to examine the surface of the moss samples. Photographs of identified iron spherulas along with other aerosol particles were made at magnification of 3,500 to 5,000 times. Information on fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is reported. (author)

  3. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...

  4. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  5. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  6. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  7. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  9. Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, and a combination of the two: results of an economic evaluation alongside the Vitalum randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brug Johannes; de Vries Hein; Severens Johan L; van Tulder Maurits W; Bosmans Judith E; van Keulen Hilde M; Mesters Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication (TPC), telephone motivational interviewing (TMI), a combination of the two, and no intervention on two outcomes in adults aged 45 to 70, half of them having hypertension: increasing the number of public health guidelines met for three behaviors (physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption), and impact on quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Methods Participants (n ...

  11. Absolutely covert quantum communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bradler, Kamil; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present truly ultimate limits on covert quantum communication by exploiting quantum-mechanical properties of the Minkowski vacuum in the quantum field theory framework. Our main results are the following: We show how two parties equipped with Unruh-DeWitt detectors can covertly communicate at large distances without the need of hiding in a thermal background or relying on various technological tricks. We reinstate the information-theoretic security standards for reliability of asymptotic quantum communication and show that the rate of covert communication is strictly positive. Therefore, contrary to the previous conclusions, covert and reliable quantum communication is possible.

  12. Communication Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Šlapáková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    This document introduces a definition of communication strategy and its close contexts. At the beginning it presents the theme of the communication and its historical development. Consequently there are explanations of the communication process, its requirements, schemes, parts. Document shows a basic division of the communication, its functions, components, tools and describes its usage in daily life of business. The communication is introduced as a tool for social interaction as an instrume...

  13. Multimedia communication

    OpenAIRE

    Vondra, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia is a form of communication and sharing knowledge using synergic effect of parallel connected communication channels. Its main use is in producing communications products and services and in design of user interfaces. Main objective of this dissertation is to develop and create a model of multimedia communication for better understanding of the meaning and the purpose of using multimedia forms in communication process. The model will describe a system of elements and parameters of m...

  14. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  15. Atmospheric quality in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the biondicator capacity of Tillandsia capillaris f. incana (Mez.), widely distributed in Argentina, in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area with a surface of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Republic Argentina. The area was subdivided in grids of 25 x 25 km being collected pools at T. capillaris in each one of the intersection points when this was present. Of each pool three subsamples were analyzed independently. Besides, for 20% of the points, quintupled samples were collected in order to analyze the variability inside the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The concentration of chemical-physiological parameters was also determined with the objective of detecting symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde, and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used for calculating a pollution index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and mapping. Different patterns of geographical distribution were obtained for the different metals that allow to reflect the so much contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn, and Co probably originated from the soil. For Pb, the highest values were in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of minerals that close contains Pb in granitic rocks. Ni showed origin mainly anthropogenic, with values a risen in places close to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development, as well for Cu, whose presence could be related to the pesticides employment. (author)

  16. Temporal and spatial variability in stable isotope compositions of a freshwater mussel: Implications for biomonitoring and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L.; Showers, W.; Kwak, T.; Levine, J.; Stoskopf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotopes can be used to elucidate ecological relationships in community and trophic studies. Findings are calibrated against baselines, e.g. from a producer or primary consumer, assumed to act as a reference to the isotopic context created by spatio-temporal attributes such as geography, climate, nutrient, and energy sources. The ability of an organism to accurately represent a community base depends on how, and over what time-scale, it assimilates ambient materials. Freshwater mussels have served as references for trophic studies of freshwater communities and as indicators of change in nutrient pollution load or source. Their suitability as reference animals has not yet been fully explored, however. We conducted a series of studies examining the suitability of freshwater mussels as isotopic baselines, using their ability to reflect variation in ambient nutrient loads as a case scenario. (1) We analyzed bivalve foot tissue ??15N and ??13C from 22 stream reaches in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA to show that compositions varied substantially among locations. Site mean bivalve ??13C values correlated with site ambient particulate organic matter (POM) ??13C values, and site mean bivalve ??15N values correlated with site ambient water dissolved ??15N-NO3 values. (2) Similarity of results among sample types demonstrated that the minimally invasive hemolymph sample is a suitable substitute for foot tissue in ??15N analyses, and that small sample sizes generate means representative of a larger population. Both findings can help minimize the impact of sampling on imperiled freshwater mussel populations. (3) In a bivalve transplantation study we showed that hemolymph ??15N compositions responded to a shift in ambient dissolved ??15N-NO3, although slowly. The tissue turnover time for bivalve hemolymph was 113 days. We conclude that bivalves serve best as biomonitors of chronic, rather than acute, fluctuations in stream nutrient loads, and provide initial

  17. Three decades of biomonitoring airborne Pb in a rural area with the epiphytic lichen Ramalina lacera: A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Lehr, H.; Garty-Spitz, R.L. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    The present paper analyzes the results of a biomonitoring study that used the epiphytic lichen Ramalina lacera to estimate the environmental pollution impact of anthropogenic activity in terms of Pb content. Thalli of the lichen growing on carob twigs were collected in November 2001 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramat Menashe Hills, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 11 rural and suburban sites around a coal-fired power plant near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in August 2002 and were found to contain smaller amounts of Pb than reported in the relevant literature. A comparative analysis of Pb amounts in thalli of R. lacera in the control site in HaZorea over the years 1974-2002 detected high values for Pb in July 1982 subsequent to extraordinarily extensive activity of motor vehicles, mostly using leaded gasoline, in June of the same year. The Pb values remained relatively high until 1993. Only in the years 1994-2002 did the Pb values decrease to a level resembling the first series of data obtained in the years 1974-1981. It is apparent that a decade and more were needed to 'forget' the polluting event, and that the data obtained in this period (1982-1993) were irrelevant to the availability of Pb pollutants. Despite the gradual increase of the total number of motor vehicles in Israel, the Pb values in lichens decreased due to the introduction of unleaded gasoline in September 1990. Additional retrospective studies dealing with Pb in lichens are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case. PMID:27038571

  19. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint. PMID:25045146

  20. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  1. Analysis of the toenail as a biomonitor of supranutritional intake of Zn, Cu, and Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toenail was examined as a biological monitor of Mg, Zn, and Cu intake using an observational case control model. The One Source Cohort matched 63 individuals in Columbia Missouri who took the One Source multivitamin with 63 control individuals. The matching criteria were based on age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and body mass index. The multivitamin contained supra-nutritional levels of Se, Mg, Cu, and Zn. The toenail clippings were examined for these elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A statistical analysis did not indicate a significant difference for Mg, Cu, or Zn between the nails of One Source supplement users and control subjects (p-4). This internal Se control suggests that the One Source Cohort is largely free from misclassification errors that could interfere with the biomonitor response for the supranutritional intake of Mg, Cu, and Zn. (author)

  2. Contribution to biomonitoring of some trace metals by deciduous tree leaves in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasević, M; Vukmirović, Z; Rajsić, S; Tasić, M; Stevanović, B

    2008-02-01

    Leaves of the deciduous tree species, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) were used as accumulative biomonitors of trace metal pollution in the urban area of Belgrade. Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the single leaf level (ten leaves per species, per month), during two successive years with markedly different atmospheric level of trace metals. Increased trace metal concentrations in the leaves of A. hippocastanum reflected elevated atmospheric trace metal pollution, whereas C. colurna L. did not respond accordingly. The contents of Pb and Zn in soil over the same period also followed this trend. Anatomical analyses, in young as well as in old leaves of both species, indicated typical foliar injuries of plants exposed to stressful air conditions. Water relations that correspond to leaf age may have contributed to the considerable trace metal accumulation in leaves. PMID:17505898

  3. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polechońska Ludmiła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  4. Environmental studies by means of the use of biomonitors (Tillandsia sp.) and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of healthful atmosphere is one of the main causes of health deterioration. The present study uses biomonitors, with the objective of knowing the levels of pollutant accumulation in nucleus zones, by means of Tillandsia's spp. sampling (a Bromeliaceae, epiphyte that captures the atmosphere's nutrients and concomitantly accumulates heavy metals) during the spring station. They correspond to intersections between avenues with high vehicular flow and particular characteristics as for mobile emission's sources, in Asuncion City; subdivided in such form that, each plant has the same probability to be selected, being 5 species of Tillandsia: T. recurvata L. (94%); T. meridionalis Baker (59%); T loliaceae Mart. (29%); T. duratii Visiani (12%), and T. tricholepis Baker (6%). These species were evaluated for element levels by means of X ray fluorescence energy dispersive, with conventional geometry. (author)

  5. Smart electronic yarns and wearable fabrics for human biomonitoring made by carbon nanotube coating with polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Chen, Wei; Doty, Chris; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The idea of electronic yarns and textiles has appeared for quite some time, but their properties often do not meet practical expectations. In addition to chemicallmechanical durability and high electrical conductivity, important materials qualifications include weavablity, wearability, light weight, and "smart" functionalities. Here we demonstrate a simple process of transforming general commodity cotton threads into intelligent e-textiles using a polyelectrolyte-based coating with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Efficient charge transport through the network of nanotubes (20 omega/cm) and the possibility to engineer tunneling junctions make them promising materials for many high-knowledge-content garments. Along with integrated humidity sensing, we demonstrate that CNT-cotton threads can be used to detect albumin, the key protein of blood, with high sensitivity and selectivity. Notwithstanding future challenges, these proof-of-concept demonstrations provide a direct pathway for the application of these materials as wearable biomonitoring and telemedicine sensors, which are simple, sensitive, selective, and versatile. PMID:19367926

  6. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  7. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  8. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  9. Development of Helisoma trivolvis pond snails as biological samplers for biomonitoring of current-use pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-09-01

    Nontarget aquatic organisms residing in wetlands are commonly exposed to current-use pesticides through spray drift and runoff. However, it is frequently challenging to measure exposure because of rapid dissipation of pesticides from water and reduced bioavailability. The authors' hypothesis is that freshwater snails can serve as bioindicators of pesticide exposure based on their capacity to passively accumulate tissue residues. Helisoma trivolvis snails were evaluated as biomonitors of pesticide exposure using a fungicide formulation that contains pyraclostrobin and metconazole and is frequently applied to crops surrounding depressional wetlands. Exposure-response studies indicate that H. trivolvis are tolerant of pyraclostrobin and metconazole at concentrations >10 times those lethal to many aquatic species, with a median lethal concentration based on pyraclostrobin of 441 μg/L (95% confidence interval of 359-555 μg/L). Bioconcentration factors ranged from 137 mL/g to 211 mL/g and from 39 mL/g to 59 mL/g for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Elimination studies suggested one-compartmental elimination and snail tissue half-lives (t50 ) of approximately 15 h and 5 h for pyraclostrobin and metconazole, respectively. Modeling derived toxicokinetic parameters in the context of an environmentally relevant pulsed exposure suggests that residues can be measured in snails long after water concentrations fall below detection limits. With high fungicide tolerance, rapid accumulation, and slow elimination, H. trivolvis may be viable for biomonitoring of pyraclostrobin and should be investigated for other pesticides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2320-2329. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26876158

  10. Development and testing of methods to be used in the Dreissena polymorpha (PALLAS) freshwater mussel for the biomonitoring of heavy metals in the ecosystem of the river Weser. Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden fuer einen Einsatz der Suesswassermuschel Dreissena polymorpha (PALLAS) fuer ein Biomonitoring von Schwermetallen im Oekosystem Weser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, D.

    1991-03-01

    The suitability of the Dreissena polymorpha freshwater mussel for passive and active biomonitoring of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Hg) in a limnic ecosystem, particularly that of the Weser, was investigated from different points of view. The local and temporal differences in concentration seen for the soft parts reflect the variations in the bioavailability of heavy metals between sites of exposure and are not to be regarded as a result of the mussels' individual living conditions. Bioavailability is an independent quantitative factor that is subject to local and temporal changes and of key importance to ecological risk assessments. It cannot be determined or extrapolated from the chemico-technical values usually measured for various water parameters. An analysis of the concentrations of pollutants in the water and sediment does not provide a basis for reliable predictions about the related dangers to the particular biocenosis constituted by waters. (orig.).

  11. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim;

    2013-01-01

    a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers......Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...

  12. Relationship power, communication, and violence among couples: results of a cluster-randomized HIV prevention study in a South African township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnis AM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra M Minnis,1,2 Irene A Doherty,1,3 Tracy L Kline,1 William A Zule,1 Bronwyn Myers,4,5 Tara Carney,4 Wendee M Wechsberg1,3,6,7 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 6North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 7Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female partners together in a couples intervention (Couples Health CoOp [CHC] and a gender-separate intervention (Men’s Health CoOp/Women’s Health CoOp [MHC/WHC] on women’s reports of power, communication, and conflict in relationships. Methods: The cluster-randomized field experiment included heterosexual couples from a high-density South African township in which neighborhoods were randomized to one of the intervention arms or a control arm that received the WHC only. Participants completed in-person study visits at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We examined group differences using one-way analysis of variance and multivariable regression models.Results: Of the 290 couples enrolled, 255 women remained in the same partnership over 6 months. Following the intervention, women in the CHC arm compared with those in the WHC arm were more likely to report an increase in relationship control (ß=0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.83, P=0.045 and gender norms supporting female autonomy in relationships (ß=0.99, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.91, P=0.035. Women in the MHC/WHC arm were more likely to report increases

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 1, part 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken that explored several aspects of technical communications in aeronautics. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered questionnaire, was sent to 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Six hundred and six usable questionnaires (30.3 percent) were received by the established cut off date. Part 2 of this study lists appendices to part 1, including survey instrument, aggregate totals, cross tabulations, and open-ended comments.

  14. Communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach.

  15. Communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a survey of the field of data communication. The topics covered are: Types of communication, protocols, communication control systems, communication equipment and techniques, and types of data nets. Further, some of the data nets in use today, and the techniques applied in their implementation, are described. The intent of the paper is not to give an in-depth analysis of the various data communication techniques; rather, to describe the principles and problems involved in the construction of a state-of-the-art communication system. (Auth.)

  16. Use of the induced gene-expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a biomonitor; Nutzung der induzierbaren Genexpression des Nematoden Caenorhabditis elegans als Biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, R.; Reichert, K.; Achazi, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Biologie - Oekotoxikologie und Biochemie

    2002-07-01

    The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the simplest animals having the status of a laboratory model. Its already completely sequenced genome contains the remarkable number of 80 cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and many further genes coding for enzymes involved in biotransformation. In order to study xenobiotically induced gene expression in C. elegans, liquid cultures were exposed to different, well-known xenobiotic inducers. The mRNA expression was detected by two different types of DNA arrays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. {beta}-naphthoflavone, PCB52 and lansoprazol were the most active and, in particular, induced almost all CYP35 isoforms strongly. In conclusion, the xenobiotic dependent gene expression of C. elegans is a useful tool to reveal defense mechanisms against potential damaging substances as well as for developing a biomonitoring system. (orig.) [German] Der Bodennematode Caenorhabditis elegans gilt als das einfachste mehrzellige Tier mit dem Status eines Labormodels. Basierend auf seinem entschluesselten Genom konnte die bemerkenswerte Zahl von 80 Cytochrom P450 Genen (CYP) und eine Vielzahl weiterer Gene, welche fuer Enzyme der Biotransformation kodieren, identifiziert werden. Die differentielle Genexpression von C. elegans nach Schadstoffzugabe wurde in Fluessigkulturen mit 18 Xenobiotika aus unterschiedlichen Schadstoffgruppen untersucht. Anschliessend wurde die mRNA Expression mit DNA Arrays und semi-quantitativer RT-PCR bestimmt. {beta}-Naphthoflavone, PCB52 and Lansoprazol erwiesen sich dabei als die wirksamsten Induktoren und konnten unter anderen alle CYP 35 Isoformen stark induzieren. Mit diesen Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die schadstoffinduzierte Genexpression in C. elegans ein adaequates System ist, um sowohl Detoxifikationsmechanismen zu untersuchen als auch ein Biomonitorscreening aufzubauen. (orig.)

  17. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  18. Data communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  19. Use of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence in search of a biomonitor for environmental pollution in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Hans; Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Viet Binh, Doan

    2001-11-01

    The concentration of trace elements in tissues of several animals collected in the Ha Nam province, approximately 40 km south of Hanoi, Vietnam, has been investigated using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. We find that the freshwater mussel is probably the optimal choice of biomonitor for the pollution situation in Vietnam, but the freshwater crab, the toad and the catfish are also good candidates. The krait is probably also well suited for this purpose. It is shown that since several elements show a more or less pronounced accumulation tendency in a particular tissue it can be of great use to determine the levels in different tissues. When selecting an organism to be used as a biomonitor, other factors besides the mere concentration of trace elements must be considered, for instance the abundance and feeding habits.

  20. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  1. Communication (action with communicative content).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  2. Communicative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Writing, like all other aspects of language , is communicative.Communicative writing takes an important part in English learn-ing.Communicative writing assignments train students to turn personal observations into impersonal prose , avoid value judgments unwelcome in the sciences, and write with economy and precision .In the English language classroom , however, writing often lacks this.Why?There are lots of reasons , as there are lots of ways to make the writing we do with students more communicative .

  3. Intercompany Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Sokol, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    This translated bachelor’s study looks into the issue of communication and its functioning in the selected company. The study is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part introduces general links of mentioned problems acquired especially on the basis of analysis mentioned in specialized literature. The concept of communication, its function and form as well as process of communication and barriers in communication are explained here. Last but not least you can find her...

  4. Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kozáková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communication plays an important role in every competitive organization. It is an integral part of a successful sales and create a long-term relationships with customers and other public. This thesis consists of two parts. The theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of marketing mix and its components, there is also clarified the concept of communication, marketing communication and the five main components of the communication mix. An in...

  5. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  6. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ILIANA VELCHEVA; SLAVEYA PETROVA; LILYANA YURUKOVA

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were c...

  7. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  8. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Elisavet A. Renieri; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Michalis Kiriakakis; Marco Vinceti; Eren Ozcagli; Wilks, Martin F.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively ...

  9. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  10. Communicating Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  11. Existential Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social setting, and…

  12. The skin of Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) as a biomonitor of mercury and selenium in Subantarctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Goodall, R Natalie P; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Cappozzo, H Luis; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    The skin of bycaught Commerson's dolphins was tested for mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomonitoring in Subantarctic environments. The correlation of levels detected in the skin with those found in internal tissues - lung, liver, kidney and muscle - was assessed to evaluate how skin represents internal Hg and Se distribution for monitoring purposes. Mercury in skin had a concentration range of 0.68-3.11 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), while Se had a higher concentration range of 74.3-124.5 μg g(-1) DW. There was no significant correlation between selenium levels in any of the analyzed tissues. Thus, the skin selenium concentration did not reflect the tissular Se levels and did not provide information for biomonitoring. The lack of correlation is explained by the biological role of Se, provided that each tissue regulates Se levels according to physiological needs. However, the skin Hg level had significant positive correlation with the levels in internal tissues (ANOVA pdolphins for Hg biomonitoring in the waters of the Subantarctic, which is a poorly studied region regarding Hg levels, sources and processes.

  13. Communication and presentation skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with individual factors of communication and basic presentations skills. The theoretical part specifies the basic elements of verbal and non-verbal communication and basic factors connected with preparation and realisation of a presentation. The practical part of the thesis comprises an analysis of impacts of speaker's visual and other communication influences over an audience. The results are applied to a Multimedia Display exhibition taking place during the bachel...

  14. Multimedia communications and networking

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques

    2012-01-01

    The result of decades of research and international project experience, Multimedia Communications and Networking provides authoritative insight into recent developments in multimedia, digital communications, and networking services and technologies. Supplying you with the required foundation in these areas, it illustrates the means that will allow for improved digital communications and networks. The book starts with a review of the fundamental concepts, requirements, and constraints in networks and telecommunications. It describes channel disturbances that can hinder system performance--inclu

  15. Attention, communication, and schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rund, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper starts by drawing the historical lines for and giving an account of the main methods and results from an empirical investigation of cognitive disorders in schizophrenics and communication deviances in their parents. The focus of the report is on the significant correlations that were found between some aspects of parents' style of communication and offsprings' cognitive functioning. On the basis of the empirical study, the relationship between attention and communication is discusse...

  16. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  17. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant

  18. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo

    2007-09-15

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant.

  19. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H2O2) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in Trolox

  20. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  1. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    Full Text Available Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India.A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014-15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18-69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile.Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7-35.5 of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3-30.9 and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2-14.4 respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5-72.0 than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3-53.7. Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3-43.0. The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2-7.7. The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7-16.8, 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1 and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1-19.2, respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40-69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years.We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs.

  2. How Do Persons with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment Use Information and Communication Technology and E-Services? Results from a Swedish National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboozar Eghdam

    Full Text Available Mild acquired cognitive impairment is a term used to describe a sub-group of persons with mild cognitive impairment who are expected to reach a stable cognitive level over time. One tactic that can be considered for further developing treatment for this group is the use of information and communication technology and e-services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current use of regular e-services and social media by this group as well as their user experiences.Data were collected through a self-administered survey and analyzed using quantitative methods. The questionnaire included questions regarding the participants' use of and experience with e-services. Categorization of e-services was based on and cross-validated with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. To estimate participants' degree and type of impairment, the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ, measuring cognitive difficulties in performing everyday tasks, was added.In total, 282 persons with acquired brain injury participated in the survey. The participants' CFQ scores showed that they were suffering from mild to moderate cognitive impairments, most often acquired from traumatic brain injuries (40%. The majority (89% used e-services in different categories whereof the most popular and essential ones were communication services (59% and banking (39% services. Participants with higher total CFQ scores (>58 used more e-services in most of the categories compared to participants with lower scores (<31. Although participants were interested in social media, they were annoyed by advertisements and the Internet speed in general. Some participants reported privacy concerns and addictive behavior. However, they mostly considered e-services to be trustworthy and supportive in different contexts. The usage of electronic devices decreased by age with the exception of electronic tablets that were used by older participants approximately as

  3. Designing for Networked Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon– social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms...... of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent...... and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies...

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 27: The technical communication practices of engineering and science students: Results of the phase 3 academic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of engineers and science (Physics) students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bowling Green State University, and Texas A&M University. The survey was undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  6. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  7. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  8. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  9. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELF Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Cavalheiro

    2015-01-01

    The traditional notion of English as a foreign language solely for communicating with native speakers can no longer be applied in a world that is constantly changing, hence paving the way for an alternative use of the language known as English as a lingua franca. As a result, instead of focusing only on grammatical correctness, research into language pedagogy has also come to recognize the importance of exploring bottom-up learning processes, and developing intercultural communicative compete...

  10. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  11. Multianalytical determination of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors by k{sub 0}-INAA, ICP-MS and AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt; Pacheco, A.M.G. [CVRM-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Dionisio, I. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sarmento, S. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Baptista, M.S. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, University of Porto, R. Campo Alegre 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, J.P. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, University of Porto, R. Campo Alegre 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Elemental contents of atmospheric biomonitors-epiphytic lichens and tree bark, exposed in continuous and discontinuous modes-have been assessed through k{sub 0}-standardised instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) (two different institutions), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Certified reference materials-ISE-921 (river clay), NIST-1547 (peach leaves), ICHTJ-INCT-TL-1 (tea leaves; TL-1 hereinafter) and IAEA-336 (lichen material), and nonparametric statistics-rank-order correlations (Spearman R{sub S}) and enhanced-sign tests (Wilcoxon T)-were used for analytical control and data comparison, respectively. In general, quality of procedures was deemed good, except for k{sub 0}-INAA in determining Br, Cu and Na, all likely affected by high counting statistics, and/or contamination issues (the latter). Results for Cu, Ni, Pb and Sr (by both ICP-MS and AAS) revealed that, despite an outstanding correlation (asymptotic p=0.000), they could be viewed as statistically equal for Cu only: AAS tended to yield higher values for Pb and Ni, and lower ones for Sr. The comparison between ICP-MS and k{sub 0}-INAA data from TUDelft, for Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V, showed an excellent correlation (as above) and random (relative) magnitude for Cu, Mg, Mn and Ti only: ICP-MS tended to yield higher values for Al, Na and V, and lower ones for Ca, whereas between k{sub 0}-INAA data from TUDelft and ITN, for Br, Ca and Na, resulted in systematically higher [Br] and [Ca] variates from TUDelft, even if all corresponding data sets were found to correlate at stringent significance levels. In a few cases, though-Ca, Sr in lichens; Pb in bark-matrix effects did appear to interfere in the outcome of matched-pairs, signed-rank tests, since random hierarchy of variates could be asserted just when lichen and bark data sets were processed separately.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 54: The technical communications practices of engineering technology students: Results of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project phase 3 student surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; England, Mark; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Engineering technology programs are characterized by their focus on application and practice, and by their approximately 50/50 mix of theory and laboratory experience. Engineering technology graduates are employed across the technological spectrum and are often found in areas that deal with application, implementation, and production. Yet we know very little about the communications practices and information-use skills of engineering technology students. In this paper, we report selected results of an exploratory study of engineering technology students enrolled in three U.S. institutions of higher education. Data are presented for the following topics: career goals and aspirations; the importance of, receipt of, and helpfulness of communications and information-use skills instruction; collaborative writing; use of libraries; and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  13. Scholarly Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Researchers, scholars and scientists main business is scholarly communication. We communicate about our work to others, as we push the boundaries of what we know and the society knows. We question established notions and truths about science. We share our findings with others, and in a way that is popularly known as scholarly communication which emerged with the publication of first journal in 1665. However, the term gained popularity only in the 1970s, as access to peer reviewed and scholarl...

  14. Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Svatoňová, Michala

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis touches the concept of marketing in the general, then is specially focused on the marketing communication and finally evaluates the situation of a selected international company Raytheon Professional Services with regard to implementation of marketing communication plan. Thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part is concerned about the theoretical background of marketing and marketing communication, marketing mix in order to gain the knowledge needed for set...

  15. Communication Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concentrates on a marketing communications, which are explained using the firm RE/MAX Consult. It also deals with the influence, which has RE/MAX and RE/MAX Czech republic on the marketing communications of the chosen company. Theoretical part of this bachelor thesis concerns with the explanation of the basic terms of the marketing, the marketing communications and the marketing mix. The second part focuses on the company RE/MAX Consult, the analysis of its marketin...

  16. Alive communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alan; Garvey, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model, based on a dynamic systems perspective and the metaphor of aliveness in communication. Traditional concepts and methods for the study of communication are relatively static and based on the metaphor of signal and response. These traditional methods lend themselves to relatively simplified measures of frequencies and durations, sequences and co-occurrences: a model of objectified communication. The concept of alive communication focuses on the dynamically changing aspects of communication using three related components: coregulation, ordinary variability, and innovation. Like living organisms, alive communication develops over time as it forms dynamically stable patterns. Aliveness can be applied to communication at any age, in any species, between species, in any form including time-delayed practices using written symbols, and with non-living objects. The model provides a tool for evaluating the "life-likeness" of communication with animate and inanimate objects and robotic devices, and for assessing and treating communicative difficulties--in which aliveness is missing--within and between dyads/families.

  17. Internal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    A school system must be concerned with both the formal and informal communication systems. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author)

  18. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... in multicultural societies are silently/verbally excluded from national communities. The aim of the article is to develop a theoretical position, which is able to conceptualize intercultural communication in complex multicultural societies and function as a frame for empirical analysis. The theoretical position...

  19. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3′-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3′-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of

  20. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  1. The Applicability of Biomonitoring Data for Perfluorooctanesulfonate to the Environmental Public Health Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenhoff, John L.; Olsen, Geary W.; Pfahles-Hutchens, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts (PFOS) are derived from perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the basic chemical building block for many sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals used as surfactants and for their repellent properties. PFOS is highly persistent in the environment and has a long serum elimination half-life in both animals and humans. PFOS has been detected globally in the environment and in blood serum in various populations throughout the world, with the majority of human sampling done in the United States and Japan. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve both direct exposures to PFOS or chemicals and materials that can degrade to PFOS, either in the environment or from industrial and commercial uses. In 2000 the 3M Company, a major manufacturer, announced a phaseout of PFOS-related materials. Animal studies indicate that PFOS is well absorbed orally and distributes mainly in blood serum and the liver. Several repeat-dose toxicology studies in animals consistently demonstrated that the liver is the primary target organ. In addition there is a steep dose response for mortality in sexually mature rats and primates as well as in neonatal rats and mice exposed in utero. Several biomonitoring research needs that have been identified on PFOS include additional data from general populations pertaining to other matrices besides blood; matched serum and urine samples from humans and research animals; and comparison of whole blood, serum, and plasma concentrations from the same individuals. PMID:17107867

  2. The applicability of biomonitoring data for perfluorooctanesulfonate to the environmental public health continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenhoff, John L; Olsen, Geary W; Pfahles-Hutchens, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts (PFOS) are derived from perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the basic chemical building block for many sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals used as surfactants and for their repellent properties. PFOS is highly persistent in the environment and has a long serum elimination half-life in both animals and humans. PFOS has been detected globally in the environment and in blood serum in various populations throughout the world, with the majority of human sampling done in the United States and Japan. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve both direct exposures to PFOS or chemicals and materials that can degrade to PFOS, either in the environment or from industrial and commercial uses. In 2000 the 3M Company, a major manufacturer, announced a phaseout of PFOS-related materials. Animal studies indicate that PFOS is well absorbed orally and distributes mainly in blood serum and the liver. Several repeat-dose toxicology studies in animals consistently demonstrated that the liver is the primary target organ. In addition there is a steep dose response for mortality in sexually mature rats and primates as well as in neonatal rats and mice exposed in utero. Several biomonitoring research needs that have been identified on PFOS include additional data from general populations pertaining to other matrices besides blood; matched serum and urine samples from humans and research animals; and comparison of whole blood, serum, and plasma concentrations from the same individuals. PMID:17107867

  3. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  4. Terrestrial gastropods (Helix spp) as sentinels of primary DNA damage for biomonitoring purposes: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Dario; Sebbio, Claudia; Carere, Claudio; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Pepe, Gaetano; Mosesso, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    We validated the alkaline comet assay in two species of land snail (Helix aspersa and Helix vermiculata) to test their suitability as sentinels for primary DNA damage in polluted environments. The study was conducted under the framework of a biomonitoring program for a power station in Central Italy that had recently been converted from oil to coal-fired plant. After optimizing test conditions, the comet assay was used to measure the % Tail DNA induced by in vitro exposure of hemocytes to different concentrations of a reactive oxygen species (H2 O2 ). The treatment induced significant increases in this parameter with a concentration effect, indicating the effectiveness of the assay in snail hemocytes. After evaluating possible differences between the two species, we sampled them in three field sites at different distances from the power station, and in two reference sites assumed to have low or no levels of pollution. No species differences emerged. Percent Tail DNA values in snails from the sites near the power station were higher than those from control sites. An inverse correlation emerged between % Tail DNA and distance from the power station, suggesting that the primary DNA damage decreased as distance increased away from the pollution source. Detection of a gradient of heavy metal concentration in snail tissues suggests that these pollutants are a potential cause of the observed pattern. The comet assay appears to be a suitable assay and Helix spp. populations suitable sentinels to detect the genotoxic impact of pollutants. PMID:23444166

  5. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. PMID:27011112

  6. Biomonitoring potential of five sympatric Tillandsia species for evaluating urban metal pollution (Cd, Hg and Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    The present study quantifies non essential heavy metals highly toxic for biological systems (Pb, Hg and Cd) in five autochthonous epiphytic plants from Tillandsia genus (T. recurvata, T. meridionalis, T. duratii, T. tricholepis, T. loliacea) according to different traffic levels (reference, low, medium and high polluted sites) in Asunción (Paraguay). The three metals increased in polluted sites following Pb (till 62.99 ppm in T. tricholepis) > Cd (till 1.35 ppm in T. recurvata) > Hg (till 0.36 ppm in T. recurvata) and Pb and Cd levels were directly related to traffic flow. Although the species showed similar bioaccumulation pattern (namely, higher levels of metals in polluted sites), enrichment factors (maximum EF values 37.00, 18.16, and 11.90 for Pb, Hg, and Cd, respectively) reported T. tricholepis as the most relevant bioindicator due to its wide distribution and abundance in study sites, low metal content in control site and high metal contents in polluted sites, and significant correlations with traffic density of Pb and Cd. This study emphasizes the necessity of biomonitoring air pollution in areas out of air monitoring control such as Asunción, where the high levels of metal pollution especially Pb, may represent an increment of risk for the human population inhabiting this urban area.

  7. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map.

  8. Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as passive biomonitors and as bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpebor, Emmanuel Ehiabhi; Ukpebor, Justina Ebehirieme; Aigbokhan, Emmanuel; Goji, Idris; Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Okonkwo, Anthony Chinedum

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of two common and ubiquitously distributed and exotic ornamental plant species in Nigeria-Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as biomonitors and as effective bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) has been evaluated. Bark and leaf samples from these plant species were collected in June and July 2006 at five locations in Benin City. Four of the sampling sites were in areas of high traffic density and commercial activities, the fifth site is a remote site, selected to act as a control and also to provide background information for the metals. The plant samples were collected and processed using standard procedures and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The bark of the plants was able to bioaccumulate the trace metals, especially Pb which originates from anthropogenic contributions in the city. The Pb range of 20.00-70.00 microg/g measured for the bark samples of D. regia, exceeded the normal plant Pb concentration of 0.2-20.0 microg/g and most Pb data available in literature. The bark of the plants was observed to accumulate more metals compared to the leave, while D. regia was found to be slightly better than C. equisetifolia in trace metal uptake efficiency. Spatial variations in the distributions of Pb and Zn were significant (p < 0.05), and the continuous use of leaded fuel in Nigeria was identified as the predominant source of Pb in the atmosphere.

  9. Development of an operational tool for biomonitoring using constant pressure respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) policy statement (FR 49, 9016, 9 March 1984) for the development of water quality based permit limitations includes toxicity testing of effluents as an important part of a water quality approach to controlling toxics (Pickering, 1988). To assure that state waters are free of toxics, both chemical and biological methods were recommended for assessing effluent quality. The US EPA validated bioassay procedures for toxicity testing of wastewater discharges use three distinctive organisms groups: vertebrates, invertebrates, and algae (Weber, 1989). The specific species for these three groups are fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; water tea, Ceriodaphnia, dubia; and the green algae, Selenastrum capricornum, respectively. Definitive testing estimates the concentration atwhich a certain percentage of organisms exhibit a certain response. The definitive test exposes several replicate groups of organisms to the target substrate for a predetermined time period effluent concentration. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring based on constant pressure respirometry for LANL. The specific objectives include: Development an appropriate toxicity testing protocol based on constant pressure respirometry for whole effluent toxicity testing, and evaluate the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation

  10. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  11. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  12. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml. PMID:27265938

  13. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively.

  14. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health. PMID:27300310

  15. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  16. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development.

  17. Microbial communities in karst groundwater and their potential use for biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Michiel; Goldscheider, Nico; Zopfi, Jakob

    2009-02-01

    The structure, diversity and dynamics of microbial communities from a swallow hole draining agricultural land and two connected karst springs (Switzerland) were studied using molecular microbiological methods and related to hydrological and physicochemical parameters. Storm responses and an annual hydrological cycle were monitored to determine the short- and long-term variability, respectively, of bacterial communities. Statistical analysis of bacterial genetic fingerprints (16S rDNA PCR-DGGE) of spring water samples revealed several clusters that corresponded well with different levels of the allochthonous swallow hole contribution. Microbial communities in spring water samples highly affected by the swallow hole showed low similarities among them, reflecting the high temporal variability of the bacterial communities infiltrating at the swallow hole. Conversely, high similarities among samples with low allochthonous contribution provided evidence for a stable autochthonous endokarst microbial community. Three spring samples, representative for low, medium and high swallow hole contribution, were analysed by cloning/sequencing in order to identify the major bacterial groups in the communities. The autochthonous endokarst microbial community was mainly characterized of δ-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospira species. A high percentage of unknown sequences suggested further that many karst aquifer bacteria are still undiscovered. Finally, the potential use of groundwater biomonitoring using microbial communities is discussed.

  18. DIORAMA Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, Mark C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-24

    Diorama is written as a collection of modules that can run in separate threads or in separate processes. This defines a clear interface between the modules and also allows concurrent processing of different parts of the pipeline. The pipeline is determined by a description in a scenario file[Norman and Tornga, 2012, Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The scenario manager parses the XML scenario and sets up the sequence of modules which will generate an event, propagate the signal to a set of sensors, and then run processing modules on the results provided by those sensor simulations. During a run a variety of “observer” and “processor” modules can be invoked to do interim analysis of results. Observers do not modify the simulation results, while processors may affect the final result. At the end of a run results are collated and final reports are put out. A detailed description of the scenario file and how it puts together a simulation are given in [Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The processing pipeline and how to program it with the Diorama API is described in Tornga et al. [2015] and Tornga and Wakeford [2015]. In this report I describe the communications infrastructure that is used.

  19. The Impact of a Group Communication Course on Veterinary Medical Students' Perceptions of Communication Competence and Communication Apprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a group communication course on veterinary medical students' perceptions of communication competence and communication anxiety. Students enrolled in the Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Communicative Competence Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the semester. Results show that first-year veterinary students' self-perceptions of communication competence increased and their self-reported levels of communication apprehension decreased across multiple contexts from Time 1 to Time 2. This research provides support for experiential communication training fostering skill development and confidence.

  20. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. PMID:21992698

  1. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  2. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution.

  3. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  4. Características del liderazgo en el sector de relaciones públicas. Resultados comparativos del Cross-Cultural Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management /Characteristics of Leadership in Public Relations. A comparison of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Navarro Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo ofrece un análisis comparativo de los factores de liderazgo en el sector de las relaciones públicas y la gestión de la comunicación entre España y el conjunto de los 23 países que han participado en el Cross-Cultural Cultural Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management, promovido por la Universidad de Alabama y financiado por IBM y Heyman Associates. Siguiendo el modelo conceptual de Meng y Berger (2011, se abordan los desafíos que afrontan las relaciones públicas en la actualidad, así como los requisitos y características de los ‘líderes excelentes’. Los resultados obtenidos suponen un avance en el conocimiento científico sobre el liderazgo en la gestión de comunicación, un tema aún de escaso desarrollo en la literatura académica internacional y especialmente poco explorado en España.AbstractThis paper offers a comparative analysis of leadership dimensions in public relations and communication management between Spain and a group of 23 countries which have participated in the Cross-Cultural Study of Leadership in Public relations and CommunicationManagement, conducted by the University of Alabama and financed by IBM and Heymann Associates. Following the conceptual model from Meng and Berger (2011, this paper investigates the challenges faced by public relations, as well as the prerequisites of excellent leaders. Achieved results make a breakthrough in scientific knowledge about leadership in communication management, a little developed subject in academic literature, especially in Spain.

  5. Effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences

  6. Intercultural Communicating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    An introduction is provided to the basics of intercultural communication, designed to go beyond cultural contrasts. Factors involved in communicative exchanges with people from other cultures who may think, feel, or act differently are explored. The importance in different cultures of gestures, valuing individuality versus the group, and culture…

  7. Communicating up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  8. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McNally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  9. Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Asian market fish: a response to results from mercury biomonitoring in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Chang, Moses; Arnason, John; Jeffery, Nancy; Kricheff, Judith; Kass, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In 2004, the New York City (NYC) Health and Nutrition Examination Survey measured the highest blood mercury levels in Asian and foreign-born Chinese demographic groups. Fish consumption was the strongest predictor of exposure. The survey did not inquire about consumption of individual species, and subsequent visits to fish markets serving the Asian community suggested that many popular species lack contaminant data. Our objective was to supplement existing information on contaminants in commercial fish by collecting data on species present in markets serving the Asian community. We measured total mercury and the sum of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 282 individual specimens of 19 species or products from retail fish markets in Chinese neighborhoods in NYC. Species were selected based on their volume in the market, and an absence or insufficiency of national data on mercury levels. PCBs were measured because they are also contaminants of concern. All measurements were made on a wet weight basis on whole fillets (with skin) or products (drained of liquid). Mean mercury levels ranged from below the limit of detection (0.004microg/g) in tilapia to 0.229microg/g in tilefish. The highest mercury level (1.150microg/g) was measured in a tilefish specimen, and mercury levels in tilefish increased with the specimen size. Mean PCB levels ranged from 1ng/g in red snapper to 98ng/g in buffalo carp. The highest PCB levels were measured in a buffalo carp (469ng/g) and a yellow croaker (495ng/g). Species-specific differences in PCB levels accounted for only 6.3% of total variability, in contrast with 39.2% for mercury. Although we did not measure high mean mercury levels in the species we sampled, frequent consumption of fish with low to moderate levels can also elevate blood mercury. The data we collected can be used to guide fish consumption in Asian communities. However, risk-benefit trade-offs also need to be considered.

  10. In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to biomonitor metal pollution in rivers and to evaluate the efficiency of restoration measures in mine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluate the ability of an in situ bioassay with Chironomus riparius larvae, using larval development and growth as endpoints, to biomonitor water quality and to assess the biological recovery of metal contaminated freshwater ecosystems of mine areas that are subject of restoration measures. The bioassay was carried out in streams located near an abandoned goldmine in North Portugal, throughout an environmental rehabilitation of the mine (2002-2004). During this period, a decrease in the inhibition of larval growth in the metal contaminated stream was observed. The bioassay was also performed in streams located near an active tungsten mine in Central Portugal. Larval growth and development were highly inhibited in the stream that receives acid drainage from the tungsten mine and treated water from the AMD treatment station. The results indicate that the bioassay can be used to evaluate the efficiency of environmental restoration measures in mining areas. - In situ bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae can be a suitable tool to monitor restoration efficiency after a long time of metallic sediment contamination

  11. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study; Emprego das aberracoes cromossomicas instaveis e micronucleos no biomonitoramento individual: estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e

    2005-02-15

    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  12. Effects of cadmium and 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis redox status. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) as a novel approach in biomonitoring of marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Franzellitti, Silvia; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Fabbri, Elena; Dimitriadis, Vasileios K; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium and 17β-estradiol are rapidly accumulated in mussel tissues, making mussels excellent pollution sentinel organisms. The aim of the present study was to compare the oxidative responses of the mussels after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure to cadmium with those to 17β-estradiol and subsequently, to suggest a multi-parametric approach for biomonitoring studies. Our results showed that environmentally relevant concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol for 1, 3 and 7 days induced oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels. The latter was determined by significantly increased ROS levels and apoptosis, by suppression of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) expression levels and subsequent increased prooxidant levels, as measured by prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay. To our knowledge this is the first time that prooxidant-antioxidant balance is evaluated in invertebrates as an index of oxidative stress. The simultaneous use of the parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant balance and antioxidant enzymes expression patterns, in combination with ROS production levels and apoptosis, in mussel hemocytes is suggested as an approach that may help to better evaluate the impact of environmental pollution on marine organisms and thereupon ecosystems. PMID:25460065

  13. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  14. Gastropod (Otala lactea) shell nanomechanical and structural characterization as a biomonitoring tool for dermal and dietary exposure to a model metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Paul G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Seiter, Jennifer M. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Diaz, Alfredo [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico); Lindsay, James H. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Moser, Robert D. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Tappero, Ryan V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kennedy, Alan J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Metallic tungsten (W) was initially assumed to be environmentally benign and a green alternative to lead. However, subsequent investigations showed that fishing weights and munitions containing elemental W can fragment and oxidize into complex monomeric and polymeric tungstate (WO4) species in the environment; this led to increased solubility and mobility in soils and increased bioaccumulation potential in plant and animal tissues. Here we expand on the results of our previous research, which examined tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms, and present in this research that the bioaccumulation of W was related to greater than 50% reduction in the mechanical properties of the snail (Otala lactea), based on depth-sensing nanoindentation. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence maps and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the integration of W in newly formed layers of the shell matrix with the observed changes in shell biomechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and crystal orientation. With further development, this technology could be employed as a biomonitoring tool for historic metals contamination since unlike the more heavily studied bioaccumulation into soft tissue, shell tissue does not actively eliminate contaminants.

  15. Effects of cadmium and 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis redox status. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) as a novel approach in biomonitoring of marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Franzellitti, Silvia; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Fabbri, Elena; Dimitriadis, Vasileios K; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium and 17β-estradiol are rapidly accumulated in mussel tissues, making mussels excellent pollution sentinel organisms. The aim of the present study was to compare the oxidative responses of the mussels after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure to cadmium with those to 17β-estradiol and subsequently, to suggest a multi-parametric approach for biomonitoring studies. Our results showed that environmentally relevant concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol for 1, 3 and 7 days induced oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels. The latter was determined by significantly increased ROS levels and apoptosis, by suppression of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) expression levels and subsequent increased prooxidant levels, as measured by prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay. To our knowledge this is the first time that prooxidant-antioxidant balance is evaluated in invertebrates as an index of oxidative stress. The simultaneous use of the parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant balance and antioxidant enzymes expression patterns, in combination with ROS production levels and apoptosis, in mussel hemocytes is suggested as an approach that may help to better evaluate the impact of environmental pollution on marine organisms and thereupon ecosystems.

  16. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (p< 0.001) genotoxic effect in a dose-dependent manner; indeed, the percentage of genotoxicity was 122.6 and 49.5% after exposure to 0.66 ml/kg body weight (b.w.); 0.33 ml/kg b.w. of PW, respectively. However, genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested with the PW obtained after incubation with P. peli We can conclude that using comet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW.

  17. Trace element biomonitoring using mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna. The case of the Salinelle, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2012-08-01

    Trace element impact was assessed using mosses in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, releasing sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and NaCl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO(2) and He). To date, scarce data are available about the presence of trace elements, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of such emissions. In this study, concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were detected in the moss Bryum argenteum, in soil and water. Results showed that the trace element contribution of the Salinelle to the general pollution was significant for Al, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The comparison of trace concentrations in mosses from Salinelle and Etna showed that the mud volcanoes release a greater amount of Al and Mn, whereas similar values of Ni were found. Natural emissions of trace elements could be hazardous in human settlements, in particular, the Salinelle seem to play an important role in environmental pollution.

  18. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  19. Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of culture has become one of strategic importance for all disciplines studying human and social universe, being invested today with multiple explanatory connotations. Meanwhile, conjunction and theoretical approaches we witness interference, under the imperative of interdisciplinary vision lead us, often up to a damaging confusion between communication and culture. Distinction between symbolic and instrumental, of culture and civilization are necessary to not confuse the contents of symbolic culture media of communication technology. An inventory of issues and social transformations that have acquired an indisputable relevance in contemporary development equation surgery is necessary but difficult. It should be mentioned two of them, given their global significance: the rediscovery of culture as a defining factor of the social and importance that have acquired communication processes in living societies. In fact, between the two aspects there is a relationship of inherent and consubstantiality, validated by actual historical experience. Culture and Communication is now a binomial with terms interchangeably, the two processes intertwined in a single block. Welding of the two dimensions was otherwise devoted to the vocabulary of social sciences and humanities through the concepts of culture media and intercultural communication. If we examine the paradigm shift in the theoretical space of the last century, the most surprising phenomena that we observe is that theories concerning communication space literally invaded the area that was traditionally reserved for theories about culture. For theorists today, communication is a structural constituent and all definitions, descriptions and characterizations that build on contemporary culture.

  20. Emotional crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.L.A. van der Meer; J.W.M. Verhoeven

    2014-01-01

    Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during crise

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  2. Physical and Digital Design of the BlueBio Biomonitoring System Prototype, to be used in Emergency Medical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, Margit; Pedersen, Jacob Frølund

    2007-01-01

    and user control. Our design framework, in relation to the BlueBio monitoring system, approaches these challenges from the perspective of familiarity, medical assessment and person ID/registration of data. We present how this informs and has implications for both the physical and digital design......This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. The handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel at work...

  3. Physical and digital design of the BlueBio biomonitoring system prototype, to be used in emergency medical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, M; Pedersen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. Handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel on work...... and user control. Our design framework, in relation to the BlueBio monitoring system, approaches these challenges from the perspective of familiarity, medical assesement and person ID/registration of data. We present how this informs and has implications for both the pyhsical and digital design...

  4. Medizinprodukte - Labortechnik: BioMonitor – implantierbarer Herzmonitor für eine präzise Langzeitbeobachtung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IbDie Kombination aus der einzigartigen Drei-Vektor-Signaldetektion und BIOTRONIK Home Monitoring® ermöglicht eine effiziente Langzeitbeobachtung von Patienten mit Herzrhythmusstörungen./i/bp Im Oktober letzten Jahres hat das Medizintechnikunternehmen BIOTRONIK seinen ersten implantierbaren Herzmonitor – den BioMonitor – auf den europäischen Markt gebracht. Auch in Österreich profitieren die Patienten seither von der Präzision und Zuverlässigkeit des Implantats. Die neuartige ClearSense-Technologie sorgt für eine hervorragende Qualität der EKG-Signale. Damit liefert der BioMonitor äußerst präzise und zuverlässige Informationen für die Diagnose und das Management von Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern (AF oder Synkopen aufgrund unklarer Genese.p bClearSense-Arrhythmiedetektion/bbr Eine hohe Sensitivität und Spezifität sind entscheidend für die exakte Detektion von Arrhythmien. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat BIOTRONIK seine ClearSense-Technologie mit der einzigartigen Drei-Vektor-Signaldetektion (Abb. 1 entwickelt. Der BioMonitor zeichnet dreikanalige EKGs auf und wandelt diese in ein hochpräzises subkutanes EKG-Eingangssignal um (Abb. 2.br Dieses Kombinationssignal aus drei Vektoren reduziert die Artefakte wie Myopotenziale aufgrund von Muskelkontraktionen des Körpers, verbessert dadurch das Signal-Rausch-Verhältnis deutlich und verstärkt die R-Wellen um 60 Prozent. Darüber hinaus werden alle Signale, die der BioMonitor wahrnimmt, auf einer Beat-to-Beat-Basis analysiert, um sicher zwischen intrinsischen Herzsignalen und Störsignalen unterscheiden zu können. Dieser innovative Ansatz ermöglicht eine optimale Signalqualität, die für die Arrhythmiedetektion notwendig ist, unabhängig von der Ausrichtung des Implantats im Körper. Dank dieser lageunabhängigen Implantation ist keine präoperative Vektorenbestimmung notwendig. Zusätzlich profitieren die Patienten von der langen Laufzeit von mehr als sechs Jahren.p bSubkutane EKG

  5. A communication-theory based view on telemedical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Thomas; Roeckelein, Wolfgang; Mohr, Markus; Kampshoff, Joerg; Lange, Tim; Nerlich, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Communication theory based analysis sheds new light on the use of health telematics. This analysis of structures in electronic medical communication shows communicative structures with special features. Current and evolving telemedical applications are analyzed. The methodology of communicational theory (focusing on linguistic pragmatics) is used to compare it with its conventional counterpart. The semiotic model, the roles of partners, the respective message and their relation are discussed. Channels, sender, addressee, and other structural roles are analyzed for different types of electronic medical communication. The communicative processes are shown as mutual, rational action towards a common goal. The types of communication/texts are analyzed in general. Furthermore the basic communicative structures of medical education via internet are presented with their special features. The analysis shows that electronic medical communication has special features compared to everyday communication: A third participant role often is involved: the patient. Messages often are addressed to an unspecified partner or to an unspecified partner within a group. Addressing in this case is (at least partially) role-based. Communication and message often directly (rather than indirectly) influence actions of the participants. Communication often is heavily regulated including legal implications like liability, and more. The conclusion from the analysis is that the development of telemedical applications so far did not sufficiently take communicative structures into consideration. Based on these results recommendations for future developments of telemedical applications/services are given.

  6. Communicating EAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios (Schaeffe......Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios......’s communication of EAM and Sound Art....

  7. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  8. Using GTO-Velo to Facilitate Communication and Sharing of Simulation Results in Support of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Boyd, Lauren W.

    2015-01-26

    The Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS) aims to support the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office in organizing and executing a model comparison activity. This project is directed at testing, diagnosing differences, and demonstrating modeling capabilities of a worldwide collection of numerical simulators for evaluating geothermal technologies. Teams of researchers are collaborating in this code comparison effort, and it is important to be able to share results in a forum where technical discussions can easily take place without requiring teams to travel to a common location. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an open-source, flexible framework called Velo that provides a knowledge management infrastructure and tools to support modeling and simulation for a variety of types of projects in a number of scientific domains. GTO-Velo is a customized version of the Velo Framework that is being used as the collaborative tool in support of the GTO-CCS project. Velo is designed around a novel integration of a collaborative Web-based environment and a scalable enterprise Content Management System (CMS). The underlying framework provides a flexible and unstructured data storage system that allows for easy upload of files that can be in any format. Data files are organized in hierarchical folders and each folder and each file has a corresponding wiki page for metadata. The user interacts with Velo through a web browser based wiki technology, providing the benefit of familiarity and ease of use. High-level folders have been defined in GTO-Velo for the benchmark problem descriptions, descriptions of simulator/code capabilities, a project notebook, and folders for participating teams. Each team has a subfolder with write access limited only to the team members, where they can upload their simulation results. The GTO-CCS participants are charged with defining the benchmark problems for the study, and as each GTO-CCS Benchmark problem is

  9. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region. PMID:22375548

  10. Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution is the main objective of this work. For that a better insight into the availability and location of heavy metals in lichens subjected to polluted conditions both under laboratory and field conditions was attained. The data in this work supported the hypothesis that the absence of the lichen Ramalina fastigiata near a copper mine site, located in the south of Portugal, was related with toxic levels of Cu-dust near the centre of the mine. Lichen biodiversity, measured by the parameter number of lichen species, reflected the impact of the copper-mine dust emissions. The extent of the impact was more widespread towards cast, which appears to be correlated with the frequency of the winds. The chemical analysis of in-situ samples of R. fastigiata collected at different distances and in different directions from the mine showed that Cu, K and Mg were emitted from the centre of the mine site, confirming that major sources of atmospheric dust were located there. Total inhibition of PSII (photosystem II) photochemical reactions occurred in R. fastigiata both under field and controlled conditions, when intracellular Cu concentrations exceeded a threshold of ca. 2.0 μmol g-1. No samples of this species were found under field conditions beyond the Cu threshold, suggesting that the absence of the lichen R. fastigiata might be used as an indicator of intracellular Cu concentrations above 2.0 μmol g-1 in the surroundings of the copper-mine. The fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm proved to be a good estimator of the survival capacity of R. fastigiata under field conditions and thus a useful parameter in determining the sensitivity of the lichens (photobiont) to Cu pollution. The intracellular location of Cu, K and Mg allowed to explain the physiological changes and the survival of the species in the surroundings of the copper-mine. (author)

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  12. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton acts as a primary producer and biological filter of aquatic ecosystem. Jute retting during monsoon is a common anthropological activity in the rural Bengal. Quantitative seasonal bio-monitoring of phytoplankton community composition with relative abundance and its diversity indices was carried out in this study from April 2013 to March 2014 to assess water quality and the impact of jute retting on phytoplankton diversity of a tropical fresh water oxbow lake in Nadia district of India. We recorded a total of 34 genera of 5 distinct classes, Chlorophyceae (15, Bacillariophyceae (13, Cyanophyceae (4, Dinophyceae (1 and Euglenophyceae (1. Members of Chlorophyceae dominated throughout the year. Unlike Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae was found to be significantly increased during monsoon when compared to the rest of the year. Average phytoplankton density was highest in post-monsoon (8760/L followed by monsoon (4680/L and pre-monsoon (3650/L. Owing to the dominance of class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae we found this lake to be oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Indices values of genera richness, Shannon-Wiener, evenness and Simpson’s diversity reached their lowest 14, 1.61, 0.61 and 0.68 in monsoon and highest 23, 2.42, 0.77 and 0.86 in post monsoon respectively. The lowest diversity values during monsoon clearly suggested that the selected lake has highest anthropogenic pollution due to jute retting which impacted significantly on phytoplankton diversity. Therefore, the lake is not conducive for fish growth especially during monsoon and we opine that there is a need to regulate jute retting process, intensity and its density in the lake during the monsoon to ensure enhanced biodiversity for sustainable management and conservation of aquatic environment of this Oxbow lake.

  13. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  14. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

  15. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in fruits and vegetables may confound biomonitoring in organophosphorus insecticide exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Driver, Jeffrey H; Li, Yanhong; Ross, John H; Krieger, Robert I

    2008-11-26

    Trace residues of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are associated with fruits and vegetables that have been sprayed with those OP pesticides to guard against insect pests. Human dietary exposure to these OP pesticides is commonly estimated by measuring the amount of OP metabolites in urine, assuming a stoichiometric relationship between a metabolite and its parent insecticide. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are the OP metabolites that are most often used as markers in such biomonitoring studies. However, abiotic hydrolysis, photolysis, and plant metabolism can convert OP chemicals (OP residues) to DAP residues on or in the fruits and vegetables. To evaluate the extent of these conversions, OPs and DAPs were measured in 153 produce samples. These samples from 2 lots were known to contain OP insecticide residues based on routine monitoring by California producers and shippers. A total of 12 OPs were quantified, including mevinphos, naled, acephate, methamidophos, oxidemeton-methyl, azinphos-methyl, dimethoate, malathion, methidathion, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. All OP insecticide residues were below their respective residue tolerances in 2002-2004. A total of 91 of 153 samples (60%) contained more DAP residues than parent OPs. The mean mole fractions [DAPs/(DAPs + OPs)] for the first and second lots of produce were 0.62 and 0.50, respectively, and the corresponding geometric means were 0.55 and 0.34. The corresponding mean mole ratios (DAPs/OP) were 7.1 and 3.4, with geometric means of 2.1 and 0.9. Any preformed DAPs ingested in the diet that are excreted in urine may inflate the estimated absorbed OP insecticide doses in occupational and environmental studies. In subsequent prospective studies, time-dependent production of dimethylphosphate (DMP) and dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in strawberries and leaves following malathion sprays occurred concomitant with the disappearance of the parent insecticide and its oxon. DAPs are more persistent in plants and produce

  16. Communicating biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management.

  17. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  18. Communication fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  19. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Podgórecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most significant factors that influence interpersonal and group communication in multicultural environment in education. It highlights main theories of intercultural communication and its effectiveness as well as ones which deal with coping with conflicts in the intercultural environment. In contemporary times, which require working in multicultural environment, communicative skills become more and more important. In teachers’ work cultural awareness and being openminded about differences between nations and cultures are essential. These skills are especially important while there is a need to avoid or overcome problems, conflicts which may occur. The author shows the significance of these factors. The article closes with the recommendations and clues concerning effective intercultural communication.

  20. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting...