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Sample records for biomimetic honeybee robot

  1. Analysis of the waggle dance motion of honeybees for the design of a biomimetic honeybee robot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Landgraf

    Full Text Available The honeybee dance "language" is one of the most popular examples of information transfer in the animal world. Today, more than 60 years after its discovery it still remains unknown how follower bees decode the information contained in the dance. In order to build a robotic honeybee that allows a deeper investigation of the communication process we have recorded hundreds of videos of waggle dances. In this paper we analyze the statistics of visually captured high-precision dance trajectories of European honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica. The trajectories were produced using a novel automatic tracking system and represent the most detailed honeybee dance motion information available. Although honeybee dances seem very variable, some properties turned out to be invariant. We use these properties as a minimal set of parameters that enables us to model the honeybee dance motion. We provide a detailed statistical description of various dance properties that have not been characterized before and discuss the role of particular dance components in the commmunication process.

  2. Biomimetic vibrissal sensing for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Martin J; Mitchinson, Ben; Sullivan, J Charles; Pipe, Anthony G; Prescott, Tony J

    2011-11-12

    Active vibrissal touch can be used to replace or to supplement sensory systems such as computer vision and, therefore, improve the sensory capacity of mobile robots. This paper describes how arrays of whisker-like touch sensors have been incorporated onto mobile robot platforms taking inspiration from biology for their morphology and control. There were two motivations for this work: first, to build a physical platform on which to model, and therefore test, recent neuroethological hypotheses about vibrissal touch; second, to exploit the control strategies and morphology observed in the biological analogue to maximize the quality and quantity of tactile sensory information derived from the artificial whisker array. We describe the design of a new whiskered robot, Shrewbot, endowed with a biomimetic array of individually controlled whiskers and a neuroethologically inspired whisking pattern generation mechanism. We then present results showing how the morphology of the whisker array shapes the sensory surface surrounding the robot's head, and demonstrate the impact of active touch control on the sensory information that can be acquired by the robot. We show that adopting bio-inspired, low latency motor control of the rhythmic motion of the whiskers in response to contact-induced stimuli usefully constrains the sensory range, while also maximizing the number of whisker contacts. The robot experiments also demonstrate that the sensory consequences of active touch control can be usefully investigated in biomimetic robots.

  3. Energy-based and biomimetic robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    All physical systems interact by exchanging power, or energy. This energy can be explicitly taken into account when designing robotic systems, in dynamic models of systems and controllers, leading to more insight in energy-related effects. In this thesis, a biomimetic cheetah robot is developed, by

  4. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Griparić

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera, are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  5. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griparić, Karlo; Haus, Tomislav; Miklić, Damjan; Polić, Marsela; Bogdan, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera), are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  6. The Design and Implementation of a Biomimetic Robot Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Zhou; Min Tan; Nong Gu; Zhiqiang Cao; Shuo Wang; Long Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design of a biomimetic robot fish is presented. Based on the propulsion and maneuvering mechanisms of real fishes, a tail mechanical structure with cams and connecting rods for fitting carangiform fish body wave is designed, which provides the main propulsion. Two pectoral fins are mounted, and each pectoral fin can flap separately and rotate freely. Coordinating the movements of the tail and pectoral fins, the robot fish can simulate the movements of fishes in water. I...

  7. Fish and robots swimming together: attraction towards the robot demands biomimetic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-08-07

    The integration of biomimetic robots in a fish school may enable a better understanding of collective behaviour, offering a new experimental method to test group feedback in response to behavioural modulations of its 'engineered' member. Here, we analyse a robotic fish and individual golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) swimming together in a water tunnel at different flow velocities. We determine the positional preference of fish with respect to the robot, and we study the flow structure using a digital particle image velocimetry system. We find that biomimetic locomotion is a determinant of fish preference as fish are more attracted towards the robot when its tail is beating rather than when it is statically immersed in the water as a 'dummy'. At specific conditions, the fish hold station behind the robot, which may be due to the hydrodynamic advantage obtained by swimming in the robot's wake. This work makes a compelling case for the need of biomimetic locomotion in promoting robot-animal interactions and it strengthens the hypothesis that biomimetic robots can be used to study and modulate collective animal behaviour.

  8. The Design and Implementation of a Biomimetic Robot Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel design of a biomimetic robot fish is presented. Based on the propulsion and maneuvering mechanisms of real fishes, a tail mechanical structure with cams and connecting rods for fitting carangiform fish body wave is designed, which provides the main propulsion. Two pectoral fins are mounted, and each pectoral fin can flap separately and rotate freely. Coordinating the movements of the tail and pectoral fins, the robot fish can simulate the movements of fishes in water. In order to obtain the necessary environmental information, several kinds of sensors (video, infrared, temperature, pressure and PH value sensors were mounted. Finally, the realization of the robot fish is presented.

  9. The Design and Implementation of a Biomimetic Robot Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel design of a biomimetic robot fish is presented. Based on the propulsion and maneuvering mechanisms of real fishes, a tail mechanical structure with cams and connecting rods for fitting carangiform fish body wave is designed, which provides the main propulsion. Two pectoral fins are mounted, and each pectoral fin can flap separately and rotate freely. Coordinating the movements of the tail and pectoral fins, the robot fish can simulate the movements of fishes in water. In order to obtain the necessary environmental information, several kinds of sensors (video, infrared, temperature, pressure and PH value sensors were mounted. Finally, the realization of the robot fish is presented.

  10. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  11. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  12. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M; Mazzolai, B; Dario, P; Mattoli, V

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  13. Actuation control of a PiezoMEMS biomimetic robotic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Alvaro; Olszewski, Oskar; Jackson, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Biomimetic micro-robots try to mimic the motion of a living system in the form of a synthetically developed microfabricated device. Dynamic motion of living systems have evolved through the years, but trying to mimic these motions is challenging. Micro-robotics are particular challenging as the fabrication of devices and controlling the motion in 3 dimensions is difficult. However, micro-scale robotics have potential to be used in a wide range of applications. MEMS based robots that can move and function in a liquid environment is of particular interest. This paper describes the development of a piezoMEMS based device that mimics the movement of a jellyfish. The paper focuses on the development of a finite element model that investigates a method of controlling the individual piezoelectric beams in order to create a jet propulsion motion, consisting of a quick excitation pulse followed by a slow recovery pulse in order to maximize thrust and velocity. By controlling the individual beams or legs of the jellyfish robot the authors can control the robot to move precisely in 3 dimensions.

  14. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon

    2012-01-01

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor

  15. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor.

  16. Optimization of Power Utilization in Multimobile Robot Foraging Behavior Inspired by Honeybees System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisul Arif; Ramli, Abd Rahman; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Hashim, Shaiful Jahari

    2014-01-01

    Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work. PMID:24949491

  17. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Sung-Weon; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators was fabricated and activated to mimic real locomotive behavior with pulse and recovery processes. To imitate the curved shape of the jellyfish, a thermal treatment was applied to obtain a permanent initial deformation of a hemispherical form. The bio-inspired input signal was generated for mimicking real locomotion of the jellyfish. The vertical floating displacement and the thrust force of the biomimetic jellyfish robot under various input signals were measured and compared. The present results show that the bio-inspired electrical input signal with pulse-recovery process generates much higher floating velocity of the biomimetic jellyfish robot in comparison with pure sinusoidal excitations. The curved shape of the IPMC actuator through thermal treatments can be successfully applied to mimic the real biomimetic robots with smooth curves

  18. Biomimetic Spider Leg Joints: A Review from Biomechanical Research to Compliant Robotic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landkammer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent compliance, soft actuated joints are becoming increasingly important for robotic applications, especially when human-robot-interactions are expected. Several of these flexible actuators are inspired by biological models. One perfect showpiece for biomimetic robots is the spider leg, because it combines lightweight design and graceful movements with powerful and dynamic actuation. Building on this motivation, the review article focuses on compliant robotic joints inspired by the function principle of the spider leg. The mechanism is introduced by an overview of existing biological and biomechanical research. Thereupon a classification of robots that are bio-inspired by spider joints is presented. Based on this, the biomimetic robot applications referring to the spider principle are identified and discussed.

  19. Biomimetic autonomous robot inspired by the Cyanea capillata (Cyro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Alex A; Marut, Kenneth J; Michael, Tyler; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    A biomimetic robot inspired by Cyanea capillata, termed as ‘Cyro’, was developed to meet the functional demands of underwater surveillance in defense and civilian applications. The vehicle was designed to mimic the morphology and swimming mechanism of the natural counterpart. The body of the vehicle consists of a rigid support structure with linear DC motors which actuate eight mechanical arms. The mechanical arms in conjunction with artificial mesoglea create the hydrodynamic force required for propulsion. The full vehicle measures 170 cm in diameter and has a total mass of 76 kg. An analytical model of the mechanical arm kinematics was developed. The analytical and experimental bell kinematics were analyzed and compared to the C. capillata. Cyro was found to reach the water surface untethered and autonomously from a depth of 182 cm in five actuation cycles. It achieved an average velocity of 8.47 cm s −1  while consuming an average power of 70 W. A two-axis thrust stand was developed to calculate the thrust directly from a single bell segment yielding an average thrust of 27.9 N for the whole vehicle. Steady state velocity during Cyro's swimming test was not reached but the measured performance during its last swim cycle resulted in a cost of transport of 10.9 J (kg ⋅ m) −1  and total efficiency of 0.03. (paper)

  20. Biomimetics in the design of a robotic exoskeleton for upper limb therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Paul Dominick E.; Dungao, Jade R.; Manguerra, Michael V.; Baldovino, Renann G.; Abad, Alexander C.; Bugtai, Nilo T.

    2018-02-01

    Current methodologies in designing robotic exoskeletons for upper limb therapy simplify the complex requirements of the human anatomy. As a result, such devices tend to compromise safety and biocompatibility with the intended user. However, a new design methodology uses biological analogues as inspiration to address these technical issues. This approach follows that of biomimetics, a design principle that uses the extraction and transfer of useful information from natural morphologies and processes to solve technical design issues. In this study, a biomimetic approach in the design of a 5-degree-of-freedom robotic exoskeleton for upper limb therapy was performed. A review of biomimetics was first discussed along with its current contribution to the design of rehabilitation robots. With a proposed methodological framework, the design for an upper limb robotic exoskeleton was generated using CATIA software. The design was inspired by the morphology of the bones and the muscle force transmission of the upper limbs. Finally, a full design assembly presented had integrated features extracted from the biological analogue. The successful execution of a biomimetic design methodology made a case in providing safer and more biocompatible robots for rehabilitation.

  1. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  2. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Nam, Jae-do

    2014-01-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators. (paper)

  3. Biomimetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Biomimetics is the field of scientific endeavour, which attempts to design systems and syn- thesise materials through ... natural systems with a view to achieve analogous synthetic design and manufacture. On the ..... Industrial production.

  4. Towards a real-time interface between a biomimetic model of sensorimotor cortex and a robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Chadderdon, George L; Neymotin, Samuel A; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces can greatly improve the performance of prosthetics. Utilizing biomimetic neuronal modeling in brain machine interfaces (BMI) offers the possibility of providing naturalistic motor-control algorithms for control of a robotic limb. This will allow finer control of a robot, while also giving us new tools to better understand the brain’s use of electrical signals. However, the biomimetic approach presents challenges in integrating technologies across multiple hardware and...

  5. Biomimetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The well-organised multifunctional structures, systems and biogenic materials found in nature have attracted the interest of scientists working in many disciplines. The efforts have resulted in the development of a new and rapidly growing field of scientific effort called biomimetics. In this article we present a.

  6. HexaMob—A Hybrid Modular Robotic Design for Implementing Biomimetic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasanka Sankhar Reddy CH.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modular robots are capable of forming primitive shapes such as lattice and chain structures with the additional flexibility of distributed sensing. The biomimetic structures developed using such modular units provides ease of replacement and reconfiguration in co-ordinated structures, transportation etc. in real life scenarios. Though the research in the employment of modular robotic units in formation of biological organisms is in the nascent stage, modular robotic units are already capable of forming such sophisticated structures. The modular robotic designs proposed so far in modular robotics research vary significantly in external structures, sensor-actuator mechanisms interfaces for docking and undocking, techniques for providing mobility, coordinated structures, locomotions etc. and each robotic design attempted to address various challenges faced in the domain of modular robotics by employing different strategies. This paper presents a novel modular wheeled robotic design - HexaMob facilitating four degrees of freedom (2 degrees for mobility and 2 degrees for structural reconfiguration on a single module with minimal usage of sensor-actuator assemblies. The crucial features of modular robotics such as back-driving restriction, docking, and navigation are addressed in the process of HexaMob design. The proposed docking mechanism is enabled using vision sensor, enhancing the capabilities in docking as well as navigation in co-ordinated structures such as humanoid robots.

  7. Experimental parametric study of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, T.; Park, Hoon C.; Heo, S.; Goo, Nam S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experiment and parametric study of a biomimetic fish robot actuated by the Lightweight Piezocomposite Actuator (LIPCA). The biomimetic aspects in this work are the oscillating tail beat motion and shape of caudal fin. Caudal fins that resemble fins of BCF (Body and Caudal Fin) mode fish were made in order to perform parametric study concerning the effect of caudal fin characteristics on thrust production at an operating frequency range. The observed caudal fin characteristics are the shape, stiffness, area, and aspect ratio. It is found that a high aspect ratio caudal fin contributes to high swimming speed. The robotic fish propelled by artificial caudal fins shaped after thunniform-fish and mackerel caudal fins, which have relatively high aspect ratio, produced swimming speed as high as 2.364 cm/s and 2.519 cm/s, respectively, for a 300 V p-p input voltage excited at 0.9 Hz. Thrust performance of the biomimetic fish robot is examined by calculating Strouhal number, Froude number, Reynolds number, and power consumption.

  8. Mechanical design, fabrication, and test of biomimetic fish robot using LIPCA as artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, T.; Syaifuddin, M.; Park, Hoon C.; Heo, S.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a mechanical design, fabrication and test of biomimetic fish robot using the Lightweight Piezocomposite Curved Actuator (LIPCA). We have designed a mechanism for converting actuation of the LIPCA into caudal fin movement. This linkage mechanism consists of rack-pinion system and four-bar linkage. We also have tested four types of caudal fin in order to examine effect of different shape of caudal fin on thrust generation by tail beat. Subsequently, based on the caudal fin test, four caudal fins which resemble fish caudal fin shapes of ostraciiform, subcarangiform, carangiform and thunniform, respectively, are attached to the posterior part of the robotic fish. The swimming test using 300 V pp input with 1 Hz to 1.5 Hz frequency was conducted to investigate effect of changing tail beat frequency and shape of caudal fin on the swimming speed of the robotic fish. The maximum swimming speed was reached when the device was operated at its natural swimming frequency. At the natural swimming frequency 1 Hz, maximum swimming speeds of 1.632 cm/s, 1.776 cm/s, 1.612 cm/s and 1.51 cm/s were reached for ostraciiform-, subcarangiform-, carangiform- and thunniform-like caudal fins, respectively. Strouhal numbers, which are a measure of thrust efficiency, were calculated in order to examine thrust performance of the present biomimetic fish robot. We also approximated the net forward force of the robotic fish using momentum conservation principle.

  9. Progress toward EAP actuators for biomimetic social robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.

    2013-04-01

    Social robotics and artificial intelligence have progressed steadily in recent years, appearing in a variety of useful applications and products as well as breakthrough research. However, limitations in conventional motors continue to limit the possibilities of bio-inspired robotics. Such motors are needed for locomotion, grasping and manipulation, and social expressions and gestures. EAP actuators, being more like biological muscle in key regards, could revolutionize the hardware for such robots, if made robust, powerful, and manufacturable at reasonable prices. The author presents a survey of the progress and opportunities for EAP actuators in these fields, and discusses the latest work of his team in developing and manufacturing social robots that could benefit from EAP actuators.

  10. Jumping robots: a biomimetic solution to locomotion across rough terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Rhodri; Paskins, Keith; Bowyer, Adrian; Vincent, Julian; Megill, William; Bomphrey, Richard

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces jumping robots as a means to traverse rough terrain; such terrain can pose problems for traditional wheeled, tracked and legged designs. The diversity of jumping mechanisms found in nature is explored to support the theory that jumping is a desirable ability for a robot locomotion system to incorporate, and then the size-related constraints are determined from first principles. A series of existing jumping robots are presented and their performance summarized. The authors present two new biologically inspired jumping robots, Jollbot and Glumper, both of which incorporate additional locomotion techniques of rolling and gliding respectively. Jollbot consists of metal hoop springs forming a 300 mm diameter sphere, and when jumping it raises its centre of gravity by 0.22 m and clears a height of 0.18 m. Glumper is of octahedral shape, with four 'legs' that each comprise two 500 mm lengths of CFRP tube articulating around torsion spring 'knees'. It is able to raise its centre of gravity by 1.60 m and clears a height of 1.17 m. The jumping performance of the jumping robot designs presented is discussed and compared against some specialized jumping animals. Specific power output is thought to be the performance-limiting factor for a jumping robot, which requires the maximization of the amount of energy that can be stored together with a minimization of mass. It is demonstrated that this can be achieved through optimization and careful materials selection.

  11. Limits of Nature and Advances of Technology: What Does Biomimetics Have to Offer to Aquatic Robots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Fish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the biomimetic approach has been utilized as a mechanism for technological advancement in the field of robotics. However, there has not been a full appreciation of the success and limitations of biomimetics. Similarities between natural and engineered systems are exhibited by convergences, which define environmental factors, which impinge upon design, and direct copying that produces innovation through integration of natural and artificial technologies. Limitations of this integration depend on the structural and mechanical differences of the two technologies and on the process by which each technology arises. The diversity of organisms that arose through evolutionary descent does not necessarily provide all possible solutions of optimal functions. However, in instances where organisms exhibit superior performance to engineered systems, features of the organism can be targeted for technology transfer. In this regard, cooperation between biologists and engineers is paramount.

  12. Methods and Experimental Protocols to Design a Simulated Bio-Mimetic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi El Daou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bio-mimetic approach to design and simulate a tortoise-like virtual robot. This study takes a multidisciplinary approach: from in vivo and in vitro experiments on animals, data are collected and used to design, control and simulate a bio-mimetic virtual robot using MD ADAMS platform. From the in vitro experiments, the geometrical and inertial properties of body limbs are measured, and a model of tortoise kinematics is derived. From the in vivo experiments the contact forces between each limb and the ground are measured. The contributions of hind and forelimbs in the generation of propelling and braking forces are studied. The motion of the joints between limb segments are recorded and used to solve the inverse kinematics problem. A virtual model of a tortoise-like robot is built; it is a linkage of 15 rigid bodies articulated by 22 degrees of freedom. This model is referred to as TATOR II. It has the inertial and geometrical properties measured during the in vitro experiments. TATOR II motion is achieved using a Proportional-Derivative controller copying the joint angle trajectories calculated from the in vivo experiments.

  13. Hydrodynamic performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer actuated by ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Tiammiao; Liang, Jianhong; Wen, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the thrust performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer that uses ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) as a flexible actuator in viscous and inertial flow, for a comprehensive understanding of IPMC swimmers at different scales. A hydrodynamic model based on the elongated body theory was developed. Based on image analysis, the parameters of the model were identified and simulation results were obtained. To obtain the hydrodynamic thrust performance of the robotic swimmer, we implemented a novel experimental apparatus. Systematic tests were conducted in the servo towing system to measure the self-propelled speed and thrust efficiency under different actuation of IPMC. The undulatory motions of the IPMC swimmer were identified. Experimental results demonstrated that the theoretical model can accurately predict the speed and thrust efficiency of the robotic swimmer. When the Reynolds number of the robotic swimmer was reduced to approximately 0.1%, its speed and thrust efficiency were reduced by 95.22% and 87.33% respectively. It was concluded that the robotic swimmer has a low speed and thrust efficiency when it swims in a viscous flow. Generally, the thrust performance of the robotic swimmer is determined by the kinematics and Reynolds number. In addition, the optimal actuation frequency for the thrust efficiency is greater in a viscous fluid. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the swimming performance of IPMC actuated swimmers in a distinct flow regime (viscous and inertial regime). (paper)

  14. Swimming performance of a biomimetic compliant fish-like robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden P.; Valdivia Y Alvarado, Pablo; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2009-12-01

    Digital particle image velocimetry and fluorescent dye visualization are used to characterize the performance of fish-like swimming robots. During nominal swimming, these robots produce a ‘V’-shaped double wake, with two reverse-Kármán streets in the far wake. The Reynolds number based on swimming speed and body length is approximately 7500, and the Strouhal number based on flapping frequency, flapping amplitude, and swimming speed is 0.86. It is found that swimming speed scales with the strength and geometry of a composite wake, which is constructed by freezing each vortex at the location of its centroid at the time of shedding. Specifically, we find that swimming speed scales linearly with vortex circulation. Also, swimming speed scales linearly with flapping frequency and the width of the composite wake. The thrust produced by the swimming robot is estimated using a simple vortex dynamics model, and we find satisfactory agreement between this estimate and measurements made during static load tests.

  15. Mechanical Description of a Hyper-Redundant Robot Joint Mechanism Used for a Design of a Biomimetic Robotic Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Afolayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologically inspired robot in the form of fish (mackerel model using rubber (as the biomimetic material for its hyper-redundant joint is presented in this paper. Computerized simulation of the most critical part of the model (the peduncle shows that the rubber joints will be able to take up the stress that will be created. Furthermore, the frequency-induced softening of the rubber used was found to be critical if the joints are going to oscillate at frequency above 25 Hz. The robotic fish was able to attain a speed of 0.985 m/s while the tail beats at a maximum of 1.7 Hz when tested inside water. Furthermore, a minimum turning radius of 0.8 m (approximately 2 times the fish body length was achieved.

  16. Exploring Host-Microbiome Interactions using an in Silico Model of Biomimetic Robots and Engineered Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Keith C. Heyde; Warren C. Ruder

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome?s underlying dynamics play an important role in regulating the behavior and health of its host. In order to explore the details of these interactions, we created an in silico model of a living microbiome, engineered with synthetic biology, that interfaces with a biomimetic, robotic host. By analytically modeling and computationally simulating engineered gene networks in these commensal communities, we reproduced complex behaviors in the host. We observed that robot movements de...

  17. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  18. Nanometer-scale displacement measurement with high resolution using dual cavity Fabry-Pérot interferometer for biomimetic robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    A sensor of a biomimetic robot has to measure very small environmental changes such as, nanometer scale strains or displacements. Fiber optic sensor can be also one of candidates for the biomimetic sensor because the sensor is like thread and the shape of the sensor is similar to muscle fiber. A fiber optic interferometer, which is an optical-based sensor, can measure displacement precisely, so such device has been widely studied for the measurement of displacement on a nanometer-scale. Especially, a Quadrature Phase-Shifted Fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer (QPS-FFPI) uses phase-information for this measurement, allowing it to provide a precision result with high resolution. In theory, the QPS-FFPI generates two sinusoidal signals of which the phase difference should be 90 degrees for the exact measurement of the displacement. In order to guarantee the condition of the phase difference, the relative adjustment of the cavities of the optical fibers is required. However, with such precise adjustment it is very hard to fix the proper difference of the two cavities for quadrature-phase-shifting. In this paper, a dual-cavity FFPI is newly proposed to measure the displacement on a nanometer-scale with a specific type of signal processing. In the signal processing, a novel phase-compensation algorithm is applied to force the phase difference to be exactly 90 degrees without any physical adjustment. As a result, the paper shows that the phase-compensated dual-cavity FFPI can effectively measure nanometer-scale displacement with high resolution under dynamic conditions.

  19. Dynamic Modelling of a CPG-Controlled Amphibious Biomimetic Swimming Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modelling and control problems of a self-propelled, multimodal amphibious robot. Inspired by the undulatory body motions of fish and dolphins, the amphibious robot propels itself underwater by oscillations of several modular fish-like propelling units coupled with a pair of pectoral fins capable of non-continuous 360 degree rotation. In order to mimic fish-like undulating propulsion, a control architecture based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG is applied to the amphibious robot for robust swimming gaits, including forward and backward swimming and turning, etc. With the simplification of the robot as a multi-link serial mechanism, a Lagrangian function is employed to establish the hydrodynamic model for steady swimming. The CPG motion control law is then imported into the Lagrangian-based dynamic model, where an associated system of kinematics and dynamics is formed to solve real-time movements and, further, to guide the exploration of the CPG parameters and steady locomotion gaits. Finally, comparative results between the simulations and experiments are provided to show the effectiveness of the built control models.

  20. Design of a Biomimetic Skin for an Octopus-Inspired Robot - Part Ⅰ: Characterising Octopus Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2011-01-01

    Octopus skin samples were tested under quasi-static and scissor cutting conditions to measure the in-plane material properties and fracture toughness. Samples from all eight arms of one octopus were tested statically to investigate how properties vary from arm to arm. Another nine octopus skins were measured to study the influence of body mass on skin properties. Influence of specimen location on skin mechanical properties was also studied. Material properties of skin, i.e. the Young's modulus, ultimate stress, failure strain and fracture toughness have been plotted against the position of skin along the length of arm or body. Statistical studies were carried out to help analyzing experimental data obtained. Results of this work will be used as guidelines for the design and development of artificial skins for an octopus-inspired robot.

  1. Biomimetic robotic Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) made with ionic polymer metal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen, E-mail: mohsen.shahinpoor@maine.edu [Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The work described in this paper is a novel design of a robotic Venus flytrap (VFT) (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) by means of ionic polymeric metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators. Rapid muscular movements in carnivorous plants, such as VFT, which are triggered by antenna-like sensors (trigger hair), present a golden key to study distributed biomolecular motors. Carnivorous plants, such as VFT, possess built-in intelligence (trigger hairs), as a strategy to capture prey, that can be turned on in a controlled manner. In the case of the VFT, the prey that is lured by the sweet nectar in the VFT pair of jaw-like lobes has to flip and move the trigger hairs, which are colorless, bristle-like and pointed. The dynamically moved trigger hairs then electro-elastically send an electric signal to the internal ions in the lobe to migrate outwardly for the jaw-like lobes to close rapidly to capture the prey. The manner in which the VFT lobes bend inward to capture the prey shows a remarkable similarity with typical IPMCs bending in an electric field. Furthermore, the mechano-electrical sensing characteristics of IPMCs also show a remarkable resemblance to mechano-electrical trigger hairs on the lobes of the VFT. The reader is referred to a number of papers in connection with sensing and actuation of IPMCs in particular. Thus, one can integrate IPMC lobes with a common electrode in the middle of one end of the lobes to act like a spine and use IPMC bristles as trigger finger to sense the intrusion of a fly or insect to send a sensing signal to a solid state relay which then triggers the actuation circuit of the IPMC lobes to rapidly bend toward each other and close. The two lobes, which form the trap, are attached to the midrib common electrode which is conveniently termed the spine. The upper surface of each lobe is dished, and spaced along the free margins of the lobes with some 15-20 prong-like teeth. These are tough and pointed

  2. Biomimetic robotic Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) made with ionic polymer metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    The work described in this paper is a novel design of a robotic Venus flytrap (VFT) (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) by means of ionic polymeric metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators. Rapid muscular movements in carnivorous plants, such as VFT, which are triggered by antenna-like sensors (trigger hair), present a golden key to study distributed biomolecular motors. Carnivorous plants, such as VFT, possess built-in intelligence (trigger hairs), as a strategy to capture prey, that can be turned on in a controlled manner. In the case of the VFT, the prey that is lured by the sweet nectar in the VFT pair of jaw-like lobes has to flip and move the trigger hairs, which are colorless, bristle-like and pointed. The dynamically moved trigger hairs then electro-elastically send an electric signal to the internal ions in the lobe to migrate outwardly for the jaw-like lobes to close rapidly to capture the prey. The manner in which the VFT lobes bend inward to capture the prey shows a remarkable similarity with typical IPMCs bending in an electric field. Furthermore, the mechano-electrical sensing characteristics of IPMCs also show a remarkable resemblance to mechano-electrical trigger hairs on the lobes of the VFT. The reader is referred to a number of papers in connection with sensing and actuation of IPMCs in particular. Thus, one can integrate IPMC lobes with a common electrode in the middle of one end of the lobes to act like a spine and use IPMC bristles as trigger finger to sense the intrusion of a fly or insect to send a sensing signal to a solid state relay which then triggers the actuation circuit of the IPMC lobes to rapidly bend toward each other and close. The two lobes, which form the trap, are attached to the midrib common electrode which is conveniently termed the spine. The upper surface of each lobe is dished, and spaced along the free margins of the lobes with some 15-20 prong-like teeth. These are tough and pointed

  3. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for.... (b) Honeybee semen may be imported into the U.S. only from countries determined by the Secretary of...

  4. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  5. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  6. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  7. From honeybees to Internet servers: biomimicry for distributed management of Internet hosting centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrani, Sunil; Tovey, Craig

    2007-12-01

    An Internet hosting center hosts services on its server ensemble. The center must allocate servers dynamically amongst services to maximize revenue earned from hosting fees. The finite server ensemble, unpredictable request arrival behavior and server reallocation cost make server allocation optimization difficult. Server allocation closely resembles honeybee forager allocation amongst flower patches to optimize nectar influx. The resemblance inspires a honeybee biomimetic algorithm. This paper describes details of the honeybee self-organizing model in terms of information flow and feedback, analyzes the homology between the two problems and derives the resulting biomimetic algorithm for hosting centers. The algorithm is assessed for effectiveness and adaptiveness by comparative testing against benchmark and conventional algorithms. Computational results indicate that the new algorithm is highly adaptive to widely varying external environments and quite competitive against benchmark assessment algorithms. Other swarm intelligence applications are briefly surveyed, and some general speculations are offered regarding their various degrees of success.

  8. Inverse biomimetics: how robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Seyfarth, André

    2009-01-01

    Simulation test, hardware test and behavioral comparison test are proposed to experimentally verify whether a technical control concept for limb movements is logically precise, physically sound, and biologically relevant. Thereby, robot test-beds may play an integral part by mimicking functional limb movements. The procedure is exemplarily demonstrated for human aiming movements with the forearm: when comparing competitive control concepts, these movements are described best by a spring-like operating muscular-skeletal device which is assisted by feedforward control through an inverse internal model of the limb--without regress to a forward model of the limb. In a perspective on hopping, the concept of exploitive control is addressed, and its comparison to concepts derived from classical control theory advised.

  9. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  10. Biomimetic dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetana Goswami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.

  11. Biomimetic dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Suchetana Goswami

    2018-01-01

    “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.

  12. Biomimetic modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Julian F V

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetics is seen as a path from biology to engineering. The only path from engineering to biology in current use is the application of engineering concepts and models to biological systems. However, there is another pathway: the verification of biological mechanisms by manufacture, leading to an iterative process between biology and engineering in which the new understanding that the engineering implementation of a biological system can bring is fed back into biology, allowing a more compl...

  13. Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  14. A Biomimetic Haptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mitchinson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the periphery of an artificial whisker sensory system is presented. It has been developed by adopting a biomimetic approach to model the structure and function of rodent facial vibrissae. The artificial vibrissae have been formed using composite materials and have the ability to be actively moved or whisked. The sensory structures at the root of real vibrissae has been modelled and implemented using micro strain gauges and Digital Signal Processors. The primary afferents and vibrissal trigeminal ganglion have been modelled using empirical data taken from electrophysiological measurements, and implemented in real-time using a Field Programmable Gate Array. Pipelining techniques were employed to maximise the utility of the FPGA hardware. The system is to be integrated into a more complete whisker sensory model, including neural structures within the central nervous system, which can be used to orient a mobile robot.

  15. A Biomimetic Haptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Pearson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the periphery of an artificial whisker sensory system is presented. It has been developed by adopting a biomimetic approach to model the structure and function of rodent facial vibrissae. The artificial vibrissae have been formed using composite materials and have the ability to be actively moved or whisked. The sensory structures at the root of real vibrissae has been modelled and implemented using micro strain gauges and Digital Signal Processors. The primary afferents and vibrissal trigeminal ganglion have been modelled using empirical data taken from electrophysiological measurements, and implemented in real-time using a Field Programmable Gate Array. Pipelining techniques were employed to maximise the utility of the FPGA hardware. The system is to be integrated into a more complete whisker sensory model, including neural structures within the central nervous system, which can be used to orient a mobile robot.

  16. Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  17. Vultures and honeybees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    in the Ganab area of the Namib-Naukluft. Park, Namibia, we came across an unusual occurrence: When we reached the chick in the nest, we found honeybees Apis mellifera, crowded over and covering the eyes of the young vulture. The Namib-Naukluft Park (NNP),. 49,785 km², is the largest conservation area in Namibia ...

  18. THE HONEYBEE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completed by pupils, followed by questions relating to the anatomy of the honeybee. Chapter Four: The Honeybee at Home. After the swarm1ng, the bu1ld1ng of the nest, the establish- ment of a new community and the mating of the queen and drones, we observe the development of the queen, drone and worker from egg ...

  19. Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netic induction to detect an object. The development of ... end effector, inclination of object, magnetic and electric fields, etc. The sensors described ... In the case of a robot, the various actuators and motors have to be modelled. The major ...

  20. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  1. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  2. THE HONEYBEE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a teacher aid progra11111e on the honeybee, which is considered ... environment, and to create job opportunities. • generate a ... skill in architectural design and home building ... three interlinking, yet separate, units: 1.

  3. Embedded SMA wire actuated biomimetic fin: a module for biomimetic underwater propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenlong; Hang Guanrong; Wang Yangwei; Li Jian; Du Wei

    2008-01-01

    An embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuated biomimetic fin is presented, and based on this module for biomimetic underwater propulsion, a micro robot fish (146 mm in length, 30 g in weight) and a robot squid (242 mm in length, 360 g in weight) were developed. Fish swim by undulating their body and/or fins. Squid and cuttlefish can also swim by undulating their fins. To simplify engineering modeling, the undulating swimming movement is assumed to be the integration of the movements of many flexible bending segments connected in parallel or in series. According to this idea, a biomimetic fin which can bend flexibly was developed. The musculature of a cuttlefish fin was investigated to aid the design of the biomimetic fin. SMA wires act as 'muscle fibers' to drive the biomimetic fin just like the transverse muscles of the cuttlefish fin. During the bending phase, elastic energy is stored in the elastic substrate and skin, and during the return phase, elastic energy is released to power the return movement. Theorem analysis of the bending angle was performed to estimate the bending performance of the biomimetic fin. Experiments were carried out on single-face fins with latex rubber skin and silicone skin (SF-L and SF-S) to compare the bending angle, return time, elastic energy storage and reliability. Silicone was found to be the better skin. A dual-face fin with silicone skin (DF-S) was tested in water to evaluate the actuating performance and to validate the reliability. Thermal analysis of the SMA temperature was performed to aid the control strategy. The micro robot fish and robot squid employ one and ten DF-S, respectively. Swimming experiments with different actuation frequencies were carried out. The speed and steering radius of the micro robot fish reached 112 mm s −1 and 136 mm, respectively, and the speed and rotary speed of the robot squid reached 40 mm s −1 and 22° s −1 , respectively

  4. Biomimetic Flow Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, J.; Liu, Chang; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic flow sensors are biologically inspired devices that measure the speed and direction of fluids. This survey starts by describing the role and functioning of airflow-sensing hairs in arthropods and in fishes, carries on with the biomimetic MEMS implementations, both for air and water flow

  5. Robotic Fish Technology and Its Applications to Space Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Ikuo; Shin, Nobuhiro; Oka, Taishi; Matsui, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed a shark ray robotic fish based on biomimetic approaches. The paper describes the newly developed robotic fish technology and its application to mechatronics in the space. It is found that robotic fish technology creates not only new underwater robotics, but also the next generation space mechatronics for geological survey of lunar/planets and dust cleaning in the space station.

  6. The state of the art in biomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepora, Nathan F; Verschure, Paul; Prescott, Tony J

    2013-03-01

    Biomimetics is a research field that is achieving particular prominence through an explosion of new discoveries in biology and engineering. The field concerns novel technologies developed through the transfer of function from biological systems. To analyze the impact of this field within engineering and related sciences, we compiled an extensive database of publications for study with network-based information analysis techniques. Criteria included publications by year and journal or conference, and subject areas judged by popular and common terms in titles. Our results reveal that this research area has expanded rapidly from less than 100 papers per year in the 1990s to several thousand papers per year in the first decade of this century. Moreover, this research is having impact across a variety of research themes, spanning robotics, computer science and bioengineering. In consequence, biomimetics is becoming a leading paradigm for the development of new technologies that will potentially lead to significant scientific, societal and economic impact in the near future.

  7. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  8. A future of living machines?: International trends and prospects in biomimetic and biohybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Tony J.; Lepora, Nathan; Vershure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Research in the fields of biomimetic and biohybrid systems is developing at an accelerating rate. Biomimetics can be understood as the development of new technologies using principles abstracted from the study of biological systems, however, biomimetics can also be viewed from an alternate perspective as an important methodology for improving our understanding of the world we live in and of ourselves as biological organisms. A biohybrid entity comprises at least one artificial (engineered) component combined with a biological one. With technologies such as microscale mobile computing, prosthetics and implants, humankind is moving towards a more biohybrid future in which biomimetics helps us to engineer biocompatible technologies. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of biomimetic and biohybrid systems focusing particularly on technologies that emulate living organisms—living machines. Based on our recent bibliographic analysis [1] we examine how biomimetics is already creating life-like robots and identify some key unresolved challenges that constitute bottlenecks for the field. Drawing on our recent research in biomimetic mammalian robots, including humanoids, we review the future prospects for such machines and consider some of their likely impacts on society, including the existential risk of creating artifacts with significant autonomy that could come to match or exceed humankind in intelligence. We conclude that living machines are more likely to be a benefit than a threat but that we should also ensure that progress in biomimetics and biohybrid systems is made with broad societal consent.

  9. Biomimetics: nature based innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the concept that nature offers numerous sources of inspiration for inventions related to mechanisms, materials, processes, and algorithms, this book covers the topic of biomimetics and the inspired innovation...

  10. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  11. Honeybee odometry and scent guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T; Hemmi, JM; Zeil, J

    2006-01-01

    We report on a striking asymmetry in search behaviour observed in honeybees trained to forage alternately at one of two feeder sites in a narrow tunnel. Bees were trained by periodically switching the position of a sucrose reward between relatively short and long distances in the tunnel. Search

  12. Biomimetics of human movement: functional or aesthetic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force generators (muscle fibres) and noisy

  13. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  14. Honeybee health in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi , Matías; Antúnez , Karina; Invernizzi , Ciro; Aldea , Patricia; Vargas , Marisol; Negri , Pedro; Brasesco , Constanza; De Jong , David; Message , Dejair; Teixeira , Erica Weinstein; Principal , Judith; Barrios , Carlos; Ruffinengo , Sergio; Da Silva , Rafael Rodríguez; Eguaras , Martín

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractHoneybees are essential components to modern agriculture and economy. However, a continuous increase in cases of colony losses and colony depopulation are being reported worldwide. This critical situation has put the fragile equilibrium between bees and plants on the edge. As a consequence, several scientists have begun to focus their lines of research on this issue. Most researchers agree that there is no single explanation for the observed colony losses. Inst...

  15. Development of molecular tools for honeybee virus research: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing knowledge of the association of honeybee viruses with other honeybee parasites, primarily the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, and their implication in the mass mortality of honeybee colonies, has resulted in increasing awareness and interest in honeybee viruses. In addition the identification, monitoring and ...

  16. Biomimetic Materials for Pathogen Neutralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingber, Donald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and polymer chemistry fabrication technologies for the production of synthetic 'biomimetic' materials that exhibit the mechanical responsiveness and biochemical processing capabilities of living cells and tissues...

  17. Amelogenin and Enamel Biomimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qichao; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Mature tooth enamel is acellular and does not regenerate itself. Developing technologies that rebuild tooth enamel and preserve tooth structure is therefore of great interest. Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in vitro, and its potential to be applied in fabrication of future bio-inspired dental material this review focuses on two major subjects: amelogenin and enamel biomimetics. We review the most recent findings on amelogenin secondary and tertiary structural properties with a focus on its interactions with different targets including other enamel proteins, apatite mineral, and phospholipids. Following a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and its mechanical properties we will present the state-of-the-art strategies in the biomimetic reconstruction of human enamel. PMID:26251723

  18. Biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Michael T.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their potential use in high-density memory devices, spintronics, and applications in diagnostic medicine. The conditions for synthesis of these materials are often complicated by their high reaction temperatures, costly reagents, and post-processing requirements. Practical applications of magnetic nanoparticles will require the development of alternate synthetic strategies that can overcome these impediments. Biomimetic approaches...

  19. A Biomimetic Haptic Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Mitchinson; Ian Gilhespy; Chris Melhuish; Mokhtar Nibouche; Tony J. Prescott; Anthony G. Pipe; Martin J. Pearson

    2008-01-01

    The design and implementation of the periphery of an artificial whisker sensory system is presented. It has been developed by adopting a biomimetic approach to model the structure and function of rodent facial vibrissae. The artificial vibrissae have been formed using composite materials and have the ability to be actively moved or whisked. The sensory structures at the root of real vibrissae has been modelled and implemented using micro strain gauges and Digital Signal Processors. The primar...

  20. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  1. On the honeybee resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Lecomte, J.

    1960-01-01

    The honeybee, when irradiated by gamma radiations from a cobalt-60 source can stand a 18000 r dose without any apparent harm. Noticeable harm is observed for 90000 r. while immediate death of 100% of the individuals is obtained with a 200000 r dose. The physiological condition of the honeybee plays an important role in its resistance to gamma radiation. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de l'abeille, IV, 1959, p. 285-290 [fr

  2. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  3. The state of the art in biomimetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, Nathan F; Prescott, Tony J; Verschure, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetics is a research field that is achieving particular prominence through an explosion of new discoveries in biology and engineering. The field concerns novel technologies developed through the transfer of function from biological systems. To analyze the impact of this field within engineering and related sciences, we compiled an extensive database of publications for study with network-based information analysis techniques. Criteria included publications by year and journal or conference, and subject areas judged by popular and common terms in titles. Our results reveal that this research area has expanded rapidly from less than 100 papers per year in the 1990s to several thousand papers per year in the first decade of this century. Moreover, this research is having impact across a variety of research themes, spanning robotics, computer science and bioengineering. In consequence, biomimetics is becoming a leading paradigm for the development of new technologies that will potentially lead to significant scientific, societal and economic impact in the near future. (perspective)

  4. Biomimetics and the case of the remarkable ragworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Biomimetics is a rapidly growing field both as an academic and as an applied discipline. This paper gives a short introduction to the current status of the discipline before it describes three approaches to biomimetics: the mechanism-driven, which is based on the study of a specific mechanism; the focused organism-driven, which is based on the study of one function in a model organism; and the integrative organism-driven approach, where multiple functions of a model organism provide inspiration. The first two are established approaches and include many modern studies and the famous biomimetic discoveries of Velcro and the Lotus-Effect, whereas the last approach is not yet well recognized. The advantages of the integrative organism-driven approach are discussed using the ragworms as a case study. A morphological and locomotory study of these marine polychaetes reveals their biomimetic potential, which includes using their ability to move in slippery substrates as inspiration for novel endoscopes, using their compound setae as models for passive friction structures and using their three gaits, slow crawling, fast crawling, and swimming as well as their rapid burrowing technique to provide inspiration for the design of displacement pumps and multifunctional robots.

  5. Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2010-02-01

    Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees ( Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees ( Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.

  6. Proteomics Improves the New Understanding of Honeybee Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Zewdu Ararso; Altaye, Solomon Zewdu; Wubie, Abebe Jemberie; Li, Jianke

    2018-04-11

    The honeybee is one of the most valuable insect pollinators, playing a key role in pollinating wild vegetation and agricultural crops, with significant contribution to the world's food production. Although honeybees have long been studied as model for social evolution, honeybee biology at the molecular level remained poorly understood until the year 2006. With the availability of the honeybee genome sequence and technological advancements in protein separation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, aspects of honeybee biology such as developmental biology, physiology, behavior, neurobiology, and immunology have been explored to new depths at molecular and biochemical levels. This Review comprehensively summarizes the recent progress in honeybee biology using proteomics to study developmental physiology, task transition, and physiological changes in some of the organs, tissues, and cells based on achievements from the authors' laboratory in this field. The research advances of honeybee proteomics provide new insights for understanding of honeybee biology and future research directions.

  7. Automatic behaviour analysis system for honeybees using computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    We present a fully automatic online video system, which is able to detect the behaviour of honeybees at the beehive entrance. Our monitoring system focuses on observing the honeybees as naturally as possible (i.e. without disturbing the honeybees). It is based on the Raspberry Pi that is a low...

  8. Biomimetic nanoparticles for inflammation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many recent exciting developments in biomimetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Inflammation, a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators directed against harmful stimuli, is closely associated with many human diseases. As a result, biomimetic nanoparticles mimicking immune cells can help achieve molecular imaging and precise drug delivery to these inflammatory sites. This review is focused on inflammation-targeting biomimetic nanoparticles and will provide an in-depth look at the design of these nanoparticles to maximize their benefits for disease diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Biomimetics in Tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebeshuber, I. C.; Majlis, B. Y.; Stachelberger, H.

    Science currently goes through a major change. Biology is evolving as new Leitwissenschaft, with more and more causation and natural laws being uncovered. The term `technoscience' denotes the field where science and technology are inseparably interconnected, the trend goes from papers to patents, and the scientific `search for truth' is increasingly replaced by search for applications with a potential economic value. Biomimetics, i.e. knowledge transfer from biology to technology, is a field that has the potential to drive major technical advances. The biomimetic approach might change the research landscape and the engineering culture dramatically, by the blending of disciplines. It might substantially support successful mastering of current tribological challenges: friction, adhesion, lubrication and wear in devices and systems from the meter to the nanometer scale. A highly successful method in biomimectics, the biomimicry innovation method, is applied in this chapter to identify nature's best practices regarding two key issues in tribology: maintenance of the physical integrity of a system, and permanent as well as temporary attachment. The best practices identified comprise highly diverse organisms and processes and are presented in a number of tables with detailed references.

  10. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  11. Modeling of dielectric elastomer oscillators for soft biomimetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F M; Wilson, Katherine E; Anderson, I A

    2018-06-26

    Biomimetic, entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. However, until now, most presented studies on soft robots were limited to only partly soft designs, since all solutions at least needed conventional, stiff electronics to sense, process signals and activate actuators. We present a novel approach for a set up and the experimental validation of an artificial pace maker that is able to drive basic robotic structures and act as artificial central pattern generator. The structure is based on multi-functional dielectric elastomers (DEs). DE actuators, DE switches and DE resistors are combined to create complex DE oscillators (DEOs). Supplied with only one external DC voltage, the DEO autonomously generates oscillating signals that can be used to clock a robotic structure, control the cyclic motion of artificial muscles in bionic robots or make a whole robotic structure move. We present the basic functionality, derive a mathematical model for predicting the generated signal waveform and verify the model experimentally.

  12. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  13. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  14. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  15. Side-Specific Reward Memories in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Menzel, Randolf; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2009-01-01

    We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension…

  16. Neuroscience: Intelligence in the Honeybee Mushroom Body

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sophie; Abbott, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence, in most people’s conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.

  17. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  18. Applying Biomimetic Algorithms for Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to simulate and optimize distributed cooperation among a network of robots tasked with cooperative excavation on an extra-terrestrial surface. Additionally to examine the concept of directed Emergence among a group of limited artificially intelligent agents. Emergence is the concept of achieving complex results from very simple rules or interactions. For example, in a termite mound each individual termite does not carry a blueprint of how to make their home in a global sense, but their interactions based strictly on local desires create a complex superstructure. Leveraging this Emergence concept applied to a simulation of cooperative agents (robots) will allow an examination of the success of non-directed group strategy achieving specific results. Specifically the simulation will be a testbed to evaluate population based robotic exploration and cooperative strategies while leveraging the evolutionary teamwork approach in the face of uncertainty about the environment and partial loss of sensors. Checking against a cost function and 'social' constraints will optimize cooperation when excavating a simulated tunnel. Agents will act locally with non-local results. The rules by which the simulated robots interact will be optimized to the simplest possible for the desired result, leveraging Emergence. Sensor malfunction and line of sight issues will be incorporated into the simulation. This approach falls under Swarm Robotics, a subset of robot control concerned with finding ways to control large groups of robots. Swarm Robotics often contains biologically inspired approaches, research comes from social insect observation but also data from among groups of herding, schooling, and flocking animals. Biomimetic algorithms applied to manned space exploration is the method under consideration for further study.

  19. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  20. Biomimetic architectures by plasma processing fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surojit

    2014-01-01

    Photonic structures in the animal kingdom: valuable inspirations for bio-mimetic applications. Moth eye-type anti-reflecting nanostructures by an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. Plasma-processed biomimetic nano/microstructures. Wetting properties of natural and plasma processed biomimetic surfaces. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by plasma processing. Biomimetic interfaces of plasma modified titanium alloy.

  1. Sociable mobile robots through self-maintained energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually......Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...

  2. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Winkler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.

  3. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine. PMID:28694872

  4. Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  5. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  6. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  7. Hybrid origins of Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman , Nadine C.; Harpur , Brock A.; Lim , Julianne; Rinderer , Thomas E.; Allsopp , Michael H.; Zayed , Amro; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Abstract With increased globalisation and homogenisation, the maintenance of genetic integrity in local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) provides an interesting perspective as it is both managed and wild, with a large native range and much larger introduced range. We employed a newly created 95 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test to characterise the genetic ancestry of the Australian c...

  8. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  9. Scaling laws for a compliant biomimetic swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibouin, Florence; Raufaste, Christophe; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the seminal work of Lord Lighthill in the sixties, we study the motion of inertial aquatic swimmers that propels with undulatory gaits. In 2014, Gazzola et al. have uncovered the law linking the swimming velocity to the kinematics of the swimmer and the fluid properties. At high Reynolds numbers, the velocity appears to be equal to 0.4 Af /(2 π) , where A and f are respectively the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillating fin. We have constructed a compliant biomimetic swimmer, whose muscles have been modeled through a torque distribution thanks to a servomotor. A soft polymeric material mimics the flesh and provides the flexibility. By immersing our robot into a water tunnel, we find and characterize the operating point for which the propulsive force balances the drag. We bring the first experimental proof of the former law and probe large amplitude undulations which exhibits nonlinear effects. All data collapse perfectly onto a single master curve. We investigate the role of the fin flexibility by varying its length and its thickness and we figured out the existence of an efficient swimming regime. We thank the support of CNRS and Université Côte d'Azur.

  10. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  11. Effects of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) pollination on seed set in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of pollination with honeybee (Apis mellifera) on sunflower hybrid seed production under different types of pollination during 2005 and 2006 in Mustafakemalpasa-Bursa, Turkey. Three pollination types (1) in cages with honeybees, (2) hand pollination (in cages) and (3) in ...

  12. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  13. Protein pattern of the honeybee venoms of Egypt | Zalat | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The venom composition of the Egyptian honeybee Apis mellifera lamarckii, the Carniolan honeybee Apis mellifera carnica and a hybrid with unknown origin were analyzed using electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). All venoms shared six bands with molecular weights of 97.400, 67.400, 49.000, 45.000, 43.000 and 14.000D.

  14. Infections of Nosema ceranae in four different honeybee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Warrit, Natapot; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2010-10-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is detected in honeybees in Thailand for the first time. This endoparasite has recently been reported to infect most Apis mellifera honeybee colonies in Europe, the US, and parts of Asia, and is suspected to have displaced the endemic endoparasite species, Nosema apis, from the western A. mellifera. We collected and identified species of microsporidia from the European honeybee (A. mellifera), the cavity nesting Asian honeybee (Apis cerana), the dwarf Asian honeybee (Apis florea) and the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata) from colonies in Northern Thailand. We used multiplex PCR technique with two pairs of primers to differentiate N. ceranae from N. apis. From 80 A. mellifera samples, 62 (77.5%) were positively identified for the presence of the N. ceranae. Amongst 46 feral colonies of Asian honeybees (A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata) examined for Nosema infections, only N. ceranae could be detected. No N. apis was found in our samples. N. ceranae is found to be the only microsporidium infesting honeybees in Thailand. Moreover, we found the frequencies of N. ceranae infection in native bees to be less than that of A. mellifera. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of African honeybees, behaviour and potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African honeybees have a higher tendency to swarm, abscond and migrate than their counterparts in Europe and elsewhere, thus making it more difficult to maintain African honeybee colonies over years. They are also labeled as overly defensive, with a high propensity to sting, making their management a challenge.

  16. Honeybee forage, bee visitation counts and the properties of honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the survey was to document honeybee forage plants and asses honeybee visitation counts on different forage plants and properties of honey from selected agro-ecological zones of Uganda. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a survey of the apiaries and beekeepers was done by selecting fifteen bee ...

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. T Ji, L Yin, G Chen. Abstract. Using 21 microsatellite markers and PCR method, the polymorphisms of 20 Apis cerana honeybee populations across China was investigated and the genetic structure and diversity of ...

  18. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  19. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore...

  20. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  1. Biomimetic 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydney Gladman, A.; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mahadevan, L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  2. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  3. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  4. New Hybrid Route to Biomimetic Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    To develop economical low-temperature routes to biomimetic synthesis of high-performance composite materials, with control of composition and structure based on the molecular mechanisms controlling...

  5. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  6. Biological and Biomimetic Comb Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeidis Papagiannopoulos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some new phenomena involved in the physical properties of comb polyelectrolyte solutions are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to synthetic biomimetic materials, and the structures formed by these molecules are compared with those of naturally occurring glycoprotein and proteoglycan solutions. Developments in the determination of the structure and dynamics (viscoelasticity of comb polymers in solution are also covered. Specifically the appearance of multi-globular structures, helical instabilities, liquid crystalline phases, and the self-assembly of the materials to produce hierarchical comb morphologies is examined. Comb polyelectrolytes are surface active and a short review is made of some recent experiments in this area that relate to their morphology when suspended in solution. We hope to emphasize the wide variety of phenomena demonstrated by the vast range of naturally occurring comb polyelectrolytes and the challenges presented to synthetic chemists designing biomimetic materials.

  7. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  8. A Novel Soft Biomimetic Microrobot with Two Motion Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  A variety of microrobots have commonly been used in the fields of biomedical engineering and underwater operations during the last few years. Thanks to their compact structure, low driving power, and simple control systems, microrobots can complete a variety of underwater tasks, even in limited spaces. To accomplish our objectives, we previously designed several bio-inspired underwater microrobots with compact structure, flexibility, and multi-functionality, using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC actuators. To implement high-position precision for IPMC legs, in the present research, we proposed an electromechanical model of an IPMC actuator and analysed the deformation and actuating force of an equivalent IPMC cantilever beam, which could be used to design biomimetic legs, fingers, or fins for an underwater microrobot. We then evaluated the tip displacement of an IPMC actuator experimentally. The experimental deflections fit the theoretical values very well when the driving frequency was larger than 1 Hz. To realise the necessary multi-functionality for adapting to complex underwater environments, we introduced a walking biomimetic microrobot with two kinds of motion attitudes: a lying state and a standing state. The microrobot uses eleven IPMC actuators to move and two shape memory alloy (SMA actuators to change its motion attitude. In the lying state, the microrobot implements stick-insect-inspired walking/rotating motion, fish-like swimming motion, horizontal grasping motion, and floating motion. In the standing state, it implements inchworm-inspired crawling motion in two horizontal directions and grasping motion in the vertical direction. We constructed a prototype of this biomimetic microrobot and evaluated its walking, rotating, and floating speeds experimentally. The experimental results indicated that the robot could attain a maximum walking speed of 3.6 mm/s, a maximum rotational speed of 9°/s, and a maximum floating speed of 7

  9. BIOMIMETIC STRATEGIES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. TERPENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulcitki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper represents an outline of the selected contributions to the biomimetic procedures and approaches for the synthesis of terpenes with complex structure and diverse functionalisation pattern. These include homologation strategies, cyclisations, rearrangements, as well as biomimetic remote functionalisations.

  10. Sensing in nature: using biomimetics for design of sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Cheong, Hyunmin; Shu, Li

    2010-01-01

    The paper illustrates how biomimetics can be applied in sensor design. Biomimetics is an engineering discipline that uses nature as an inspiration source for generating ideas for how to solve engineering problems. Using biomimetics involves a search for relevant cases, a proper analysis...... of biomimetic studies of sense organs in animals....

  11. Honeybees tolerate cyanogenic glucosides from clover nectar and flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Green, Amelia Ann; Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover (Trifolium repens) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry...... indicates that plant secondary metabolites found in nectar may protect pollinators from disease or predators. In a laboratory survival study with chronic feeding of secondary metabolites, we show that honeybees can ingest the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and amygdalin at naturally occurring...

  12. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  13. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  14. Evidence of trapline foraging in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Alexis; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-08-15

    Central-place foragers exploiting floral resources often use multi-destination routes (traplines) to maximise their foraging efficiency. Recent studies on bumblebees have showed how solitary foragers can learn traplines, minimising travel costs between multiple replenishing feeding locations. Here we demonstrate a similar routing strategy in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), a major pollinator known to recruit nestmates to discovered food resources. Individual honeybees trained to collect sucrose solution from four artificial flowers arranged within 10 m of the hive location developed repeatable visitation sequences both in the laboratory and in the field. A 10-fold increase of between-flower distances considerably intensified this routing behaviour, with bees establishing more stable and more efficient routes at larger spatial scales. In these advanced social insects, trapline foraging may complement cooperative foraging for exploiting food resources near the hive (where dance recruitment is not used) or when resources are not large enough to sustain multiple foragers at once. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingchen; Chen Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Hu Huan; Liu Chang; Nguyen, Nam; Lockwood, Michael; Jones, Douglas L; Bleckmann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. Ting Ji, Ling Yin and ... from Apis mellifera introduced into China since 1896 (Yang, 2005). With the ..... Commercial and Feral Honey Bees in Western Australia. J. Econ.

  19. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  20. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in honeybee and pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pen, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Creating animal models by using genome modification has gotten significantly more accessible thanks to the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. In this study, we aimed to the implement the CRISPR-Cas9 methodology in the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and pig (Sus scrofa) for generation of animal models. We...... want to use these animal models to study the development of honeybees and the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pig model of human disease. In order to simplify the production of these animal models, we test the use of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) in combination with CRISPR...... mechanisms of honeybee development using genome modification will aid in uncovering these complex genetic regulatory systems. In honeybees, we have attempted to induce genome modification in the cinnabar gene through microinjection and feeding of CRISPR-Cas9 components to larvae. Additionally, we tested...

  1. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Methane hydroxylation: a biomimetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, Aleksandr E; Shteinman, Al'bert A

    2012-01-01

    The review addresses direct methane oxidation — an important fundamental problem, which has attracted much attention of researchers in recent years. Analysis of the available results on biomimetic and bio-inspired methane oxygenation has demonstrated that assimilating of the experience of Nature on oxidation of methane and other alkanes significantly enriches the arsenal of chemistry and can radically change the character of the entire chemical production, as well as enables the solution of many material, energetic and environmental problems. The bibliography includes 310 references.

  3. Visual discrimination transfer and modulation by biogenic amines in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda Rodrigues; Salles, Nayara; Borges, Marco; Mota, Theo

    2018-05-10

    For more than a century, visual learning and memory have been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals cannot be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of this, different attempts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performance remains considerably poorer than that for free-flying animals. Here, we investigated the ability of honeybees to use visual information acquired during classical conditioning in a new operant context. We performed differential visual conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by visual orientation tests in a Y-maze. Classical conditioning and Y-maze retention tests were performed using the same pair of perceptually isoluminant chromatic stimuli, to avoid the influence of phototaxis during free-flying orientation. Visual discrimination transfer was clearly observed, with pre-trained honeybees significantly orienting their flights towards the former positive conditioned stimulus (CS+), thus showing that visual memories acquired by honeybees are resistant to context changes between conditioning and the retention test. We combined this visual discrimination approach with selective pharmacological injections to evaluate the effect of dopamine and octopamine in appetitive visual learning. Both octopaminergic and dopaminergic antagonists impaired visual discrimination performance, suggesting that both these biogenic amines modulate appetitive visual learning in honeybees. Our study brings new insight into cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms underlying visual learning in honeybees. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  5. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-09-01

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do Honeybees Shape the Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2013-01-01

    Floral nectar is considered the most important reward animal-pollinated plants offer to attract pollinators. Here we explore whether honeybees, which act as pollinators, affect the composition of bacterial communities in the nectar. Nectar and honeybees were sampled from two plant species: Amygdalus communis and Citrus paradisi. To prevent the contact of nectar with pollinators, C. paradisi flowers were covered with net bags before blooming (covered flowers). Comparative analysis of bacterial communities in the nectar and on the honeybees was performed by the 454-pyrosequencing technique. No significant differences were found among bacterial communities in honeybees captured on the two different plant species. This resemblance may be due to the presence of dominant bacterial OTUs, closely related to the Arsenophonus genus. The bacterial communities of the nectar from the covered and uncovered C. paradisi flowers differed significantly; the bacterial communities on the honeybees differed significantly from those in the covered flowers’ nectar, but not from those in the uncovered flowers’ nectar. We conclude that the honeybees may introduce bacteria into the nectar and/or may be contaminated by bacteria introduced into the nectar by other sources such as other pollinators and nectar thieves. PMID:23844027

  7. Aspects of Honeybee Natural History According to the Solega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Si

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees and their products are highly prized by many cultures around the world, and as a result, indigenous communities have come to possess rich and detailed knowledge of the biology of these important insects. In this paper, I present an in-depth investigation into some aspects of honeybee natural history, as related to me by the Solega people of southern India. The Solega recognize, name, and exploit four honeybee species, and are well aware of the geographical and temporal distributions of each one. In spite of not being beekeepers – as they only forage for wild honey – their knowledge of obscure and complex phenomena such as honeybee gender and reproduction rivals that of comparable, non-industrial beekeeping societies. Swarming, another hard-to-understand honeybee behavior, is also accurately explained by Solega consultants. I contrast this knowledge to that of European bee-keeping cultures, as evidenced by the writings of Aristotle and 18th century European beekeepers. This paper shows that the Solega have a reliable and internally consistent body of honeybee knowledge based entirely on brief encounters with these wild, migratory insects that are present in the forest for only part of the year.

  8. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine; Braekevelt, Sylvie; Lauritzen, Karsten; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-11-05

    The discovery of selective water channel proteins-aquaporins-has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market-in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes.

  9. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of selective water channel proteins—aquaporins—has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market—in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes.

  10. Migration effects on population dynamics of the honeybee-mite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybees are amazing and highly beneficial insect species that play important roles in undisturbed and agricultural ecosystems. Unfortunately, honeybees are increasingly threatened by numerous factors, most notably the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman). A recent field s...

  11. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  12. Biomimetics: determining engineering opportunities from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E.

    2009-08-01

    The biomimetic approach seeks to incorporate designs based on biological organisms into engineered technologies. Biomimetics can be used to engineer machines that emulate the performance of organisms, particularly in instances where the organism's performance exceeds current mechanical technology or provides new directions to solve existing problems. For biologists, an adaptationist program has allowed for the identification of novel features of organisms based on engineering principles; whereas for engineers, identification of such novel features is necessary to exploit them for biomimetic development. Adaptations (leading edge tubercles to passively modify flow and high efficiency oscillatory propulsive systems) from marine animals demonstrate potential utility in the development of biomimetic products. Nature retains a store of untouched knowledge, which would be beneficial in advancing technology.

  13. Biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the possibilities and challenges in mimicking biological membranes and creating membrane-based sensor and separation devices. It covers recent advances in developing biomimetic membranes for technological applications with a focus on the use of integral membrane protein mediated transport. It describes the fundamentals of biosensing as well as separation and shows how the two processes work together in biological systems. The book provides an overview of the current state of the art, points to areas that need further investigation and anticipates future directions in the field. Biomimetics is a truly cross-disciplinary approach and this is exemplified by the challenges in mimicking osmotic processes as they occur in nature using aquaporin protein water channels as central building blocks. In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, both channel and carrier proteins are important and examples of how these may be reconstituted and controlled in biomimetic membranes are ...

  14. Molecular motor assembly of a biomimetic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Active biological molecules and functional structures can be fabricated into a bio-mimetic system by using molecular assembly method. Such materials can be used for the drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy, and new nanodevice construction.

  15. Biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Helfman Cohen, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Presenting a novel biomimetic design method for transferring design solutions from nature to technology, this book focuses on structure-function patterns in nature and advanced modeling tools derived from TRIZ, the theory of inventive problem-solving. The book includes an extensive literature review on biomimicry as an engine of both innovation and sustainability, and discusses in detail the biomimetic design process, current biomimetic design methods and tools. The structural biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability put forward in this text encompasses (1) the research method and rationale used to develop and validate this new design method; (2) the suggested design algorithm and tools including the Findstructure database, structure-function patterns and ideality patterns; and (3) analyses of four case studies describing how to use the proposed method. This book offers an essential resource for designers who wish to use nature as a source of inspiration and knowledge, innovators and sustain...

  16. Photoexcited iron porphyrin as biomimetic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartocci, C.; Maldotti, A.; Varani, G.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ferrara

    1996-01-01

    Photoexcited iron porphyrins can be of some interest in both fine and industrial chemistry in view of the preparation of new efficient biomimetic catalysts, working with high selectivity under mild temperature and pressure

  17. Neural Networks Integrated Circuit for Biomimetics MEMS Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Saito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will propose the neural networks integrated circuit (NNIC which is the driving waveform generator of the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height in size biomimetics microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microrobot. The microrobot was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro fabrication technology. The mechanical system of the robot was equipped with small size rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and six legs to realize the ant-like switching behavior. The NNIC generates the driving waveform using synchronization phenomena such as biological neural networks. The driving waveform can operate the actuators of the MEMS microrobot directly. Therefore, the NNIC bare chip realizes the robot control without using any software programs or A/D converters. The microrobot performed forward and backward locomotion, and also changes direction by inputting an external single trigger pulse. The locomotion speed of the microrobot was 26.4 mm/min when the step width was 0.88 mm. The power consumption of the system was 250 mWh when the room temperature was 298 K.

  18. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  19. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  20. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  1. Biomimetic and Bioinspired Synthesis of Nanomaterials/Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Guangtao; Wu, Qingsheng

    2016-03-16

    In recent years, due to its unparalleled advantages, the biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of nanomaterials/nanostructures has drawn increasing interest and attention. Generally, biomimetic synthesis can be conducted either by mimicking the functions of natural materials/structures or by mimicking the biological processes that organisms employ to produce substances or materials. Biomimetic synthesis is therefore divided here into "functional biomimetic synthesis" and "process biomimetic synthesis". Process biomimetic synthesis is the focus of this review. First, the above two terms are defined and their relationship is discussed. Next different levels of biological processes that can be used for process biomimetic synthesis are compiled. Then the current progress of process biomimetic synthesis is systematically summarized and reviewed from the following five perspectives: i) elementary biomimetic system via biomass templates, ii) high-level biomimetic system via soft/hard-combined films, iii) intelligent biomimetic systems via liquid membranes, iv) living-organism biomimetic systems, and v) macromolecular bioinspired systems. Moreover, for these five biomimetic systems, the synthesis procedures, basic principles, and relationships are discussed, and the challenges that are encountered and directions for further development are considered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Challenges in commercializing biomimetic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine Elkjær

    2015-01-01

    category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market—in particular if both...... the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some...... of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments...

  3. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan, E-mail: vaziri@coe.neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  4. Pesticide residues in honeybees, honey and bee pollen by LC-MS/MS screening: reported death incidents in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Anagnostopoulos, Chris; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reported cases of honeybee death incidents with regard to the potential interrelation to the exposure to pesticides. Thus honeybee, bee pollen and honey samples from different areas of Greece were analyzed for the presence of pesticide residues. In this context an LC-ESI-MS/MS multiresidue method of total 115 analytes of different chemical classes such as neonicotinoids, organophosphates, triazoles, carbamates, dicarboximides and dinitroanilines in honeybee bodies, honey and bee pollen was developed and validated. The method presents good linearity over the ranges assayed with correlation coefficient values r(2)≥0.99, recoveries ranging for all matrices from 59 to 117% and precision (RSD%) values ranging from 4 to 27%. LOD and LOQ values ranged - for honeybees, honey and bee pollen - from 0.03 to 23.3 ng/g matrix weight and 0.1 up to 78 ng/g matrix weight, respectively. Therefore this method is sufficient to act as a monitoring tool for the determination of pesticide residues in cases of suspected honeybee poisoning incidents. From the analysis of the samples the presence of 14 active substances was observed in all matrices with concentrations ranging for honeybees from 0.3 to 81.5 ng/g, for bee pollen from 6.1 to 1273 ng/g and for honey one sample was positive to carbendazim at 1.6 ng/g. The latter confirmed the presence of such type of compounds in honeybee body and apicultural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  6. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Patients with massive honeybee stings: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Sh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Insect stings can cause local or systemic reactions that range from mild to fatal, and are among the most common causes of anaphylaxis. The major allergens of honeybee venom are phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase, allergen C and melitin. Phospholipase and melitin induce hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and liver damage due to cell membrane breakdown, damage of the vascular endothelium and activation of the inflammatory response. Rhabdomyolysis has been implicated as the cause of acute renal failure in approximately 5-7% of cases. However, bee stings are a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, and are usually associated with 50 or more stings. It has been reported that more than 250 bee stings are capable of causing death in humans. "nCase report: We report two cases of massive honeybee stings (>2000 with rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis and acute renal failure who survived with full recovery, and two cases of >500 honeybee stings who survived without significant complications.

  8. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  9. Scouts behave as streakers in honeybee swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggers, Uwe; Schöning, Caspar; Degen, Jacqueline; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-08-01

    Harmonic radar tracking was used to record the flights of scout bees during takeoff and initial flight path of two honeybee swarms. One swarm remained intact and performed a full flight to a destination beyond the range of the harmonic radar, while a second swarm disintegrated within the range of the radar and most of the bees returned to the queen. The initial stretch of the full flight is characterized by accelerating speed, whereas the disintegrating swarm flew steadily at low speed. The two scouts in the swarm displaying full flight performed characteristic flight maneuvers. They flew at high speed when traveling in the direction of their destination and slowed down or returned over short stretches at low speed. Scouts in the disintegrating swarm did not exhibit the same kind of characteristic flight performance. Our data support the streaker bee hypothesis proposing that scout bees guide the swarm by traveling at high speed in the direction of the new nest site for short stretches of flight and slowing down when reversing flight direction.

  10. The Honeybee Dance-Language Controversy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some sceptics who believe that the dance that the foragers do perform may have no ... is often credited with being the prime mover in making humans what they are. ... of naive workers from its colony to a newly found source of food. After decades of .... a mechanical "robot" bee that talks to the real bees through a computer ...

  11. [Determination of 10-HDA in honeybee body by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; He, C; Han, H

    1999-05-01

    In the present work we found that in the honeybee body there exists an unsaturated fatty acid, trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which was known only to be present in royal jelly. We established the analytical method of 10-HDA in honeybee body by HPLC and simplified the extraction method of 10-HDA. In the optimum conditions the linear range of detection was 10-1,000 ng, the correlation coefficient was 0.9998, the recovery was 96.5%-99.2% and the detectable limit was 0.53 microgram/g.

  12. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  13. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization

  14. High–Level Control System for Biomimetic Autonomous Under-water Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praczyk Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a rough software architecture designed for a robot can be can be shortly presented in the form of layers. The lowest layer is responsible for direct control of the hardware, i.e. engines, energy system, sensors, navigation devices, etc. A next layer is a low–level control which knows how to use the hardware in order to achieve a desired state of the robot, e.g. to stay on a desired course. And the last layer, the layer which is the nearest to the human–operator, is a high–level control which decides how to use the low–level control and sometimes also individual pieces of the hardware to achieve predefined objectives. The paper describes architecture, tasks and operation of the high–level control system (HLCS designed for Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (BAUV.

  15. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  16. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  17. Biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelinlan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-05

    Structural colours and superwettability are of great interest due to their unique characteristics. However, the application of materials with either structural colours or superwettability is limited. Moreover, materials possessing both structural colours and superwettability are crucial for many practical applications. The combination of structural colours and superwettability can result in materials for use various applications, such as in sensors, detectors, bioassays, anti-counterfeiting, and liquid actuators, by controlling surfaces to repel or absorb liquids. Regarding superwettability and structural colours, surface texture and chemical composition are two factors for the construction of materials with superwettable structural colours. This review aims at offering a comprehensive elaboration of the mechanism, recent biomimetic research, and applications of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours. Furthermore, this review provides significant insight into the design, fabrication, and application of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

  18. Laser technology in biomimetics basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belegratis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach.  The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.

  19. Challenges in biomimetic design and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael; Shu, Li

    Biomimetic design copies desired principles found in nature and implement them into artificial applications. Applications could be products we use in our daily life but it can also be used to inspire material innovation. However there are significant challenges in performing biomimetic design. One....... This is a key issue in design and innovation work where problem identification and systematic search for suitable solution principle are major activities. One way to deal with this challenge is to use a biology search method. The use of such a method is illustrated with a case story describing the design...... including the terminology and knowledge organisation. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. Another challenge in biomimetic design is the search and identification of relevant solutions in nature...

  20. Large-Deformation Curling Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotube Composite: Advanced-Structure Design and Biomimetic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhuo; Weng, Mingcen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-22

    In recent years, electroactive polymers have been developed as actuator materials. As an important branch of electroactive polymers, electrothermal actuators (ETAs) demonstrate potential applications in the fields of artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, robotics, and so on. Large-shape deformation, low-voltage-driven actuation, and ultrafast fabrication are critical to the development of ETA. However, a simultaneous optimization of all of these advantages has not been realized yet. Practical biomimetic applications are also rare. In this work, we introduce an ultrafast approach to fabricate a curling actuator based on a newly designed carbon nanotube and polymer composite, which completely realizes all of the above required advantages. The actuator shows an ultralarge curling actuation with a curvature greater than 1.0 cm(-1) and bending angle larger than 360°, even curling into a tubular structure. The driving voltage is down to a low voltage of 5 V. The remarkable actuation is attributed not only to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion but also to the mechanical property changes of materials during temperature change. We also construct an S-shape actuator to show the possibility of building advanced-structure actuators. A weightlifting walking robot is further designed that exhibits a fast-moving motion while lifting a sample heavier than itself, demonstrating promising biomimetic applications.

  1. Healthcare Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  2. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  3. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  4. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  5. Biomimetic microsensors inspired by marine life

    CERN Document Server

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomenon that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial manmade technology, we could find innovative solutions to critical problems.

  6. Do Biomimetic Students Think Outside the Box?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2017-01-01

    analysed. The empirical material comprises 111 students working on 28 different functional design problems. On average teams identify 9.0 relevant biological phenomena and manage to produce a physical proof-of-principle for the selected biological analogy. 39% of the analogies can be characterised as well...... phenomena? If they concentrate on animals and plants, which they beforehand have knowledge about, it could be expected that solutions will remind of what they would have found without using biomimetics. To investigate this question, the empirical results from a university course in biomimetics have been...

  7. Biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    preventing the passage of others, a property critical for the overall conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Both ion and water channels are highly efficient membrane pore proteins capable of transporting solutes at very high rates, up to 109 molecules per second. Carrier proteins...... and biomimetic support matrix. Also the stability of the incorporated protein must be addressed and the protein-biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here I will review and discuss these challenges and how they are met in some...

  8. Evaporation-induced assembly of biomimetic polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Joseph; Junkin, Michael; Cappello, Joseph; Wu Xiaoyi; Wong, Pak Kin

    2008-01-01

    We report an evaporation assisted plasma lithography (EAPL) process for guided self-assembly of a biomimetic silk-elastinlike protein (SELP). We demonstrate the formation of SELP structures from millimeter to submicrometer range on plasma-treatment surface templates during an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The self-assembly processes at different humidities and droplet volumes were investigated. The process occurs efficiently in a window of optimized operating conditions found to be at 70% relative humidity and 8 μl volume of SELP solution. The EAPL approach provides a useful technique for the realization of functional devices and systems using these biomimetic materials

  9. Morphofunctional Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Honeybee Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrione, Mara; Timberlake, Benjamin F.; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Antolini, Renzo; Haase, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee ("Apis mellifera"), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center,…

  10. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  11. Stimulating natural supersedure of honeybee queens, Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksma, H.P.; Calis, J.N.M.; Boot, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a honeybee queen starts to fail, she is often superseded by a young queen that takes over reproduction inside the colony. Natural supersedure in winter leads to an unfertilised young queen and colony loss. To reduce these losses we tried to stimulate supersedure of queens earlier in the season.

  12. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  13. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  14. Immune and clinical response to honeybee venom in beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    2016-03-01

    The differences in the immune response to a bee sting between the beekeepers and individuals not exposed to bees were probably due to the high exposure of the beekeepers to honeybee venom allergens. This may suggest a different approach to the bee venom allergy diagnostic tests in this occupational group.

  15. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Studies on the life cycle and morphometrics of honeybees, Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of the honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii, was studied in mangrove area by monitoring the developmental stages and morphology of the castes. It was observed that the fate of the eggs were predetermined at the onset leading to drones, queens or workers. It was also established that the three different castes ...

  17. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  18. Nursing protects honeybee larvae from secondary metabolites of pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Kilchenmann, Verena; Glauser, Gaetan; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2018-03-28

    The pollen of many plants contains toxic secondary compounds, sometimes in concentrations higher than those found in the flowers or leaves. The ecological significance of these compounds remains unclear, and their impact on bees is largely unexplored. Here, we studied the impact of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) found in the pollen of Echium vulgare on honeybee adults and larvae. Echimidine, a PA present in E. vulgare pollen, was isolated and added to the honeybee diets in order to perform toxicity bioassays. While adult bees showed relatively high tolerance to PAs, larvae were much more sensitive. In contrast to other bees, the honeybee larval diet typically contains only traces of pollen and consists predominantly of hypopharyngeal and mandibular secretions produced by nurse bees, which feed on large quantities of pollen-containing bee bread. We quantified the transfer of PAs to nursing secretions produced by bees that had previously consumed bee bread supplemented with PAs. The PA concentration in these secretions was reduced by three orders of magnitude as compared to the PA content in the nurse diet and was well below the toxicity threshold for larvae. Our results suggest that larval nursing protects honeybee larvae from the toxic effect of secondary metabolites of pollen. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  20. Biophysics of the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Storm, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The subgenual organ of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg is accelerated, inertia causes the haemolymph (and the subgenual organ) to lag behind the movement of the rest of the leg. The magnitude of this phase lag determines...

  1. Nursing protects honeybee larvae from secondary metabolites of pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A.; Kilchenmann, Verena; Glauser, Gaetan; Praz, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    The pollen of many plants contains toxic secondary compounds, sometimes in concentrations higher than those found in the flowers or leaves. The ecological significance of these compounds remains unclear, and their impact on bees is largely unexplored. Here, we studied the impact of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) found in the pollen of Echium vulgare on honeybee adults and larvae. Echimidine, a PA present in E. vulgare pollen, was isolated and added to the honeybee diets in order to perform toxicity bioassays. While adult bees showed relatively high tolerance to PAs, larvae were much more sensitive. In contrast to other bees, the honeybee larval diet typically contains only traces of pollen and consists predominantly of hypopharyngeal and mandibular secretions produced by nurse bees, which feed on large quantities of pollen-containing bee bread. We quantified the transfer of PAs to nursing secretions produced by bees that had previously consumed bee bread supplemented with PAs. The PA concentration in these secretions was reduced by three orders of magnitude as compared to the PA content in the nurse diet and was well below the toxicity threshold for larvae. Our results suggest that larval nursing protects honeybee larvae from the toxic effect of secondary metabolites of pollen. PMID:29563265

  2. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  3. Transcriptome differences in the hypopharyngeal gland between Western Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Zi-Long; Tian, Liu-Qing; Qin, Qiu-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-08-30

    Apis mellifera and Apis cerana are two sibling species of Apidae. Apis cerana is adept at collecting sporadic nectar in mountain and forest region and exhibits stiffer hardiness and acarid resistance as a result of natural selection, whereas Apis mellifera has the advantage of producing royal jelly. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that affect the development of hypopharyngeal gland (HG) and/or the secretion of royal jelly between these two honeybee species, we performed a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of the HGs of these two species at three developmental stages (newly emerged worker, nurse and forager). Twelve DGE-tag libraries were constructed and sequenced using the total RNA extracted from the HGs of newly emerged workers, nurses, and foragers of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Finally, a total of 1482 genes in Apis mellifera and 1313 in Apis cerana were found to exhibit an expression difference among the three developmental stages. A total of 1417 DEGs were identified between these two species. Of these, 623, 1072, and 462 genes showed an expression difference at the newly emerged worker, nurse, and forager stages, respectively. The nurse stage exhibited the highest number of DEGs between these two species and most of these were found to be up-regulated in Apis mellifera. These results suggest that the higher yield of royal jelly in Apis mellifera may be due to the higher expression level of these DEGs. In this study, we investigated the DEGs between the HGs of two sibling honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). Our results indicated that the gene expression difference was associated with the difference in the royal jelly yield between these two species. These results provide an important clue for clarifying the mechanisms underlying hypopharyngeal gland development and the production of royal jelly.

  4. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  5. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  7. Robotics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  8. Biomimetic synthesis and characterization of semiconducting hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triple hybrid materials based on polyaniline-polyethylene glycol and cadmium sulphide have been prepared by the duffusion–limited biomimetic route and characterized by a number of spectroscopic, XRD, SEM, thermal and electrical measurements. These hybrid materials have been prepared by controlled precipitation of ...

  9. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Floris, J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities

  10. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  11. Odour-tracking capability of a silkmoth driving a mobile robot with turning bias and time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, N; Emoto, S; Kanzaki, R

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of mechanisms behind odour-tracking behaviours of animals is expected to enable the development of biomimetic robots capable of adaptive behaviour and effectively locating odour sources. However, because the behavioural mechanisms of animals have not been extensively studied, their behavioural capabilities cannot be verified. In this study, we have employed a mobile robot driven by a genuine insect (insect-controlled robot) to evaluate the behavioural capabilities of a biological system implemented in an artificial system. We used a male silkmoth as the ‘driver’ and investigated its behavioural capabilities to imposed perturbations during odour tracking. When we manipulated the robot to induce the turning bias, it located the odour source by compensatory turning of the on-board moth. Shifting of the orientation paths to the odour plume boundaries and decreased orientation ability caused by covering the visual field suggested that the moth steered with bilateral olfaction and vision to overcome the bias. An evaluation of the time delays of the moth and robot movements suggested an acceptable range for sensory-motor processing when the insect system was directly applied to artificial systems. Further evaluations of the insect-controlled robot will provide a ‘blueprint’ for biomimetic robots and strongly promote the field of biomimetics. (paper)

  12. Controllable biomimetic adhesion using embedded phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Sameoto, D; Menon, C

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, such as in the instance of climbing robots or temporary adhesives, there is the need to be able to dynamically control the level of adhesion a biomimetic dry adhesive can provide. In this study, the effect of changing the backing layer stiffness of a dry adhesive is examined. Embedding a phase change material within the backing of a synthetic dry adhesive sheet allows the stiffness to be tailored at different points of a preload and adhesion cycle. Larger contact areas and more equal load sharing between adhesive fibres can be achieved by increasing the backing layer stiffness after initial deformation when the adhesive backing is loaded in its softened state. Adhesion behaviour is examined when the backing layer is maintained in solid and softened phases during complete load cycles and for load cycles under the condition of contact with the softened phase backing followed by pull-off during the solid phase. Absolute adhesion force is increased for trials in which a soft backing layer hardens prior to pull-off. This effect is due to the increased contact area made between the rounded probe and the softened material during preloading and the more equal load sharing condition during pull-off when the backing layer becomes stiff again

  13. Electro-active paper for a durable biomimetic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sung-Ryul; Yun, Gyu Young; Kim, Jung Hwan; Chen, Yi; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap), known as a smart material, has merits in terms of low voltage operation, light weight, dryness, low power consumption, biodegradability, abundance and low price. Since EAPap requires low power consumption, a remotely driven actuator has been proposed using microwave power transmission. This concept is attractive for many biomimetic systems such as crawling micro-insect robots, flying objects like dragon flies and smart wallpapers. However, the actuation performance of EAPap is sensitive to humidity and degrades with time. Thus, in this paper, a durable EAPap is studied. The fabrication of EAPap is explained and the actuation performance is shown with applied electric field, frequency, humidity level and time. The fabrication process includes dissolving cellulose fibers, eliminating solvent and Li ions with a mixture of deionized water and isopropyl alcohol, washing with water, drying and coating with gold. The morphology of the fabricated EAPap is analyzed by taking scanning electron microscope images and x-ray diffractograms. The actuation performance is tested in terms of bending displacement with frequency, time and humidity level

  14. Fabrication of biomimetic dry-adhesion structures through nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P. C.; Chang, N. W.; Suen, Y.; Yang, S. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Components with surface nanostructures suitable for biomimetic dry adhesion have a great potential in applications such as gecko tape, climbing robots, and skin patches. In this study, a nanosphere lithography technique with self-assembly nanospheres was developed to achieve effective and efficient fabrication of dry-adhesion structures. Self-assembled monolayer nanospheres with high regularity were obtained through tilted dip-coating. Reactive-ion etching of the self-assembled nanospheres was used to fabricate nanostructures of different shapes and aspect ratios by varying the etching time. Thereafter, nickel molds with inverse nanostructures were replicated using the electroforming process. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructures were fabricated through a gas-assisted hot-embossing method. The pulling test was performed to measure the shear adhesion on the glass substrate of a sample, and the static contact angle was measured to verify the hydrophobic property of the structure. The enhancement of the structure indicates that the adhesion force increased from 1.2 to 4.05 N/cm2 and the contact angle increased from 118.6° to 135.2°. This columnar structure can effectively enhance the adhesion ability of PDMS, demonstrating the potential of using nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of adhesive structures.

  15. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  16. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  17. Mimicking honeybee eyes with a 280{sup 0} field of view catadioptric imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzl, W; Boeddeker, N; Dittmar, L; Egelhaaf, M, E-mail: wolfgang.stuerzl@uni-bielefeld.d [Department of Neurobiology and Center of Excellence ' Cognitive Interaction Technology' , Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    We present a small single camera imaging system that provides a continuous 280{sup 0} field of view (FOV) inspired by the large FOV of insect eyes. This is achieved by combining a curved reflective surface that is machined into acrylic glass with lenses covering the frontal field that otherwise would have been obstructed by the mirror. Based on the work of Seidl (1982 PhD Thesis Technische Hochschule Darmstadt), we describe an extension of the 'bee eye optics simulation' (BEOS) model by Giger (1996 PhD Thesis Australian National University) to the full FOV which enables us to remap camera images according to the spatial resolution of honeybee eyes. This model is also useful for simulating the visual input of a bee-like agent in a virtual environment. The imaging system in combination with our bee eye model can serve as a tool for assessing the visual world from a bee's perspective which is particularly helpful for experimental setups. It is also well suited for mobile robots, in particular on flying vehicles that need light-weight sensors.

  18. Mimicking honeybee eyes with a 2800 field of view catadioptric imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerzl, W; Boeddeker, N; Dittmar, L; Egelhaaf, M

    2010-01-01

    We present a small single camera imaging system that provides a continuous 280 0 field of view (FOV) inspired by the large FOV of insect eyes. This is achieved by combining a curved reflective surface that is machined into acrylic glass with lenses covering the frontal field that otherwise would have been obstructed by the mirror. Based on the work of Seidl (1982 PhD Thesis Technische Hochschule Darmstadt), we describe an extension of the 'bee eye optics simulation' (BEOS) model by Giger (1996 PhD Thesis Australian National University) to the full FOV which enables us to remap camera images according to the spatial resolution of honeybee eyes. This model is also useful for simulating the visual input of a bee-like agent in a virtual environment. The imaging system in combination with our bee eye model can serve as a tool for assessing the visual world from a bee's perspective which is particularly helpful for experimental setups. It is also well suited for mobile robots, in particular on flying vehicles that need light-weight sensors.

  19. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Immunosuppression in Honeybee Queens by the Neonicotinoids Thiacloprid and Clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Annely; Grikscheit, Katharina; Siede, Reinhold; Grosse, Robert; Meixner, Marina Doris; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-05

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of honeybees, since reproduction and colony growth rely solely on the queen. Queen failure is considered a relevant cause of colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides can severely affect the immunocompetence of queens of western honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). In young queens exposed to thiacloprid (200 µg/l or 2000 µg/l) or clothianidin (10 µg/l or 50 µg/l), the total hemocyte number and the proportion of active, differentiated hemocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, functional aspects of the immune defence namely the wound healing/melanisation response, as well as the antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph were impaired. Our results demonstrate that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect the immunocompetence of queens, possibly leading to an impaired disease resistance capacity.

  1. Modeling of robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer-metal composite caudal fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Shatara, Stephan; Tan, Xiaobo

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a model is proposed for a biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator with a rigid passive fin at the end. The model incorporates both IPMC actuation dynamics and the hydrodynamics, and predicts the steady-state speed of the robot under a periodic actuation voltage. Experimental results have shown that the proposed model can predict the fish motion for different tail dimensions. Since its parameters are expressed in terms of physical properties and geometric dimensions, the model is expected to be instrumental in optimal design of the robotic fish.

  2. Portraits of self-organization in fish schools interacting with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, M.; Fiorilli, F.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an enabling computational and theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental instances of collective behavior in response to external stimuli. In particular, this work addresses the characterization of aggregation and interaction phenomena in robot-animal groups through the exemplary analysis of fish schooling in the vicinity of a biomimetic robot. We adapt global observables from statistical mechanics to capture the main features of the shoal collective motion and its response to the robot from experimental observations. We investigate the shoal behavior by using a diffusion mapping analysis performed on these global observables that also informs the definition of relevant portraits of self-organization.

  3. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  4. Protection of carniolan bee - preserve breed or race of honeybee?

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Slovenia protects authentic breed of carniolan bee based on zootechnical legislation. Different varieties of honeybee around the Earth are usually described with the term races and not breeds. Foundations for such nomenclature are in evolution of bee races with natural selection without considerable influence of the men. Acceptance of carniolan bee as a race determines environmental-protection approach in preservation of authentic carniolan bee population. Slovenia is locus typicus of the rac...

  5. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  6. Ocellar structure and neural innervation in the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan eHung

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees have a visual system composed of three ocelli (simple eyes located on the top of the head, in addition to two large compound eyes. Although experiments have been conducted to investigate the role of the ocelli within the visual system, their optical characteristics, and function remain controversial. In this study, we created three-dimensional (3-D reconstructions of the honeybee ocelli, conducted optical measurements and filled ocellar descending neurons to assist in determining the role of ocelli in honeybees. In both the median and lateral ocelli, the ocellar retinas can be divided into dorsal and ventral parts. Using the 3-D model we were able to assess the viewing angles of the retinas. The dorsal retinas view the horizon while the ventral retinas view the sky, suggesting quite different roles in attitude control. We used the hanging drop technique to assess the spatial resolution of each retina. The lateral ocelli have considerably higher spatial resolution compared to the median ocellus. Moreover, in both types of ocellus the dorsal retina has a higher spatial resolution than the ventral retina. In addition, we established which ocellar retinas provide the input to five pairs of large ocellar descending neurons. We found that four of the neuron pairs had their dendritic fields in the dorsal retinas of the lateral ocelli, while the fifth had fine dendrites in the ventral retina. One of the neuron pairs also sent very fine dendrites into the border region between the dorsal and ventral retinas of the median ocellus.

  7. Impact of bifenthrin on honeybees and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Zhong, He

    2010-06-01

    The impact of bifenthrin on honeybees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was evaluated in both laboratory and semifield assays. Ten serial dilutions of bifenthrin and an acetone control using the bottle bioassay protocol were used in the laboratory to determine killing time after 15-, 30-, and 60-min honeybee exposure. Both dose and exposure time significantly affected honeybee mortality (df = 6, F = 10.9, P Bifenthrin was applied at 9.7 ml/liter, 19.5 ml/liter, and 29.5 ml/liter of water to common landscape vegetation, Melampodium paludosum Melanie (show star) and Duranta erecta L. (golden dewdrop); a water control was also used. Bee mortality was significantly higher (P < 0.05, df = 2, F = 20.8) at 29.5 ml/liter compared to the mortality at 19.5-ml/liter and 9.7-ml/liter application rates after 24-h exposure to the treated vegetation. Mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to treated vegetation was significantly (P < 0.05, df = 10, F = 114) different by week and by application rate.

  8. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  9. Modelling the spread of American foulbrood in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Samik; Bull, James C.; Budge, Giles E.; Keeling, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spread of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, that affects bees and can be extremely damaging to beehives. Our dataset comes from an inspection period carried out during an AFB epidemic of honeybee colonies on the island of Jersey during the summer of 2010. The data include the number of hives of honeybees, location and owner of honeybee apiaries across the island. We use a spatial SIR model with an underlying owner network to simulate the epidemic and characterize the epidemic using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to determine model parameters and infection times (including undetected ‘occult’ infections). Likely methods of infection spread can be inferred from the analysis, with both distance- and owner-based transmissions being found to contribute to the spread of AFB. The results of the MCMC are corroborated by simulating the epidemic using a stochastic SIR model, resulting in aggregate levels of infection that are comparable to the data. We use this stochastic SIR model to simulate the impact of different control strategies on controlling the epidemic. It is found that earlier inspections result in smaller epidemics and a higher likelihood of AFB extinction. PMID:24026473

  10. Therapeutic Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Different Honeybee Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Biagi, Marco; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2. Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.

  11. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  12. Proteomic analysis of honeybee worker (Apis mellifera hypopharyngeal gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypopharyngeal glands (HG of honeybee workers play an important role in honeybee nutrition and caste differentiation. Previous research mainly focused on age-dependent morphological, physiological, biochemical and genomic characters of the HG. Here proteomics and biochemical network analysis were used to follow protein changes during the HG development. Results A total of 87, 76, 85, 74, 71, and 55 proteins were unambiguously identified on day 1, 3, 6, 12, 15 and 20, respectively. These proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, cytoskeleton, development regulation, antioxidant, molecule transporter, regulation of transcription/translation, proteins with folding functions. The most interesting is that MRJP's that have been detected in the HG of the newly emerged worker bees. The MRJP's expression is at peak level from 6-12 days, was validated by western blot analysis of MRJP1, 2 and 3. Moreover, 35 key node proteins were found in the biochemical networks of the HG. Conclusions HG secretes RJ at peak level within 6-12 days, but the worker bee can secrete royal jelly (RJ since birth, which is a new finding. Several key node proteins play an important role in the biochemical networks of the developing HG. This provides us some target proteins when genetically manipulating honeybees.

  13. Therapeutic Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Different Honeybee Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs, and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2. Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.

  14. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  15. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  16. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other...

  17. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  18. Robotics 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  19. Vitruvian Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    future. A real version of Ava would not last long in a human world because she is basically a solipsist, who does not really care about humans. She cannot co-create the line humans walk along. The robots created as ‘perfect women’ (sex robots) today are very far from the ideal image of Ava...

  20. Biomimetic syntheses of phenols from polyketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G E; Garson, M J; Griffin, D A; Leeper, F J; Stauton, J

    1978-01-01

    As a result of speculation that many enzymes control polyketone cyclization in vivo by converting a key carbonyl group to a cis-enol ether derivative, we describe two novel biomimetic cyclizations. The first involves condensation of two C6 units derived from triacetic lactone to form an arylpyrone related to aloenin. In the second a naphthapyrone of the rubrofusarin type is formed by condensation of an orsellinic acid derivative with the ether of triacetic lactone.

  1. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  2. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  3. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  4. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  5. Special section on biomimetics of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George

    2011-12-01

    Movement in biology is an essential aspect of survival for many organisms, animals and plants. Implementing movement efficiently to meet specific needs is a key attribute of natural living systems, and can provide ideas for man-made developments. If we had to find a subtitle able to essentially convey the aim of this special section, it could read as follows: 'taking inspiration from nature for new materials, actuators, structures and controls for systems that move'. Our world is characterized by a huge variety of technical, engineering systems that move. They surround us in countless products that integrate actuators for different kinds of purposes. Basically, any kind of mechatronic system, such as those used for consumer products, machines, vehicles, industrial systems, robots, etc, is based on one or more devices that move, according to different implementations and motion ranges, often in response to external and internal stimuli. Despite this, technical solutions to develop systems that move do not evolve very quickly as they rely on traditional and well consolidated actuation technologies, which are implemented according to known architectures and with established materials. This fact limits our capability to overcome challenges related to the needs continuously raised by new fields of application, either at small or at large scales. Biomimetics-based approaches may provide innovative thinking and technologies in the field, taking inspiration from nature for smart and effective solutions. In an effort to disseminate current advances in this field, this special section collects some papers that cover different topics. A brief synopsis of the content of each contribution is presented below. The first paper, by Lienhard et al [1], deals with bioinspiration for the realization of structural parts in systems that passively move. It presents a bioinspired hingeless flapping mechanism, considered as a solution to the kinematics of deployable systems for

  6. Predicting Spatial Distribution of Key Honeybee Pests in Kenya Using Remotely Sensed and Bioclimatic Variables: Key Honeybee Pests Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Makori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bee keeping is indispensable to global food production. It is an alternate income source, especially in rural underdeveloped African settlements, and an important forest conservation incentive. However, dwindling honeybee colonies around the world are attributed to pests and diseases whose spatial distribution and influences are not well established. In this study, we used remotely sensed data to improve the reliability of pest ecological niche (EN models to attain reliable pest distribution maps. Occurrence data on four pests (Aethina tumida, Galleria mellonella, Oplostomus haroldi and Varroa destructor were collected from apiaries within four main agro-ecological regions responsible for over 80% of Kenya’s bee keeping. Africlim bioclimatic and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variables were used to model their ecological niches using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt. Combined precipitation variables had a high positive logit influence on all remotely sensed and biotic models’ performance. Remotely sensed vegetation variables had a substantial effect on the model, contributing up to 40.8% for G. mellonella and regions with high rainfall seasonality were predicted to be high-risk areas. Projections (to 2055 indicated that, with the current climate change trend, these regions will experience increased honeybee pest risk. We conclude that honeybee pests could be modelled using bioclimatic data and remotely sensed variables in MaxEnt. Although the bioclimatic data were most relevant in all model results, incorporating vegetation seasonality variables to improve mapping the ‘actual’ habitat of key honeybee pests and to identify risk and containment zones needs to be further investigated.

  7. The Standardization of the Honeybee Colonies Evaluation Methodology, with Application in Honeybee Breeding Programs, in Romanian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Cauia; Adrian Siceanu; Silvia Patruica; Marian Bura; Agripina Sapcaliu; Maria Magdici

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that breeding is based on phenotypic and behavioural performance assessed at the level of each honeybee colony. By selection, the genes responsible for the desired characters have to be favoured, by evaluation and classification of all colonies involved in a breeding program. Generally, in the beekeeping practice, the most applied method of selection is the mass selection regarding the main objective- honey production. Some more elaborated programs use selection simultaneous ...

  8. Biomimetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ana Maria Carmona-RibeiroBiocolloids Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Mimicking nature is a powerful approach for developing novel lipid-based devices for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, biomimetic assemblies based on natural or synthetic lipids by themselves or associated to silica, latex or drug particles will be discussed. In water, self-assembly of lipid molecules into supramolecular structures is fairly well understood. However, their self-assembly on a solid surface or at an interface remains poorly understood. In certain cases, hydrophobic drug granules can be dispersed in aqueous solution via lipid adsorption surrounding the drug particles as nanocapsules. In other instances, hydrophobic drug molecules attach as monomers to borders of lipid bilayer fragments providing drug formulations that are effective in vivo at low drug-to-lipid-molar ratio. Cationic biomimetic particles offer suitable interfacial environment for adsorption, presentation and targeting of biomolecules in vivo. Thereby antigens can effectively be presented by tailored biomimetic particles for development of vaccines over a range of defined and controllable particle sizes. Biomolecular recognition between receptor and ligand can be reconstituted by means of receptor immobilization into supported lipidic bilayers allowing isolation and characterization of signal transduction steps.Keywords: cationic lipid, phospholipids, bilayer fragments, vesicles, silica, polymeric particles, antigens, novel cationic immunoadjuvants, drugs

  9. Micro intelligence robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yon Ho

    1991-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  10. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  11. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  12. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  13. A selective sweep in a microsporidian parasite Nosema-tolerant honeybee population, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Q.; Lattorff, H. M. G.; Kryger, P.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema is a microsporidian parasite of the honeybee, which infects the epithelial cells of the gut. In Denmark, honeybee colonies have been selectively bred for the absence of Nosema over decades, resulting in a breeding line that is tolerant toward Nosema infections. As the tolerance toward the ...

  14. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  15. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight...

  16. Biomimetics: The early years | Michael | Annals of Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomimetics is a relatively new term and an evolving discipline with the potentials for transforming every aspect of medicine. Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex biological puzzles. Insights into biological processes have already resulted ...

  17. Biomimetic mineral coatings in dental and orthopaedic implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; de Groot, K.; Hunziker, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetic techniques are used to deposit coatings of calcium phosphate upon medical devices. The procedure is conducted under near-physiological, or "biomimetic", conditions of temperature and pH primarily to improve their biocompatibility and biodegradability of the materials. The inorganic layers

  18. Biomimetics: forecasting the future of science, engineering, and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Jeong, Yoon; Park, Jeong Min; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hong, Jong Wook; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics is the study of nature and natural phenomena to understand the principles of underlying mechanisms, to obtain ideas from nature, and to apply concepts that may benefit science, engineering, and medicine. Examples of biomimetic studies include fluid-drag reduction swimsuits inspired by the structure of shark’s skin, velcro fasteners modeled on burrs, shape of airplanes developed from the look of birds, and stable building structures copied from the backbone of turban shells. In this article, we focus on the current research topics in biomimetics and discuss the potential of biomimetics in science, engineering, and medicine. Our report proposes to become a blueprint for accomplishments that can stem from biomimetics in the next 5 years as well as providing insight into their unseen limitations. PMID:26388692

  19. Biomimetics: forecasting the future of science, engineering, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Jeong, Yoon; Park, Jeong Min; Lee, Kwan Hong; Hong, Jong Wook; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics is the study of nature and natural phenomena to understand the principles of underlying mechanisms, to obtain ideas from nature, and to apply concepts that may benefit science, engineering, and medicine. Examples of biomimetic studies include fluid-drag reduction swimsuits inspired by the structure of shark's skin, velcro fasteners modeled on burrs, shape of airplanes developed from the look of birds, and stable building structures copied from the backbone of turban shells. In this article, we focus on the current research topics in biomimetics and discuss the potential of biomimetics in science, engineering, and medicine. Our report proposes to become a blueprint for accomplishments that can stem from biomimetics in the next 5 years as well as providing insight into their unseen limitations.

  20. Biomimetic Materials and Fabrication Approaches for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan D; Amirthalingam, Sivashanmugam; Kim, Seunghyun L; Lee, Seunghun S; Rangasamy, Jayakumar; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2017-12-01

    Various strategies have been explored to overcome critically sized bone defects via bone tissue engineering approaches that incorporate biomimetic scaffolds. Biomimetic scaffolds may provide a novel platform for phenotypically stable tissue formation and stem cell differentiation. In recent years, osteoinductive and inorganic biomimetic scaffold materials have been optimized to offer an osteo-friendly microenvironment for the osteogenic commitment of stem cells. Furthermore, scaffold structures with a microarchitecture design similar to native bone tissue are necessary for successful bone tissue regeneration. For this reason, various methods for fabricating 3D porous structures have been developed. Innovative techniques, such as 3D printing methods, are currently being utilized for optimal host stem cell infiltration, vascularization, nutrient transfer, and stem cell differentiation. In this progress report, biomimetic materials and fabrication approaches that are currently being utilized for biomimetic scaffold design are reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Memristive device based learning for navigation in robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarim, Mohammad; Kumar, Manish; Jha, Rashmi; Minai, Ali A

    2017-11-08

    Biomimetic robots have gained attention recently for various applications ranging from resource hunting to search and rescue operations during disasters. Biological species are known to intuitively learn from the environment, gather and process data, and make appropriate decisions. Such sophisticated computing capabilities in robots are difficult to achieve, especially if done in real-time with ultra-low energy consumption. Here, we present a novel memristive device based learning architecture for robots. Two terminal memristive devices with resistive switching of oxide layer are modeled in a crossbar array to develop a neuromorphic platform that can impart active real-time learning capabilities in a robot. This approach is validated by navigating a robot vehicle in an unknown environment with randomly placed obstacles. Further, the proposed scheme is compared with reinforcement learning based algorithms using local and global knowledge of the environment. The simulation as well as experimental results corroborate the validity and potential of the proposed learning scheme for robots. The results also show that our learning scheme approaches an optimal solution for some environment layouts in robot navigation.

  2. A novel biomimetic whisker technology based on fiber Bragg grating and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenlu; Jiang, Qi; Li, Yibin

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes a novel, biomimetic whisker-based sensing technology following the basic design of the facial whiskers of animals such as rats and mice. The sensor consists of a 3× 2 whisker array on each side of a robot. In experiments with the artificial whiskers, the motor drives rotating whiskers, and the center wavelength of a fiber Bragg grating pasted on the whisker will shift when the whisker touches an obstacle. The distance will be obtained by processing the wavelength shift data with algorithms. Then the shape recognition can be realized by postprocessing the distance data. The experimental results prove that the whisker array is capable of accurately gathering the distance and shape information of an object.

  3. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  4. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  5. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. The surgeon can make ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 87. Muller CL, Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: ...

  6. Robotic parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Sound, Sara; Berber, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Robotic parathyroidectomy has recently been described. Although the procedure eliminates the neck scar, it is technically more demanding than the conventional approaches. This report is a review of the patients' selection criteria, technique, and outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  8. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  9. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  10. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  11. Human-like robots as platforms for electroactive polymers (EAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-03-01

    Human-like robots, which have been a science fiction for many years, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality thanks to many technology advances in recent years. Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence and as the capability progresses they may become our household appliance or even companion. Biomimetic technologies are increasingly becoming common tools to support the development of such robots. As artificial muscles, electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering important actuation capability for making such machines lifelike. The current limitations of EAP are hampering the possibilities that can be adapted in such robots but progress is continually being made. As opposed to other human made machines and devices, this technology raises various questions and concerns that need to be addressed. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crimes. In this paper the state-of-the-art and the challenges will be reviewed.

  12. Recent advances in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    Featuring 10 contributions, this volume offers a state-of-the-art report on robotic science and technology. It covers robots in modern industry, robotic control to help the disabled, kinematics and dynamics, six-legged walking robots, a vector analysis of robot manipulators, tactile sensing in robots, and more

  13. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  14. Effect of Temperature on the Biotic Potential of Honeybee Microsporidia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; García-Palencia, Pilar; Marín, Pilar; Botías, Cristina; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Barrios, Laura; Higes, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The biological cycle of Nosema spp. in honeybees depends on temperature. When expressed as total spore counts per day after infection, the biotic potentials of Nosema apis and N. ceranae at 33°C were similar, but a higher proportion of immature stages of N. ceranae than of N. apis were seen. At 25 and 37°C, the biotic potential of N. ceranae was higher than that of N. apis. The better adaptation of N. ceranae to complete its endogenous cycle at different temperatures clearly supports the observation of the different epidemiological patterns. PMID:19233948

  15. A primary report on honeybee space-flight breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Shi Wei; Ding Guiling; Lv Liping; Liu Zhiguang

    2009-01-01

    The semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica) was carried by the recoverable satellite for a spaceflight and was inseminated instrumentally to the virgin queens after returning to the earth. The preliminary results showed that both the vitality of the sperm and the survival rate of SP 1 queen were lower than those of the control. Obvious variations in morphology appeared on the progeny workers of queens in SP 2 and in SP 3 generations, but most of variation were unfavorable. Mutants with desirable characters were not found after the space fight. (authors)

  16. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  17. Altitude control in honeybees: joint vision-based learning and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Geoffrey; Serres, Julien R; Ruffier, Franck

    2017-08-23

    Studies on insects' visual guidance systems have shed little light on how learning contributes to insects' altitude control system. In this study, honeybees were trained to fly along a double-roofed tunnel after entering it near either the ceiling or the floor of the tunnel. The honeybees trained to hug the ceiling therefore encountered a sudden change in the tunnel configuration midways: i.e. a "dorsal ditch". Thus, the trained honeybees met a sudden increase in the distance to the ceiling, corresponding to a sudden strong change in the visual cues available in their dorsal field of view. Honeybees reacted by rising quickly and hugging the new, higher ceiling, keeping a similar forward speed, distance to the ceiling and dorsal optic flow to those observed during the training step; whereas bees trained to follow the floor kept on following the floor regardless of the change in the ceiling height. When trained honeybees entered the tunnel via the other entry (the lower or upper entry) to that used during the training step, they quickly changed their altitude and hugged the surface they had previously learned to follow. These findings clearly show that trained honeybees control their altitude based on visual cues memorized during training. The memorized visual cues generated by the surfaces followed form a complex optic flow pattern: trained honeybees may attempt to match the visual cues they perceive with this memorized optic flow pattern by controlling their altitude.

  18. Biomimetic magnetic nanocomposite for smart skins

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    We report a biomimetic tactile sensor consisting of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia and magnetic sensors. The nanocomposite is fashioned from polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires and exhibits a permanent magnetic behavior. This enables remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies device integration. Moreover, the highly elastic and easy patternable nanocomposite is corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The highly sensitive and power efficient tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces from interactions with objects. The sensors can operate in dry and wet environment with the ability to measure different properties such as the texture and the movement or stability of objects, with easily adjustable performance.

  19. Proteins and Peptides in Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Alfredo Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent advances and the main advantages of block copolymers for functional membrane protein reconstitution in biomimetic polymeric membranes. A rational approach to the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a functional form can be addressed by a more holistic view by using...... other kind of nonbiological amphiphilic molecules. An interesting possibility could be the use of self-assembled proteins in a lipid-free membrane mimicking the capside of some viruses. The membrane proteins that have been more actively used in combination with block copolymer membranes are gramicidin...

  20. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  1. Biomimetic magnetic nanocomposite for smart skins

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We report a biomimetic tactile sensor consisting of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia and magnetic sensors. The nanocomposite is fashioned from polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires and exhibits a permanent magnetic behavior. This enables remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies device integration. Moreover, the highly elastic and easy patternable nanocomposite is corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The highly sensitive and power efficient tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces from interactions with objects. The sensors can operate in dry and wet environment with the ability to measure different properties such as the texture and the movement or stability of objects, with easily adjustable performance.

  2. Biomimetic Growth of Hydroxyapatite on Kenaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Izwan Abd Razak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA growth on mercerized kenaf fiber (KF was achieved by immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF solution with the addition of a chelating agent. An electron micrograph revealed uniform HA layers on the KF within 14 days of immersion with significant vibrational peaks of HA components. The tensile tests showed no significant drops in the unit break of the modified fibers. This new bone-like apatite coating on KF can be useful in the field of bone tissue engineering. The key motivation for this new approach was that it utilizes the abundantly available kenaf plant resource as the biobased template.

  3. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganso, Beatrice T; Fombong, Ayuka T; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Stuhl, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite.

  4. An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.

  5. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  6. Rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  8. Biomimetics applied to centering in micro-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, L.H.; Lenau, Torben Anker; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a biomimetic search method to develop ideas for centering objects in micro-assembly. Biomimetics involves the imitation of biological phenomena to solve problems. An obstacle to the use of biomimetics in engineering is knowledge of biological phenomena...... that is relevant to the problem at hand. The method described here starts with an engineering problem, and then systematically searches for analogous biological phenomena using functional keywords. This method is illustrated by finding and using analogies for the problem of positioning and centering objects during...

  9. Cognitive Aspects of Comb-Building in the Honeybee?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gallo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The wax-made comb of the honeybee is a masterpiece of animal architecture. The highly regular, double-sided hexagonal structure is a near-optimal solution to storing food and housing larvae, economizing on building materials and space. Elaborate though they may seem, such animal constructions are often viewed as the result of ‘just instinct,’ governed by inflexible, pre-programmed, innate behavior routines. An inspection of the literature on honeybee comb construction, however, reveals a different picture. Workers have to learn, at least in part, certain elements of the technique, and there is considerable flexibility in terms of how the shape of the comb and its gradual manufacture is tailored to the circumstances, especially the available space. Moreover, we explore the 2-century old and now largely forgotten work by François Huber, where glass screens were placed between an expanding comb construction and the intended target wall. Bees took corrective action before reaching the glass obstacle, and altered the ongoing construction so as to reach the nearest wooden wall. Though further experiments will be necessary, these results suggest a form of spatial planning skills. We discuss these findings in the context of what is now known about insect cognition, and ask if it is possible that the production of hexagonal wax combs is the result of behavioral heuristics where a complex structure emerges as the result of simple behavioral rules applied by each individual, or whether prospective cognition might be involved.

  10. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-02

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonicotinoids interfere with specific components of navigation in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fischer

    Full Text Available Three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid, agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the central brain of insects, were applied at non-lethal doses in order to test their effects on honeybee navigation. A catch-and-release experimental design was applied in which feeder trained bees were caught when arriving at the feeder, treated with one of the neonicotinoids, and released 1.5 hours later at a remote site. The flight paths of individual bees were tracked with harmonic radar. The initial flight phase controlled by the recently acquired navigation memory (vector memory was less compromised than the second phase that leads the animal back to the hive (homing flight. The rate of successful return was significantly lower in treated bees, the probability of a correct turn at a salient landscape structure was reduced, and less directed flights during homing flights were performed. Since the homing phase in catch-and-release experiments documents the ability of a foraging honeybee to activate a remote memory acquired during its exploratory orientation flights, we conclude that non-lethal doses of the three neonicotinoids tested either block the retrieval of exploratory navigation memory or alter this form of navigation memory. These findings are discussed in the context of the application of neonicotinoids in plant protection.

  12. Neonicotinoids Interfere with Specific Components of Navigation in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johannes; Müller, Teresa; Spatz, Anne-Kathrin; Greggers, Uwe; Grünewald, Bernd; Menzel, Randolf

    2014-01-01

    Three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid, agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the central brain of insects, were applied at non-lethal doses in order to test their effects on honeybee navigation. A catch-and-release experimental design was applied in which feeder trained bees were caught when arriving at the feeder, treated with one of the neonicotinoids, and released 1.5 hours later at a remote site. The flight paths of individual bees were tracked with harmonic radar. The initial flight phase controlled by the recently acquired navigation memory (vector memory) was less compromised than the second phase that leads the animal back to the hive (homing flight). The rate of successful return was significantly lower in treated bees, the probability of a correct turn at a salient landscape structure was reduced, and less directed flights during homing flights were performed. Since the homing phase in catch-and-release experiments documents the ability of a foraging honeybee to activate a remote memory acquired during its exploratory orientation flights, we conclude that non-lethal doses of the three neonicotinoids tested either block the retrieval of exploratory navigation memory or alter this form of navigation memory. These findings are discussed in the context of the application of neonicotinoids in plant protection. PMID:24646521

  13. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gregorc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04 and 2.82 (± 2.19, respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06 and 3.84% (± 3.04 of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02 and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31. The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62 and a 39.28% (± 10.47 reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26 and 96.24% (± 3.14 in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001 and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.

  14. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galimberti

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy. A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno, characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands.

  15. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  16. The organization of honeybee ocelli: Regional specializations and rhabdom arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribi, Willi; Warrant, Eric; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-11-01

    We have re-investigated the organization of ocelli in honeybee workers and drones. Ocellar lenses are divided into a dorsal and a ventral part by a cusp-shaped indentation. The retina is also divided, with a ventral retina looking skywards and a dorsal retina looking at the horizon. The focal plane of lenses lies behind the retina in lateral ocelli, but within the dorsal retina in the median ocellus of both workers and drones. Ventral retinula cells are ca. 25μm long with dense screening pigments. Dorsal retinula cells are ca. 60μm long with sparse pigmentation mainly restricted to their proximal parts. Pairs of retinula cells form flat, non-twisting rhabdom sheets with elongated, straight, rectangular cross-sections, on average 8.7μm long and 1μm wide. Honeybee ocellar rhabdoms have shorter and straighter cross-sections than those recently described in the night-active bee Megalopta genalis. Across the retina, rhabdoms form a fan-shaped pattern of orientations. In each ocellus, ventral and dorsal retinula cell axons project into two separate neuropils, converging on few large neurons in the dorsal, and on many small neurons in the ventral neuropil. The divided nature of the ocelli, together with the particular construction and arrangement of rhabdoms, suggest that ocelli are not only involved in attitude control, but might also provide skylight polarization compass information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory coding of nest-site value in honeybee swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Visscher, P Kirk

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the first stage of the decision-making process of a honeybee swarm as it chooses a nest site: how a scout bee codes the value of a potential nest site in the waggle dances she produces to represent this site. We presented honeybee swarms with a two-alternative choice between a high-value site and a medium-value site and recorded the behavior of individually identifiable scout bees as they reported on these two alternatives. We found that bees performed equally lengthy inspections at the two sites, but that, on the swarm cluster, they performed more dance circuits per bee for the high-value site. We also found that there was much individual-level noise in the coding of site value, but that there were clear population-level differences in total dance circuits produced for the two sites. The first bee to find a site had a high probability of reporting the site with a waggle dance, regardless of its value. This discoverer-should-dance phenomenon may help ensure that a swarm gives attention to all discovered sites. There was rapid decay in the dance response; the number of dance circuits produced by a bee after visiting a site decreased linearly over sequential visits, and eventually each bee ceased visiting her site. This decay, or ;leakage', in the accumulation of bees at a site improves a swarm's decision-making ability by helping a swarm avoid making fast-decision errors.

  18. Biomimetic devices functionalized by membrane channel proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob

    2004-03-01

    We are developing a new family of active materials which derive their functional properties from membrane proteins. These materials have two primary components: the proteins and the membranes themselves. I will discuss our recent work directed toward development of a generic platform for a "plug-and-play" philosophy of membrane protein engineering. By creating a stable biomimetic polymer membrane a single molecular monolayer thick, we will enable the exploitation of the function of any membrane protein, from pores and pumps to sensors and energy transducers. Our initial work has centered on the creation, study, and characterization of the biomimetic membranes. We are attempting to make large areas of membrane monolayers using Langmuir-Blodgett film formation as well as through arrays of microfabricated black lipid membrane-type septa. A number of techniques allow the insertion of protein into the membranes. As a benchmark, we have been employing a model system of voltage-gated pore proteins, which have electrically controllable porosities. I will report on the progress of this work, the characterization of the membranes, protein insertion processes, and the yield and functionality of the composite.

  19. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  20. 'Filigree Robotics'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    -scale 3D printed ceramics accompanied by prints, videos and ceramic probes, which introduce the material and design processes of the project.'Filigree Robotics' experiments with a combination of the traditional ceramic technique of ‘Overforming’ with 3d Laserscan and Robotic extrusion technique...... application of reflectivity after an initial 3d print. The consideration and integration of this material practice into a digital workflow took place in an interdisciplinary collaboration of Ceramicist Flemming Tvede Hansen from KADK Superformlab and architectural researchers from CITA (Martin Tamke, Henrik...... to the creation of the form and invites for experimentation. In Filigree Robotics we combine the crafting of the mold with a parallel running generative algorithm, which is fed by a constant laserscan of the 3d surface. This algorithm, analyses the topology of the mold, identifies high and low points and uses...

  1. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  2. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  3. Service Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann

    The position presented in this paper is that in order to understand how service robots shape, and are being shaped by, the physical and social contexts in which they are used, we need to consider both work/organizational analysis and interaction design. We illustrate this with qualitative data...... and personal experiences to generate discussion about how to link these two traditions. This paper presents selected results from a case study that investigated the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish eldercare. The study demonstrates interpretive flexibility with variation...

  4. Robot Choreography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith

    2016-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for combining performance paradigms with human robot interaction (HRI) research. Following an analysis of several case studies that combine the performing arts with HRI experiments, we propose a methodology and “best practices” for implementing choreography and other...... performance paradigms in HRI experiments. Case studies include experiments conducted in laboratory settings, “in the wild”, and live performance settings. We consider the technical and artistic challenges of designing and staging robots alongside humans in these various settings, and discuss how to combine...

  5. Conceptual Kinematic Design and Performance Evaluation of a Chameleon-Like Service Robot for Space Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccarelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conceptual kinematic design of a chameleon-like robot with proper mobility capacity is presented for service applications in space stations as result of design considerations with biomimetic inspiration by looking at chameleons. Requirements and characteristics are discussed with the aim to identify design problems and operation features. A study of feasibility is described through performance evaluation by using simulations for a basic operation characterization.

  6. Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) as potential antiviral treatment in naturally BQCV infected honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Adriana C; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Erler, Silvio

    2016-08-15

    Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (≥5mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Barbs facilitate the helical penetration of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica stingers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    Full Text Available The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.

  8. Barbs facilitate the helical penetration of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) stingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zhao, Jieliang; Ye, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.

  9. Genetic reincarnation of workers as queens in the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Tan, K; Wang, Z; Oldroyd, B P; Beekman, M

    2015-01-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis, or the asexual production of female offspring, is rare in the animal kingdom, but relatively common in social Hymenoptera. However, in honeybees, it is only known to be ubiquitous in one subspecies of Apis mellifera, the Cape honeybee, A. mellifera capensis. Here we report the appearance of queen cells in two colonies of the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana that no longer contained a queen or queen-produced brood to rear queens from. A combination of microsatellite genotyping and the timing of the appearance of these individuals excluded the possibility that they had been laid by the original queen. Based on the genotypes of these individuals, thelytokous production by natal workers is the most parsimonious explanation for their existence. Thus, we present the first example of thelytoky in a honeybee outside A. mellifera. We discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of thelytoky in A. cerana, in particular the role thelytoky may play in the recent invasions by populations of this species.

  10. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  11. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  12. Biomimetics materials, structures and processes : examples, ideas and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, Dietmar; Hellmich, Christian; Schmiedmayer, Heinz-Bodo; Stachelberger, Herbert; Gebeshuber, Ille

    2011-01-01

    The book presents an outline of current activities in the field of biomimetics and integrates a variety of applications comprising biophysics, surface sciences, architecture and medicine. Biomimetics as innovation method is characterised by interdisciplinary information transfer from the life sciences to technical application fields aiming at increased performance, functionality and energy efficiency. The contributions of the book relate to the research areas: - Materials and structures in nanotechnology and biomaterials - Biomimetic approaches to develop new forms, construction principles and design methods in architecture - Information and dynamics in automation, neuroinformatics and biomechanics Readers will be informed about the latest research approaches and results in biomimetics with examples ranging from bionic nano-membranes to function-targeted design of tribological surfaces and the translation of natural auditory coding strategies.

  13. Biomimetic Structural Materials: Inspiration from Design and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David

    2018-04-20

    Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics. In this review, we detail recent biomimetic efforts for the fabrication of strong and tough composite materials possessing the brick-and-mortar and helicoidal architectures. Techniques discussed for the fabrication of nacre- and cuticle-mimetic structures include freeze casting, layer-by-layer deposition, spray deposition, magnetically assisted slip casting, fiber-reinforced composite processing, additive manufacturing, and cholesteric self-assembly. Advantages and limitations to these processes are discussed, as well as the future outlook on the biomimetic landscape for structural composite materials.

  14. Biomimetic Structural Materials: Inspiration from Design and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraghi, Nicholas A.; Kisailus, David

    2018-04-01

    Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics. In this review, we detail recent biomimetic efforts for the fabrication of strong and tough composite materials possessing the brick-and-mortar and helicoidal architectures. Techniques discussed for the fabrication of nacre- and cuticle-mimetic structures include freeze casting, layer-by-layer deposition, spray deposition, magnetically assisted slip casting, fiber-reinforced composite processing, additive manufacturing, and cholesteric self-assembly. Advantages and limitations to these processes are discussed, as well as the future outlook on the biomimetic landscape for structural composite materials.

  15. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells-Seashells Helping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 6. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells - Seashells Helping Engineers Design Better Ceramics. Kiran Akella. General Article Volume 17 Issue 6 June 2012 pp 573-591 ...

  16. A review paper on biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, X.; de Groot, K.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the

  17. Biomimetic Composite Scaffold for Breast Reconstruction Following Tumor Resection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick, Jr, Charles W

    2005-01-01

    ... of life and outcomes are markedly improved. We hypothesized that a novel composite material consisting of silk fibroin and chitosan will act as a biomimetic scaffold amenable to in vivo adipogenesis. The specific aims (SAs...

  18. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  19. Towards a systems approach for understanding honeybee decline: a stocktaking and synthesis of existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Matthias A; Osborne, Juliet L; Thorbek, Pernille; Kennedy, Peter J; Grimm, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The health of managed and wild honeybee colonies appears to have declined substantially in Europe and the United States over the last decade. Sustainability of honeybee colonies is important not only for honey production, but also for pollination of crops and wild plants alongside other insect pollinators. A combination of causal factors, including parasites, pathogens, land use changes and pesticide usage, are cited as responsible for the increased colony mortality.However, despite detailed knowledge of the behaviour of honeybees and their colonies, there are no suitable tools to explore the resilience mechanisms of this complex system under stress. Empirically testing all combinations of stressors in a systematic fashion is not feasible. We therefore suggest a cross-level systems approach, based on mechanistic modelling, to investigate the impacts of (and interactions between) colony and land management.We review existing honeybee models that are relevant to examining the effects of different stressors on colony growth and survival. Most of these models describe honeybee colony dynamics, foraging behaviour or honeybee - varroa mite - virus interactions.We found that many, but not all, processes within honeybee colonies, epidemiology and foraging are well understood and described in the models, but there is no model that couples in-hive dynamics and pathology with foraging dynamics in realistic landscapes. Synthesis and applications . We describe how a new integrated model could be built to simulate multifactorial impacts on the honeybee colony system, using building blocks from the reviewed models. The development of such a tool would not only highlight empirical research priorities but also provide an important forecasting tool for policy makers and beekeepers, and we list examples of relevant applications to bee disease and landscape management decisions.

  20. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Patton, John C.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2004-01-01

    The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study peri...

  1. Barbs Facilitate the Helical Penetration of Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Stingers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zhao, Jieliang; Ye, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morpholo...

  2. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Zelin; Wu, Jianing; Wang, Changlong; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. We quantified the grooming behavior of a honeybee from the perspective of kinematic and tribological properties. We captured high-speed videos that recorded the mouthpart grooming patterns of honeybees from the front and side views and measured the friction on the grooming surfaces using a precision dynamometer. During grooming, a honeybee first positions the mouthpart and then places a pair of foreleg tarsi to the tubular-folded galea. The tarsi press the galea and labial palpi and slide downward while keeping close contact with the galea. Then, the hairy glossa stretches out of the temporary tube with the glossa setae erected. The tarsi slowly slide down when grooming the glossa. In the return stroke of grooming, the foreleg tarsi detach from the mouthpart and retreat swiftly. Friction analysis shows that the honeybees can coordinate the velocity of the foreleg tarsi to the sectionalized tribological property of the tarsus-mouthpart interface. The specific grooming pattern enables honeybees to save energy and resist wear, resulting in a possible highly evolved grooming strategy. These findings lead to further understanding of the honeybee's grooming behavior facilitated by the special motion kinematics and friction characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofouling and Design of a Biomimetic Hull-Grooming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-14

    have barred the use of organotin compounds such as tributyltin ( TBT ) and copper-based paints, which are currently used by the Navy and have become...copper into the water, killing the fouling organisms. There is new research in biomimetic polymers that deter fouling, but are non- toxic . These polymers...is new research in biomimetic polymers that deter fouling, but are non- toxic . These polymers are rigidly attached to the hull surface extending

  5. Small Molecule and Polymer Effects on Bio-mimetic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Ignacio J.; Branan, Nicole; Wells, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of biomimetic membranes for the purpose of producing a protein based infrared biosensor has proven to be a difficult obstacle. Several methods have been employed and reproducibility is becoming more frequent. The use of polystyrene as an adhesion layer between the biomimetic and diamond surfaces is the most reliable form of reproducibility yet encountered. Unique properties of acetylcholine esterase based biosensors include infrared absorption bands that are not present in either th...

  6. Robotic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  7. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  8. Methodology for designing and manufacturing complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators: prosthetic hand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Bean, E; Das, R; McDaid, A

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators. The methodology is applied to the design and manufacture of a prosthetic for the hand. Real human hands are scanned to produce a 3D model of a finger, and pneumatic networks are implemented within it to produce a biomimetic bending motion. The finger is then partitioned into material sections, and a genetic algorithm based optimization, using finite element analysis, is employed to discover the optimal material for each section. This is based on two biomimetic performance criteria. Two sets of optimizations using two material sets are performed. Promising optimized material arrangements are fabricated using two techniques to validate the optimization routine, and the fabricated and simulated results are compared. We find that the optimization is successful in producing biomimetic soft robotic fingers and that fabrication of the fingers is possible. Limitations and paths for development are discussed. This methodology can be applied for other fluidic soft robotic devices.

  9. Africanization in the United States: Replacement of Feral European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African Hybrid Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in 50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European ho...

  10. Conserving genetic diversity in the honeybee: comments on Harpur et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rúa, Pilar; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Muñoz, Irene; Serrano, José; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F Bernhard

    2013-06-01

    The article by Harpur et al. (2012) 'Management increases genetic diversity of honey bees via admixture' concludes that '…honey bees do not suffer from reduced genetic diversity caused by management and, consequently, that reduced genetic diversity is probably not contributing to declines of managed Apis mellifera populations'. In the light of current honeybee and beekeeping declines and their consequences for honeybee conservation and the pollination services they provide, we would like to express our concern about the conclusions drawn from the results of Harpur et al. (2012). While many honeybee management practices do not imply admixture, we are convinced that the large-scale genetic homogenization of admixed populations could drive the loss of valuable local adaptations. We also point out that the authors did not account for the extensive gene flow that occurs between managed and wild/feral honeybee populations and raise concerns about the data set used. Finally, we caution against underestimating the importance of genetic diversity for honeybee colonies and highlight the importance of promoting the use of endemic honeybee subspecies in apiculture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  12. Biomimetic Membrane Arrays on Cast Hydrogel Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roerdink-Lander, Monique; Ibragimova, Sania; Rein Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    , provides mechanical support but at the cost of small molecule transport through the membrane−support sandwich. To stabilize biomimetic membranes while allowing transport through a membrane−support sandwich, we have investigated the feasibility of using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE......)/hydrogel sandwich as the support. The sandwich is realized as a perforated surface-treated ETFE film onto which a hydrogel composite support structure is cast. We report a simple method to prepare arrays of lipid bilayer membranes with low intrinsic electrical conductance on the highly permeable, self......-supporting ETFE/hydrogel sandwiches. We demonstrate how the ETFE/hydrogel sandwich support promotes rapid self-thinning of lipid bilayers suitable for hosting membrane-spanning proteins....

  13. Biomimetic polymeric membranes for water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto

    This project is about the interplay of the three major components of aquaporin based biomimetic polymeric membranes (ABPMs): Aquaporins (AQPs), amphiphilic block copolymers, serving as a vesicular matrix for the hydrophobic AQP exterior (proteopolymersomes) and a polymeric membrane as embedment....... The interplay of proteopolymersomes and polymeric mesh support (in this case polyethersulfone, PES) was examined via integration of proteopolymersomes in an active layer (AL) formed by interfacial polymerisation between a linker molecule in aqueous phase and another in organic phase on top of the PES....... The resulting thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was analyzed via cross-flow forward osmosis (FO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as in the non-supported form over FTIR and a specialized microfluidic visualization approach. Where no clear dierences...

  14. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.

    2011-01-01

    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and we demonstrated that chemically crosslinked hydrogels had lower values for the effective electrical resistance and higher values for the electrical capacitance compared with hydrogels with photoinitiated crosslinking. Transport numbers were obtained using......〉 and 〈Pw〉 values than PEG‐1000‐DMA‐P and PEG‐400‐DA‐P hydrogels. In conclusion, our results show that hydrogel electrochemical properties can be controlled by the choice of polymer and type of crosslinking used and that their water and salt permeability properties are congruent with the use of hydrogels...

  15. Biomimetics for architecture & design nature, analogies, technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the readers with a timely guide to the application of biomimetic principles in architecture and engineering design. As a result of a combined effort by two internationally recognized authorities, the biologist Werner Nachtigall and the architect Göran Pohl, the book describes the principles which can be used to compare nature and technology, and at the same time it presents detailed explanations and examples showing how biology can be used as a source of inspiration and “translated” in building and architectural solutions (biomimicry). Even though nature cannot be directly copied, the living world can provide architects and engineers with a wealth of analogues and inspirations for their own creative designs. But how can analysis of natural entities give rise to advanced and sustainable design? By reporting on the latest bionic design methods and using extensive artwork, the book guides readers through the field of nature-inspired architecture, offering an extraordinary resource for pro...

  16. Biomimetic electrospun nanofibers for tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Susan; Li Bojun; Ma Zuwei; Wei He; Chan Casey; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2006-01-01

    Nanofibers exist widely in human tissue with different patterns. Electrospinning nanotechnology has recently gained a new impetus due to the introduction of the concept of biomimetic nanofibers for tissue regeneration. The advanced electrospinning technique is a promising method to fabricate a controllable continuous nanofiber scaffold similar to the natural extracellular matrix. Thus, the biomedical field has become a significant possible application field of electrospun fibers. Although electrospinning has developed rapidly over the past few years, electrospun nanofibers are still at a premature research stage. Further comprehensive and deep studies on electrospun nanofibers are essential for promoting their biomedical applications. Current electrospun fiber materials include natural polymers, synthetic polymers and inorganic substances. This review briefly describes several typically electrospun nanofiber materials or composites that have great potential for tissue regeneration, and describes their fabrication, advantages, drawbacks and future prospects. (topical review)

  17. Biomimetic artificial sphincter muscles: status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vanessa; Fattorini, Elisa; Karapetkova, Maria; Osmani, Bekim; Töpper, Tino; Weiss, Florian; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects more than 12% of the adult population, including 45% of retirement home residents. Severe fecal incontinence is often treated by implanting an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, have long-term reoperation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. These statistics show that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter and that the development of an adaptive, biologically inspired implant is required. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are being developed as artificial muscles for a biomimetic sphincter, due to their suitable response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. However, at present the operation voltage of DEAs is too high for artificial muscles implanted in the human body. To reduce the operating voltage to tens of volts, we are using microfabrication to reduce the thickness of the elastomer layer to the nanometer level. Two microfabrication methods are being investigated: molecular beam deposition and electrospray deposition. This communication covers the current status and a perspective on the way forward, including the long-term prospects of constructing a smart sphincter from low-voltage sensors and actuators based on nanometer-thin dielectric elastomer films. As DEA can also provide sensory feedback, a biomimetic sphincter can be designed in accordance with the geometrical and mechanical parameters of its natural counterpart. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence du ring daily activities.

  18. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  19. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  20. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Hadar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  1. Conditioning procedure and color discrimination in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    We studied the influence of the conditioning procedure on color discrimination by free-flying honeybees. We asked whether absolute and differential conditioning result in different discrimination capabilities for the same pairs of colored targets. In absolute conditioning, bees were rewarded on a single color; in differential conditioning, bees were rewarded on the same color but an alternative, non-rewarding, similar color was also visible. In both conditioning procedures, bees learned their respective task and could also discriminate the training stimulus from a novel stimulus that was perceptually different from the trained one. Discrimination between perceptually closer stimuli was possible after differential conditioning but not after absolute conditioning. Differences in attention inculcated by these training procedures may underlie the different discrimination performances of the bees.

  2. Binary Bees Algorithm - bioinspiration from the foraging mechanism of honeybees to optimize a multiobjective multidimensional assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo; Ji, Ze; Truong Pham, Duc; Yu, Fan

    2011-11-01

    The simultaneous mission assignment and home allocation for hospital service robots studied is a Multidimensional Assignment Problem (MAP) with multiobjectives and multiconstraints. A population-based metaheuristic, the Binary Bees Algorithm (BBA), is proposed to optimize this NP-hard problem. Inspired by the foraging mechanism of honeybees, the BBA's most important feature is an explicit functional partitioning between global search and local search for exploration and exploitation, respectively. Its key parts consist of adaptive global search, three-step elitism selection (constraint handling, non-dominated solutions selection, and diversity preservation), and elites-centred local search within a Hamming neighbourhood. Two comparative experiments were conducted to investigate its single objective optimization, optimization effectiveness (indexed by the S-metric and C-metric) and optimization efficiency (indexed by computational burden and CPU time) in detail. The BBA outperformed its competitors in almost all the quantitative indices. Hence, the above overall scheme, and particularly the searching history-adapted global search strategy was validated.

  3. PROTEINS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF THE HONEYBEE, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micas, André Fernando Ditondo; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Laure, Helen Julie; Rosa, José Cesar; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-09-01

    The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous). Gene ontology functional analysis revealed that the higher proportions of the identified proteins have molecular functions related to catalytic and structural molecule activities, are involved in metabolic biological processes, and pertain to the protein class of structural or cytoskeletal proteins and hydrolases. It is noteworthy that 26.7% of the identified proteins, including five cuticular proteins, were revealed as protein species resulting from allelic isoforms or derived from posttranslational modifications. Also, 66.7% of the identified cuticular proteins were expressed in more than one developmental phase, thus indicating that they are part of the larval, pupal, and adult cuticle. Our data provide experimental support for predicted honeybee gene products and new information on proteins expressed in the developing integument. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  5. Vibration-processing interneurons in the honeybee brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The afferents of the Johnston’s organ (JO in the honeybee brain send their axons to three distinct areas, the dorsal lobe, the dorsal subesophageal ganglion (DL-dSEG, and the posterior protocerebral lobe (PPL, suggesting that vibratory signals detected by the JO are processed differentially in these primary sensory centers. The morphological and physiological characteristics of interneurons arborizing in these areas were studied by intracellular recording and staining. DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 have dense arborizations in the DL-dSEG and respond to vibratory stimulation applied to the JO in either tonic excitatory, on-off-phasic excitatory, or tonic inhibitory patterns. PPL-D-1 has dense arborizations in the PPL, sends axons into the ventral nerve cord (VNC, and responds to vibratory stimulation and olfactory stimulation simultaneously applied to the antennae in long-lasting excitatory pattern. These results show that there are at least two parallel pathways for vibration processing through the DL-dSEG and the PPL. In this study, Honeybee Standard Brain was used as the common reference, and the morphology of two types of interneurons (DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 and JO afferents was merged into the standard brain based on the boundary of several neuropiles, greatly supporting the understanding of the spatial relationship between these identified neurons and JO afferents. The visualization of the region where the JO afferents are closely appositioned to these DL interneurons demonstrated the difference in putative synaptic regions between the JO afferents and these DL interneurons (DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 in the DL. The neural circuits related to the vibration-processing interneurons are discussed.

  6. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  7. Social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (=`natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to the

  8. Micro Robotics Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our research is focused on the challenges of engineering robotic systems down to sub-millimeter size scales. We work both on small mobile robots (robotic insects for...

  9. Robots of the Future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    two main types of robots: industrial robots, and autonomous robots. .... position); it also has a virtual CPU with two stacks and three registers that hold 32-bit strings. Each item ..... just like we can aggregate images, text, and information from.

  10. Presentation robot Advee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav; Hrbáček, J.; Ripel, T.; Ondroušek, V.; Hrbáček, R.; Schreiber, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5/6 (2012), s. 307-322 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot * human - robot interface * localization Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  11. Towards Sociable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    This thesis studies aspects of self-sufficient energy (energy autonomy) for truly autonomous robots and towards sociable robots. Over sixty years of history of robotics through three developmental ages containing single robot, multi-robot systems, and social (sociable) robots, the main objective...... of roboticists mostly focuses on how to make a robotic system function autonomously and further, socially. However, such approaches mostly emphasize behavioural autonomy, rather than energy autonomy which is the key factor for not only any living machine, but for life on the earth. Consequently, self......-sufficient energy is one of the challenges for not only single robot or multi-robot systems, but also social and sociable robots. This thesis is to deal with energy autonomy for multi-robot systems through energy sharing (trophallaxis) in which each robot is equipped with two capabilities: self-refueling energy...

  12. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  13. Robot Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Paris, France, June, 1982, 519-530. Latoinbe, J. C. "Equipe Intelligence Artificielle et Robotique: Etat d’avancement des recherches," Laboratoire...8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS ,. 545 Technology Square Cambridge

  14. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  15. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Interpatch foraging in honeybees-rational decision making at secondary hubs based upon time and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Daniel A; McCullough, Erin L; Jander, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    For honeybees, Apis mellifera, the hive has been well known to function as a primary decision-making hub, a place from which foragers decide among various directions, distances, and times of day to forage efficiently. Whether foraging honeybees can make similarly complex navigational decisions from locations away from the hive is unknown. To examine whether or not such secondary decision-making hubs exist, we trained bees to forage at four different locations. Specifically, we trained honeybees to first forage to a distal site "CT" 100 m away from the hive; if food was present, they fed and then chose to go home. If food was not present, the honeybees were trained to forage to three auxiliary sites, each at a different time of the day: A in the morning, B at noon, and C in the afternoon. The foragers learned to check site CT for food first and then efficiently depart to the correct location based upon the time of day if there was no food at site CT. Thus, the honeybees were able to cognitively map motivation, time, and five different locations (Hive, CT, A, B, and C) in two spatial dimensions; these are the contents of the cognitive map used by the honeybees here. While at site CT, we verified that the honeybees could choose between 4 different directions (to A, B, C, and the Hive) and thus label it as a secondary decision-making hub. The observed decision making uncovered here is inferred to constitute genuine logical operations, involving a branched structure, based upon the premises of motivational state, and spatiotemporal knowledge.

  17. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  18. Design and Dynamics Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Intermittent Hopping Robot for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Bai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A small, bio-inspired and minimally actuated intermittent hopping robot for planetary surface exploration is proposed in this paper. The robot uses a combined-geared six-bar linkage/spring mechanism, which has a possible rich trajectory and metamorphic characteristics and, due to this, the robot is able to recharge, lock/release and jump by using just a micro-power motor as the actuator. Since the robotic system has a closed-chain structure and employs underactuated redundant motion, the constrained multi-body dynamics are derived with time-varying driving parameters and ground unilateral constraint both taken into consideration. In addition, the established dynamics equations, mixed of higher order differential and algebraic expressions, are solved by the immediate integration algorithm. A prototype is implemented and experiments are carried out. The results show that the robot, using a micro-power motor as the actuator and solar cells as the power supply, can achieve a biomimetic multi-body hopping stance and a nonlinearly increasing driving force. Typically, the robot can jump a horizontal distance of about 1 m and a vertical height of about 0.3 m, with its trunk and foot moving stably during takeoff. In addition, the computational and experimental results are consistent as regards the hopping performance of the robot, which suggests that the proposed dynamics model and its solution have general applicability to motion prediction and the performance analysis of intermittent hopping robots.

  19. Review of marine animals and bioinspired robotic vehicles: Classifications and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, S.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Marine robots are a developing topic for military, scientific, and environmental missions. However, most existing marine robots are either limited to flight or limited to swimming. Therefore, the combination of both provides endless possibilities for tasks, such as espionage, pollution and marine wildlife surveillance, and border protection. Applying bioinspiration and biomimetics not only camouflages the robot, but also increases the efficiency of already perfected designs. Because bioinspiration and aerial-aquatic locomotion are the main attraction for this article, this review gathers the characteristics of aerial-aquatic animals useful for such designs. These animals are diving birds and flying fish, specifically plunge-diving birds, surface-diving birds, both plunge- and surface-diving birds, two-winger flying fish, and four-winger flying fish. The overview of the current marine bioinspired and non-bioinspired robots that are both aerial and aquatic are also presented, followed by the limitations and recommendations of the bioinspired robots. It is shown by a comparison between the bioinspired robot and its corresponding animal that the existing robotic systems are not truly bioinspired. The main traits these systems are missing are replicating the exact weight, size, muscle movement, and skin texture of the biological animal. In order to have efficient robots, bioinspiration needs to be perfected. Doing so requires not only the basic design to be replicated, but every detail of the system to be imitated.

  20. Biomimetics: forecasting the future of science, engineering, and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jangsun Hwang,1 Yoon Jeong,1,2 Jeong Min Park,3 Kwan Hong Lee,1,2,4 Jong Wook Hong,1,2 Jonghoon Choi1,2 1Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul, 2Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan, Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 4OpenView Venture Partners, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Biomimetics is the study of nature and natural phenomena to understand the principles of underlying mechanisms, to obtain ideas from nature, and to apply concepts that may benefit science, engineering, and medicine. Examples of biomimetic studies include fluid-drag reduction swimsuits inspired by the structure of shark’s skin, velcro fasteners modeled on burrs, shape of airplanes developed from the look of birds, and stable building structures copied from the backbone of turban shells. In this article, we focus on the current research topics in biomimetics and discuss the potential of biomimetics in science, engineering, and medicine. Our report proposes to become a blueprint for accomplishments that can stem from biomimetics in the next 5 years as well as providing insight into their unseen limitations. Keywords: biomimicry, tissue engineering, biomaterials, nature, nanotechnology, nanomedicine

  1. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well.

  2. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Florian; Speck, Thomas; Speck, Olga; Grießhammer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions. (paper)

  3. Reverse Engineering Nature to Design Biomimetic Total Knee Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Kartik Mangudi; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Rubash, Harry E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Li, Guoan

    2015-10-01

    While contemporary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provides tremendous clinical benefits, the normal feel and function of the knee is not fully restored. To address this, a novel design process was developed to reverse engineer "biomimetic" articular surfaces that are compatible with normal soft-tissue envelope and kinematics of the knee. The biomimetic articular surface is created by moving the TKA femoral component along in vivo kinematics of normal knees and carving out the tibial articular surface from a rectangular tibial block. Here, we describe the biomimetic design process. In addition, we utilize geometric comparisons and kinematic simulations to show that; (1) tibial articular surfaces of conventional implants are fundamentally incompatible with normal knee motion, and (2) the anatomic geometry of the biomimetic surface contributes directly to restoration of normal knee kinematics. Such biomimetic implants may enable us to achieve the long sought after goal of a "normal" knee post-TKA surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  5. Biomimetic electrochemistry from conducting polymers. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, T.F.; Martinez, J.G.; Arias-Pardilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composition and properties of conducting polymers change during reactions. ► These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices. ► The state of the art for artificial muscles sensing working conditions was reviewed. ► Smart membranes, drug delivery devices and nervous interfaces were also reviewed. - Abstract: Films of conducting polymers in the presence of electrolytes can be oxidized or reduced by the flow of anodic or cathodic currents. Ions and solvent are exchanged during a reaction for charge and osmotic pressure balance. A reactive conducting polymer contains ions and solvent. Such variation of composition during a reaction is reminiscent of the biological processes in cells. Along changes to the composition of the material during a reaction, there are also changes to other properties, including: volume (electrochemomechanical), colour (electrochromic), stored charge (electrical storage), porosity or permselectivity (electroporosity), stored chemicals, wettability and so on. Most of those properties mimic similar property changes in organs during their functioning. These properties are being exploited to develop biomimetic reactive and soft devices: artificial muscles and polymeric actuators; supercapacitors and all organic batteries; smart membranes; electron-ion transducers; nervous interfaces and artificial synapses, or drug delivery devices. In this review we focus on the state of the art for artificial muscles, smart membranes and electron-ion transducers. The reactive nature of those devices provide them with a unique advantage related to the present days technologies: any changes in the surrounding physical or chemical variable acting on the electrochemical reaction rate will be sensed by the device while working. Working under constant current (driving signal), the evolution of the device potential or the evolution of the consumed electrical energy (sensing signals) senses and quantifies the

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Yi

    At the nanometer scale, the physical and chemical properties of materials heavily depend on their sizes and shapes. This fact has triggered considerable efforts in developing controllable nanomaterial synthesis. The controlled growth of colloidal nanocrystal is a kinetic process, in which high-energy facets grow faster and then vanish, leading to a nanocrystal enclosed by low-energy facets. Identifying a surfactant that can selectively bind to a particular crystal facet and thus lower its surface energy, is critical and challenging in shape controlled synthesis of nanocrystals. Biomolecules exhibiting exquisite molecular recognition properties can be exploited to precisely engineer nanostructured materials. In the first part of my thesis, we employed the phage display technique to select a specific multifunctional peptide sequence which can bind on Pd surface and mediate Pd crystal nucleation and growth, achieving size controlled synthesis of Pd nanocrystals in aqueous solution. We further demonstrated a rational biomimetic approach to the predictable synthesis of nanocrystals enclosed by a particular facet in the case of Pt. Specifically, Pt {100} and Pt {111} facet-specific peptides were identified and used to synthesize Pt nanocubes and Pt nano-tetrahedrons, respectively. The mechanistic studies of Pt {111} facet-specific peptide had led us to study the facet-selective adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces. The discoveries had achieved the development of design strategies to select facet-selective molecules which can synthesize nanocrystals with expected shapes in both Pt and Pd system. At last, we exploited Pt facet-specific peptides and controlled the molecular interaction to produce one- and three- dimensional nanostructures composed of anisotropic nanoparticles in synthetic conditions without supramolecular pre-organization, demonstrating the full potential of biomolecules in mediating material formation process. My research on biomimetic

  7. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  8. Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along

  9. Experimental evidence that honeybees depress wild insect densities in a flowering crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo; Smith, Henrik G

    2016-11-30

    While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary bees, hoverflies, marchflies, other flies, and other flying and flower-visiting insects) even in a massive flower resource such as oilseed rape. The effect was independent of the complexity of the surrounding landscape, but increased with the size of the crop field, which suggests that the effect was caused by spatial displacement of wild insects. Our results have potential implications both for the pollination of crops (if displacement of wild pollinators offsets benefits achieved by adding honeybees) and for conservation of wild insects (if displacement results in negative fitness consequences). © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Comparative psychophysics of bumblebee and honeybee colour discrimination and object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G; Spaethe, Johannes; Prack, Sabina

    2008-07-01

    Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discrimination of targets with broadband reflectance spectra was tested using simultaneous viewing conditions, enabling an accurate determination of the perceptual limit of colour discrimination excluding confounds from memory coding (experiment 1). The level of colour discrimination in bumblebees, and honeybees (Apis mellifera) (based upon previous observations), exceeds predictions of models considering receptor noise in the honeybee. Bumblebee and honeybee photoreceptors are similar in spectral shape and spacing, but bumblebees exhibit significantly poorer colour discrimination in behavioural tests, suggesting possible differences in spatial or temporal signal processing. Detection of stimuli in a Y-maze was evaluated for bumblebees (experiment 2) and honeybees (experiment 3). Honeybees detected stimuli containing both green-receptor-contrast and colour contrast at a visual angle of approximately 5 degrees , whilst stimuli that contained only colour contrast were only detected at a visual angle of 15 degrees . Bumblebees were able to detect these stimuli at a visual angle of 2.3 degrees and 2.7 degrees , respectively. A comparison of the experiments suggests a tradeoff between colour discrimination and colour detection in these two species, limited by the need to pool colour signals to overcome receptor noise. We discuss the colour processing differences and possible adaptations to specific ecological habitats.

  11. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  12. ROILA : RObot Interaction LAnguage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.

    2011-01-01

    The number of robots in our society is increasing rapidly. The number of service robots that interact with everyday people already outnumbers industrial robots. The easiest way to communicate with these service robots, such as Roomba or Nao, would be natural speech. However, the limitations

  13. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  14. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-05-04

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).

  15. A Parallel Modular Biomimetic Cilia Sorting Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. H. Whiting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic unicellular organism Paramecium caudatum uses cilia to swim around its environment and to graze on food particles and bacteria. Paramecia use waves of ciliary beating for locomotion, intake of food particles and sensing. There is some evidence that Paramecia pre-sort food particles by discarding larger particles, but intake the particles matching their mouth cavity. Most prior attempts to mimic cilia-based manipulation merely mimicked the overall action rather than the beating of cilia. The majority of massive-parallel actuators are controlled by a central computer; however, a distributed control would be far more true-to-life. We propose and test a distributed parallel cilia platform where each actuating unit is autonomous, yet exchanging information with its closest neighboring units. The units are arranged in a hexagonal array. Each unit is a tileable circuit board, with a microprocessor, color-based object sensor and servo-actuated biomimetic cilia actuator. Localized synchronous communication between cilia allowed for the emergence of coordinated action, moving different colored objects together. The coordinated beating action was capable of moving objects up to 4 cm/s at its highest beating frequency; however, objects were moved at a speed proportional to the beat frequency. Using the local communication, we were able to detect the shape of objects and rotating an object using edge detection was performed; however, lateral manipulation using shape information was unsuccessful.

  16. Biomimetic soluble collagen purified from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Sartori, Susanna; Pagliano, Cristina; Cabrele, Chiara; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-11-01

    Type I collagen has been extensively exploited as a biomaterial for biomedical applications and drug delivery; however, small molecular alterations occurring during the isolation procedure and its interaction with residual bone extracellular matrix molecules or proteins might affect the overall material biocompatibility and performance. The aim of the current work is to study the potential alterations in collagen properties and organization associated with the absence of proteoglycans, which mimic pathological conditions associated with age-related diseases. A new approach for evaluating the effect of proteoglycans on the properties of isolated type I collagen from the bone matrix is described. Additional treatment with guanidine hydrochloride was introduced to remove residual proteoglycans from the collagen matrix. The properties of the isolated collagen with/without guanidine hydrochloride treatment were investigated and compared with a commercial rabbit collagen as control. We demonstrate that the absence of proteoglycans in the isolated type I collagen affects its thermal properties, the extraction into its native structure, and its ability to hydrate and self-assemble into fibers. The fine control and tuning of all these features, linked to the absence of non-collagenous proteins as proteoglycans, offer the possibility of designing new strategies and biomaterials with advanced biomimetic properties aimed at regenerating bone tissue in the case of fragility and/or defects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Directed Fluid Transport with Biomimetic ``Silia'' Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A. R.; Evans, B. A.; Carstens, B. L.; Falvo, M. R.; Washburn, S.; Superfine, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present results on the long-range, directed fluid transport produced by the collective beating of arrays of biomimetic ``silia.'' Silia are arrays of free-standing nanorods roughly the size of biological cilia, which we fabricate from a polymer-magnetic nanoparticle composite material. With external permanent magnets we actuate our silia such that their motion mimics the beating of biological cilia. Biological cilia have evolved to produce microscale fluid transport and are increasingly being recognized as critical components in a wide range of biological systems. However, despite much effort cilia generated fluid flows remain an area of active study. In the last decade, cilia-driven fluid flow in the embryonic node of vertebrates has been implicated as the initial left-right symmetry breaking event in these embryos. With silia we generate directional fluid transport by mimicking the tilted conical beating of these nodal cilia and seek to answer open questions about the nature of particle advection in such a system. By seeding fluorescent microparticles into the fluid we have noted the existence of two distinct flow regimes. The fluid flow is directional and coherent above the tips of the silia, while between the silia tips and floor particle motion is complicated and suggestive of chaotic advection.

  18. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Gijs; Floris, Arjan; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theo; Wiegerink, Remco

    2007-05-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of sacrificial poly-silicon technology, to form silicon-nitride suspended membranes, and SU8 polymer processing for fabrication of hairs with diameters of about 50 μm and up to 1 mm length. The membranes have thin chromium electrodes on top forming variable capacitors with the substrate that allow for capacitive read-out. Previously these sensors have been shown to exhibit acoustic sensitivity. Like for the crickets, the MEMS hair-sensors are positioned on elongated structures, resembling the cercus of crickets. In this work we present optical measurements on acoustically and electrostatically excited hair-sensors. We present adaptive control of flow-sensitivity and resonance frequency by electrostatic spring stiffness softening. Experimental data and simple analytical models derived from transduction theory are shown to exhibit good correspondence, both confirming theory and the applicability of the presented approach towards adaptation.

  19. Hydrogen Tunneling in Enzymes and Biomimetic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, Joshua P.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-04-09

    Hydrogen transfer reactions play an important role throughout chemistry and biology. In general, hydrogen transfer reactions encompass proton and hydride transfer, which are associated with the transfer of a positively or negatively charged species, respectively, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), which corresponds to the net transfer of one electron and one proton in the simplest case. Such PCET reactions can occur by either a sequential mechanism, in which the proton or electron transfers first, or a concerted mechanism, in which the electron and proton transfer in a single kinetic step with no stable intermediate. Furthermore, concerted PCET reactions can be subdivided into hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), which corresponds to the transfer of an electron and proton between the same donor and acceptor (i.e., the transfer of a predominantly neutral species), and electron-proton transfer (EPT), which corresponds to the transfer of an electron and proton between different donors and acceptors, possibly even in different directions. In all of these types of hydrogen transfer reactions, hydrogen tunneling could potentially play a significant role. The biomimetic portion was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Hydrogen Tunneling in Enzymes and Biomimetic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, Joshua P.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-12-20

    Hydrogen transfer reactions play an important role throughout chemistry and biology. In general, hydrogen transfer reactions encompass proton and hydride transfer, which are associated with the transfer of a positively or negatively charged species, respectively, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), which corresponds to the net transfer of one electron and one proton in the simplest case. Such PCET reactions can occur by either a sequential mechanism, in which the proton or electron transfers first, or a concerted mechanism, in which the electron and proton transfer in a single kinetic step with no stable intermediate. Furthermore, concerted PCET reactions can be subdivided into hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), which corresponds to the transfer of an electron and proton between the same donor and acceptor (i.e., the transfer of a predominantly neutral species), and electron-proton transfer (EPT), which corresponds to the transfer of an electron and proton between different donors and acceptors, possibly even in different directions. In all of these types of hydrogen transfer reactions, hydrogen tunneling could potentially play a signficant role. The theoretical development portion of this Review was supported by the National Science Foundation under CHE-10-57875. The biological portion of this Review was funded by NIH Grant No. GM056207. The biomimetic portion was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electro-catalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Biomimetic materials for controlling bone cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevelle, Olivier; Faucheux, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects that cannot "heal spontaneously during life" will become an ever greater health problem as populations age. Harvesting autografts has several drawbacks, such as pain and morbidity at both donor and acceptor sites, the limited quantity of material available, and frequently its inappropriate shape. Researchers have therefore developed alternative strategies that involve biomaterials to fill bone defects. These biomaterials must be biocompatible and interact with the surrounding bone tissue to allow their colonization by bone cells and blood vessels. The latest generation biomaterials are not inert; they control cell responses like adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. These biomaterials are called biomimetic materials. This review focuses on the development of third generation materials. We first briefly describe the bone tissue with its cells and matrix, and then how bone cells interact with the extracellular matrix. The next section covers the materials currently used to repair bone defects. Finally, we describe the strategies employed to modify the surface of materials, such as coating with hydroxyapatite and grafting biomolecules.

  2. Desalination by biomimetic aquaporin membranes: Review of status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review is to prov......Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review...... is to provide an overview of the properties of aquaporins, their preparation and characterization. We discuss the challenges in exploiting the remarkable properties of aquaporin proteins for membrane separation processes and we present various attempts to construct aquaporin in membranes for desalination......; including an overview of our own recent developments in aquaporin-based membranes. Finally we outline future prospects of aquaporin based biomimetic membrane for desalination and water reuse....

  3. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  4. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  5. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncheva, Mila; Gracias, David H; Jacobs, Heiko O; Whitesides, George M

    2002-04-16

    This paper introduces a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled on the folding of a chain of polypeptide structural motifs into a globular protein. Millimeter-size polyhedra-patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots-were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly, the string folded spontaneously into two domains: one functioned as a ring oscillator, and the other one as a shift register. This example demonstrates that biomimetic principles of design and self-organization can be applied to generate multifunctional electronic systems of complex, three-dimensional architecture.

  6. Biomimetic actuators using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to lasting solutions with maximal performance and effective use of resources. Nature's inventions have always inspired human achievements leading to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems and many other benefits. The field of mimicking nature is known as Biomimetics and one of its topics includes electroactive polymers that gain the moniker artificial muscles. Integrating EAP with embedded sensors, self-repair and many other capabilities that are used in composite materials can add greatly to the capability of smart biomimetic systems. Such development would enable fascinating possibilities potentially turning science fiction ideas into engineering reality.

  7. Hexapod Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  8. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  9. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  10. Novel design of honeybee-inspired needles for percutaneous procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2018-04-18

    The focus of this paper is to present new designs of innovative bioinspired needles to be used during percutaneous procedures. Insect stingers have been known to easily penetrate soft tissues. Bioinspired needles mimicking the barbs in a honeybee stinger were developed for a smaller insertion force, which can provide a less invasive procedure. Decreasing the insertion force will decrease the tissue deformation, which is essential for more accurate targeting. In this study, some design parameters, in particular, barb shape and geometry (i.e. front angle, back angle, and height) were defined, and their effects on the insertion force were investigated. Three-dimensional printing technology was used to manufacture bioinspired needles. A specially-designed insertion test setup using tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gels was developed to measure the insertion and extraction forces. The barb design parameters were then experimentally modified through detailed experimental procedures to further reduce the insertion force. Different scales of the barbed needles were designed and used to explore the size-scale effect on the insertion force. To further investigate the efficacy of the proposed needle design in real surgeries, preliminary ex vivo insertion tests into bovine liver tissue were performed. Our results show that the insertion force of the needles in different scales decreased by 21-35% in PVC gel insertion tests, and by 46% in bovine liver tissue insertion tests.

  11. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    1998-07-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  12. The connection between landscapes and the solar ephemeris in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, William F; Moscrip, Heather

    2008-12-01

    Honeybees connect the sun's daily pattern of azimuthal movement to some aspect of the landscape around their nests. In the present study, we ask what aspect of the landscape is used in this context--the entire landscape panorama or only sectors seen along familiar flight routes. Previous studies of the solar ephemeris memory in bees have generally used bees that had experience flying a specific route, usually along a treeline, to a feeder. When such bees were moved to a differently oriented treeline on overcast days, the bees oriented their communicative dances as if they were still at the first treeline, based on a memory of the sun's course in relation to some aspect of the site, possibly the familiar route along the treeline or possibly the entire landscape or skyline panorama. Our results show that bees lacking specific flight-route training can nonetheless recall the sun's compass bearing relative to novel flight routes in their natal landscape. Specifically, we moved a hive from one landscape to a differently oriented twin landscape, and only after transplantation under overcast skies did we move a feeder away from the hive. These bees nonetheless danced accurately by memory of the sun's course in relation to their natal landscape. The bees' knowledge of the relationship between the sun and landscape, therefore, is not limited to familiar flight routes and so may encompass, at least functionally, the entire panorama. Further evidence suggests that the skyline in particular may be the bees' preferred reference in this context.

  13. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  14. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  15. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  16. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  17. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones' contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15-34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones' local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0-2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones' increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature.

  18. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones’ contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15–34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones’ local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0–2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones’ increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature. PMID:22140282

  19. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ePamir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  20. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  1. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  2. `Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed ‘shimmering’, whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the ‘special-agents’ hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  3. Impact of chronic neonicotinoid exposure on honeybee colony performance and queen supersedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Sandrock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honeybees provide economically and ecologically vital pollination services to crops and wild plants. During the last decade elevated colony losses have been documented in Europe and North America. Despite growing consensus on the involvement of multiple causal factors, the underlying interactions impacting on honeybee health and colony failure are not fully resolved. Parasites and pathogens are among the main candidates, but sublethal exposure to widespread agricultural pesticides may also affect bees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate effects of sublethal dietary neonicotinoid exposure on honeybee colony performance, a fully crossed experimental design was implemented using 24 colonies, including sister-queens from two different strains, and experimental in-hive pollen feeding with or without environmentally relevant concentrations of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Honeybee colonies chronically exposed to both neonicotinoids over two brood cycles exhibited decreased performance in the short-term resulting in declining numbers of adult bees (-28% and brood (-13%, as well as a reduction in honey production (-29% and pollen collections (-19%, but colonies recovered in the medium-term and overwintered successfully. However, significantly decelerated growth of neonicotinoid-exposed colonies during the following spring was associated with queen failure, revealing previously undocumented long-term impacts of neonicotinoids: queen supersedure was observed for 60% of the neonicotinoid-exposed colonies within a one year period, but not for control colonies. Linked to this, neonicotinoid exposure was significantly associated with a reduced propensity to swarm during the next spring. Both short-term and long-term effects of neonicotinoids on colony performance were significantly influenced by the honeybees' genetic background. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sublethal neonicotinoid exposure did not provoke increased winter losses. Yet

  4. MALDI Imaging Analysis of Neuropeptides in Africanized Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brain: Effect of Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Marcel; Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro da Silva; Esteves, Franciele Grego; Sato, Kenny Umino; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sérgio

    2018-05-18

    The aggressiveness in honeybees seems to be regulated by multiple genes, under the influence of different factors, such as polyethism of workers, environmental factors, and response to alarm pheromones, creating a series of behavioral responses. It is suspected that neuropeptides seem to be involved with the regulation of the aggressive behavior. The role of allatostatin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides in honeybee brain during the aggressive behavior is unknown; thus, worker honeybees were stimulated to attack and to sting leather targets hanged in front of the colonies. The aggressive individuals were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen; the heads were removed, and sliced at sagittal plan. The brain slices were submitted to MALDI-Spectral-Imaging analysis, and the results of the present study reported the processing of the precursors proteins into mature forms of the neuropeptides AmAST A (59-76) (AYTYVSEYKRLPVYNFGL-NH2), AmAST A (69-76) (LPVYNFGL-NH2), AmTRP (88 - 96) (APMGFQGMR-NH2), and AmTRP (254 - 262) (ARMGFHGMR-NH2), which apparently acted in different neuropils of honeybee brain, during the aggressive behavior, possibly playing the neuromodulation of different aspects of this complex behavior. These results were biologically validated performing aggressiveness-related behavioral assays, using young honeybee workers that received 1 ng of AmAST A (69-76) or AmTRP (88 - 96) via hemocele. The young workers that were not expected to be aggressive individuals, presented a complete series of the aggressive behaviors, in presence of the neuropeptides, corroborating the hypothesis that correlates the presence of mature AmASTs A and AmTRPs in honeybee brain with the aggressiveness of this insect.

  5. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  6. Nosema spp. infections cause no energetic stress in tolerant honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Mayack, Christopher; Hirche, Frank

    2016-01-01

    closely related and highly host dependent intracellular gut pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, on the energetic state in Nosema tolerant and sensitive honeybees facing the infection. We quantified the three major haemolymph carbohydrates fructose, glucose, and trehalose using high......-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a measure for host energetic state. Trehalose levels in the haemolymph were negatively associated with N. apis infection intensity and with N. ceranae infection regardless of the infection intensity in sensitive honeybees. Nevertheless, there was no such association...

  7. Flight, orientation, and homing abilities of honeybees following exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1981-01-01

    Foraging-experienced honeybees retained normal flight, orientation, and memory functions after 30 minutes' exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves at power densities from 3 to 50 mW/cm2. These experiments were conducted at power densities approximating and exceeding those that would be present above receiving antennas of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) energy transmission system and for a duration exceeding that which honeybees living outside a rectenna might be expected to spend within the rectenna on individual foraging trips. There was no evidence that airborne invertebrates would be significantly affected during transient passage through microwaves associated with SPS ground-based microwave receiving stations.

  8. Risk indicators affecting honeybee colony survival in Europe: one year of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Bougeard, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The first pan-European harmonized active epidemiological surveillance program on honeybee colony mortality (EPILOBEE) was set up across 17 European Member States to estimate honeybee colony mortality over winter and during the beekeeping season. In nine Member States, overwinter losses were higher...... and statistically different from the empirical level of 10 % under which the level of overwinter mortality was considered as acceptable with usual beekeeping conditions. In four other countries, these losses were lower. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, it was showed that the size of the operation...

  9. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  10. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  11. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and

  12. Next generation light robotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2017-01-01

    -assisted surgery imbibes surgeons with superhuman abilities and gives the expression “surgical precision” a whole new meaning. Still in its infancy, much remains to be done to improve human-robot collaboration both in realizing robots that can operate safely with humans and in training personnel that can work......Conventional robotics provides machines and robots that can replace and surpass human performance in repetitive, difficult, and even dangerous tasks at industrial assembly lines, hazardous environments, or even at remote planets. A new class of robotic systems no longer aims to replace humans...... with so-called automatons but, rather, to create robots that can work alongside human operators. These new robots are intended to collaborate with humans—extending their abilities—from assisting workers on the factory floor to rehabilitating patients in their homes. In medical robotics, robot...

  13. Distributed Robotics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept of a distribu......Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept...... to be changed, related to multirobot control and human-robot interaction control from virtual to physical representation. The proposed system is valuable for bringing a vast number of issues into education – such as parallel programming, distribution, communication protocols, master dependency, connectivity...

  14. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  15. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  16. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  17. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

  18. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  19. Phospholipid-sepiolite biomimetic interfaces for the immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Biomimetic interfaces based on phosphatidylcholine (PC) assembled to the natural silicate sepiolite were prepared for the stable immobilization of the urease and cholesterol oxidase enzymes. This is an important issue in practical advanced applications such as biocatalysis or biosensing. The supported lipid bilayer (BL-PC), prepared from PC adsorption, was used for immobilization of enzymes and the resulting biomimetic systems were compared to several other supported layers including a lipid monolayer (ML-PC), a mixed phosphatidylcholine/octyl-galactoside layer (PC-OGal), a cetyltrimethylammonium monolayer (CTA), and also to the bare sepiolite surface. Interfacial characteristics of these layers were investigated with a focus on layer packing density, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, and surface charge, which are being considered as key points for enzyme immobilization and stabilization of their biological activity. Cytoplasmic urease and membrane-bound cholesterol oxidase, which served as model enzymes, were immobilized on the different PC-based hybrid materials to probe their biomimetic character. Enzymatic activity was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The resulting enzyme/bio-organoclay hybrids were applied as active phase of a voltammetric urea biosensor and cholesterol bioreactor, respectively. Urease supported on sepiolite/BL-PC proved to maintain its enzymatic activity over several months while immobilized cholesterol oxidase demonstrated high reusability as biocatalyst. The results emphasize the good preservation of bioactivity due to the accommodation of the enzymatic system within the biomimetic lipid interface on sepiolite.

  20. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  1. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. This article reports a biomimetic approach for coating hydroxyapatite on titanium alloy at ambient temperature. In the present study, coating was obtained by soaking the substrate in a 5 times concentrated simulated body fluid (5XSBF) solution for different periods of time with and without the use of CaO–SiO2.

  2. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  3. An efficient biomimetic coating methodology for a prosthetic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawy, Alaa; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the load-bearing metallic implants with the bioactive materials in the design of synthetic implants is an important aspect in the biomaterials research. Biomimetic coating of bioinert alloys with calcium phosphate phases provides a good alternative to the prerequisite for the continual replacement of implants because of the failure of bone-implant integration. We attempted to accelerate the biomimetic coating process of stainless steel alloy (316L) with biomimetic apatite. In addition, we investigated the incorporation of functioning minerals such as strontianite and smithsonite into the deposited layer. In order to develop a highly mature apatite coating, our method requires soaking of the pre-treated alloy in highly concentrated synthetic body fluid for only few hours. Surface characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Also, the deposited apatitic layers were analysed by powder diffraction X-ray analysis (XRD). 316L surface showed the growth of highly crystalline, low carbonated hydroxyapatite, after only 6 h of the whole soaking process. Highlights: ► The manuscript describes a fast and efficient biomimetic coating methodology. ► This methodology can be used for metallic implants. ► 316L was coated with crystalline hydroxyapatite. ► Addition of strontium and zinc lead to the deposition of brushite. ► Coating of all synthetic solutions is highly crystalline

  4. Developing the ultimate biomimetic flow-sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinink, C.M.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports on the major developments and achievements in our group on fabricating highly sensitive biomimetic flow-sensor arrays. The mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets are taken as a model system for their ability to perceive flow signals at thermal noise levels and,

  5. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings: : Physicochemistry and biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed hydroxylapatite coatings on metallic prosthesis significantly increased the success rate of hip arthroplasty, namely from about 90% after 10 years for cemented hip stems to 98% for HA coated ones. Nowadays, the biomimetic approach has received increased interest because of the

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study is to biomimetically synthesize hydroxyapatite–hydrophilic polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications. This organic–inorganic hybrid has been structurally characterized and reveals a good microstructural control as seen by the SEM analysis and the nanosize of the particulates is confirmed by AFM ...

  7. A biomimetic accelerometer inspired by the cricket's clavate hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; de Boer, Meint J.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU-8 lithography. An analytical model

  8. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 6. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy using concentrated SBF. S Bharati M K Sinha ... Optical microscopic and SEM observations revealed the deposition of Ca–P layer on the titanium alloy by both the methods. Thickness of coating ...

  9. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  10. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...... for robots....

  11. Advanced mechanics in robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nava Rodríguez, Nestor Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Illustrates original and ambitious mechanical designs and techniques for the development of new robot prototypes Includes numerous figures, tables and flow charts Discusses relevant applications in robotics fields such as humanoid robots, robotic hands, mobile robots, parallel manipulators and human-centred robots

  12. The TacTip Family: Soft Optical Tactile Sensors with 3D-Printed Biomimetic Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Cherrier, Benjamin; Pestell, Nicholas; Cramphorn, Luke; Winstone, Benjamin; Giannaccini, Maria Elena; Rossiter, Jonathan; Lepora, Nathan F

    2018-04-01

    Tactile sensing is an essential component in human-robot interaction and object manipulation. Soft sensors allow for safe interaction and improved gripping performance. Here we present the TacTip family of sensors: a range of soft optical tactile sensors with various morphologies fabricated through dual-material 3D printing. All of these sensors are inspired by the same biomimetic design principle: transducing deformation of the sensing surface via movement of pins analogous to the function of intermediate ridges within the human fingertip. The performance of the TacTip, TacTip-GR2, TacTip-M2, and TacCylinder sensors is here evaluated and shown to attain submillimeter accuracy on a rolling cylinder task, representing greater than 10-fold super-resolved acuity. A version of the TacTip sensor has also been open-sourced, enabling other laboratories to adopt it as a platform for tactile sensing and manipulation research. These sensors are suitable for real-world applications in tactile perception, exploration, and manipulation, and will enable further research and innovation in the field of soft tactile sensing.

  13. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Pirk, Christian W; Allsopp, Mike H; Webster, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  14. Honeybee navigation: critically examining the role of the polarization compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, C; Kraft, P; Dacke, M; Labhart, T; Srinivasan, M V

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that honeybees use the polarized-light pattern of the sky as a compass for navigation, there is little direct evidence that this information is actually sensed during flight. Here, we ask whether flying bees can obtain compass cues derived purely from polarized light, and communicate this information to their nest-mates through the 'waggle dance'. Bees, from an observation hive with vertically oriented honeycombs, were trained to fly to a food source at the end of a tunnel, which provided overhead illumination that was polarized either parallel to the axis of the tunnel, or perpendicular to it. When the illumination was transversely polarized, bees danced in a predominantly vertical direction with waggles occurring equally frequently in the upward or the downward direction. They were thus using the polarized-light information to signal the two possible directions in which they could have flown in natural outdoor flight: either directly towards the sun, or directly away from it. When the illumination was axially polarized, the bees danced in a predominantly horizontal direction with waggles directed either to the left or the right, indicating that they could have flown in an azimuthal direction that was 90° to the right or to the left of the sun, respectively. When the first half of the tunnel provided axial illumination and the second half transverse illumination, bees danced along all of the four principal diagonal directions, which represent four equally likely locations of the food source based on the polarized-light information that they had acquired during their journey. We conclude that flying bees are capable of obtaining and signalling compass information that is derived purely from polarized light. Furthermore, they deal with the directional ambiguity that is inherent in polarized light by signalling all of the possible locations of the food source in their dances, thus maximizing the chances of recruitment to it.

  15. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wallberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis, worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  16. Acceleration of biomimetic mineralization to apply in bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, A Champa; Shah, Chiragkumar; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H

    2008-01-01

    The delivery of growth factors and therapeutic drugs into bone defects is a major clinical challenge. Biomimetically prepared bone-like mineral (BLM) containing a carbonated apatite layer can be used to deliver growth factors and drugs in a controlled manner. In the conventional biomimetic process, BLM can be deposited on the biodegradable polymer surfaces by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 days or more. The aim of this study was to accelerate the biomimetic process of depositing BML in the polymer surfaces. We accelerated the deposition of mineral on 3D poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous scaffolds to 36-48 h by modifying the biomimetic process parameters and applying surface treatments to PLGA scaffolds. The BLM was coated on scaffolds after surface treatments followed by incubation at 37 0 C in 15 ml of 5x SBF. We characterized the BLM created using the accelerated biomineralization process with wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR and XRD analyses of mineralized scaffolds show similarities between biomimetically prepared BLM, and bone bioapatite and carbonated apatite. We also found that the BLM layer on the surface of scaffolds was stable even after 21 days immersed in Tris buffered saline and cell culture media. This study suggests that BLM was stable for at least 3 weeks in both media, and therefore, BLM has a potential for use as a carrier for biological molecules for localized release applications as well as bone tissue engineering applications

  17. Robotics_MobileRobot Navigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots and rovers exploring planets need to autonomously navigate to specified locations. Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) and the University of Minnesota...

  18. Robots Social Embodiment in Autonomous Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Duffy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the inherent advantages of embracing a strong notion of social embodiment in designing a real-world robot control architecture with explicit ?intelligent? social behaviour between a collective of robots. It develops the current thinking on embodiment beyond the physical by demonstrating the importance of social embodiment. A social framework develops the fundamental social attributes found when more than one robot co-inhabit a physical space. The social metaphors of identity, character, stereotypes and roles are presented and implemented within a real-world social robot paradigm in order to facilitate the realisation of explicit social goals.

  19. Africanization in the United States: replacement of feral European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Patton, John C; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-08-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998-2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25-37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.

  20. Towards a Scalable, Biomimetic, Antibacterial Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Mary Nora

    Corneal afflictions are the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. When a corneal transplant is unavailable or contraindicated, an artificial cornea device is the only chance to save sight. Bacterial or fungal biofilm build up on artificial cornea devices can lead to serious complications including the need for systemic antibiotic treatment and even explantation. As a result, much emphasis has been placed on anti-adhesion chemical coatings and antibiotic leeching coatings. These methods are not long-lasting, and microorganisms can eventually circumvent these measures. Thus, I have developed a surface topographical antimicrobial coating. Various surface structures including rough surfaces, superhydrophobic surfaces, and the natural surfaces of insects' wings and sharks' skin are promising anti-biofilm candidates, however none meet the criteria necessary for implementation on the surface of an artificial cornea device. In this thesis I: 1) developed scalable fabrication protocols for a library of biomimetic nanostructure polymer surfaces 2) assessed the potential these for poly(methyl methacrylate) nanopillars to kill or prevent formation of biofilm by E. coli bacteria and species of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus bacteria and improved upon a proposed mechanism for the rupture of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls 3) developed a scalable, commercially viable method for producing antibacterial nanopillars on a curved, PMMA artificial cornea device and 4) developed scalable fabrication protocols for implantation of antibacterial nanopatterned surfaces on the surfaces of thermoplastic polyurethane materials, commonly used in catheter tubings. This project constitutes a first step towards fabrication of the first entirely PMMA artificial cornea device. The major finding of this work is that by precisely controlling the topography of a polymer surface at the nano-scale, we can kill adherent bacteria and prevent biofilm formation of certain pathogenic bacteria

  1. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  2. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  3. Interactions of visual odometry and landmark guidance during food search in honeybees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T; Hemmi, JM; Srinivasan, MV; Zeil, J

    How do honeybees use visual odometry and goal-defining landmarks to guide food search? In one experiment, bees were trained to forage in an optic-flow-rich tunnel with a landmark positioned directly above the feeder. Subsequent food-search tests indicated that bees searched much more accurately when

  4. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  5. Functional Morphology of the Divided Compound Eye of the Honeybee Drone (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, J.G.; Wunderer, H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Using different approaches, the functional morphology of the compound eye of the honeybee drone was examined. The drone exhibits an extended acute zone in the dorsal part of its eye. The following specializations were found here: enlarged facet diameters; smaller interommatidial angles; red-leaky

  6. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  7. An abbreviated SNP panel for ancestry assignment of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines whether an abbreviated panel of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the same power as a larger and more expensive panel of 95 SNPs to assign ancestry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to three ancestral lineages. We selected 37 SNPs from the original 95 SNP panel using alle...

  8. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; Steen, van der Sjef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management.

  9. Synergistic parasite-pathogen interactions mediated by host immunity can drive the collapse of honeybee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nazzi

    Full Text Available The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and molecular changes associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies infested by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we show that this parasite can de-stabilise the within-host dynamics of Deformed wing virus (DWV, transforming a cryptic and vertically transmitted virus into a rapidly replicating killer, which attains lethal levels late in the season. The de-stabilisation of DWV infection is associated with an immunosuppression syndrome, characterized by a strong down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The centrality of NF-κB in host responses to a range of environmental challenges suggests that this transcription factor can act as a common currency underlying colony collapse that may be triggered by different causes. Our results offer an integrated account for the multifactorial origin of honeybee losses and a new framework for assessing, and possibly mitigating, the impact of environmental challenges on honeybee health.

  10. Parasites and Pathogens of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera and Their Influence on Inter-Colonial Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites may facilitate their transmission by manipulating host behavior. Honeybee pathogens and pests need to be transferred from one colony to another if they are to maintain themselves in a host population. Inter-colony transmission occurs typically through honeybee workers not returning to their home colony but entering a foreign colony ("drifting". Pathogens might enhance drifting to enhance transmission to new colonies. We here report on the effects infection by ten honeybee viruses and Nosema spp., and Varroa mite infestation on honeybee drifting. Genotyping of workers collected from colonies allowed us to identify genuine drifted workers as well as source colonies sending out drifters in addition to sink colonies accepting them. We then used network analysis to determine patterns of drifting. Distance between colonies in the apiary was the major factor explaining 79% of drifting. None of the tested viruses or Nosema spp. were associated with the frequency of drifting. Only colony infestation with Varroa was associated with significantly enhanced drifting. More specifically, colonies with high Varroa infestation had a significantly enhanced acceptance of drifters, although they did not send out more drifting workers. Since Varroa-infested colonies show an enhanced attraction of drifting workers, and not only those infected with Varroa and its associated pathogens, infestation by Varroa may also facilitate the uptake of other pests and parasites.

  11. Alternative splicing of a single transcription factor drives selfish reproductive behavior in honeybee workers (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Antje; Stolle, Eckart; Crewe, Robin M; Moritz, Robin F A

    2011-09-13

    In eusocial insects the production of daughters is generally restricted to mated queens, and unmated workers are functionally sterile. The evolution of this worker sterility has been plausibly explained by kin selection theory [Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 7:1-52], and many traits have evolved to prevent conflict over reproduction among the females in an insect colony. In honeybees (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is regulated by the queen, brood pheromones, and worker policing. However, workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, can evade this control and establish themselves as social parasites by activating their ovaries, parthenogenetically producing diploid female offspring (thelytoky) and producing queen-like amounts of queen pheromones. All these traits have been shown to be strongly influenced by a single locus on chromosome 13 [Lattorff HMG, et al. (2007) Biol Lett 3:292-295]. We screened this region for candidate genes and found that alternative splicing of a gene homologous to the gemini transcription factor of Drosophila controls worker sterility. Knocking out the critical exon in a series of RNAi experiments resulted in rapid worker ovary activation-one of the traits characteristic of the social parasites. This genetic switch may be controlled by a short intronic splice enhancer motif of nine nucleotides attached to the alternative splice site. The lack of this motif in parasitic Cape honeybee clones suggests that the removal of nine nucleotides from the altruistic worker genome may be sufficient to turn a honeybee from an altruistic worker into a parasite.

  12. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L. FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA CAUIA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.

  13. Weight watching and the effect of landscape on honeybee colony productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate...

  14. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2017-02-06

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera , globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor , DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor -transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health.

  15. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D.

    2017-01-01

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor, DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor-transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health. PMID:28178181

  16. Impaired Olfactory Associative Behavior of Honeybee Workers Due to Contamination of Imidacloprid in the Larval Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En-Cheng; Chang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Wen-Yen; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The residue of imidacloprid in the nectar and pollens of the plants is toxic not only to adult honeybees but also the larvae. Our understanding of the risk of imidacloprid to larvae of the honeybees is still in a very early stage. In this study, the capped-brood, pupation and eclosion rates of the honeybee larvae were recorded after treating them directly in the hive with different dosages of imidacloprid. The brood-capped rates of the larvae decreased significantly when the dosages increased from 24 to 8000 ng/larva. However, there were no significant effects of DMSO or 0.4 ng of imidacloprid per larva on the brood-capped, pupation and eclosion rates. Although the sublethal dosage of imidacloprid had no effect on the eclosion rate, we found that the olfactory associative behavior of the adult bees was impaired if they had been treated with 0.04 ng/larva imidacloprid in the larval stage. These results demonstrate that a sublethal dosage of imidacloprid given to the larvae affects the subsequent associative ability of the adult honeybee workers. Thus, a low dose of imidacloprid may affect the survival condition of the entire colony, even though the larvae survive to adulthood. PMID:23166680

  17. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  18. Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera; Vasa and Nanos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Peter K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

  19. Two Waves of Transcription Are Required for Long-Term Memory in the Honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefer, Damien; Perisse, Emmanuel; Hourcade, Benoit; Sandoz, JeanChristophe; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Storage of information into long-term memory (LTM) usually requires at least two waves of transcription in many species. However, there is no clear evidence of this phenomenon in insects, which are influential models for memory studies. We measured retention in honeybees after injecting a transcription inhibitor at different times before and after…

  20. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Karan S; Evans, Elizabeth C; Pizzorno, Marie C

    2009-10-30

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  1. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Elizabeth C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deformed wing virus (DWV is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  2. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  3. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Patton, John C; Johnston, J Spencer

    2004-05-01

    The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honeybees, the resident population was essentially of eastern and western European maternal ancestry. Three years after detection of the first Africanized swarm there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata (ancestor of Africanized honeybees). This remarkable change in the mitotype composition coincided with arrival of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which was likely responsible for severe losses experienced by colonies of European ancestry. From 1997 onward the population stabilized with most colonies of A. m. scutellata maternal origin.

  4. Interaction between Varroa destructor and imidacloprid reduces flight capacity of honeybees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, Lisa; Langevelde, van F.; Dooremalen, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Current high losses of honeybees seriously threaten crop pollination. Whereas parasite exposure is acknowledged as an important cause of these losses, the role of insecticides is controversial. Parasites and neonicotinoid insecticides reduce homing success of foragers (e.g. by reduced orientation),

  5. Amtyr1: characterization of a gene from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain encoding a functional tyramine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, W; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A

    2000-03-01

    Biogenic amine receptors are involved in the regulation and modulation of various physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. We have cloned a member of this gene family from the CNS of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. The deduced amino acid sequence is homologous to tyramine receptors cloned from Locusta migratoria and Drosophila melanogaster as well as to an octopamine receptor cloned from Heliothis virescens. Functional properties of the honeybee receptor were studied in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Tyramine reduced forskolin-induced cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of approximately 130 nM. A similar effect of tyramine was observed in membrane homogenates of honeybee brains. Octopamine also reduced cyclic AMP production in the transfected cell line but was both less potent (EC50 of approximately 3 microM) and less efficacious than tyramine. Receptor-encoding mRNA has a wide-spread distribution in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the honeybee, suggesting that this tyramine receptor is involved in sensory signal processing as well as in higher-order brain functions.

  6. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Han de; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the

  7. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H; Biesmeijer, JC

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the conditions are

  8. Effect of juvenile hormone on short-term olfactory memory in young honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszka, R; Helliwell, P

    2001-11-01

    Reliable retention of olfactory learning following a 1-trial classical conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) is not achieved in honeybees until they are 6-7 days old. Here we show that treatment of newly emerged honeybees with juvenile hormone (JH) has a profound effect on the maturation of short-term olfactory memory. JH-treated individuals display excellent short-term (1 h) memory of associative learning at times as early as 3 days of age and perform consistently better than untreated bees for at least the first week of their lives. By contrast, the retention of long-term (24 h) memory following a 3-trial conditioning of the PER is not significantly improved in JH-treated bees. Our study also shows that experience and (or) chemosensory activation are not essential to improve learning performance in olfactory tasks. The lack of accelerated development of long-term retention of olfactory memories in JH-treated honeybees is discussed in the context of neural circuits suspected to mediate memory formation and retrieval in the honeybee brain. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Resilience of honeybee colonies via common stomach: A model of self-regulation of foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmickl

    Full Text Available We propose a new regulation mechanism based on the idea of the "common stomach" to explain several aspects of the resilience and homeostatic regulation of honeybee colonies. This mechanism exploits shared pools of substances (pollen, nectar, workers, brood that modulate recruitment, abandonment and allocation patterns at the colony-level and enable bees to perform several survival strategies to cope with difficult circumstances: Lack of proteins leads to reduced feeding of young brood, to early capping of old brood and to regaining of already spent proteins through brood cannibalism. We modeled this system by linear interaction terms and mass-action law. To test the predictive power of the model of this regulatory mechanism we compared our model predictions to experimental data of several studies. These comparisons show that the proposed regulation mechanism can explain a variety of colony level behaviors. Detailed analysis of the model revealed that these mechanisms could explain the resilience, stability and self-regulation observed in honeybee colonies. We found that manipulation of material flow and applying sudden perturbations to colony stocks are quickly compensated by a resulting counter-acting shift in task selection. Selective analysis of feedback loops allowed us to discriminate the importance of different feedback loops in self-regulation of honeybee colonies. We stress that a network of simple proximate mechanisms can explain significant colony-level abilities that can also be seen as ultimate reasoning of the evolutionary trajectory of honeybees.

  10. Brood temperature, task division and colony survival in honeybees : A model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becher, Matthias A.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which honeybees regulate division of labour among their colony members is age polyethism. Here the younger bees perform in-hive tasks such as heating and the older ones carry out tasks outside the hive such as foraging. Recently it has been shown that the higher

  11. Springer handbook of robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this handbook provides a state-of-the-art cover view on the various aspects in the rapidly developing field of robotics. Reaching for the human frontier, robotics is vigorously engaged in the growing challenges of new emerging domains. Interacting, exploring, and working with humans, the new generation of robots will increasingly touch people and their lives. The credible prospect of practical robots among humans is the result of the scientific endeavour of a half a century of robotic developments that established robotics as a modern scientific discipline. The ongoing vibrant expansion and strong growth of the field during the last decade has fueled this second edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics. The first edition of the handbook soon became a landmark in robotics publishing and won the American Association of Publishers PROSE Award for Excellence in Physical Sciences & Mathematics as well as the organization’s Award for Engineering & Technology. The second edition o...

  12. Project ROBOTICS 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK.......Mathematical modelling of Alto Robot, direct- and inverse kinematic transformation,simulation and path control applying MATLAB/SIMULINK....

  13. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  14. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  15. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  16. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  17. Micro robot bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  18. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program

  19. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  20. Micro robot bible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-15

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  1. Robots at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Graetz, Georg; Michaels, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous discussions of robots' potential impact, there is almost no systematic empirical evidence on their economic effects. In this paper we analyze for the first time the economic impact of industrial robots, using new data on a panel of industries in 17 countries from 1993-2007. We find that industrial robots increased both labor productivity and value added. Our panel identification is robust to numerous controls, and we find similar results instrumenting increased robot use wi...

  2. Robots in the Roses

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2014-04 Robots in the Roses A CRUSER Sponsored Event. The 4th Annual Robots in the Roses provides a venue for Faculty & NPS Students to showcase unmanned systems research (current or completed) and recruit NPS Students to join in researching on your project. Posters, robots, vehicles, videos, and even just plain humans welcome! Families are welcome to attend Robots in the Roses as we'll have a STEM activity for children to participate in.

  3. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  4. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  5. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Thamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera, serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. METHODS: Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca(2+ imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. RESULTS: The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. CONCLUSIONS: This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors.

  6. Molecular recognition of floral volatile with two olfactory related proteins in the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Linya; Ni, Cuixia; Shang, Hanwu; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Jianke

    2013-05-01

    The honeybee relies on its sensitive olfaction to perform the foraging activities in the field. In the antennal chemoreception system of honeybee, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory protein (CSPs) are major two protein families capable of binding with some plant volatiles and chemical ligands. However, the chemical binding interaction of plant odors with OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee olfactory system is still not clear yet. Hence, complex fluorescent spectra, ultraviolet absorption spectra, circular dichroism spectra and molecular docking were used to investigate the binding property of AcerASP2 (an OBP of Apis cerana) and AcerASP3 (a CSP of Apis cerana) with β-ionone, one of ordinary floral volatiles in botanical flower. As a result, β-ionone had a strong capability to quench the fluorescence that the two proteins produced, and their interaction was a dynamic process that was mainly driven by a hydrophobic force. AcerASP2 had a larger hydrophobic cavity than that of AcerASP3 and the conformation of AcerASP2 was changed less than AcerASP3 when binding with β-ionone. Our data suggests that OBPs like AcerASP2 might make a large contribution toward assisting the honeybee in sensing and foraging flowers, and A. cerana has evolved a good circadian rhythm to perceive a flower's odor following the fluctuation of temperature in the olfactory system. This significantly extends our knowledge on how to strengthen the honeybees' pollination service via manipulation of target proteins in the olfactory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  8. Molecular, pharmacological, and signaling properties of octopamine receptors from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Langenstück, Teresa; Breuer, Johanna; Bergmeier, Vera; Baumann, Arnd

    2014-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are important regulators of cellular signaling processes. Within the large family of rhodopsin-like receptors, those binding to biogenic amines form a discrete subgroup. Activation of biogenic amine receptors leads to transient changes of intracellular Ca²⁺-([Ca²⁺](i)) or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([cAMP](i)) concentrations. Both second messengers modulate cellular signaling processes and thereby contribute to long-lasting behavioral effects in an organism. In vivo pharmacology has helped to reveal the functional effects of different biogenic amines in honeybees. The phenolamine octopamine is an important modulator of behavior. Binding of octopamine to its receptors causes elevation of [Ca²⁺](i) or [cAMP](i). To date, only one honeybee octopamine receptor that induces Ca²⁺ signals has been molecularly and pharmacologically characterized. Here, we examined the pharmacological properties of four additional honeybee octopamine receptors. When heterologously expressed, all receptors induced cAMP production after binding to octopamine with EC₅₀(s) in the nanomolar range. Receptor activity was most efficiently blocked by mianserin, a substance with antidepressant activity in vertebrates. The rank order of inhibitory potency for potential receptor antagonists was very similar on all four honeybee receptors with mianserin > cyproheptadine > metoclopramide > chlorpromazine > phentolamine. The subroot of octopamine receptors activating adenylyl cyclases is the largest that has so far been characterized in arthropods, and it should now be possible to unravel the contribution of individual receptors to the physiology and behavior of honeybees. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Rolke, Daniel; Jordan, Nadine; Balfanz, Sabine; Schiffer, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors.

  10. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  11. Open middleware for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available and their technologies within the field of multi-robot systems to ease the difficulty of realizing robot applications. And lastly, an example of algorithm development for multi-robot co-operation using one of the discussed software architecture is presented...

  12. Learning robotics using Python

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Lentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an engineer, a researcher, or a hobbyist, and you are interested in robotics and want to build your own robot, this book is for you. Readers are assumed to be new to robotics but should have experience with Python.

  13. Robots de servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aracil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El término Robots de Servicio apareció a finales de los años 80 como una necesidad de desarrollar máquinas y sistemas capaces de trabajar en entornos diferentes a los fabriles. Los Robots de Servicio tenían que poder trabajar en entornos noestructurados, en condiciones ambientales cambiantes y con una estrecha interacción con los humanos. En 1995 fue creado por la IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, el Technical Committee on Service Robots, y este comité definió en el año 2000 las áreas de aplicación de los Robots de Servicios, que se pueden dividir en dos grandes grupos: 1 sectores productivos no manufactureros tales como edificación, agricultura, naval, minería, medicina, etc. y 2 sectores de servicios propiamente dichos: asistencia personal, limpieza, vigilancia, educación, entretenimiento, etc. En este trabajo se hace una breve revisión de los principales conceptos y aplicaciones de los robots de servicio. Palabras clave: Robots de servicio, robots autónomos, robots de exteriores, robots de educación y entretenimiento, robots caminantes y escaladores, robots humanoides

  14. Beyond Speculative Robot Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Van der Plas, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also lead to

  15. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  16. Analysis of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) wings using ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machovič, Vladimír; Lapčák, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Borecká, Lenka; Novotná, M.; Novotná, M.; Javůrková, I.; Langrová, I.; Hájková, Š.; Brožová, A.; Titěra, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2017), s. 22-29 ISSN 1211-3174 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : honeybee wings * ATR-FTIR * Raman spectroscopy * protein * lipid * chitin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  17. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo . It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s −1 , as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo . (paper)

  18. Design and motion control of bioinspired humanoid robot head from servo motors toward artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubarak, Yara; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    The potential applications of humanoid robots in social environments, motivates researchers to design, and control biomimetic humanoid robots. Generally, people are more interested to interact with robots that have similar attributes and movements to humans. The head is one of most important part of any social robot. Currently, most humanoid heads use electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actuation. Electrical and pneumatic actuators take most of the space and would cause unsmooth motions. SMAs are expensive to use in humanoids. Recently, in many robotic projects, Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) artificial muscles are used as linear actuators which take up little space compared to the motors. In this paper, we will demonstrate the designing process and motion control of a robotic head with TCP muscles. Servo motors and artificial muscles are used for actuating the head motion, which have been controlled by a cost efficient ARM Cortex-M7 based development board. A complete comparison between the two actuators is presented.

  19. Design, Implementation and Control of a Fish Robot with Undulating Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Siahmansouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots can potentially perform better than conventional robots in underwater vehicle designing. This paper describes the design of the propulsion system and depth control of a robotic fish. In this study, inspired by knife fish, we have designed and implemented an undulating fin to produce propulsive force. This undulating fin is a segmental anal fin that produces sinusoidal wave to propel the robot. The relationship between the individual fin segment and phase angles with the overall fin trajectory has also been discussed. This propulsive force can be adjusted and directed for fish robot manoeuvre by a mechanical system with two servomotors. These servomotors regulate the direction and depth of swimming. A wireless remote control system is designed to adjust the servomotors which enables us to control revolution, speed and phase differences of neighbor servomotors of fins. Finally, Field trials are conducted in an outdoor pool to demonstrate the relationship between robotic fish speed and fin parameters like phase difference, the number of phase and undulatory amplitude.

  20. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.