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Sample records for biometrics feature level

  1. Multimodal Biometrics at Feature Level Fusion using Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya V. Karki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fusion of multiple biometric modalities for personal authentication has received considerable attention. This paper presents a feature level fusion algorithm based on texture features. The system combines fingerprint, face and off-line signature. Texture features are extracted from Curvelet transform. The Curvelet feature dimension is selected based on d-prime number. The increase in feature dimension is reduced by using template averaging, moment features and by Principal component analysis (PCA. The algorithm is tested on in-house multimodal database comprising of 3000 samples and Chimeric databases. Identification performance of the system is evaluated using SVM classifier. A maximum GAR of 97.15% is achieved with Curvelet-PCA features.

  2. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rattani, Ajita; Bicego, Manuele; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the fusion at feature extraction level for face and fingerprint biometrics. The proposed approach is based on the fusion of the two traits by extracting independent feature pointsets from the two modalities, and making the two pointsets compatible for concatenation. Moreover, to handle the problem of curse of dimensionality, the feature pointsets are properly reduced in dimension. Different feature reduction techniques are implemented, prior and after the feature pointsets fusion, and the results are duly recorded. The fused feature pointset for the database and the query face and fingerprint images are matched using techniques based on either the point pattern matching, or the Delaunay triangulation. Comparative experiments are conducted on chimeric and real databases, to assess the actual advantage of the fusion performed at the feature extraction level, in comparison to the matching score level.

  3. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  4. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics Feature Level Fusion Of Fingerprint And Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the users biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the users biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from...

  5. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted fr...

  6. Face-iris multimodal biometric scheme based on feature level fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing; He, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Unlike score level fusion, feature level fusion demands all the features extracted from unimodal traits with high distinguishability, as well as homogeneity and compatibility, which is difficult to achieve. Therefore, most multimodal biometric research focuses on score level fusion, whereas few investigate feature level fusion. We propose a face-iris recognition method based on feature level fusion. We build a special two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank to extract local texture features from face and iris images, and then transform them by histogram statistics into an energy-orientation variance histogram feature with lower dimensions and higher distinguishability. Finally, through a fusion-recognition strategy based on principal components analysis and support vector machine (FRSPS), feature level fusion and one-to-n identification are accomplished. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can not only effectively extract face and iris features but also provide higher recognition accuracy. Compared with some state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed method has a significant performance advantage.

  7. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Palmprint Biometrics by Isomorphic Graph-based Improved K-Medoids Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feature level fusion approach which uses the improved K-medoids clustering algorithm and isomorphic graph for face and palmprint biometrics. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) algorithm is used to partition the set of n invariant feature points of the face and palmprint images into k clusters. By partitioning the face and palmprint images with scale invariant features SIFT points, a number of clusters is formed on both the images. Then on each cluster, an isomorphic graph is drawn. In the next step, the most probable pair of graphs is searched using iterative relaxation algorithm from all possible isomorphic graphs for a pair of corresponding face and palmprint images. Finally, graphs are fused by pairing the isomorphic graphs into augmented groups in terms of addition of invariant SIFT points and in terms of combining pair of keypoint descriptors by concatenation rule. Experimental results obtained from the extensive evaluation show that the proposed feature level fusion with the improve...

  8. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwarappa M.N.; Dr. Mrityunjaya V. Latte

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The late...

  9. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  10. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  11. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwarappa M.N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The latest research indicates multimodal person authentication system is more effective and more challenging. This work demonstrates that the fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. As a result, the identification performance is 100% and verification performances, False Acceptance Rate (FAR is 0%, and False Rejection Rate (FRR is 0%.

  12. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Balakumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according to the physiological features or behavioral features to be recognized without human involvement. This leads to the world wide usage of biometrics to secure the system. The various biometrics used in securing system are fingerprint, iris, retina, etc. The construction of cryptographic key from biometrics is used generally to secure the system. The efficiency and the flexibility of the cryptographic make it suitable for securing purpose. In some times, biometrics can be stolen; this makes the attackers to access the system for any time. This problem is diminished in this paper by using two biometrics features. The biometrics used in this paper is fingerprint and iris. These two features are combined with the help of fusion algorithm. From the combined features, cryptographic key is generated. The experimental result shows that the proposed techniques results in better security than the existing techniques.

  13. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition is still a very difficult task in real-world scenarios wherein unforeseen changes in degradations factors like noise, occlusion, blurriness and illumination can drastically affect the extracted features from the biometric signals. Very recently Haar-like rectangular features...... which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal...... and it is not clear whether all of these features are required for the actual recognition or not. This is exactly what we are dealing with in this paper: How can an initial set of Haar-like rectangular features, that have been used for biometric recognition, be reduced to a set of most influential features...

  14. Ear Biometrics Based on Geometrical Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Choraś, Micha

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics identification methods proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. In fact, only biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. The future of biometrics will surely lead to systems based on image analysis as the data acquisition is very simple and requires only cameras, scanners or sensors. More importantly such methods could be passive, which means that t...

  15. Personal Identification with Face Biometrics using Color Local Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A.Hiremani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition (FR has received a significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision due to the wide range of applications including video surveillance, biometric identification, and face indexing in multimedia contents. Recently, local texture features have gained reputation as powerful face descriptors because they are believed to be more robust to variations of facial pose, expression, occlusion, etc. In particular, local binary pattern (LBP texture feature has proven to be highly discriminative for FR due to different levels of locality. Hence, it is proposed to employ these features along with color local texture feature for efficient FR system. The personal identification accuracy with face modality using color local texture features is around 97% is achieved.

  16. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    , which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems......Developing a reliable, fast, and robust biometric recognition system is still a challenging task. This is because the inputs to these systems can be noisy, occluded, poorly illuminated, rotated, and of very low-resolutions. This paper proposes a probabilistic classifier using Haar-like features...

  17. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram D. Raut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm prints uses ridge patterns to identify an individual. Palm print recognition system is most promising to recognize an individual based on statistical properties of palm print image. It is rich in its features: principal lines, wrinkles, ridges, singular points and minutiae points. This paper proposes a Biometric Palm print lines extraction using image processing morphological operation. The proposed work discusses the significance; since both the palm print and hand shape images are proposed to extract from the single hand image acquired from a sensor. The basic statistical properties can be computed and are useful for biometric recognition of individual. This result and analysis will result into Total Success Rate (TSR of experiment is 100%. This paper discusses proposed work for biometric recognition of individual by using basic statistical properties of palm print image. The experiment is carried out by using MATLAB software image processing toolbox.

  18. Biometric feature extraction using local fractal auto-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image texture feature extraction is a classical means for biometric recognition. To extract effective texture feature for matching, we utilize local fractal auto-correlation to construct an effective image texture descriptor. Three main steps are involved in the proposed scheme: (i) using two-dimensional Gabor filter to extract the texture features of biometric images; (ii) calculating the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales using fractal auto-correlation algorithm; and (iii) linking the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales into a big vector for matching. Experiments and analyses show our proposed scheme is an efficient biometric feature extraction approach. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  19. An Empirical Analysis Over the Four Different Feature-Based Face and Iris Biometric Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multimodal biometric systems have been widely accepted, which has shown increased accuracy and population coverage, while reducing vulnerability to spoofing. The main feature to multimodal biometrics is the amalgamation of different biometric modality data at the feature extraction, matching score, or decision levels. Recently, a lot of works are presented in the literature for multi-modal biometric recognition. In this paper, we have presented comparative analysis of four different feature extraction approaches, such as LBP, LGXP, EMD and PCA. The main steps involved in such four approaches are: 1 Feature extraction from face image, 2 Feature extraction from iris image and 3 Fusion of face and iris features. The performance of the feature extraction methods in multi-modal recognition is analyzed using FMR and FNMR to study the recognition behavior of these approaches. Then, an extensive analysis is carried out to find the effectiveness of different approaches using two different databases. The experimental results show the equal error rate of different feature extraction approaches in multi-modal biometric recognition. From the ROC curve plotted, the performance of the LBP and LGXP method is better compared to PCA-based technique.

  20. Sparse Representation Fusion of Fingerprint, Iris and Palmprint Biometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Anu H Nair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized. But the computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper multimodal biometric image such as fingerprint, palmprint, and iris are extracted individually and are fused together using a sparse fusion mechanism. A multimodal sparse representation method is proposed, which interprets the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. The images are pre-processed for feature extraction. In this process Sobel, canny, Prewitt edge detection methods were applied. The image quality was measured using PSNR, NAE, and NCC metrics. Based on the results obtained, Sobel edge detection was used for feature extraction. Extracted features were subjected to sparse representation for the fusion of different modalities. The fused template can be used for watermarking and person identification application. CASIA database is chosen for the biometric images.

  1. Crypto Key Generation Based on Signature Biometric Using Gabor Features Selection

    OpenAIRE

    AL-MAHADEEN Bassam; AL-TARAWNEH Mokhled

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a direct crypto keygeneration method form signature biometric based onGabor feature selection. The proposed method outputssecure entropy keys, which could be used as highwatermarking source for signature biometric itself aswell as digital electronic signature that hide edocumentsin electronic open system. Simulated resultshave demonstrated that generated Crypto Keyaddresses a replacement of a biometric signaturerepresentation into digital symmetric key; where thegenerated ...

  2. Palmprint Recognition using Feature Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ramamoorthy; Gayathri, R.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Palmprint based biometric method has gained high impact over the other biometric methods due to its ease of acquisition, reliability and high client acceptance. Multiple feature extraction from image gives higher accuracy of the authentication system. Approach: This study presents the palmprint based identification methodology which uses the Gabor wavelet entropy to extract multiple features existing on the palm print, by using a feature level fusion using Dempster-Shafer t...

  3. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Shriram D. Raut; Vikas T. Humbe

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm pri...

  4. Secure access control to hidden data by biometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellaro, M.; Carli, M.; Egiazarian, K.; Neri, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a novel authentications system combining biometric cryptosystems with digital watermarking is presented. One of the main vulnerabilities of the existing data hiding systems is the public knowledge of the embedding domain. We propose the use of biometric data, minutiae fingerprint set, for generating the encryption key needed to decompose an image in the Tree structured Haar transform. The uniqueness of the biometrics key together with other, embedded, biometric information guarantee the authentication of the user. Experimental tests show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  5. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balakumar; DR.R.VENKATESAN

    2011-01-01

    Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according...

  6. A novel multisensoric system recording and analyzing human biometric features for biometric and biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The recording and analyzing human motor control movements are fundamental parts of both behavioral biometrics and biomedical research studies. The dynamics of human motor functions of fingers, hand and wrist movements can be studied while handwriting, drawing or hand gestures. The major difficulties are the acquisition of high quality data and the characterization of the acquired data accurately and efficiently. A multisensoric Biometric Smart Pen BiSP device has been developed which has the ...

  7. HBS: a novel biometric feature based on heartbeat morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Alajlan, Naif; Bazi, Yakoub; Hichri, Haikel S

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new feature named heartbeat shape (HBS) is proposed for ECG-based biometrics. HBS is computed from the morphology of segmented heartbeats. Computation of the feature involves three basic steps: 1) resampling and normalization of a heartbeat; 2) reduction of matching error; and 3) shift invariant transformation. In order to construct both gallery and probe templates, a few consecutive heartbeats which could be captured in a reasonably short period of time are required. Thus, the identification and verification methods become efficient. We have tested the proposed feature independently on two publicly available databases with 76 and 26 subjects, respectively, for identification and verification. The second database contains several subjects having clinically proven cardiac irregularities (atrial premature contraction arrhythmia). Experiments on these two databases yielded high identification accuracy (98% and 99.85%, respectively) and low verification equal error rate (1.88% and 0.38%, respectively). These results were obtained by using templates constructed from five consecutive heartbeats only. This feature compresses the original ECG signal significantly to be useful for efficient communication and access of information in telecardiology scenarios. PMID:22361664

  8. Feature Level Fusion of Palmprint and Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Gayathri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In many real-life usages, single modal biometric systems repeatedly face significant restrictions due to noise in sensed data, spoof attacks, data quality, nonuniversality, and other factors. However, single traits alone may not be able to meet the increasing demand of high accuracy in todays biometric system.Multibiometric systems is used to increase the performance that may not be possible using single biometrics. In this paper we propose a novel feature level fusion that combines the information to investigate whether the integration of palmprint and iris biometric can achieve performance that may not be possible using a single biometric technology. Proposed system extracts Gabor texture from the preprocessed palm print and iris images. The feature vectors attained from different methods are in different sizes and the features from equivalent image may be correlated. Therefore, we proposed wavelet-based fusion techniques. Finally the feature vector is matched with stored template using KNN classifier. The proposed approach is authenticated for their accuracy on PolyU palmprint database fused with IITK iris database of 125 users. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed multimodal biometric system achieves a recognition accuracy of 99.2% and with false rejection rate (FRR of = 1.6%.

  9. Robust feature-level multibiometric classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rattani, Ajita; Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Bicego, Manuele; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust feature level based fusion classifier for face and fingerprint biometrics. The proposed system fuses the two traits at feature extraction level by first making the feature sets compatible for concatenation and then reducing the feature sets to handle the 'problem of Curse of Dimensionality'; finally the concatenated feature vectors are matched. The system is tested on the database of 50 chimeric users with five samples per trait per person. The results are compare...

  10. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

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    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  11. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    OpenAIRE

    Prince; Manvjeet Kaur,; Ajay Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern), Level 2(Minutiae points) and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges). Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the lo...

  12. Ocular biometrics by score-level fusion of disparate experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo

    2014-12-01

    The concept of periocular biometrics emerged to improve the robustness of iris recognition to degraded data. Being a relatively recent topic, most of the periocular recognition algorithms work in a holistic way and apply a feature encoding/matching strategy without considering each biological component in the periocular area. This not only augments the correlation between the components in the resulting biometric signature, but also increases the sensitivity to particular data covariates. The main novelty in this paper is to propose a periocular recognition ensemble made of two disparate components: 1) one expert analyses the iris texture and exhaustively exploits the multispectral information in visible-light data and 2) another expert parameterizes the shape of eyelids and defines a surrounding dimensionless region-of-interest, from where statistics of the eyelids, eyelashes, and skin wrinkles/furrows are encoded. Both experts work on disjoint regions of the periocular area and meet three important properties. First, they produce practically independent responses, which is behind the better performance of the ensemble when compared to the best individual recognizer. Second, they do not share particularly sensitivity to any image covariate, which accounts for augmenting the robustness against degraded data. Finally, it should be stressed that we disregard information in the periocular region that can be easily forged (e.g., shape of eyebrows), which constitutes an active anticounterfeit measure. An empirical evaluation was conducted on two public data sets (FRGC and UBIRIS.v2), and points for consistent improvements in performance of the proposed ensemble over the state-of-the-art periocular recognition algorithms. PMID:25296405

  13. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database. PMID:25680220

  14. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar; A. P. Ligade

    2013-01-01

    Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc.) in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i) the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coe...

  15. RANK LEVEL FUSION USING FINGERPRINT AND IRIS BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Radha; A Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Authentication of users is an essential and difficult to achieve in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. The biometric improves the capability to recognize the persons. A biometric identificationsystem is an automatic recognition system that recognizes a person based on the physiological (e.g., fingerprints,face, retina, iris, ear) or behavioral (e.g., gait, signa...

  16. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern, Level 2(Minutiae points and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges. Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the local pore model, a SIFT algorithm is used to match the pores with template. Experiments on a good quality fingerprint dataset are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed Level 3 features matching model performed more accurately and robustly.

  17. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc. in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coefficients of face; (ii the relationship between the feature spaces of different biometric systems may not be known; (iii concatenating two feature vectors may result in a feature vector with very large dimensionality leading to the `curse of dimensionality problem, huge storage space and different processing algorithm. Also if we are use multiple images of single biometric trait, then it doesn’t show much variations. So in this paper, we present a efficient technique of feature-based fusion in a multimodal system where left eye and right eye are used as input. Iris recognition basically contains iris location, feature extraction, and identification. This algorithm uses canny edge detection to identify inner and outer boundary of iris. Then this image is feed to Gabor wavelet transform to extract the feature and finally matching is done by using indexing algorithm. The results from the analysis of works indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in performance.

  18. Efficiency of Biometric integration with Salt Value at an Enterprise Level and Data Centres

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is going to deal with enhancing the efficiency of Biometric by integrating it with Salt Value (randomly generated value of varying length). Normally at an enterprise level or data centres, the servers are maintained with complex passwords and they are known only to the system administrators. Even after applying lot of securities at an expert level, the hackers are able to penetrate through the network and break the passwords easily. Here how the biometric can play a vital role and that too with the inclusion of Salt value can prevent the hacker from stealing the confidential data's of an organization.

  19. A review on Advancements in Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometric recognition technology relies upon the physiological characteristic of an individual, offering positive identification that is difficult to counterfeit. Examples of physiological biometric features include height, weight, body odor, the shape of the hands, vein patterns, retina or iris, face, fingerprints etc. examples of behavioral biometrics are voice pattern, signature, keystroke sequences, gait etc. Biometric systems have evolved significantly over the past years from single-sample verification matchers to a wide range of multi-sample fully automated person recognition systems. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction frauds increases, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent.

  20. Feature Extraction using Sparse SVD for Biometric Fusion in Multimodal Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ramakrishna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Token based security (ID Cards have been used to restrictaccess to the Securedsystems.The purpose ofBiometricsistoidentify / verifythe correctness of an individualby using certain physiological orbehaviouraltraits associated with the person.Current biometric systems make use of face, fingerprints,iris,hand geometry,retina, signature, palm print, voiceprint and so on to establish a person’s identity.Biometrics isone of the primary key concepts of realapplicationdomains such asaadhar card, passport,pancard, etc.In this paper, we consider face andfingerprint patternsforidentification/verification.Usingthis data weproposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometricsoften called Context-SensitiveExponentAssociative Memory Model (CSEAM.It provides different stagesof securityforbiometricsfusionpatterns.Instage1,fusion offace and finger patternsusingPrincipal ComponentAnalysis (PCA,in stage 2by applyingSparseSVD decomposition toextract the feature patternsfrom thefusion data and face pattern and thenin stage 3,using CSEAM model,theextracted feature vectorscan beencoded.Thefinal key will be stored in the smart cardsas Associative Memory (M, which is often calledContext-Sensitive Associative Memory (CSAM. In CSEAM model,theCSEAMwill be computed usingexponential kronecker productforencodingand verificationofthe chosen samplesfrom the users.Theexponentialof matrixcan be computed in various ways such as Taylor Series, Pade Approximation andalso using OrdinaryDifferential Equations (O.D.E.. Among these approaches we considered first twomethods for computing exponential of a feature space.The result analysis of SVD and Sparse SVD forfeature extraction process and also authentication/verification process of the proposed systemin terms ofperformance measuresasMean square error rateswill be presented

  1. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF FEATURE DETECTION OPERATORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF IRIS BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsu C. Kovoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems area.Its robustness and unobtrusiveness, as opposed tomost of the currently deployed systems, make it a good candidate to replace most of thesecurity systems around. By making use of the distinctiveness of iris patterns, iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person.Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algorithm.In this paper, Daugman’s Rubber Sheet model is employed for irisnormalization and unwrapping, descriptive statistical analysis of different feature detection operators is performed, features extracted is encoded using Haar wavelets and for classification hammingdistance as a matching algorithm is used. The system was tested on the UBIRIS database. The edge detection algorithm, Canny, is found to be the best one to extract most ofthe iris texture. The success rate of feature detection using canny is 81%, False Accept Rate is 9% and False Reject Rate is 10%.

  3. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  4. Transformation of Hand-Shape Features for a Biometric Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús B. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM, each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class. Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database. Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success.

  5. Transformation of hand-shape features for a biometric identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso, Carlos M; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Alonso, Jesús B

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class). Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database). Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success. PMID:22368506

  6. Performance Enhancement Of Multimodal Biometrics Using Cryptosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Muskaan,; Tarun Gulati

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal biometrics means the unification of two or more uni modal biometrics so as to make the system more reliable and secure. Such systems promise better security. This study is a blend of iris and fingerprint recognition technique and their fusion at feature level. Our work comprises of two main sections: feature extraction of both modalities and fusing them before matching and finally application of an encryption technique to enhance the security of the fused template.

  7. Performance Enhancement Of Multimodal Biometrics Using Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskaan,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics means the unification of two or more uni modal biometrics so as to make the system more reliable and secure. Such systems promise better security. This study is a blend of iris and fingerprint recognition technique and their fusion at feature level. Our work comprises of two main sections: feature extraction of both modalities and fusing them before matching and finally application of an encryption technique to enhance the security of the fused template.

  8. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  9. Fusing Face and Periocular biometrics using Canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmiprabha, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face and periocular biometric fusion at feature level using canonical correlation analysis. Face recognition itself has limitations such as illumination, pose, expression, occlusion etc. Also, periocular biometrics has spectacles, head angle, hair and expression as its limitations. Unimodal biometrics cannot surmount all these limitations. The recognition accuracy can be increased by fusing dual information (face and periocular) from a single source (face image) us...

  10. FLIR biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Barbara L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.

    2009-04-01

    Biometrics are generally thought of as anatomical features that allow positive identification of a person. This paper describes biometrics that are also physiological in nature. The differences between anatomy and physiology have to do with the fact that physiology is dynamic, functioning, and changing with the state or actions of a person whereas anatomy is generally more stable. Biometrics in general usually refers to a trait, whereas the new type of biometrics discussed in this paper refer to a state, which is temporary, and often even transitory. By state, what is meant is the condition of a person at a particular time relative to their psychological, physical, medical, or physiological status. The present paper describes metrics that are cues to the state of a functioning individual observable through a thermal camera video system. An inferred state might then be tied to the positive identification of the person. Using thermal for this purpose is significant because the thermal signature of a human is dynamic and changes with physical and emotional state, while also revealing underlying anatomical structures. A new method involving the counting of open pores on the skin is discussed as a way of observing the Electrodermal Activity (EDA) of the skin, a primary component of the polygraph.

  11. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  12. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  13. Cryptographically secure biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianov, A.

    2010-04-01

    Biometric systems usually do not possess a cryptographic level of security: it has been deemed impossible to perform a biometric authentication in the encrypted domain because of the natural variability of biometric samples and of the cryptographic intolerance even to a single bite error. Encrypted biometric data need to be decrypted on authentication, which creates privacy and security risks. On the other hand, the known solutions called "Biometric Encryption (BE)" or "Fuzzy Extractors" can be cracked by various attacks, for example, by running offline a database of images against the stored helper data in order to obtain a false match. In this paper, we present a novel approach which combines Biometric Encryption with classical Blum-Goldwasser cryptosystem. In the "Client - Service Provider (SP)" or in the "Client - Database - SP" architecture it is possible to keep the biometric data encrypted on all the stages of the storage and authentication, so that SP never has an access to unencrypted biometric data. It is shown that this approach is suitable for two of the most popular BE schemes, Fuzzy Commitment and Quantized Index Modulation (QIM). The approach has clear practical advantages over biometric systems using "homomorphic encryption". Future work will deal with the application of the proposed solution to one-to-many biometric systems.

  14. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  15. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF FEATURE DETECTION OPERATORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF IRIS BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Binsu C. Kovoor; Supriya M.H.; K Poulose Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems area.Its robustness and unobtrusiveness, as opposed tomost of the currently deployed systems, make it a good candidate to replace most of thesecurity systems around. By making use of the distinctiveness of iris patterns, iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person.Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algor...

  17. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhuang; Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defin...

  18. An Overview of Multimodal Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Sanjekar; J. B. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Unimodal biometrics has several problems such as noisy data, intra class variation, inter class similarities, non universality and spoofing which cause this system less accurate and secure. To overcome these problems and to increase level of security multimodal biometrics is used. Multimodal biometrics makes the use of multiple source of information for personal authentication. Multimodal biometrics has becoming very popular now days since it is at the frontier of...

  19. Biometrics and Kansei engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes a section on touchscreen devices Proposes a new mathematical model on Iris Recognition Introduces a new technological system dealing with human Kansei Covers the latest achievements in biometric application features

  20. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  1. An Efficient Secure Multimodal Biometric Fusion Using Palmprint and Face Image

    CERN Document Server

    Nageshkumar, M; Swamy, M N S

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence a person's identity. A multimodal biometric systems consolidate the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources and typically better recognition performance compare to system based on a single biometric modality. This paper proposes an authentication method for a multimodal biometric system identification using two traits i.e. face and palmprint. The proposed system is designed for application where the training data contains a face and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and face features increases robustness of the person authentication. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which features vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment template, which are stored during database preparation. Multimodal biometric system is developed through fusion of face and palmprint recognition.

  2. Feature-Level Domain Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Krijthe, Jesse H.; Loog, Marco; van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data originate from different domains: the so-called source and target domains. In this paper, we propose and study a domain adaption approach, called feature-level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between two domains by means of a feature-level transfer distribution. The domain adapted classifier is trained by minimizing the expected loss under this transfer distribution. Our empirical eva...

  3. Beyond Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, R.C.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the last 40 years, the essence of automated identification of users has remained the same. In this article, a new class of biometrics is proposed that is founded on processing biosignals, as opposed to images. After a brief introduction on biometrics, biosignals are discussed, including their advantages, disadvantages, and guidelines for obtaining them. This new class of biometrics increases biometrics’ robustness and enables cross validation. Next, biosignals’ use is illustrated b...

  4. ASSORTED DIRECTIONS OF AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Prasad Sah*, Purushottam Das, Himanshu Pant, Ankur Singh Bist

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics refers to a way of authentication in the world of computer security using various metrics linked to human characteristics. It is used for access control and recognition of individuals. This paper provides the working of Biometrics System, description of its various features and various biometrics methods used in digital world of computer.  

  5. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  6. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  7. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    OpenAIRE

    Ola M. Aly; Tarek A. Mahmoud; Gouda I. Salama; Hoda M. Onsi

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted u...

  8. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  9. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  10. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Q; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion adaptively tunes itself between the two levels of fusion, and improves the final performance over the original two levels. The proposed hybrid fusion is simple and effective for combining different biom...

  11. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  12. Biometric Fingerprint Liveness Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Váňa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with biometric fingerprint liveness detection. A software-based liveness detection approach using neural network is proposed. To distinguish between live and fake samples, three image quality features extracted from one image are used. The algorithm is tested on LivDet database comprising real and fake images acquired with three sensors.

  13. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  14. Multimodal Biometric Systems - Study to Improve Accuracy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sasidhar, K; Ramakrishna, Kolikipogu; KailasaRao, K

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data of human body, extracting a feature set from the acquired data, and comparing this set against to the template set in the database. Experimental studies show that Unimodal biometric systems had many disadvantages regarding performance and accuracy. Multimodal biometric systems perform better than unimodal biometric systems and are popular even more complex also. We examine the accuracy and performance of multimodal biometric authentication systems using state of the art Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) products. Here we discuss fingerprint and face biometric systems, decision and fusion techniques used in these systems. We also discuss their advantage over unimodal biometric systems.

  15. Concealing the Level-3 features of Fingerprint in a Facial Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Seshadri,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available individual based on their physical, chemical and behavioral characteristics of the person. Biometrics is increasingly being used for authentication and protection purposes and this has generated considerable interest from many parts of the information technology people. In this paper we proposed facial image Watermarking methods that can embedded fingerprint level-3 features information into host facial images. This scheme has the advantage that in addition to facial matching, the recovered fingerprint level-3 features during the decoding can be used to establish the authentication. Here the proposed system concealing of vital information human being for identification and at the same time the system protect themselves fromattackers.

  16. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  17. On the Privacy Protection of Biometric Traits: Palmprint, Face, and Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Saroj Kumar; Jena, Debasish; Korra, Sathya Babu; Jena, Sanjay Kumar

    Biometrics are expected to add a new level of security to applications, as a person attempting access must prove who he or she really is by presenting a biometric to the system. The recent developments in the biometrics area have lead to smaller, faster and cheaper systems, which in turn has increased the number of possible application areas for biometric identity verification. The biometric data, being derived from human bodies (and especially when used to identify or verify those bodies) is considered personally identifiable information (PII). The collection, use and disclosure of biometric data — image or template, invokes rights on the part of an individual and obligations on the part of an organization. As biometric uses and databases grow, so do concerns that the personal data collected will not be used in reasonable and accountable ways. Privacy concerns arise when biometric data are used for secondary purposes, invoking function creep, data matching, aggregation, surveillance and profiling. Biometric data transmitted across networks and stored in various databases by others can also be stolen, copied, or otherwise misused in ways that can materially affect the individual involved. As Biometric systems are vulnerable to replay, database and brute-force attacks, such potential attacks must be analysed before they are massively deployed in security systems. Along with security, also the privacy of the users is an important factor as the constructions of lines in palmprints contain personal characteristics, from face images a person can be recognised, and fake signatures can be practised by carefully watching the signature images available in the database. We propose a cryptographic approach to encrypt the images of palmprints, faces, and signatures by an advanced Hill cipher technique for hiding the information in the images. It also provides security to these images from being attacked by above mentioned attacks. So, during the feature extraction, the

  18. Multifinger Feature Level Fusion Based Fingerprint Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen N; Tessamma Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint based authentication systems are one of the cost-effective biometric authentication techniques employed for personal identification. As the data base population increases, fast identification/recognition algorithms are required with high accuracy. Accuracy can be increased using multimodal evidences collected by multiple biometric traits. In this work, consecutive fingerprint images are taken, global singularities are located using directional field strength and their local orient...

  19. Fingerprint Matching Using Hierarchical Level Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bennet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fingerprint features extraction using different levels. The hierarchical order at four different levels, namely, Level 1 (pattern, Level 2 (minutia points, Level 3 (pores and ridge contours, and Level 4 (oscillated pattern. The fingerprint feature extraction frequently take advantage of Level 4 features to assist in identification, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS currently rely only on Level 1 and Level 2 features. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI standard of fingerprint resolution for AFIS is 500 pixels per inch (ppi, which is inadequate for capturing Level 3 features, such as pores. With the advances in fingerprint sensing technology, many sensors are now equipped with dual resolution (1,000 ppi scanning capability. However, increasing the scan resolution alone does not necessarily provide any performance improvement in fingerprint matching, unless an extended feature set is utilized. As a result, a systematic analysis to determine how much performance gain one can achieve by introducing Level 4 features in AFIS is highly desired. We propose a hierarchical matching system that utilizes features at all the four levels extracted from 1,000-ppi fingerprints scans. Level 3 features, pores and ridge contours are automatically extracted using Gabor filters and wavelet transform and are locally matched using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm and Level 4 features, oscillated pattern including curve scanned DCT to measure the recognition rate using k-nn classifier, Our analytical study conclude Level 4 features carry significant discriminatory information. The matching system when Level 4 features are employed in combination with Level 1 Level 2 and Level 3 features. This proposed method outperforms the others, particularly in recognition rate.

  20. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  1. Biometric Recognition for Pet Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Missing, swapping, false insurance claims and reallocation of pet animals (dog) are global problems throughout the world and research done to solve this problem is minimal. Traditional biometrics and non-biometrics methods have their own boundaries and they fail to provide competent level of security to pet animal (dog). The work on animal identification based on their phenotype appearance (coat patterns) has been an active research area in recent years and automatic face recognition for...

  2. Biometric Authentication. Types of biometric identifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build clear understanding biometrics and biometrics identifiers and also to look closely on the methods of biometrics. In this work such methods as data collecting, content analysis were applied. The information is taken from multiple internet resources, TV reports, magazines and newspapers and books. The study contains information about the history of biometrics and the process of its development, characteristics that people consider to be the adva...

  3. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  4. An Overview of Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jammi Ashok,; Vaka Shivashankar,; P.V.G.S.Mudiraj

    2010-01-01

    The term biometrics is derived from the Greek words bio meaning “life” and metrics meaning “ to measure” . Biometrics refers to the identification or verification of a person based on his/her physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Several verification/identification based biometrics have evolved based on various unique aspects of human body, ease of acquiring the biometric, public acceptance and the degree of security required. This paper presents an overview of various biometrics i...

  5. Physiological Biometric Authentication Systems Advantages Disadvantages And Future Development A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Alsaadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing users private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face finger iris scanning voice signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

  6. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola M. Aly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted using (PSO Particle Swarm Optimization to ensure the desired system performance corresponding to the desired level of security. The experimental results prove that the proposed multimodal biometric system is appropriate for applications that require different levels of security.

  7. Highly Secured Bio-Metric Authentication Model with Palm Print Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raja Murali Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For securing personal identifications and highly secure identification problems, biometric technologies will provide higher security with improved accuracy. This has become an emerging technology in recent years due to the transaction frauds, security breaches and personal identification etc. The beauty of biometric technology is it provides a unique code for each person and it can’t be copied or forged by others. To overcome the draw backs of finger print identification systems, here in this paper we proposed a palm print based personal identification system, which is a most promising and emerging research area in biometric identification systems due to its uniqueness, scalability, faster execution speed and large area for extracting the features. It provides higher security over finger print biometric systems with its rich features like wrinkles, continuous ridges, principal lines, minutiae points, and singular points. The main aim of proposed palm print identification system is to implement a system with higher accuracy and increased speed in identifying the palm prints of several users. Here, in this we presented a highly secured palm print identification system with extraction of region of interest (ROI with morphological operation there by applying un-decimated bi-orthogonal wavelet (UDBW transform to extract the low level features of registered palm prints to calculate its feature vectors (FV then after the comparison is done by measuring the distance between registered palm feature vector and testing palm print feature vector. Simulation results show that the proposed biometric identification system provides more accuracy and reliable recognition rate.

  8. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Gu Kim; Hae-Min Moon; Yongwha Chung; Sung Bum Pan

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But...

  9. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  10. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  11. A survey on biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathgeb Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Form a privacy perspective most concerns against the common use of biometrics arise from the storage and misuse of biometric data. Biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics represent emerging technologies of biometric template protection addressing these concerns and improving public confidence and acceptance of biometrics. In addition, biometric cryptosystems provide mechanisms for biometric-dependent key-release. In the last years a significant amount of approaches to both technologies have been published. A comprehensive survey of biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics is presented. State-of-the-art approaches are reviewed based on which an in-depth discussion and an outlook to future prospects are given.

  12. Biometric-based Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2004-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an understanding of the benefits and limitations of biometric-based technologies. It also includes information on existing privacy and security methodologies for assessing biometrics.

  13. Behavioural Biometrics in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Chakravarthy; VVSSS. Balaram; B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context,...

  15. BIOMETRICS BASED USER AUTHENTICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuj Tiwari; Tanya Tiwari2; Sanjay Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics technologies are base for a plethora of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is measurement of biological characteristics – either physiological or behavioral – that verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physiological biometrics include fingerprints, iris recognition. voice verification, retina recognition, palm vein patt...

  16. A Hybrid Model for Biometric Authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface based on Angular Geometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Usha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based personal recognition is an efficient method for identifying a person. Recently, hand based biometric has become popular due to its various advantages such as high verification accuracy and high user acceptability. This paper proposes a hybrid model using an emerging hand based biometric trait known as Finger Back Knuckle Surface. This model is based on angular geometric analysis which is implemented on two different samples of Finger Back Knuckle Surface such as Finger Bend Knuckle Surface and Finger Intact Knuckle Surface for the extraction of knuckle feature information. The obtained feature information from both the surfaces is fused using feature information level fusion technique to authenticate the individuals. Experiments were conducted using newly created database for both Bend Knuckle and Intact Knuckle Surface. The results were promising in terms of accuracy, speed and computational complexity.

  17. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  18. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  19. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  20. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply the...... creation and update of a biometric template, but requires the development of instruments to properly handle all the data and operations related to the user identity. These proceedings contain the selected and revised papers that were presented during the first European Workshop on Biometrics and Identity...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors of...

  1. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  2. Privacy Protection of Data Using Chaos and Biometric Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem with traditional cryptography authentication is that the keys that are very long, difficult to memorize and can easily be attacked. Although it provides sample security but these algorithms are secure only when the key is secure. So instead of using conventional cryptographic approach for protecting or authenticating user data, biometric security techniques are used. In this paper the concept of bio-chaotic algorithm is proposed to generate a biometric chaotic -keys to encrypt and decrypt the data in cipher block chaining mode. The biometric template is first decomposed using discrete wavelet transform. The horizontal and vertical coefficients are processed to extract the features which generate the bio-chaotic keys on mixing with chaotic logistic function. The proposed bio-chaotic key based block encryption system provides two levels of security, which can be controlled through the random secret key and the biometric template as well. The experimental results of randomness, histogram distribution, mean value, correlation coefficient and entropy validate the high encryption performance of the proposed bio-chaotic block encryption algorithm

  3. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.PON SANGEETHA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possible to borrow or steel or forgotten the physical or behavioral characteristics. In this paper, we are concentrating on Iris as a biometric component which is somewhat better than other biometrics in terms of stability, uniqueness, accuracy, fast and non-invasive. Usually an iris technique works by capturing & storing the biometric information & then comparing the scanned iris biometric with what is stored in the database [7]. There are so many Iris recognition techniques have been developed so far. Here we presented the survey about those techniques and an outline for a proposed Iris Recognition System which uses the concept of Neural Network and Fuzzy logic.

  4. Efficient Biometric Iris Recognition Using Hough Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kriti Sharma*1,; Himanshu Monga2

    2014-01-01

    The demand for an accurate biometric system that provides reliable identification and verification of an individual has increased over the years. A biometric system that provides reliable and accurate identification of an individual is an iris recognition system. Iris recognition systems capture an image of an individual's eye; the iris in the image is then segmented and normalized for feature extraction process. The performance of iris recognition systems highly depends on se...

  5. IRIS Biometric Recognition System Employing Canny Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Binsu C. Kovoor; Supriya M.H.; K Poulose Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics has become important in security applica tions. In comparison with many other biometric features, iris recognition has very high recognition accuracy because it depends on iris which is located in a place that still stable throughout human life and the probability to find two identical iris's is close to zero. The identifi cation system consists of several stages including segmentation stage which is the most serious and ...

  6. A Survey of Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pin Shen Teh; Andrew Beng Jin Teoh; Shigang Yue

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an...

  7. Future Path Way to Biometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar C.N, P. Girish Chandra, R. Narayana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Pattern Recognition employing Biometric system causes the fact that not only theverification & identification system becomes practical but also enables recognition of thecharacter and serves as a tool in diagnosing the disease of a person. One of the main interestsfor Biometric System is identification of person’s psychological traits and personality types whichcan be accomplished by classifying the Biometric into different levels. Existing Biometric systemcan identify or verify the person but cannot declare the personality of a Person. Face and Handprovides Researchers and Psychologists with instrument of obtaining information aboutpersonality and psychological traits. Initially the paper describes the Different level of Biometricand need for classification. Later the paper mentions some of technologies to explore the entirefield of personality through the skillful use of the computer data processing and biometricscanning. Applications of Personality Analysis include, but are not limited to, for use in daily living,private industry, civil service, education, law enforcement, military, medicine and psychology,throughout all aspects of human life.

  8. SURVEY ON MULTISPECTRAL BIOMETRIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHESWARI.M, ANCY.S, DR. G.R.SURESH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic theory says that hertzian waves provide stronger penetrability into objects. Multi-spectrum illuminator can penetrate tissues at different depths and form images of both surface skin textures and hypodemia. This multi-spectrum sensor provides greater acquisition time and better quality images than any other unimodal sensors. There are many biometric features available like hand, finger, iris, palm etc which are used for various authentication and identification purposes. These features can be captured using various technologies like optical, ultra sound, multispectral and many more. Among all multispectral images have proven for efficient results in both recognition and identification systems. In this paper we will make a study of various multispectral biometric modalities and their acquisition techniques.

  9. Bioelectrical Signals as Emerging Biometrics: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Narain Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Amit Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of bioelectrical signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG) for biometric applications. Studies show that the impulses of cardiac rhythm and electrical activity of the brain recorded in ECG and EEG, respectively; have unique features among individuals, therefore they can be suggested to be used as biometrics for identity verification. The favourable characteristics to use the ECG or EEG signals as biometric include univ...

  10. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  11. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  12. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  13. Biometrics and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this relates to. A number of practical basic rules are also given as a guide to proceeding in a legally acceptable manner when applying biometrics. The Dutch version of this article was published in: Priv...

  14. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Salah, Albert Ali; Soria, E.; Martin, J. D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but there are many other possible biometrics, including gait, ear image, retina, DNA, and even behaviours. This chapter presents a survey of machine learning methods used for biometrics applications, ...

  15. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    CERN Document Server

    Padmavathi, V S Meenakshi; Dr G

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function is changed new revocable/cancelable templates are generated. Soft biometrics is ancillary information that can be combined with primary biometrics to identify a person in a better way. Iris has certain advantage compared to other biometric traits like fingerprint. Iris is an internal part that is less prone to damage. Moreover is very difficult for an attacker to capture an iris. The key advantage of iris biometrics is its stability or template longevity. Biometric systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. This work...

  16. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760)

  17. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  18. Advanced topics in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haizhou; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based on one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. After decades of research activities, biometrics, as a recognized scientific discipline, has advanced considerably both in practical technology and theoretical discovery to meet the increasing need of biometric deployments. In this book, the editors provide both a concise and accessible introduction to the field as well as a detailed coverage on the unique research problems with their solutions in a wide spectrum of biometrics research ranging from voice, face, finge

  19. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  20. Efficient Ways to Make Biometrics System More Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Er.Neeraj Jindal; Er.Sona Aggarwal; Er.Shweta Lakhara

    2013-01-01

    Biometric identification system, which uses physical or behavioral features to check a person’s identity, ensures much greater security than passwords and number systems. Biometric features such as face or fingerprint can be stored on a microchip in credit card, for example. A single feature, however, sometimes fails to be exact enough to identification. Another disadvantage of using only one feature is that the chosen feature is not always readable; a multi-modal identification that uses two...

  1. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  2. [Biometric parameters of the uterus, ovaries and levels of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) after delivery in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Elecko, J; Bekeová, E; Maracek, I; Hendrichovský, V

    1990-12-01

    Biometric changes of uterus, ovaries, follicles and 17 beta-oestradiol (E2) concentrations were investigated in 15 lambing ewes of the Slovak Merino breed in the puerperal period. The sex organs were excised immediately after bleeding from ewes slaughtered on days 1, 7, 17, 25 and 34 post partum (p. p.). Biometric parameters of the body and horns of uterus were measured by a calliper. The ovaries were weighed on an analytical balance, their length, width and height were measured at the same time. The size and number of follicles were determined on the ovary surface. The blood for E2 detection was collected from vena jugularis three and one day before delivery (days -1, -3). Blood samples were also collected after delivery on days 1, 7, 17, 25 and 34. E2 concentrations in the blood serum of ewes were determined by RIA-test-ESTRA kits, designed in one institute at Kosice. The highest weight of uterus body in the test ewes was recorded on day 1 p. p. In the following days the weight of uterus body had a decreasing trend. There were significant differences in the weight of uterus body from day 17 to day 34 p. p., in comparison with the first day after lambing (P less than 0.01). A significant decrease in the length of uterus body was observed from day 17 to day 34 of observation (P less than 0.01; P less than 0.001). An increase in the length of a nongravid horn, observed on day 7 p. p., was followed by a gradual decrease until day 34, similarly like in its weight. No statistically significant differences were found out in the ovary length, width and height. Neither were any greater changes recorded in the weight of ovaries from day 1 to day 34 after delivery. The highest number of small structures (28) observed on day 7 p. p. in the ipsilateral ovary was decreasing in the course of puerperium and the number of follicles larger than 2, 4 and 5 mm was increasing. The highest concentrations of E2 were not recorded on day -1 before delivery. The significantly lowest

  3. Debunking some myths about biometric authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems are presented as the best way to reach high security levels in controlling access to IT systems or sensitive infrastructures. But several issues are often not taken properly into account. In order for the implementation of those systems to be successful, the hidden risks and the related liabilities have to be carefully analyzed before biometrics can be used on a large scale for sensitive applications.

  4. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  5. Segmentation-level fusion for iris recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Peter; Hofbauer, Heinz; Ferryman, James; Uhl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of fusion at normalisation/segmentation level prior to feature extraction. While there are several biometric fusion methods at data/feature level, score level and rank/decision level combining raw biometric signals, scores, or ranks/decisions, this type of fusion is still in its infancy. However, the increasing demand to allow for more relaxed and less invasive recording conditions, especially for on-the-move iris recognition, suggests to further investi...

  6. Recent research results in iris biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen; Baker, Sarah; Ring, Sarah; Bowyer, Kevin W.; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2009-05-01

    Many security applications require accurate identification of people, and research has shown that iris biometrics can be a powerful identification tool. However, in order for iris biometrics to be used on larger populations, error rates in the iris biometrics algorithms must be as low as possible. Furthermore, these algorithms need to be tested in a number of different environments and configurations. In order to facilitate such testing, we have collected more than 100,000 iris images for use in iris biometrics research. Using this data, we have developed a number of techniques for improving recognition rates. These techniques include fragile bit masking, signal-level fusion of iris images, and detecting local distortions in iris texture. Additionally, we have shown that large degrees of dilation and long lapses of time between image acquisitions negatively impact performance.

  7. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal;

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three...... strands combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  8. Enhancement of Multi-Modal Biometric Authentication Based on IRIS and Brain Neuro Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Karthikeyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed method describes the current forensics and biometrics in a modern approach andimplements the concept of IRIS along with brain and resolves the issues and increases thestrength of Digital Forensics Community. It has enormous features in biometrics to enhancediverse security levels. A new method to identify individuals using IRIS Patterns with the brainwave signals (EEG is proposed. Several different algorithms were proposed for detecting,verifying and extracting the deterministic patterns in a person’s IRIS from the Eye. The extractedEEG recordings form the person's brain has proved to be unique. Next we combine EEG signalsinto the IRIS patterns a biometric application which makes use of future multi modal combinationarchitecture. The proposed forensic research directions and argues that to move forward thecommunity needs to adopt standardized, modular approaches for person identification. The resultof each authentication test is compared with the user's pre-recorded measurements, usingpattern recognition methods and signal-processing algorithms.

  9. Technical, Legal, Economic and Social Aspects of Biometrics for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bule, Jernej; Peer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses technical, legal, economic and social aspects of biometrics for cloud computing, featuring application example, gains of such solution, current laws, directives and legislation for biometrics and cloud computing. It is primarily based on Slovenian example due to common general EU legislation in the field of cloud computing and biometrics. Authentication on the Internet is still mainly done using passwords, while biometrics is practically not us...

  10. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  11. Two-Factor Cancelable Biometrics Authenticator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Han Pang; Andrew T. B. J; David N. C. L

    2007-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication system offers advantages of providing high reliability and accuracy.However,the contemporary authentication system is impuissance to compromise.If a biometrics data is compromised, it cannot be replaced and rendered unusable.In this paper, a cancelable biometrics-based authenticator is proposed to solve this irrevocability issue.The proposed approach is a two-factor authentication system, which requires both of the random data and facial feature in order to access the system.In this system, tokenized pseudo-random data is coupled with moment-based facial feature via inner product algorithm.The output of the product is then discretized to generate a set of private binary code, coined as 2factor-Hashing code, which is acted as verification key.If this biometrics-based verification key is compromised, a new one can be issued by replacing a different set of random number via token replacement.Then, the compromised one is rendered completely useless.This feature offers an extra protection layer against biometrics fabrication since the verification code is replaceable.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides zero Equal Error Rate in which there is a clear separation in between the genuine and the imposter distribution populations.

  12. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  13. Biometrics and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  14. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  15. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  16. Biometric technology authentication, biocryptography, and cloud-based architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the

  17. Password Hardened Biometric: A Complete Solution of Online Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In present epoch, secure online access to enterprises resources is very important for any organization. To protect valuable data become one of the big challenge for today's business as enterprise customers or clients involved in business-to-customer (B2C and business-to-business (B2B e-commerce need to feel that their transactions are secured from system hackers. Biometric technology provides a solution to this problem in enterprise network security. In this article we enhance the security of online transaction using secure and unique biometric template. The uniqueness of our process is that we store biometric template and password together in encrypted form both without the fusion of score level and decision level, which leads a successful way to combine multiple technologies, different from earlier methods. Password hardened biometric system helps to generate many different secure biometric templates for the same biometric system. It also generates unique biometric templates for multiple biometric systems from the same biometric trait.

  18. Biometrics and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Venu

    The science of Biometrics is concerned with recognizing people based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. It has emerged as a vibrant field of research in today's security conscious society. In this talk we will introduce the important research challenges in Biometrics and specifically address the following topics: i) unobtrusive people tracking using a novel evolutionary recognition paradigm, ii) efficient indexing and searching of large fingerprint databases, iii) cancelability of templates where the task is to ensure that enrolled biometric templates can be revoked and new templates issued, and iv) fusion of fingerprints with other biometric modalities such as face where we will explore optimal trainable functions that operate on the scores returned by individual matchers.

  19. On Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Hadid, Abdenour; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate s...

  20. Biometric Authentication: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Rahul Ranjan; Farkhod Alisherov; Minkyu Choi

    2009-01-01

    Advances in the field of Information Technology also make Information Security an inseparable part of it. In order to deal with security, Authentication plays an important role. This paper presents a review on the biometric authentication techniques and some future possibilities in this field. In biometrics, a human being needs to be identified based on some characteristic physiological parameters. A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or de...

  1. A Novel Biometric Technique Benchmark Analysis For Selection Of Best Biometric Modality And Template Generation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanabasappa Raikoti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A biometric security is a technique by means of which digital contents are protected by acryptographic key generated from the biometric features of a person like Retina, Iris, Fingerprint,Face, Voice and so on. Normally the digital contents like documents are protected by acryptographic key generated from a unique password. The process in irreversible, i.e the key canbe generated from the password but not the vice versa. Passwords are relatively easy to hack asmost of the users keep their personal information like date of birth as password and alsopassword length has a limit as human beings cannot remember a password of significantly largelength. Hence guessing the password of a user, whose significant information is available, iseasier. Therefore off late lot of emphasis has been given to biometric features. Biometric featuresof no two people are same. For example the finger prints or the face of any two people differ.Hence if a template (alphanumeric or binary representation of features from a biometric data isselected for the key generation than cracking them for accessing information becomessignificantly difficult. But as with every advantage comes certain limitations also. The keys are nottime invariant. Templates tends to change based on the data acquisition, or with time. Forexample the finger prints or palm prints changes with ages. Iris, retina and face features changeswith change in light intensity during the acquisition phase. Fingerprint features changes withchange in the orientation of the finger while scanning. In a classic authentication problem, suchvariability’s can be easily dealt with by keeping a threshold for the acceptance of the features.Such acceptance threshold is not applicable for the case of biometric templates. Even slightest ofthe variability in the templates changes the generated key, therefore causing a high falserejection rate. Hence in this work we analyze the most accepted biometric features andtechniques for

  2. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  3. Multi-Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Gad; Nawal El-Fishawy; AYMAN EL-SAYED; M. Zorkany

    2015-01-01

    Multi-biometrics is an exciting and interesting research topic. It is used to recognizing individuals for security purposes; to increase security levels. The recent research trends toward next biometrics generation in real-time applications. Also, integration of biometrics solves some of unimodal system limitations. However, design and evaluation of such systems raises many issues and trade-offs. A state of the art survey of multi-biometrics benefits, limitations, integration strategies, and ...

  4. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  5. A novel biometric authentication approach using electrocardiogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Hakan; Guz, Umit; Yarman, B S

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel biometric authentication approach based on combination of AC/DCT features, MFCC features, and QRS beat information of the ECG signals. The proposed approach is tested on a subset of 30 subjects selected from the PTB database. This subset consists of 13 healthy and 17 non-healthy subjects who have two ECG records. The proposed biometric authentication approach achieves average frame recognition rate of %97.31 on the selected subset. Our experimental results imply that the frame recognition rate of the proposed authentication approach is better than that of ACDCT and MFCC based biometric authentication systems, individually. PMID:24110673

  6. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions. PMID:24298216

  7. Alignment and bit extraction for secure fingerprint biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, A.; Rane, S.; Vetro, A.

    2010-01-01

    Security of biometric templates stored in a system is important because a stolen template can compromise system security as well as user privacy. Therefore, a number of secure biometrics schemes have been proposed that facilitate matching of feature templates without the need for a stored biometric sample. However, most of these schemes suffer from poor matching performance owing to the difficulty of designing biometric features that remain robust over repeated biometric measurements. This paper describes a scheme to extract binary features from fingerprints using minutia points and fingerprint ridges. The features are amenable to direct matching based on binary Hamming distance, but are especially suitable for use in secure biometric cryptosystems that use standard error correcting codes. Given all binary features, a method for retaining only the most discriminable features is presented which improves the Genuine Accept Rate (GAR) from 82% to 90% at a False Accept Rate (FAR) of 0.1% on a well-known public database. Additionally, incorporating singular points such as a core or delta feature is shown to improve the matching tradeoff.

  8. Enhancing low-level features with mid-level cues

    OpenAIRE

    Trulls Fortuny, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Local features have become an essential tool in visual recognition. Much of the progress in computer vision over the past decade has built on simple, local representations such as SIFT or HOG. SIFT in particular shifted the paradigm in feature representation. Subsequent works have often focused on improving either computational efficiency, or invariance properties. This thesis belongs to the latter group. Invariance is a particularly relevant aspect if we intend to work with dense features...

  9. Biometrics: libraries have begun to see the value of biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Selvi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    It explains the Biometric Technologies which are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solution. Biometric devices with special reference to finger print recognition is dealt in detail. The benefits of Biometrics in Libraries, its employees and members are highlighted.

  10. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Chouhan; Dr.(Mrs) Shailja Shukla

    2011-01-01

    biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process...

  11. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Electronic Vision Research Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  12. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  13. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  14. PIN-based cancelable biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lacharme, Patrick; Plateaux, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems are more and more deployed in replacement of traditional authentication systems. Security of such systems is required in real- world applications and constitutes a major challenge in biometric field. An ef- ficient approach of this issue is realized by cancelable biometrics. However, the security of such biometric systems is often overestimated or based on restrictive as- sumptions. This paper presents and investigates a PIN-based variant for cancelable biometri...

  15. BIOMETRICS BASED USER AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Tiwari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics technologies are base for a plethora of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is measurement of biological characteristics – either physiological or behavioral – that verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physiological biometrics include fingerprints, iris recognition. voice verification, retina recognition, palm vein patterns, finger vein patterns, hand geometry and DNA But there arises a need for more robust systems in order to tackle the increasing incidents of security breaches and frauds. So there is always a need for fool proof technology that can provide security and safety to individuals and the transactions that the individuals make. Biometrics is increasingly used by organizations to verify identities, but coupled with quantum cryptography it offers a new range of security benefits with quantum cryptography where we form a key when we need it and then destroy it. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  16. Multi-Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Gad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-biometrics is an exciting and interesting research topic. It is used to recognizing individuals for security purposes; to increase security levels. The recent research trends toward next biometrics generation in real-time applications. Also, integration of biometrics solves some of unimodal system limitations. However, design and evaluation of such systems raises many issues and trade-offs. A state of the art survey of multi-biometrics benefits, limitations, integration strategies, and fusion levels are discussed in this paper. Finally, upon reviewing multi-biometrics approaches and techniques; some open points are suggested to be considered as a future research point of interest.

  17. A Security Algorithm for Iris Based Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARACHAND VERMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a field which is evolving regularly and also ncorporated classes of security approaches itself in recent years for user authentication. Proposed approach uses iris recognition as a example to explore an idea to build secure biometric systems. After segmenting and identifying the region of the iris, the process of normalization done. Then uniquely robust features of each person’s iris which have extracted, further used to match with iris template which is already saved in database. In this work we will give a new approach of user authentication which uses both eyes of same user. In order to provide privacy protection and deter unauthorized use of biometric sensitive data, iris feature(s should be properly encrypted by applying cryptographic techniques and image processingapproach jointly. This paper discusses a suitable approach for secure and robust biometric matching.

  18. Voice Biometrics over the Internet in the Framework of COST Action 275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Besacier

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of biometric authentication over the Internet requires both robust person authentication and secure computer network protocols. This paper presents investigations of vocal biometric person authentication over the Internet, both at the protocol and authentication robustness levels. As part of this study, an appropriate client-server architecture for biometrics on the Internet is proposed and implemented. It is shown that the transmission of raw biometric data in this application is likely to result in unacceptably long delays in the process. On the other hand, by using data models (or features, the transmission time can be reduced to an acceptable level. The use of encryption/decryption for enhancing the data security in the proposed client-server link and its effects on the transmission time are also examined. Furthermore, the scope of the investigations includes an analysis of the effects of packet loss and speech coding on speaker verification performance. It is experimentally demonstrated that whilst the adverse effects of packet loss can be negligible, the encoding of speech, particularly at a low bit rate, can reduce the verification accuracy considerably. The paper details the experimental investigations conducted and presents an analysis of the results.

  19. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  20. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    positioned and managed technologically as risks through surveillance and storage of data, whereas citizens are managed as holders of access to privileges. The technique however of both circuits is using bodily coded information through fingerprints and emphasizes the general tendency of ‘securitization of......Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...... identifier is stored in order to link a specific body to specific information related to status (asylum seeker, entry banned, convicted etc.). Finger prints are also integrated in passports in the EU, but this biometric information is restricted to establish only the link between the body and the passport...

  1. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  2. Biometrics Security using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is at risk to a variety of attacks. These attacks are intended to either avoid thesecurity afforded by the system or to put off the normal functioning of the system. Various riskshave been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of cryptography greatly reducesthe risks in biometric systems as the hackers have to find both secret key and template. It isnotified that still fraudrant goes on to some extent. Here in this paper a new idea is presented tomake system more secure by use of steganography. Here the secret key (which is in the form ofpixel intensities will be merged in the picture itself while encoding, and at decoding end only theauthentic user will be allowed to decode.

  3. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied. PMID:23762851

  4. Optimized Radial Basis Function Classifier for Multi Modal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems can be used for the identification or verification of humans based on their physiological or behavioral features. In these systems the biometric characteristics such as fingerprints, palm-print, iris or speech can be recorded and are compared with the samples for the identification or verification. Multimodal biometrics is more accurate and solves spoof attacks than the single modal bio metrics systems. In this study, a multimodal biometric system using fingerprint images and finger-vein patterns is proposed and also an optimized Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel classifier is proposed to identify the authorized users. The extracted features from these modalities are selected by PCA and kernel PCA and combined to classify by RBF classifier. The parameters of RBF classifier is optimized by using BAT algorithm with local search. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with the KNN classifier, Naïve Bayesian classifier and non-optimized RBF classifier.

  5. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Soria, E.; Martin, J.D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but

  6. Development of Palmprint Verification System Using Biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Shobha; M. Krishna; S.C. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Palmprint verification system using Biometrics is one of the emerging technologies, which recognizes a person based on the principle lines, wrinkles and ridges on the surface of the palm. These line structures are stable and remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual. More importantly, no two palmprints from different individuals are the same, and normally people do not feel uneasy to have their palmprint images taken for testing. Therefore palmprint recognition offers a promising future for medium-security access control systems. In this paper, a new approach for personal authentication using hand images is discussed. Gray-Scale palm images are captured using a digital camera at a resolution of 640′480. Each of these gray-scale images is aligned and then used to extract palmprint and hand geometry features. These features are then used for authenticating users. The image acquisition setup used here is inherently simple and it does not employ any special illumination nor does it use any pegs that might cause any inconvenience to users. Experimental results show that the designed system achieves an acceptable level of performance.

  7. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  8. IRIS BIOMETRIC SYSTEM USING A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Sarin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition Systems are ocular- based biometric devices used primarily for security reasons. The complexity and the randomness of the Iris, amongst various other factors, ensure that this biometric system is inarguably an exact and reliable method of identification. The algorithm is responsible for automatic localization and segmentation of boundaries using circular Hough Transform, noise reductions, image enhancement and feature extraction across numerous distinct images present in the database. This paper delves into the various kinds of techniques required to approximate the pupillary and limbic boundaries of the enrolled iris image, captured using a suitable image acquisition device and perform feature extraction on the normalized iris image with the help of Haar Wavelets to encode the input data into a binary string format. These techniques were validated using images from the CASIA database, and various other procedures were also tried and tested.

  9. DEFENDING AGAINST ATTACKS BY ENHANCING SECURITY USING BIOMETRICS IN SEMANTIC WEB

    OpenAIRE

    Akhilesh Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web is maturing day by day and data and information integration is growing and becoming crucial. Security is one of the key features of the future Internet’s security. So it is necessary harnessing the synergy in biometrics and in Semantic Web. It can leverage the lack of widely accepted biometrics security standards along with Semantic Web technologies to protect, represent, store and query metadata and data across biometrics datasets. However, the success of security mostly relies ...

  10. Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation oriented to Hand Biometric Segmentation in Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Sierra, Alberto de; Sánchez Ávila, Carmen; Bailador del Pozo, Gonzalo; Guerra Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    New trends in biometrics are oriented to mobile devices in order to increase the overall security in daily actions like bank account access, e-commerce or even document protection within the mobile. However, applying biometrics to mobile devices imply challenging aspects in biometric data acquisition, feature extraction or private data storage. Concretely, this paper attempts to deal with the problem of hand segmentation given a picture of the hand in an unknown background, requiring an accur...

  11. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila; Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo; Javier Guerra-Casanova; Alberto de-Santos-Sierra

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight ...

  12. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-01-01

    Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sci...

  13. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  14. Modeling biometric systems using the general pareto distribution (GPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixin; Kiefer, Frederick; Schneider, John; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-03-01

    Statistical modeling of biometric systems at the score level is extremely important. It is the foundation of the performance assessment of biometric systems including determination of confidence intervals and test sample size for simulations, and performance prediction of real world systems. Statistical modeling of multimodal biometric systems allows the development of a methodology to integrate information from multiple biometric sources. We present a novel approach for estimating the marginal biometric matching score distributions by using extreme value theory in conjunction with non-parametric methods. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is based on the modeling of extreme events represented by data which has abnormally low or high values in the tails of the distributions. Our motivation stems from the observation that the tails of the biometric score distributions are often difficult to estimate using other methods due to lack of sufficient numbers of training samples. However, good estimates of the tails of biometric distributions are essential for defining the decision boundaries. We present EVT based novel procedures for fitting a score distribution curve. A general non-parametric method is used for fitting the majority part of the distribution curve, and a parametric EVT model - the general Pareto distribution - is used for fitting the tails of the curve. We also demonstrate the advantage of applying the EVT by experiments.

  15. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  16. BIOMETRICS IN ZOOTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Biometrics in zootechnics, by authors Prof.Dr.Sc.Dr.hc. Gordana Kralik, Prof.Dr. Zoran Škrtić and Assist.Prof.Dr. Zlata Kralik from the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, contains the following chapters: 1.Introduction overview, 2. Sample analysis, 3. Parameter estimation, 4. Hypothesis testing, 5. Variance analysis of experimental plans, 6. Regression and correlation, 7. Calculation of statistical parameters in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, 8. Scientific and professional work, Literature, Symbols and formulas, Material (tables and Index – glossary. The textbook is written for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek. As longtime university teachers, authors noticed the needfor publishing textbook Biometrics in zootechnics due to the lack of literature. The textbook can also be used by students from other agricultural universities and agronomists who want to acquire basic knowledge about the use of biometric methods in the zootechnics. The aim of the authors is to clarify the core issues of research workand biometric data processing to interested readers in a simple and acceptable way. Students and professionals who wish to be engaged in research work should be familiar with the planning and conduction of experiments, data collection and analysis, data processing, aswell as interpretation of results. From cooperation and contacts with the students, authors have realized the fact that many of them are not prone to mathematics. The textbook is written without mathematical “derivation” and theoretical interpretations and is easily accessible to students and experts to whom it is intended.

  17. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  18. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  19. Meta-Level Runtime Feature Awareness for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    introduce the concept of runtime feature awareness that enables a running program to establish and make use of its own feature-code traceability links. We present an implementation of this idea, a dynamic-analysis Java library called JAwareness. JAwareness provides a meta-level architecture that can be non...

  20. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  1. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  2. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this fi

  3. Embedded System for ECG Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Comunication in Internationa Conference with Peer Review First International Congress on Cardiovasular Technologies - CARDIOTECHNIX, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2013 Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents an embedded system for individual recognition based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. The proposed system implements a real...

  4. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy k-means classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based ...

  5. Text Independent Biometric Speaker Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Gbadamosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing a machine that mimics the human behavior, particularly with the capability of responding properly to spoken language, has intrigued engineers and scientists for centuries. The earlier research work on voice recognition system which is text-dependent requires that the user must say exactly the same text or passphrase for both enrollment and verification before gaining access. In this method the testing speech is polluted by additive noise at different noise decibel levels to achieve only 75% recognition rate and would require full cooperation by the speaker which could not be used for forensic investigation. This paper presents the historical background, and technological advances in voice recognition and most importantly the study and implementation of text-independent biometric voice recognition system which could be used for speaker identification with 100% recognition rate. The technique makes it possible to use the speaker's voice to verify their identity and control access to services such as voice dialing, telephone shopping, database access services, information services, voice mail, and remote access to computers. The implementation mainly incorporates Mel frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCCs which was used for feature extraction and Vector quantization using the Linde-Buzo-Gray (VQLBG algorithm used to minimize the amount of data to be handled. The matching result is given on the basis of minimum distortion distance. The project is coded in MATLAB.

  6. FUSING SPEECH SIGNAL AND PALMPRINT FEATURES FOR AN SECURED AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the application of Biometric authentication, personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatic recognition, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Using multimodal biometric systems we typically get better performance compare to single biometric modality. This paper proposes the multimodal biometrics system for identity verification using two traits, i.e., speech signal and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and speech information increases robustness of person authentication. The proposed system is designed for applications where the training data contains a speech signal and palmprint. It is well known that the performance of person authentication using only speech signal or palmprint is deteriorated by feature changes with time. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which feature vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment templates, which are stored during database preparation.

  7. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. Radha; Karthikeyan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and in...

  8. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  9. Comparative and Analysis of Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometric as the science of recognizing an individual based on his or her physical or behavioral traits, it is beginning to gain acceptance as a legitimate method for determining an individual identity.Biometric have now been deployed in various commercial, civilian, and national security applications. Biometric described overview of various biometric techniques and the need to be addressed form making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security.

  10. Fusion of Iris and Retina Using Rank-Level Fusion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kavitha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification and authentication is difficulty in all the systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart Cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. These traditional tokens based systems may be easily stolen or lost. Biometrics is the only way of improving the capability to recognize the persons according to the physiological or behavioral features. In many real-world applications, unimodal biometric system suffers from some limitations of noise in sensed data, intra-class variation, inter-class similarities, non-universality and spoof attacks. Multibiometric systems seek to alleviate some of these problems by consolidating the evidence obtained from different sources. These systems help to achieve an increase in performance. This paper focused on developing a multimodal biometrics system, which uses biometrics such as iris and retina. Fusion of biometrics is performed by means of rank level fusion. The ranks of individual matchers are integrated using the borda count, and logistic regression approaches. The developed multimodal biometric system utilize and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD and Principal Component Analysis (PCA methods for individual matchers (Iris and Retina identification. The features from the biometrics are obtained by using the Fisherface. The experimental result shows the performance of the proposed multimodal biometrics system.

  11. Proposed Multi-Modal Palm Veins-Face Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bahgat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication technology identifies people by their unique biological information. An account holder’s body characteristics or behaviors are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Since veins are internal to the human body, its information is hard to duplicate. Compared with a finger or the back of a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of differentiating features for personal identification. However, a single biometric is not sufficient to meet the variety of requirements, including matching performance imposed by several large-scale authentication systems. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of the drawbacks encountered by uni-modal biometric systems by consolidating the evidence presented by multiple biometric traits/sources. This paper proposes a multi-modal authentication technique based on Palm Veins as a personal identifying factor, augmented by face features to increase the accuracy of security recognition. The obtained results point at an increased authentication accuracy.

  12. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  13. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  14. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  15. Environmental Testing Methodology in Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Belén; Sánchez Reíllo, Raúl; Alonso Moreno, Raúl; Miguel Hurtado, Óscar

    2010-01-01

    Recently, biometrics is used in many security systems and these systems can be located in different environments. As many experts claim and previous works have demonstrated, environmental conditions influence biometric performance. Nevertheless, there is not a specific methodology for testing this influence at the moment. Due to it is essential to carry out this kind of evaluations, a new ISO standard was proposed for regularizing them. Such standard was accepted and it has to be specif...

  16. A new threshold signature scheme based on fuzzy biometric identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongquan Cai; Ke Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the first threshold signature scheme based on biometric identity, which is acquired from a recently proposed fuzzy identities-based encryption scheme. An important feature of this scheme, which is different from other previous ID-based threshold signature schemes, is that it can be applied to situations using not only average personal attributes in social contact but also people's noisy biometric inputs as identities. The security of our scheme in the selective-lD model reduces the limit in the hardness of the Decisional BDH Assumption.

  17. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84Y

  18. European securitization and biometric identification: the uses of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Williams, Robin

    2007-01-01

    The recent loss of confidence in textual and verbal methods for validating the identity claims of individual subjects has resulted in growing interest in the use of biometric technologies to establish corporeal uniqueness. Once established, this foundational certainty allows changing biographies and shifting category memberships to be anchored to unchanging bodily surfaces, forms or features. One significant source for this growth has been the "securitization" agendas of nation states that attempt the greater control and monitoring of population movement across geographical borders. Among the wide variety of available biometric schemes, DNA profiling is regarded as a key method for discerning and recording embodied individuality. This paper discusses the current limitations on the use of DNA profiling in civil identification practices and speculates on future uses of the technology with regard to its interoperability with other biometric databasing systems. PMID:17536152

  19. Chaotic Neural Network for Biometric Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushan Ahmadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric pattern recognition emerged as one of the predominant research directions in modern security systems. It plays a crucial role in authentication of both real-world and virtual reality entities to allow system to make an informed decision on granting access privileges or providing specialized services. The major issues tackled by the researchers are arising from the ever-growing demands on precision and performance of security systems and at the same time increasing complexity of data and/or behavioral patterns to be recognized. In this paper, we propose to deal with both issues by introducing the new approach to biometric pattern recognition, based on chaotic neural network (CNN. The proposed method allows learning the complex data patterns easily while concentrating on the most important for correct authentication features and employs a unique method to train different classifiers based on each feature set. The aggregation result depicts the final decision over the recognized identity. In order to train accurate set of classifiers, the subspace clustering method has been used to overcome the problem of high dimensionality of the feature space. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.

  20. Biometric Template Security Using Invisible Watermarking With Minimum Degradation in Quality of Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Yadav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to enhance the Biometric Template Security by using Invisible Watermarking. For embedding the watermark in the Biometric Template, we used Parity Checker Method [2]. The use of Parity Checker Method ensures that the change in Biometric Template should be minimum. The watermark that is embedded in the Biometric Template may contain person’s name, person’s address or some unique features of the person. The same watermark is embedded four times in the Biometric Template to enhance its security so that if one watermark is changed by attacker, the other watermark remains intact. For each biometric template there will be a secret key that is used for embedding of watermark. The maintenance of secret key will be responsibility of database manager. The same key can be used for all biometric templates which reduces the responsibility of database manager up to a greater extent but at the cost of security. So, we used the separate key for each Biometric Template.

  1. Curvelet and Ridgelet-based Multimodal Biometric Recognition System using Weighted Similarity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric security artifacts for establishing the identity of a person with high confidence have evoked enormous interest in security and access control applications for the past few years. Biometric systems based solely on unimodal biometrics often suffer from problems such as noise, intra-class variations and spoof attacks. This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric recognition system by integrating three biometric traits namely iris, fingerprint and face using weighted similarity approach. In this work, the multi-resolution features are extracted independently from query images using curvelet and ridgelet transforms, and are then compared to the enrolled templates stored in the database containing features of each biometric trait. The final decision is made by normalizing the feature vectors, assigning different weights to the modalities and fusing the computed scores using score combination techniques. This system is tested with the public unimodal databases such as CASIA–Iris-V3-Interval, FVC2004, ORL and self-built multimodal databases. Experimental results obtained shows that the designed system achieves an excellent recognition rate of 98.75 per cent and 100 per cent for the public and self-built databases respectively and provides ultra high security than unimodal biometric systems.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 106-114. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3469

  2. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible watermarking maintains high quality of biometric data. This paper proposes Rotational Replacement of LSB as a reversible watermarking scheme for biometric images. PSNR is the regular method used for quality measurement of biometric data. In this paper we also show that SSIM Index is a better alternate for effective quality assessment for reversible watermarked biometric data by comparing with the well known reversible watermarking scheme using Difference Expansion.

  3. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  4. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  5. Imputing Human Descriptions in Semantic Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel; Nixon, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Human identification at a distance has received significant interest due to the ever increasing surveillance infrastructure. Biometrics such as face and gait offer a suitable physical attribute to uniquely identify people from a distance. When linking this with human perception, these biometrics suffer from the semantic gap which is the difference between how people and how biometrics represent and describe humans. Semantic biometrics bridges this gap, allowing conversions between gait biomet...

  6. Biometrics as security technology: Expansion amidst fallibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technology has been afforded a central role in the security architecture that Western governments have forged since the events of 9/11 2001. With biometrics the body becomes the anchor of identification. In a security architecture centred on identification of persons of interest and determination of their status as friend or foe, biometrics has come to be praised for its supposedly exceptional capacity to identify reliably. This report situates the use of biometrics as a security te...

  7. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics that are not sufficient...

  8. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment. PMID:20703610

  9. IRIS Biometric Recognition System Employing Canny Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsu C. Kovoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics has become important in security applica tions. In comparison with many other biometric features, iris recognition has very high recognition accuracy because it depends on iris which is located in a place that still stable throughout human life and the probability to find two identical iris's is close to zero. The identifi cation system consists of several stages including segmentation stage which is the most serious and cr itical one. The current segmentation methods still have limitation in localizing the iri s due to circular shape consideration of the pupil. In this research, Daugman method is done to investigate the segmentation techniques. Eyelid detection is another step that has been incl uded in this study as a part of segmentation stage to localize the iris accurately and remove un wanted area that might be included. The obtained iris region is encoded using haar wavelets to construct the iris code, which contains the most discriminating feature in the iris pattern . Hamming distance is used for comparison of iris templates in the recognition stage. The datase t which is used for the study is UBIRIS database. A comparative study of different edge det ector operator is performed. It is observed that canny operator is best suited to extract most of the edges to generate the iris code for comparison. Recognition rate of 89% and rejection r ate of 95% is achieved.

  10. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  11. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  12. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication. PMID:25836061

  13. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%. (paper)

  14. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%.

  15. Biometrics - Evaluation of Current Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahidi, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Information security has always been a topic of concern in the world as an emphasis on new techniques to secure the identity of a legitimate user is regarded as top priority. To counter such an issue, we have a traditional way of authentication factors “what you have” and “what you know” in the form of smart cards or passwords respectively. But biometrics is based on the factor “who are you” by analyzing human physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics has always been an efficient way...

  16. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics. PMID:15751854

  17. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for automated teller machine (ATM banking systems is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, a fingerprint biometric technique is fused with the ATM for person authentication to ameliorate the security level.

  18. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure a...... positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...

  19. Identification of Image Spam by Using Low Level & Metadata Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Gupta,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spammers are constantly evolving new spam technologies, the latest of which is image spam. Till now research in spam image identification has been addressed by considering properties like colour, size, compressibility, entropy, content etc. However, we feel the methods of identification so evolved have certain limitations due to embedded obfuscation like complex backgrounds, compression artifacts and wide variety of fonts and formats .To overcome these limitations, we have proposed 2 methodologies(however there can be more. Each methodology has 4 stages. Both the methodologies are almost similar except in the second stage where methodology I extracts low level features while the other extracts metadata features. Also a comparison between both the methodologies is shown. The method works on images with and without noise separately. Colour properties of the images are altered so that OCR (Optical Character Recognition can easily read the text embedded in the image. The proposed methods are tested on a dataset of 1984 spam images and are found to be effective in identifying all types of spam images having (1 only text, (2 only images or (3 both text and images. The encouraging experimental results show that the methodology I achieves an accuracy of 92% while the other achieves an accuracy of 93.3%

  20. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process

  1. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  2. Periocular Recognition Using Reduced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika D R,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is science of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data. Biometric system establishes identity of a person based on unique physical or behavioural characteristic possessed by an individual. Behavioural biometrics measures characteristics which are acquired naturally over time. Physical biometrics measures inherent physical characteristics on a n individual. Over the last few decades enormous attention is drawn towards ocular biometrics. Cues provided by ocular region have led to exploration of newer traits. Feasibility of periocular region as a useful biometric trait has been explored recently. With the promising results of preliminary examination, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Researchers have analyzed various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. The current paper investigates the effect of using Lower Central Periocular Region (LCPR for identification. The results obtained are comparable with those acquired for the entire periocular region with an advantage of reduced periocular area.

  3. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  4. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  5. MR features of fluid-fluid levels in ovarian masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Hospital, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Min Woo [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sun Ho [Dongguk University International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the frequency and imaging features of fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) in pathologically proven ovarian masses on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The authors reviewed the preoperative MR findings of 556 ovarian masses in 428 patients. Presence, numbers, and signal intensities (SI) of FFLs were analyzed. In non-teratomas, we assessed whether SI of the FFLs of benign masses and malignant neoplasms differed using the {chi}{sup 2} test. FFLs were observed in 66 of 556 ovarian masses (11.9%) on MR images, fat-fluid levels were observed in 11 of 80 teratomas, and FFLs attributed to hemorrhage in 54 of 476 non-teratomas and one twisted teratoma. Non-neoplastic cystic lesions were most common non-teratomas to contain FFLs (27/197, 13.7%), followed by malignant neoplasms (23/177, 13.0%). Benign neoplasms rarely contained FFLs (4/102, 3.9%); those that did were commonly associated with complications such as torsion or inflammation. A hypointense supernatant layer together with a hyperintense dependent layer on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) was significantly more common in malignant neoplasms than in benign masses (P < 0.0001). FFLs occurred in various ovarian masses ranging from benign to malignant neoplasms on MR images. In non-teratomas, a hypointense supernatant layer and a hyperintense dependent layer on T1WIs may favor a diagnosis of malignancy. (orig.)

  6. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  7. Neural Network Based Accurate Biometric Recognition and Identification of Human Iris Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gopikrishnan; T.Santhanam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Approach: Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. However, published results have usually been produced under favor...

  8. SilentSense: Silent User Identification via Dynamics of Touch and Movement Behavioral Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Cheng; Zhang, Lan; Li, Xiang-yang

    2013-01-01

    With the increased popularity of smartphones, various security threats and privacy leakages targeting them are discovered and investigated. In this work, we present \\ourprotocoltight, a framework to authenticate users silently and transparently by exploiting dynamics mined from the user touch behavior biometrics and the micro-movement of the device caused by user's screen-touch actions. We build a "touch-based biometrics" model of the owner by extracting some principle features, and then veri...

  9. Biometrics Technology : Attitudes & influencing factors when trying to adopt this technology in Blekinge healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Irfan; Qadir, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Context. Biometric technology is a secure and convenient identification method and it does not need to remember complex passwords, nor smart cards, keys, and the like. Biometrics is the measurable characteristics of individuals based on their behavioral patterns or physiological features that can be used to verify or recognize their identity. Physical characteristics include fingerprints, palm or hand geometry, iris, retina, and facial characteristics. Behavioral characteristics include signat...

  10. Advent of Biometric Sensors in Field of Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing biological data. It is used to uniquely identify individuals by their physical characteristics or personal behavior traits.The results from scrutiny of various themes including unimodal, multimodal, physiological, behavioural bio-metrics. Bio-metrics, Physiological and behavioural are compared in the review. The article addresses a particular aspect of utilizing biometrics for authentication, identification and access control. The use of systems like fingerprint, face recognition, hand geometry, Palm print, DNA analysis, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent will be dealt with herewith. This study deals with various applications of this technology, like surveillance, employee identification, device access etc with mentions respective of hardware used. The influence of such features is yet to be documented properly, but it is safe to say that it has been a huge step towards better information security and identification control.Over the course of this text, we will try to bring to light our analysis of the subject and provide an in-depth examination of contemporary and futuristic technologies pertaining to this field.

  11. Cellular Automata based Encrypted ECG-hash Code Generation: An Application in Inter human Biometric Authentication System

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Nandi; Satyabrata Roy; Jayanti Dansana; Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa; Ruben Ray; Shatadru Roy Chowdhury; Sayan Chakraborty; Nilanjan Dey

    2014-01-01

    In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG) feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity ...

  12. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  13. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Data Representation by AVT Hierarchical Data Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user’s medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents’ medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data. Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  14. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper. PMID:22547926

  15. Level Sets and Voronoi based Feature Extraction from any Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, O.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    skeletonization, that guarantees the extracted features to be topologically correct. The features thus extracted as object centerlines can be stored as vector maps in a Geographic Information System after labeling and editing. We show application examples on different sources: paper maps, digital satellite...

  16. ORNL Biometric Eye Model for Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Iris recognition has been proven to be an accurate and reliable biometric. However, the recognition of non-ideal iris images such as off angle images is still an unsolved problem. We propose a new biometric targeted eye model and a method to reconstruct the off-axis eye to its frontal view allowing for recognition using existing methods and algorithms. This allows for existing enterprise level algorithms and approaches to be largely unmodified by using our work as a pre-processor to improve performance. In addition, we describe the `Limbus effect' and its importance for an accurate segmentation of off-axis irides. Our method uses an anatomically accurate human eye model and ray-tracing techniques to compute a transformation function, which reconstructs the iris to its frontal, non-refracted state. Then, the same eye model is used to render a frontal view of the reconstructed iris. The proposed method is fully described and results from synthetic data are shown to establish an upper limit on performance improvement and establish the importance of the proposed approach over traditional linear elliptical unwrapping methods. Our results with synthetic data demonstrate the ability to perform an accurate iris recognition with an image taken as much as 70 degrees off-axis.

  17. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  18. ECG-based biometric identification: some modern approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Astapov A.A.; Davydov D.V.; Egorov A.I.; Drozdov D.V.; Glukhovskij E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The uniqueness of electrical activity of every human heart prompts us to use the ECG as a biometric parameter in various security and authentication systems as it is easy and cheap to extract the signal and difficult to fake it or obtain nonconsensually. At the moment various approaches to researching a possibility of human identification by ECG are used. Identification mode includes the following stages: data collection, procession, feature extraction, classification. Researchers use differe...

  19. The biometric analysis of wall of human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our research was an establishment of regional morphological features of wall of human heart at fetuses, newborns and children. As a material for the research hearts of fetuses of 28-32 weeks (n=9), newborns (n=12) and children (n=14), who have died from reasons not connected with cardiovascular pathology, have served. By the methods of organometrii and variation statistics, the conducted biometric analysis of wall of heart has shown, that structural-functional reorganization of...

  20. Secure Biometrics: Concepts, Authentication Architectures and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Shantanu; Wang, Ye; Draper, Stark C.; Ishwar, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    BIOMETRICS are an important and widely used class of methods for identity verification and access control. Biometrics are attractive because they are inherent properties of an individual. They need not be remembered like passwords, and are not easily lost or forged like identifying documents. At the same time, bio- metrics are fundamentally noisy and irreplaceable. There are always slight variations among the measurements of a given biometric, and, unlike passwords or identification numbers, ...

  1. Privacy Preserving using Primary Biometrics and Softbiometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Jain; Sukhdev Singh; Anish Soni

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, unimodal biometric systems often face significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intra class variability, data quality, pressure, dirt, dryness and other factors. Multimodal biometric authentication systems aim to fuse two or more physical or behavioral traits to provide optimal Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) Vs Imposter Acceptance Rate (IAR) curve i.e. Receiver‘s Operating Characteristic (ROC). Soft biometrics can be used to improve the performance of tradition...

  2. Biometric Security System based on Fingerprint Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Habib, Ijlal Shahrukh Ateeq, Kamran Hameed

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face r...

  3. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  4. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  5. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  6. Opinion mining feature-level using Naive Bayes and feature extraction based analysis dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Regi; Baizal, Z. K. Abdurahman; Nhita, Fhira

    2015-12-01

    Development of internet and technology, has major impact and providing new business called e-commerce. Many e-commerce sites that provide convenience in transaction, and consumers can also provide reviews or opinions on products that purchased. These opinions can be used by consumers and producers. Consumers to know the advantages and disadvantages of particular feature of the product. Procuders can analyse own strengths and weaknesses as well as it's competitors products. Many opinions need a method that the reader can know the point of whole opinion. The idea emerged from review summarization that summarizes the overall opinion based on sentiment and features contain. In this study, the domain that become the main focus is about the digital camera. This research consisted of four steps 1) giving the knowledge to the system to recognize the semantic orientation of an opinion 2) indentify the features of product 3) indentify whether the opinion gives a positive or negative 4) summarizing the result. In this research discussed the methods such as Naï;ve Bayes for sentiment classification, and feature extraction algorithm based on Dependencies Analysis, which is one of the tools in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and knowledge based dictionary which is useful for handling implicit features. The end result of research is a summary that contains a bunch of reviews from consumers on the features and sentiment. With proposed method, accuration for sentiment classification giving 81.2 % for positive test data, 80.2 % for negative test data, and accuration for feature extraction reach 90.3 %.

  7. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  8. Behavioural Biometrics for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 56-56. ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Biometric Systems: Evolution, Applications and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes

  10. BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS: EVOLUTION, APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes.

  11. Biometric systems technology, design and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wayman, James; Maltoni, Davide

    2005-01-01

    A reference book for anyone involved in the design, management or implementation of biometric systems, and provides all the information needed to a build reliable system. It focuses on the four most widely used types of biometric technology - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition.

  12. Feature level fusion of polarimetric infrared and GPR data for landmine detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, F.; De Jong, W.; Schutte, K.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Kovalenko, V.; Bloemenkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Feature-level sensor fusion is the process where specific information (i.e. features) from objects detected by different sensors are combined and classified. This paper focuses on the feature-level fusion procedure for a sensor combination consisting of a polarimetric infrared (IR) imaging sensor and a GPR: a video impulse radar (VIR). The single sensor detection methods and the feature-level sensor-fusion methods are evaluated. The detection results of both single sensors and the sensor-fusi...

  13. Sustaining Security In MANET: Biometric Stationed Authentication Protocol (BSAP Inculcating Meta-Heuristic Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprehends an impending accost of intensifying biometric stationed authentication protocol(BSAP bestowing meta-heuristic genetic algorithm for securing MANET. Biometric authentication using fingerprint, facial, iris scan, voice recognition etc. have gain a lot of importance in recent years to provide security in MANET. Biometrics are more advantageous and secure as compared to prevailing data security techniques like password or token mechanisms. A higher level of security is achieved in our impending approach using genetic algorithm to overcome the security and privacy concerns that exist in biometric technology. The foremost requirement of our protocol is to overcome various data attacks such as wormhole, cache poisoning, invisible node attack etc. that are confronted by MANET and make the network more secure.

  14. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  15. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  16. CAR ACCESS USING MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin LUPU

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of multimodal biometrics in order to identify or to verify a person that wants to start the engine of a car. First of all, a fingerprint sensor is posted on the car’s door, one on the steering wheel, a camera for iris recognition on the car's main mirror, and finally a microphone for voice recognition. There are two possibilities: if the person is identified as the car owner or a known user, then he/she can take control over the car; if it’s an intruder, the car ca...

  17. Palm Biometrics: Testimony of Security

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy*, Abhilasha

    2014-01-01

    Now a days, whenever we think of developing a system or software, the first thing that comes in one’s mind is Security. We always think whether the given system is secure enough to use or not? This question arises because Security is no more secure word in today’s world because of unlawful persons. So, to provide assertion there comes an epoch i.e. BIOMETRICS. This field has gained wide popularity all over the universe, as it recognizes our Biological or Physiological characte...

  18. Low Vitamin D levels predict clinical features of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslak, Kristina; Feingold, Jordyn; Antonius, Daniel; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Dracxler, Roberta; Rosedale, Mary; Aujero, Nicole; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond; Malaspina, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D plays crucial roles in neuroprotection and neurodevelopment, and low levels are commonly associated with schizophrenia. We considered if the association was spurious or causal by examining the association of Vitamin D with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging. Vitamin D levels in 22 well-characterized schizophrenia cases were examined with respect to symptoms, cognition, and functioning. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The...

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  20. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    , and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time to...... the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based...

  1. MySQL and MATLAB Interfacing for Biometric Template Protection with Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mani Roja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for biometric database management is presented with enhanced security features. This paper attempts to improve the security of biometric database system by interfacing with MySQL server. The signature templates are acquired for the database using digital pen tablet, encrypted using a simple pseudo noise based algorithm and then stored on the MySQL server. During the authentication phase, the signatures are brought from the database for feature extraction. After decryption, they are compared with query template. Since, the database is password protected, it provides double security against adversary attacks.

  2. Low-Level Color and Texture Feature Extraction of Coral Reef Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sheila Angeli Marcos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-based classifier that automates coral reef assessmentfrom digitized underwater video. We extract low-level color and texture features from coral images toserve as input to a high-level classifier. Low-level features for color were labeled blue, green, yellow/brown/orange, and gray/white, which are described by the normalized chromaticity histograms of thesemajor colors. The color matching capability of these features was determined through a technique called“Histogram Backprojection”. The low-level texture feature marks a region as coarse or fine dependingon the gray-level variance of the region.

  3. Security issues of Internet-based biometric authentication systems: risks of Man-in-the-Middle and BioPhishing on the example of BioWebAuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Christian; Scheidat, Tobias; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; González Agulla, Elisardo; Otero Muras, Enrique; García Mateo, Carmen; Alba Castro, José L.

    2008-02-01

    Beside the optimization of biometric error rates the overall security system performance in respect to intentional security attacks plays an important role for biometric enabled authentication schemes. As traditionally most user authentication schemes are knowledge and/or possession based, firstly in this paper we present a methodology for a security analysis of Internet-based biometric authentication systems by enhancing known methodologies such as the CERT attack-taxonomy with a more detailed view on the OSI-Model. Secondly as proof of concept, the guidelines extracted from this methodology are strictly applied to an open source Internet-based biometric authentication system (BioWebAuth). As case studies, two exemplary attacks, based on the found security leaks, are investigated and the attack performance is presented to show that during the biometric authentication schemes beside biometric error performance tuning also security issues need to be addressed. Finally, some design recommendations are given in order to ensure a minimum security level.

  4. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  5. Review of Multimodal Biometrics: Applications, challenges and Research Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Vijay M. Mane; Prof. (Dr.) Dattatray V. Jadhav

    2009-01-01

    Biometric systems for today’s high security applications must meet stringent performance requirements. The fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. Fusion methods include processing biometric modalities sequentially until an acceptable match is obtained. More sophisticated methods combine scores from separate classifiers for each modality. This paper is an overview of multimodal biometrics, challenges in the progress of multimodal biometrics, the main research a...

  6. Soft biometrics for subject identification using clothing attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Emad Sami; Nixon, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, soft biometrics has emerged as a novel attribute-based person description for identification. It is likely that soft biometrics can be deployed where other biometrics cannot, and have stronger invariance properties than vision-based biometrics, such as invariance to illumination and contrast. Previously, a variety of bodily soft biometrics has been used for identifying people. Describing a person by their clothing properties is a natural task performed by people. As yet, clothing de...

  7. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  8. Biometrics and smart cards combine to offer high security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Smart Card a plastic credit card sized package with an embedded computer chip which encompasses a level of technical sophistication which makes it virtually impossible to counterfeit. The question of legitimacy of the person using the Card for physical, computer, or network access can be answered by storing a biometric template of the authorized user in the Smart Card's unalterable memory. The bimetric template can be based upon a retina print, a hand print, a finger print, a wrist-vein print, a voice print, or pseudo-biometrics, such as signature dynamics, gait dynamics or keyboard typing patterns. These Cards will function only when they are being used by the authorized individuals to whom they are issued

  9. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  10. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  11. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  12. Pores and ridges: high-resolution fingerprint matching using level 3 features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Chen, Yi; Demirkus, Meltem

    2007-01-01

    Fingerprint friction ridge details are generally described in a hierarchical order at three different levels, namely, Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (pores and ridge contours). Although latent print examiners frequently take advantage of Level 3 features to assist in identification, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) currently rely only on Level 1 and Level 2 features. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) standard of fingerprint resolution for AFIS is 500 pixels per inch (ppi), which is inadequate for capturing Level 3 features, such as pores. With the advances in fingerprint sensing technology, many sensors are now equipped with dual resolution (500 ppi/1,000 ppi) scanning capability. However, increasing the scan resolution alone does not necessarily provide any performance improvement in fingerprint matching, unless an extended feature set is utilized. As a result, a systematic study to determine how much performance gain one can achieve by introducing Level 3 features in AFIS is highly desired. We propose a hierarchical matching system that utilizes features at all the three levels extracted from 1,000 ppi fingerprint scans. Level 3 features, including pores and ridge contours, are automatically extracted using Gabor filters and wavelet transform and are locally matched using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Our experiments show that Level 3 features carry significant discriminatory information. There is a relative reduction of 20 percent in the equal error rate (EER) of the matching system when Level 3 features are employed in combination with Level 1 and 2 features. This significant performance gain is consistently observed across various quality fingerprint images. PMID:17108380

  13. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  14. THRIVE: threshold homomorphic encryption based secure and privacy preserving biometric verification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Kiraz, Mehmet Sabir; Erdogan, Hakan; Savas, Erkay

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new biometric verification and template protection system which we call THRIVE. The system includes novel enrollment and authentication protocols based on threshold homomorphic encryption where a private key is shared between a user and a verifier. In the THRIVE system, only encrypted binary biometric templates are stored in a database and verification is performed via homomorphically randomized templates, thus, original templates are never revealed during authentication. Due to the underlying threshold homomorphic encryption scheme, a malicious database owner cannot perform full decryption on encrypted templates of the users in the database. In addition, security of the THRIVE system is enhanced using a two-factor authentication scheme involving user's private key and biometric data. Using simulation-based techniques, the proposed system is proven secure in the malicious model. The proposed system is suitable for applications where the user does not want to reveal her biometrics to the verifier in plain form, but needs to prove her identity by using biometrics. The system can be used with any biometric modality where a feature extraction method yields a fixed size binary template and a query template is verified when its Hamming distance to the database template is less than a threshold. The overall connection time for the proposed THRIVE system is estimated to be 336 ms on average for 256-bit biometric templates on a desktop PC running with quad core 3.2 GHz CPUs at 10 Mbit/s up/down link connection speed. Consequently, the proposed system can be efficiently used in real-life applications.

  15. Autopoietic Theory as a Framework for Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autopoietic theory which represents a framework for describing complex non-linear and especially living systems is described in a context of biometric characteristics. It is argued that any living system by performing an internal process of reproducing its structural components yields physical biometric characteristics. Likewise any living system when structurally coupling to another (eventually allopoietic system yields a behavioral or psychological characteristic of the living system. It is shown that any system that can be considered as autopoietic can potentially be measured, authenticated and/or identified using adequate biometric methods, and thus biometrics is applicable to any autopoietic system: living beings, groups of living beings, social systems, organizations as well as information systems. In the end implications of such a conceptualization are discussed as well as possible applications.

  16. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  17. BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION: A MODERN ERA FOR SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAY DHIR,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of systems require some reliable recognition system that gives the identity of a person. There are many applications that need the identity of a person to operate such as ATM, Laptops, Access to buildings, cellular Phones & some sensitive security locations. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an ndividual’s identity based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card or “what she remembers” (e.g., a password. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  18. Enhanced ATM Security System using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Selina Oko; Jane Oruh

    2012-01-01

    Because biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there hasbeen a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. In this paper the existing security of the ATM (Automated Teller Machine) system has been improved by integrating the fingerprint of the user into the banks database as to further authenticate it. This was achieved by modelling and building an ATM simulator that will mimic a typical ATM system. ...

  19. Soft computing in biometrics : a pragmatic appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Jayaram; Fleyeh, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing spurt in digital crimes such as image manipulation, image tampering, signature forgery, image forgery, illegal transaction, etc. have hard pressed the demand to combat these forms of criminal activities. In this direction, biometrics - the computer-based validation of a persons' identity is becoming more and more essential particularly for high security systems. The essence of biometrics is the measurement of person’s physiological or behavioral characteristics, it enables...

  20. Behavioural biometrics using electricity load profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bicego, Manuele; Recchia, F.; Farinelli, Alessandro; Ramchurn, Sarvapali; GROSSO, E.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling behavioural biometric patterns is a key issue for modern user centric applications, aimed at better monitoring users’ activities, understanding their habits and detecting their identity. Following this trend, this paper investigates whether the electrical energy consumption of a user can be a distinctive behavioural biometric trait. In particular we analyse daily and weekly load profiles showing that they are closely related to the identity of the users. Hence, we believe that this ...

  1. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Dimitrios Hatzinakos; Foteini Agrafioti; Yongjin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact loca...

  2. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  3. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  4. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  5. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixue Yang

    Full Text Available Although electrocardiogram (ECG fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD patients, respectively.

  6. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meixue; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  7. Face Biometrics Based on Principal Component Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih H. Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In facial biometrics, face features are used as the required human traits for automatic recognition. Feature extracted from face images are significant for face biometrics system performance. Approach: In this thesis, a framework of facial biometric was designed based on two subspace methods i.e., Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. First, PCA is used for dimension reduction, where original face images are projected into lower-dimensional face representations. Second, LDA was proposed to provide a solution of better discriminant. Both PCA and LDA features were presented to Euclidean distance measurement which is conveniently used as a benchmark. The algorithms were evaluated in face identification and verification using a standard face database-AT and T and a locally collected database-CBE. Each database consists of 400 images and 320 images respectively. Results: LDA-based methods outperform PCA for both face identification and verification. For face identification, PCA achieves accuracy of 91.9% (AT and T and 76.7% (CBE while LDA 94.2% (AT and T and 83.1% (CBE. For face verification, PCA achieves Equal Error Rate (EER of 1.15% (AT and T, 7.3% (CBE while LDA 0.78% (AT and T and 5.81% (CBE. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study had proved that, when given sufficient training samples, LDA is able to provide better discriminant ability in feature extraction for face biometrics.

  8. Biometric system for user authentication based on Hough transform and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dubey Dheeraj Agrawal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of a person is the major concern in this era for security purposes. In biometric systems Signature is one of the behavioural features used for the authentication purpose. In this paper we work on the offline signature collected through different persons. Morphological operations are applied on these signature images with Hough transform to determine regular shape which assists in authentication process. The values extracted from this Hough space is used in the feed forward neural network which is trained using back-propagation algorithm. After the different training stages efficiency found above more than 95%. Application of this system will be in the security concerned fields, in the defence security, biometric authentication, as biometric computer protection or as

  9. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.’s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  10. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  11. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  12. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Chouhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process. The performance of iris recognition system highly depends on edge detection. The Canny Edge Detector is one of the most commonly used image processing tools, detecting edges in a very robust manner. For instance, even an effective feature extraction method would not be able to obtain useful information from an iris image that is not segmented properly. This paper presents a straightforward approach for segmenting the iris patterns. The used method determines an automated global threshold and the pupil center. Experiments are performed using iris images obtained from CASIA database (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Matlab application for its easy and efficient tools in image manipulation.

  14. Novel Simulation Framework of Three-Dimensional Skull Bio-Metric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously, most of the researcher was suffering from simulate any three dimension applications for biometrics application, likewise, various applications of forensics and cosmetology has not been easy to be simulated. Three dimensional figures have approved the fact that, it has been more reliable than two dimensional figures in most of the applications used to be implemented for the purposes above. The reason behind this reliability was the features that extract from the three dimensional applications more close to the reality. The goal of this paper is to study and evaluate how far three-dimensional skull biometric is reliable in term of the accurate measurements, capability and applicability. As it mentions above, it was hard to evaluate or simulate an application use three-dimensional skull in biometric, however, Canfield Imaging Systems provide a new suitable environment to simulate a new three-dimensional skull biometric. The second goal of this paper is to assess how good the new threedimensional image system is. This paper will also go through the recognition and verification based on a different biometric application. Subsequently this paper will study the reliability and dependability of using skull biometric. The simulation based on the three-dimensional Skull recognition using threedimensional matching technique. The feature of the simulate system shows the capability of using three-dimensional matching system as an efficient way to identify the person through his or her skull by match it with database, this technique grantee fast processing with optimizing the false positive and negative as well .

  15. Multi-Level Feature Descriptor for Robust Texture Classification via Locality-Constrained Collaborative Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shu

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple but highly efficient ensemble for robust texture classification, which can effectively deal with translation, scale and changes of significant viewpoint problems. The proposed method first inherits the spirit of spatial pyramid matching model (SPM), which is popular for encoding spatial distribution of local features, but in a flexible way, partitioning the original image into different levels and incorporating different overlapping patterns of each level. This flexible setup helps capture the informative features and produces sufficient local feature codes by some well-chosen aggregation statistics or pooling operations within each partitioned region, even when only a few sample images are available for training. Then each texture image is represented by several orderless feature codes and thereby all the training data form a reliable feature pond. Finally, to take full advantage of this feature pond, we develop a collaborative representation-based strategy with locality constr...

  16. Biometrics and Banks in Finland from a Privacy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rekola, Maija Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the interaction between privacy, biometrics and banks. The purpose is to by researching biometrics in the light of privacy and data protection to recognize the possible need to amend the legislation.

  17. Review of modern biometric user authentication and their development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z. V.; Sokolov, S. S.; Nyrkov, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the possibility of using biometric information technologies in management. Made a brief overview of access control and time attendance. Analyzed biometrics and identification system user. Recommendations on the use of various systems depending on the specific tasks.

  18. Biometrics in support of special forces medical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on ways in which the ODA can leverage biometrics in medical operations to improve their security, improve relations with indigenous personnel, and contribute to the larger theater biometrics program. PMID:23536454

  19. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrices: Generalisation and Some New Features

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Bino; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) are one of the earliest techniques used for image texture analysis. In this paper we defined a new feature called trace extracted from the GLCM and its implications in texture analysis are discussed in the context of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). The theoretical extension of GLCM to n-dimensional gray scale images are also discussed. The results indicate that trace features outperform Haralick features when applied to CBIR.

  20. BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipko E. P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Test of cardiorespiratory synchronism is offered as a way of biometric identification of the person. The way represents registration, transformation and fixing on electronic carriers of parameters physiological is intimate - respiratory synchronism, such as the minimal and maximal borders of a range of synchronization in synchronous cardiorespiratory cycles in one minute, width of a range of synchronization in synchronous cardiorespiratory cycles in minute, duration of development of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the minimal border of a range from the beginning of test before steady formation of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the minimal border and duration of development of cardiorespiratory synchronism from the beginning of test before steady formation of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the maximal border of synchronization in intimate cycles at objects of identification as the schedules displaying electrophysiological characteristics of work of heart and respiratory activity of the person at the moment of reception of cardiorespiratory synchronism. Further, the received schedules compare to available schedules and judge that, they belong to the same person whether or not. Advantages of this way are high reliability of identification, simplicity and speed of performance, exception of trainings in advance

  1. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shuo Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  2. Biometrics Technology and the New Economy: A Review of the Field and the Case of the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Ali M. Al-Khouri

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, biometrics technology has evolved from a technology used primarily in forensics and a narrow scientific and technological field to an indispensable technology in public and private sectors expanding into areas calling for advanced security. Biometric technologies provide high levels of security and reliability to address requirements related to identification and verification of personal identities. In light of the ever increasing requirements for robust identity managem...

  3. « Characterization of X-ray images of the hand by mathematical models : application to biometrics »

    OpenAIRE

    Kabbara, Yeihya

    2015-01-01

    In its specific context, the term "biometrics" is often associated with the study of the physical and behavioral of individual's characteristics to achieve their identification or verification. Thus, the work developed in this thesis has led us to suggest a robust identification algorithm, taking into account the intrinsic characteristics of the hand phalanges. Considered as hidden biometrics, this new approach can be of high interest, particularly when it comes to ensure a high level of secu...

  4. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  5. A Study on Existing Gait Biometrics Approaches and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Katiyar; Vinay Kumar Pathak; K. V. Arya

    2013-01-01

    Applications of biometrics system are increasingly day by day as these methods provide more reliable and accurate way of identification and verification. Psychological studies indicate that people have a small but statistically significant ability to recognize the gait of individuals that they know. Gait biometrics is one of the recent biometrics systems which works on the shape and gesture of an individual walking style and comes under the category of behavioral biometric characteristics. Th...

  6. Four Machine Learning Algorithms for Biometrics Fusion: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Damousis, I. G.; Argyropoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the efficiency of four machine learning algorithms for the fusion of several biometrics modalities to create a multimodal biometrics security system. The algorithms examined are Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Expert Systems (FESs), and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The fusion of biometrics leads to security systems that exhibit higher recognition rates and lower false alarms compared to unimodal biometric security systems. Supervised lear...

  7. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint c

  8. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  9. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Morling, Niels; Borsting, Claus; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs) and the......The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively. The...

  10. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Balanoiu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system.

  11. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  12. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  13. INTEGRATED EXPRESSIONAL AND COLOR INVARIANT FACIAL RECOGNITION SCHEME FOR HUMAN BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Punithavalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many practical applications like biometrics, video surveillance and human computer interaction, face recognition plays a major role. The previous works focused on recognizing and enhancing the biometric systems based on the facial components of the system. In this work, we are going to build Integrated Expressional and Color Invariant Facial Recognition scheme for human biometric recognition suited to different security provisioning public participation areas.At first, the features of the face are identified and processed using bayes classifier with RGB and HSV color bands. Second, psychological emotional variance are identified and linked with the respective human facial expression based on the facial action code system. Finally, an integrated expressional and color invariant facial recognition is proposed for varied conditions of illumination, pose, transformation, etc. These conditions on color invariant model are suited to easy and more efficient biometric recognition system in public domain and high confidential security zones. The integration is made derived genetic operation on the color and expression components of the facial feature system. Experimental evaluation is planned to done with public face databases (DBs such as CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0 to estimate the performance of the proposed integrated expressional facial and color invariant recognition scheme [IEFCIRS]. Performance evaluation is done based on the constraints like recognition rate, security and evalaution time.

  14. Review of Multimodal Biometrics: Applications, challenges and Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Vijay M. Mane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems for today’s high security applications must meet stringent performance requirements. The fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. Fusion methods include processing biometric modalities sequentially until an acceptable match is obtained. More sophisticated methods combine scores from separate classifiers for each modality. This paper is an overview of multimodal biometrics, challenges in the progress of multimodal biometrics, the main research areas and its applications to develop the security system for high security areas

  15. The Rett Syndrome Complex: Communicative Functions in Relation to Developmental Level and Autistic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Ehlers, Stephan; Hagberg, Bengt; Gillberg, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Communicative functions, overall developmental level, and autistic features were studied in eight females (ages 11-36) with Rett Syndrome. Low levels of communicative abilities and overall functioning were demonstrated, and joint attention behaviors and expression of communicative intent were rare. Six subjects, however, showed clear examples of…

  16. Identifying Individuals Using Eigenbeat Features of Electrocardiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Narain Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this paper present a new method to characterize the electrocardiogram (ECG) for individual identification. We propose an ECG biometric system which is insensitive to noise signals and muscle flexure. The method utilizes the principal of linearly projecting the heartbeat features into a subspace of lower dimension using an orthogonal basis that represents the most significant features to distinguish the individuals. The performance of the proposed biometric system is evaluated o...

  17. The Design of Terra: Harnessing the Best Features of High-Level and Low-Level Languages

    OpenAIRE

    DeVito, Zachary; Hanrahan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Applications are often written using a combination of high-level and low-level languages since it allows performance critical parts to be carefully optimized, while other parts can be written more productively. This approach is used in web development, game programming, and in build systems for applications themselves. However, most languages were not designed with interoperability in mind, resulting in glue code and duplicated features that add complexity. We propose a two-language system wh...

  18. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  19. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N.Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample and by creating a physical spoof.Susceptibility of the database can have a disastrous impact on the whole authentication system. The potential disclosure of digitally stored biometric data raises serious concerns about privacy and data protection. Therefore, we propose a method which would integrate conventional cryptography techniques with biometrics. In this work, we present a biometric crypto system which encrypts the biometric template and the encryption is done by generating pseudo random numbers, based on non-linear dynamics.

  20. An adequate approach to image retrieval based on local level feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors) and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval) techniques. (author)

  1. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  2. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lourenço

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications.

  3. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program: Jianwen Fang

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  4. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm;

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...

  5. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  6. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  7. The Biometric Algorithm based on Fusion of DWT Frequency Components of Enhanced Iris Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biometrics are used to authenticate a person effectively compared to conventional methods of identification. In this paper we propose the biometric algorithm based on fusion of Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT frequency components of enhanced iris image.The iris template is extracted from an eye image by considering horizontal pixels in an iris part.The iris template contrast is enhanced using Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE and Histogram Equalization (HE.The DWT is applied on enhanced iris template.The features are formed by straight line fusion of low and high frequency coefficients of DWT.The Euclidian distance is used to compare final test features with database features. It is observed that the performance parameters are better in the case of proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithms.

  8. THE APPLICATION OF FEATURE TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING A CAD-BASED HIGH LEVEL PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Febransyah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level process planning plays an important role in determining candidate process domains at the configuration design stage. Changing the process domains later increases the product development cycle and the product development cost. Therefore, determining the most appropriate manufacturing processes at the beginning stages of the design process becomes critical. However, high-level process planning systems have traditionally lacked integration of design synthesis and design evaluation. The objective of this paper is to propose a CAD-based high-level process planning system that will help designers decide whether or not the designs are worth pursuing. A hybrid approach incorporating design by feature and feature recognition approaches is proposed and implemented. Synergizing both advantages of both approaches will reduce the complexity of feature recognition algorithm without sacrificing the flexibility in creating a part model.

  9. Age Estimation-Based Soft Biometrics Considering Optical Blurring Based on Symmetrical Sub-Blocks for MLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its many useful applications, human age estimation has been considered in many previous studies as a soft biometrics. However, most existing methods of age estimation require a clear and focused facial image as input in order to obtain a trustworthy estimation result; otherwise, the methods might produce increased estimation error when an image of poor quality is used as input. Image blurring is one of major factors that affect estimation accuracies because it can cause a face to appear younger (i.e., reduce the age feature in the face region. Therefore, we propose a new human age estimation method that is robust even with an image that has the optical blurring effect by using symmetrical focus mask and sub-blocks for multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP. Experiment results show that the proposed method can enhance age estimation accuracy compared with the conventional system, which does not consider the effects of blurring.

  10. BIOMETRIC SECURITY: ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN DALAM SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI TERKOMPUTERISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josua Tarigan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges will face when develop biometric technology as control in accounting information system are standardization, hybrid technology uses, life cycle management. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Adanya keinginan setiap organisasi untuk mencari metode pengamanan authentication yang lebih untuk akses user, dijawab dengan adanya teknologi biometric security yang mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar bagi organisasi. Implementasi teknologi biometric security cukup luas dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yaitu sebagai pengendalian pada physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications dan covert surveillance. Dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi biometric, ada tiga tahapan yang harus dilakukan organisasi, yakni strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan dan documentation. Tantangan yang akan dihadapi dalam mengembangkan teknologi biometric sebagai pengendalian dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yakni standarisasi, aplikasi teknologi hybrid dan manajemen siklus hidup pada biometric security. Kata kunci: authentication, akses user dan biometric security.

  11. Texture Feature Extraction Method Combining Nonsubsampled Contour Transformation with Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan He

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is an important method to extract the image texture features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR. However, GLCM can only extract the textures under single scale and single direction. A kind of texture feature extraction method combining nonsubsampled contour transformation (NSCT and GLCM is proposed, so as to achieve the extraction of texture features under multi-scale and multi-direction. We firstly conducted multi-scale and multi-direction decomposition on the SAR images with NSCT, secondly extracted the symbiosis amount with GLCM from the obtained sub-band images, then conducted the correlation analysis for the extracted symbiosis amount to remove the redundant characteristic quantity; and combined it with the gray features to constitute the multi-feature vector. Finally, we made full use of the advantages of the support vector machine in the aspects of small sample database and generalization ability, and completed the division of multi-feature vector space by SVM so as to achieve the SAR image segmentation. The results of the experiment showed that the segmentation accuracy rate could be improved and good edge retention effect could be obtained through using the GLCM texture extraction method based on NSCT domain and multi-feature fusion in the SAR image segmentation.

  12. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person’s overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA. Specifically, one person’s different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  13. An Integrated Skills Approach Using Feature Movies in EFL at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study based on an integrated skills approach using feature movies (DVDs) in EFL syllabi at the tertiary level. 100 students took part in the study and the data was collected through a three - section survey questionnaire: demographic items, 18 likert scale questions and an open-ended question. The data…

  14. A Closer Look at Deep Learning Neural Networks with Low-level Spectral Periodicity Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Kereliuk, Corey; Pikrakis, Aggelos

    2014-01-01

    Systems built using deep learning neural networks trained on low-level spectral periodicity features (DeSPerF) reproduced the most “ground truth” of the systems submitted to the MIREX 2013 task, “Audio Latin Genre Classification.” To answer why this was the case, we take a closer look at the...

  15. A user authentication scheme using physiological and behavioral biometrics for multitouch devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Yang, Tzu-I; Tseng, Chien-Chao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage. PMID:25147864

  16. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  17. New Biometric Approaches for Improved Person Identification Using Facial Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is measurable characteristics specific to an individual. Face detection has diverse applications especially as an identification solution which can meet the crying needs in security areas. While traditionally 2D images of faces have been used, 3D scans that contain both 3D data and registered color are becoming easier to acquire. Before 3D face images can be used to identify an individual, they require some form of initial alignment information, typically based on facial feature locations. We follow this by a discussion of the algorithms performance when constrained to frontal images and an analysis of its performance on a more complex dataset with significant head pose variation using 3D face data for detection provides a promising route to improved performance.

  18. Biometric Authentication Through a Virtual Keyboard for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Trojahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Security through biometric keystroke authentication on mobile phones with a capacitive display and aQWERTZ-layout is a new approach. Keystroke on mobile phones with a 12-key layout has already shownthe possibility for authentication on these devices. But with hardware changes, new general requirementshave been arisen.In this paper, we focus on the authentication with keystroke dynamics. Therefore, we are presenting newimplemented keyboard layouts to show differences between a 12-key layout and a QWERTZ-layout. Inaddition, we compare a numerical (PIN and alphabetic (password input for mobile phones. For this, weadded new features for a keystroke authentication with a capacitive display. With the knowledge of the faultrates, we discuss the improvement of the security for keystroke dynamics with different virtual keyboardlayouts. Our results show, even with new hardware factors, that an authentication via keystroke dynamicsis possible.

  19. The biometric analysis of wall of human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was an establishment of regional morphological features of wall of human heart at fetuses, newborns and children. As a material for the research hearts of fetuses of 28-32 weeks (n=9, newborns (n=12 and children (n=14, who have died from reasons not connected with cardiovascular pathology, have served. By the methods of organometrii and variation statistics, the conducted biometric analysis of wall of heart has shown, that structural-functional reorganization of a heart wall during studied age periods (along with the increase of linear-weight parameters of heart, growth-weight parameters of organism is connected with the increase in thickness of heart wall, changes of density of heart wall and redistribution of specific weight of heart wall at transition from intra-uterine to after birth lives. The redistribution of mass in a cardiac wall takes place both on a height and on its circumference.

  20. Stromatoporoid biometrics using image analysis software: A first order approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-01

    Strommetric is a new image analysis computer program that performs morphometric measurements of stromatoporoid sponges. The program measures 15 features of skeletal elements (pillars and laminae) visible in both longitudinal and transverse thin sections. The software is implemented in C++, using the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) library. The image analysis system distinguishes skeletal elements from sparry calcite using Otsu's method for image thresholding. More than 150 photos of thin sections were used as a test set, from which 36,159 measurements were obtained. The software provided about one hundred times more data than the current method applied until now. The data obtained are reproducible, even if the work is repeated by different workers. Thus the method makes the biometric studies of stromatoporoids objective.

  1. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  2. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  3. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  4. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  5. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  6. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  7. Plasma Etching of Tapered Features in Silicon for MEMS and Wafer Level Packaging Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a brief report of plasma etching as applied to pattern transfer in silicon. It will focus more on concept overview and strategies for etching of tapered features of interest for MEMS and Wafer Level Packaging (WLP). The basis of plasma etching, the dry etching technique, is explained and plasma configurations are described elsewhere. An important feature of plasma etching is the possibility to achieve etch anisotropy. The plasma etch process is extremely sensitive to many variables such as mask material, mask openings and more important the plasma parameters

  8. How Do Correlation and Variance of Base-Experts Affect Fusion in Biometric Authentication Tasks?

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Norman; Bengio, Samy

    2005-01-01

    Combining multiple information sources such as subbands, streams (with different features) and multi modal data has shown to be a very promising trend, both in experiments and to some extend in real-life biometric authentication applications. Despite considerable efforts in fusions, there is a lack of understanding on the roles and effects of correlation and variance (of both the client and impostor scores of base-classifiers/experts). Often, scores are assumed to be independent. In this pape...

  9. Morphological and Biometrical Comparisons of Mesocricetus Nehring, 1898 (Mammalia: Rodentia) species distributed in the Palaearctic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YIĞIT; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; GATTERMANN, Rolf; Neumann, Karsten; ÖZKURT, Şakir

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 4 species, Mesocricetus auratus, Mesocricetus raddei, Mesocricetus newtoni, and Mesocricetus brandti of the genus Mesocricetus are accepted as the valid taxa based on karyotype and morphologic features. A potential fifth species, Mesocricetus nigriculus, is under dispute and is currently listed as a subspecies of M. raddei, along with Mesocricetus raddei raddei and Mesocricetus raddei avaricus. UPGMA cluster analyses performed with biometrical measures confirm, only partially, the ...

  10. A Robust Biometric Authentication and PIN Distribution Technique for Secure Mobile Commerce Applications

    OpenAIRE

    R. Arun Prakash; K.M. Mehata; C. Chellappan

    2015-01-01

    In a mobile emerging world, user authentication, service provider authentication and security is very important in mobile commerce. User authentication is performed by using fingerprint based biometric methodology. Existing system used for Mobile purchasing/payment services in handheld devices does not analyze fingerprint matching and feature extraction techniques in an efficient way. Also the existing system is not secure and accurate for m-payments applications. We propose secure, efficient...

  11. Benchmarking Fast Data Platforms for the Aadhaar Biometric Database

    OpenAIRE

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Shukla, Anshu; Verma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Aadhaar is the world's largest biometric database with a billion records, being compiled as an identity platform to deliver social services to residents of India.Aadhaar processes streams of biometric data as residents are enrolled and updated.Besides 1 million enrolments and updates per day,up to 100 million daily biometric authentications are expected during delivery of various public services.These form critical Big Data applications,with large volumes and high velocity of data.

  12. Heartbeat Biometrics for Remote Authentication Using Sensor Embedded Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Biometric verification has been included in remote user authentication schemes recently. In this paper, we have proposed the use of heartbeat biometrics for its liveness property as a possible defense against spoof attacks in remote authentication. Sensor embedded mobile computing devices such as smart phones could be used to capture biometric signals and to replace the use of traditional smart cards. For the remote authentication, we have adopted the state-of-the-art scheme. We have describe...

  13. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Singla; Ankit Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc.) are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print ca...

  14. ECG biometric analysis in different physiological recording conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Porée, Fabienne; Kervio, Gaëlle; Carrault, Guy

    2016-01-01

    International audience Biometric systems have for objective to perform identification or verification of identity of individuals. Human electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently proposed as an additional tool for biometric applications. Then, a set of ECG-based biometric studies has occurred in the literature, but they are difficult to compare because they use various values of: the number of ECG leads, the length of the analysis window (only the QRS or more), the delays between recordings...

  15. Biometrics & [and] Security: Combining Fingerprints, Smart Cards and Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of this brand new century, and especially since the 2001 Sept 11 events in the U.S, several biometric technologies are considered mature enough to be a new tool for security. Generally associated to a personal device for privacy protection, biometric references are stored in secured electronic devices such as smart cards, and systems are using cryptographic tools to communicate with the smart card and securely exchange biometric da...

  16. An Analysis of Random Projections in Cancelable Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit, Devansh; Nwogu, Ifeoma; Srivastava, Gaurav; Govindaraju, Venu

    2014-01-01

    With increasing concerns about security, the need for highly secure physical biometrics-based authentication systems utilizing \\emph{cancelable biometric} technologies is on the rise. Because the problem of cancelable template generation deals with the trade-off between template security and matching performance, many state-of-the-art algorithms successful in generating high quality cancelable biometrics all have random projection as one of their early processing steps. This paper therefore p...

  17. Security of biometric systems: revocability and private life protection

    OpenAIRE

    Belguechi, Rima Ouidad

    2015-01-01

    In reference to information security, biometrics concerns the use of morphological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity of an user. Recently, discussions on security of biometric systems have emerged. The storage of biometric data arises serious privacy and security issues : exposure of sensitive information, possibility of raw data reconstruction, possibility of spoof attack, secondary use of information (function creep or cross-matching) or the impossibility to revo...

  18. Behavioural Biometrics for Multi-factor Authentication in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 19-24. ISSN 1801-5603 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * anatomical-physiological biometrics * behavioural biometrics * multi-factor authentication * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Schlenker_en.pdf

  19. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint cards) and individualization of offender from traces found on crime-scenes (e.g. fingermarks, earmarks, bitemarks, DNA). From sir Francis Galton, to the introduction of AFIS systems in the scientifi...

  20. Soft Biometrics for Keystroke Dynamics: Profiling Individuals While Typing Passwords

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new profiling approach of individuals based on soft biometrics for keystroke dynamics. Soft biometric traits are unique representation of a person, which can be in a form of physical, behavioural or biological human characteristics that differentiate between him/her into a group people (e.g. gender, age, height, colour, race etc.). Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality to recognise how a person types on a keyboard. In this paper, we consider the followin...

  1. Information Fusion in Biometrics: A Case Study in Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang,Xiaoyan; Fu,Desheng

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics is an emerging topic in the field of signal processing. Multibiometric systems can improve the performance of identification by integrating information presented by single or multiple biometric indicators and a lot of researchers are working on it. As fingerprints is one of the most studied and popular biometrics, researches that have approached the challenges in fingerprints from an information fusion perspective is provided in this paper.

  2. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of providing a robust non-invasive authentication service for mobile users in a smart environment. We base our work on the persistent authentication model (PAISE), which relies on available sensors to track principals from the location where they authenticate, e.......g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users in the...... environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...

  3. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  4. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Agrafioti, Foteini; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2007-12-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC) in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  5. Face Recognition (Patterns Matching & Bio-Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Dhirubhai Hirapara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies are investing a considerable amount of resources into improving security systems as result of recent terrorist events that dangerously exposed flaws and weaknesses in today’s safety mechanisms. Badge or password-based authentication procedures are too easy to hack. Biometrics represents a valid alternative but they suffer of drawbacks as well. Iris scanning, for example, is very reliable but too intrusive; fingerprints are socially accepted, but not applicable to non-con sentient people. On the other hand, face recognition represents a good compromise between what’s socially acceptable and what’s reliable, even when operating under controlled conditions. In last decade, many algorithms based on linear/nonlinear methods, neural networks, wavelets, etc. have been proposed. Nevertheless, Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002 shown that most of these approaches encountered problems in outdoor conditions. This lowered their reliability compared to state of the art biometrics.

  6. Biometric Identification System by Lip Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhan M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication techniques are more consistent and efficient than conventional authentication techniques and can be used in monitoring, transaction authentication, information retrieval, access control, forensics, etc. Human-lip shape detection is an important criterion for many automated modern system in present day. Like computerized speech reading, face recognition etc. system can work more precisely if human-lip shape can detect accurately. There are many processes for detecting human-lip. This paper presents an approach for biometric identification system based on lips shapes recognition in low resolution images of human faces. The presented technique uses edge detection for detecting the region of a human-lip shape, we called it lip contour and colour filtering for noise reduction and enhancement of the desired recognition of lips. Also discusses advantages of this method, its use, and future development.

  7. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouzali, Sanaa; Lafkih, Maryam; Abdul, Wadood; Mikram, Mounia; El Haziti, Mohammed; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2016-01-01

    With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biomet...

  8. Building Cloud-based Biometric Services

    OpenAIRE

    Žganec Gros, Jerneja; Bule, Jernej; Štruc, Vitomir; PEER, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years the amount of biometric data being at the disposal of various agencies and authentication service providers is expected to grow significantly. Such quantities of data require not only enormous amounts of storage but unprecedented processing power as well. To be able to face this future challenges more and more people are looking towards cloud computing, which can address these challenges quite effectively with its seemingly unlimited storage capacity, ra...

  9. Pattern recognition, machine intelligence and biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Patrick S P

    2012-01-01

    ""Pattern Recognition, Machine Intelligence and Biometrics"" covers the most recent developments in Pattern Recognition and its applications, using artificial intelligence technologies within an increasingly critical field. It covers topics such as: image analysis and fingerprint recognition; facial expressions and emotions; handwriting and signatures; iris recognition; hand-palm gestures; and multimodal based research. The applications span many fields, from engineering, scientific studies and experiments, to biomedical and diagnostic applications, to personal identification and homeland secu

  10. Evaluating the Security of Handwriting Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Lucas; Lopresti, Daniel; Monrose, Fabian

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing interest in biometric security has resulted in much work on systems that exploit the individuality of human behavior. In this paper, we study the use of handwritten passphrases in the context of authentication or cryptographic key generation. We demonstrate that accurate generative models for a targeted user's handwriting can be developed based only on captured static (offline) samples combined with pen-stroke dynamics learned from general population statistics. Our work suggests that...

  11. Biometric Methods for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 37-43. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biometrics * data security * EHR (electronic health record) * fingerprints * hand geometry * face recognition * iris recognition * retinal scanning * keystroke dynamics * multi-factor authentification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Schlenker_en.pdf

  12. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  13. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  14. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  15. Reviewing biometrics vulnerabilities with Identity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathimath Sabena

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics Identity Management (BIdM is a newly rising and developing discipline which could be expressed as the study of verification and validation methods for the next generation. The two key terms enclosed in the title of this paper are– “Biometrics Vulnerabilities” and “Identity Management”. Every one of us has an identity. By utilizing this identity along with distinctive characteristics we distinguish ourselves from one another. By cross referencing the data from both sources, a guideline that would adapt the best practices to maintain the sequence of BIdM and identity theft integrity was designed. Based on the findings a guideline is proposed to the experts and end-users to use. A walk through with the BIdM consultant was done to identify areas of improvement to fine tune the artifact. For proper identity management this guideline can be used as the processes in data collection and data maintenance procedures are included. The procedures include extracting the data from data collection for proofs, data matching and handling the data in an appropriate way. The guideline will have its proper BIdM techniques by having the best practices of tackling its vulnerabilities. Databases having biometric data are themselves a threat to privacy. While distinguishing gaps in BIdM and discovering new approaches to tackle the vulnerabilities, issues and protect such databases and increasing the awareness programs, this research can be further extended.

  16. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms. PMID:26736885

  17. Analysing the maximum level of customer satisfaction in grocery stores: the influence of feature advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Martínez Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From the initial consideration of the store attributes that the marketing literature has identified as key in order that grocery retailers manage to design their differentiation strategies, this work identifies the main factors underlying the above mentioned attributes. The goal is to analyze which of these factors exert a bigger influence on the highest level of customer satisfaction. With this intention, we have examined a sample of 422 consumers who had carried out their purchase in different types of store formats in Spain, considering the influence of feature advertising on the clientele behavior. Interesting conclusions related to the aspects that most impact on the maximum level of customer satisfaction depending on the influence of feature advertising stem from this work.

  18. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    O.I. Kostin; T.I. Dzhandarova; Т.В. Kostina

    2009-01-01

    The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradr...

  19. Content Classification of Multimedia Documents using Partitions of Low-Level Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kindermann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio-visual documents obtained from German TV news are classified according to the IPTC topic categorization scheme. To this end usual text classification techniques are adapted to speech, video, and non-speech audio. For each of the three modalities word analogues are generated: sequences of syllables for speech, “video words” based on low level color features (color moments, color correlogram and color wavelet, and “audio words” based on low-level spectral features (spectral envelope and spectral flatness for non-speech audio. Such audio and video words provide a means to represent the different modalities in a uniform way. The frequencies of the word analogues represent audio-visual documents: the standard bag-of-words approach. Support vector machines are used for supervised classification in a 1 vs. n setting. Classification based on speech outperforms all other single modalities. Combining speech with non-speech audio improves classification. Classification is further improved by supplementing speech and non-speech audio with video words. Optimal F-scores range between 62% and 94% corresponding to 50% - 84% above chance. The optimal combination of modalities depends on the category to be recognized. The construction of audio and video words from low-level features provide a good basis for the integration of speech, non-speech audio and video.

  20. Evaluating the competent use of EAP linguistic features in relation to CEFRL English levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Durán Escribano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the competent use of EAP linguistic features (passive voice, use of nominal groups, typical verb forms, and modality, by the Technical University of Madrid engineering students, in relation to their CEFR competence levels, from A2 to C1. The results obtained with the STATGRAPHICS programme serve to identify those specific grammar structures most difficult to Spanish engineering students so that their learning may be favoured. Results calibration to CERF reference levels also renders a more complete scale of linguistic competence applied to EAP contexts.

  1. Cellular Automata based Encrypted ECG-hash Code Generation: An Application in Inter-human Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Nandi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity of the system increases as samples from both persons, between whom the transmission takes place, are essential. Besides, electrocardiogram is such a unique feature of an individual that could not be compromised at any circumstance as contradictory to other features like fingerprints, face recognition etc. Moreover, the ECG-hash code is encrypted using rule vector of cellular automata that gives better security in terms of randomness of generated cipher text.

  2. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  3. Addressing missing values in kernel-based multimodal biometric fusion using neutral point substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Poh N.; Windridge D.; Mottl V.; Tatarchuk A.; Eliseyev A.

    2010-01-01

    In multimodal biometric information fusion, it is common to encounter missing modalities in which matching cannot be performed. As a result, at the match score level, this implies that scores will be missing. We address the multimodal fusion problem involving missing modalities (scores) using support vector machines (SVMs) with the neutral point substitution (NPS) method. The approach starts by processing each modality using a kernel. When a modality is missing, at the kernel level, the missi...

  4. Temporal stability of visual search-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual's visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant's "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, temporally stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  5. Temporal Stability of Visual Search-Driven Biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual s visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant s "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, fairly stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  6. Sign Language Video Segmentation with Level Sets Fusing Color, Texture, Boundary and Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.V.Kishore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and improved concept for segmenting gestures of sign language. The algorithm presented extracts signs from video sequences under various non static backgrounds. The signs are segmented which are normally hands and head of the signing person by minimizing the energy function of the level set fused by various image characteristics such as colour, texture, boundary and shape information. From RGB color video three color planes are extracted and one color plane is used based on the contrasting environments presented by the video background. Texture edge map provides spatial information which makes the color features more distinctive for video segmentation. The boundary features are extracted by forming image edge map form the existing color and texture features. The shape of the sign is calculated dynamically and is made adaptive to each video frame for segmentation of occlude objects. The energy minimization is achieved using level sets. Experiments show that our approach provides excellent segmentation on signer videos for different signs under robust environments such as diverse backgrounds, sundry illumination and different signers.

  7. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval Based on Image Feature Projection in Relevance Feedback Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Behnam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design a content-based medical image retrieval system and provide a new method to reduce semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts. Generally performance of the retrieval systems based on only visual contents decrease because these features often fail to describe the high level semantic concepts in user’s mind. In this paper this problem is solved using a new approach based on projection of relevant and irrelevant images in to a new space with low dimensionality and less overlapping in relevance feedback level. For this purpose, first we change the feature space using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA techniques and then classify the feedback images applying Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been evaluated on a database consisting of 10,000 medical X-ray images of 57 semantic classes. The obtained results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of retrieval system.

  8. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval Based on Image Feature Projection in Relevance Feedback Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Behnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design a content-based medical image retrieval system and provide a new method to reduce semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts. Generally performance of the retrieval systems based on only visual contents decrease because these features often fail to describe the high level semantic concepts in user’s mind. In this paper this problem is solved using a new approach based on projection of relevant and irrelevant images in to a new space with low dimensionality and less overlapping in relevance feedback level. For this purpose, first we change the feature space using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA techniques and then classify the feedback images applying Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been evaluated on a database consisting of 10,000 medical X-ray images of 57 semantic classes. The obtained results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of retrieval system.

  9. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation. PMID:21380486

  10. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  11. A Novel Crypt-Biometric Perception Algorithm to Protract Security in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are networks that have properties of self configuration and multi hopping. These networks do not have any fixed infrastructure and need to be dynamic in nature. The specification of dynamism leads to various security breaches that a MANET suffers from such as impersonation, data modification etc. which results in degradation of performance and hence QOS is strongly affected. Hence this paper focuses on improving security performance of MANET by employing biometric technique in combination with cryptography, since biometric perception is specified as the most neoteric technological advancement which enhance security specifications of various networks by specifying exclusive human identification features. Cryptography is designed on computational hardness assumptions making various algorithms hard to break by an adversary. Simulation and experimental results specify that the proposed crypto-metric perception technique leads in achieving better QOS parameters by avoiding security intrusions hence better performance of mobile ad-hoc networks.

  12. Biometrical analysis in radiobiological works of N.V. Luchnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the famous Russian geneticist and biophysics N.V. Luchnik into biometrical analysis of radiobiological data is discussed. His works on radiation mortality of mice (2) and the process of post-radiation repair of chromosome aberrations (10) are thoroughly observed. The conclusion of necessity to develop biometrical analysis as separate part of biometry is made

  13. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  14. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  15. Forgiveness As A Leadership Feature And A Study O n Its Effects On Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on forgiveness notion, which is mainly related to the rel igion but has significant effects on organizational level. The frequency of the forgiveness studies on the organization and administration level in the Christian culture is more striking than the Muslim culture. But the rational aspect of this notion is addressed rather than the emotional and religious aspects and its personal and organizational effects are explained. The forgiveness notion which is found to be a feature of both transformationa l and servantleadership in the literature, the things to do to use it as an intervention agent on the organizational level are explained. In this study it is suggested that the reasons why forgiveness is not widely used in practice despite being one of the important element of our culture and qualitative and quantitative research on the use of forgiveness as a culture and intervention agent should be done.

  16. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets

  17. Characterization of mammographic masses based on level set segmentation with new image features and patient information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for characterization of mammographic masses as malignant or benign has the potential to assist radiologists in reducing the biopsy rate without increasing false negatives. The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for mammographic mass segmentation and explore new image based features in combination with patient information in order to improve the performance of mass characterization. The authors' previous CAD system, which used the active contour segmentation, and morphological, textural, and spiculation features, has achieved promising results in mass characterization. The new CAD system is based on the level set method and includes two new types of image features related to the presence of microcalcifications with the mass and abruptness of the mass margin, and patient age. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was used to merge the extracted features into a classification score. The classification accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The authors' primary data set consisted of 427 biopsy-proven masses (200 malignant and 227 benign) in 909 regions of interest (ROIs) (451 malignant and 458 benign) from multiple mammographic views. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for training and testing. The new CAD system based on the level set segmentation and the new mammographic feature space achieved a view-based Az value of 0.83±0.01. The improvement compared to the previous CAD system was statistically significant (p=0.02). When patient age was included in the new CAD system, view-based and case-based Az values were 0.85±0.01 and 0.87±0.02, respectively. The study also demonstrated the consistency of the newly developed CAD system by evaluating the statistics of the weights of the LDA classifiers in leave-one-case-out classification. Finally, an independent test on the publicly available digital database for screening

  18. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  19. Automatic Personal Identification Using Feature Similarity Index Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biometrics based personal identification is as an effective method for automatically recognizing, a persons identity with high confidence. Palmprint is an essential biometric feature for use in access control and forensic applications. In this study, we present a multi feature extraction, based on edge detection scheme, applying Log Gabor filter to enhance image structures and suppress noise. Approach: A novel Feature-Similarity Indexing (FSIM of image algorithm is used to generate the matching score between the original image in database and the input test image. Feature Similarity (FSIM index for full reference (image quality assurance IQA is proposed based on the fact that Human Visual System (HVS understands an image mainly according to its low-level features. Results and Conclusion: The experimental results achieve recognition accuracy using canny and perwitt FSIM of 97.3227 and 94.718%, respectively, on the publicly available database of Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Totally 500 images of 100 individuals, 4 samples for each palm are randomly selected to train in this research. Then we get every person each palm image as a template (total 100. Experimental evaluation using palmprint image databases clearly demonstrates the efficient recognition performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the conventional palmprint recognition algorithms.

  20. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damousis, Ioannis G.; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos

    2008-12-01

    Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO) (2007) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  1. An Authentication Protocol Based on Combined RFID-Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benmohammed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and biometric technologies saw fast evolutions during the last years and which are used in several applications, such as access control. Among important characteristics in the RFID tags, we mention the limitation of resources (memory, energy, …. Our work focuses on the design of a RFID authentication protocol which uses biometric data and which confirms the secrecy, the authentication and the privacy. Our protocol requires a PRNG (Pseud-Random Number Generator, a robust hash function and Biometric hash function. The Biometric hash function is used to optimize and to protect biometric data. For Security analysis of protocol proposed, we will use AVISPA and SPAN tools to verify the authentication and the secrecy.

  2. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO (2007 is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  3. Intracellular calcium and cyclic nucleotide levels modulate neurite guidance by microtopographical substrate features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shufeng; Tuft, Bradley; Xu, Linjing; Polacco, Marc; Clarke, Joseph C; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-08-01

    Micro- and nanoscale surface features have emerged as potential tools to direct neurite growth into close proximity with next generation neural prosthesis electrodes. However, the signaling events underlying the ability of growth cones to respond to topographical features remain largely unknown. Accordingly, this study probes the influence of [Ca(2+) ]i and cyclic nucleotide levels on the ability of neurites from spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) to precisely track topographical micropatterns. Photopolymerization and photomasking were used to generate micropatterned methacrylate polymer substrates. Dissociated SGN cultures were plated on the micropatterned surfaces. Calcium influx and release from internal stores were manipulated by elevating extracellular K(+) , maintenance in calcium-free media, or bath application of various calcium channel blockers. Cyclic nucleotide activity was increased by application of cpt-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP. Elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i by treatment of cultures with elevated potassium reduced neurite alignment to physical microfeatures. Maintenance of cultures in Ca(2+) -free medium or treatment with the non-selective voltage-gated calcium channel blocker cadmium or L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine did not signficantly alter SGN neurite alignment. By contrast, ryanodine or xestospongin C, which block release of internal calcium stores via ryanodine-sensitive channels or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors respectively, each significantly decreased neurite alignment. Cpt-cAMP significantly reduced neurite alignment while 8-Br-cGMP significantly enhanced neurite alignment. Manipulation of [Ca(2+) ]i or cAMP levels significantly disrupts neurite guidance while elevation of cGMP levels increases neurite alignment. The results suggest intracellular signaling pathways similar to those recruited by chemotactic cues are involved in neurite guidance by topographical features. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2037

  4. A Novel Feature-Level Data Fusion Method for Indoor Autonomous Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel feature-level data fusion method for autonomous localization in an inactive multiple reference unknown indoor environment. Since monocular sensors cannot provide the depth information directly, the proposed method incorporates the edge information of images from a camera with homologous depth information received from an infrared sensor. Real-time experimental results demonstrate that the accuracies of position and orientation are greatly improved by using the proposed fusion method in an unknown complex indoor environment. Compared to monocular localization, the proposed method is found to have up to 70 percent improvement in accuracy.

  5. Biometric Iris Recognition Based on Hybrid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab M. Ali Alheeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is one of the important biometric recognition systems that identify people based on theireyes and iris. In this paper the iris recognition algorithm is implemented via histogram equalization andwavelet techniques. In this paper the iris recognition approach is implemented via many steps, these stepsare concentrated on image capturing, enhancement and identification. Different types of edge detectionmechanisms; Canny scheme, Prewitt scheme, Roberts scheme and Sobel scheme are used to detect irisboundaries in the eyes digital image. The implemented system gives adequate results via different types ofiris images.

  6. Multimodal Biometrics Recognition by Dimensionality Diminution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric system utilizes two or more character modalities, e.g., face, ear, and fingerprint, Signature, plamprint to improve the recognition accuracy of conventional unimodal methods. We propose a new dimensionality reduction method called Dimension Diminish Projection (DDP in this paper. DDP can not only preserve local information by capturing the intra-modal geometry, but also extract between-class relevant structures for classification effectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other algorithms including PCA, LDA and MFA.

  7. Quantitative biometric phenotype analysis in mouse lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Matthew A.; Andley, Usha P.

    2010-01-01

    The disrupted morphology of lenses in mouse models for cataracts precludes accurate in vitro assessment of lens growth by weight. To overcome this limitation, we developed morphometric methods to assess defects in eye lens growth and shape in mice expressing the αA-crystallin R49C (αA-R49C) mutation. Our morphometric methods determine quantitative shape and dry weight of the whole lens from histological sections of the lens. This method was then used to quantitatively compare the biometric gr...

  8. Biometric analysis of the Arkhangelskiella group in the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the stevns-1 borehole, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of the calcareous nannofossil Arkhangelskiella is revised using the results of a biometric analysis performed on 599 specimens from various stratigraphic levels throughout the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Combined qualitative labelling and biometric...... measurements suggest that this genus comprises at least three distinct morphogroups in this stratigraphic interval, with possibly one additional morphotype. The results show that the descriptions formerly used for the erection of these groups as distinct species do not fit to their observed range in the...... coccolith length and in the rim width, and that the central opening is an important additional parameter allowing distinction between the different morphogroups. Biometric analysis shows, however, that the morphogroups are strongly overlapping on all measured parameters. Therefore, the three distinct...

  9. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  10. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Jian Ling; Cui, Sheng Jie; Sun, Ying Cal; Cui, Feng Zhen [Dept. of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laborary of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  11. Cluster regression model and level fluctuation features of Van Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Şen

    Full Text Available Lake water levels change under the influences of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental conditions. Among these influences are the climate change, greenhouse effects and ozone layer depletions which are reflected in the hydrological cycle features over the lake drainage basins. Lake levels are among the most significant hydrological variables that are influenced by different atmospheric and environmental conditions. Consequently, lake level time series in many parts of the world include nonstationarity components such as shifts in the mean value, apparent or hidden periodicities. On the other hand, many lake level modeling techniques have a stationarity assumption. The main purpose of this work is to develop a cluster regression model for dealing with nonstationarity especially in the form of shifting means. The basis of this model is the combination of transition probability and classical regression technique. Both parts of the model are applied to monthly level fluctuations of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. It is observed that the cluster regression procedure does preserve the statistical properties and the transitional probabilities that are indistinguishable from the original data.

    Key words. Hydrology (hydrologic budget; stochastic processes · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions

  12. Feature Discretization for Individuality Representation in Twins Handwritten Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bayan O. Mohammed; Siti M. Shamsuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The study on twins is an important form of study in the forensic and biometrics field as twins share similar genetic traits. Handwriting is one of the common types of forensic evidence. Differentiating the similarities of writing of a pair of twins is critical in establishing the reliability of handwriting identification. Writing style can be used as biometric features in authenticating individual uniqueness where these unique features can be used to ide...

  13. Proto-object categorisation and local gist vision using low-level spatial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaime A; Rodrigues, J M F; du Buf, J M H

    2015-09-01

    Object categorisation is a research area with significant challenges, especially in conditions with bad lighting, occlusions, different poses and similar objects. This makes systems that rely on precise information unable to perform efficiently, like a robotic arm that needs to know which objects it can reach. We propose a biologically inspired object detection and categorisation framework that relies on robust low-level object shape. Using only edge conspicuity and disparity features for scene figure-ground segregation and object categorisation, a trained neural network classifier can quickly categorise broad object families and consequently bootstrap a low-level scene gist system. We argue that similar processing is possibly located in the parietal pathway leading to the LIP cortex and, via areas V5/MT and MST, providing useful information to the superior colliculus for eye and head control. PMID:26187569

  14. Low-Level Tie Feature Extraction of Mobile Mapping Data (mls/images) and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jende, P.; Hussnain, Z.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile Mapping (MM) is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform's position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform's defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform's three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed as well as an outline of

  15. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects

  16. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic meth...

  17. A Novel Approach to Combining Client-Dependent and Confidence Information in Multimodal Biometric

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Norman; Bengio, Samy

    2005-01-01

    The issues of fusion with client-dependent and confidence information have been well studied separately in biometric authentication. In this study, we propose to take advantage of both sources of information in a discriminative framework. Initially, each source of information is processed on a per expert basis (plus on a per client basis for the first information and on a per example basis for the second information). Then, both sources of information are combined using a second-level classif...

  18. Neural Network Based Accurate Biometric Recognition and Identification of Human Iris Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gopikrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Approach: Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. However, published results have usually been produced under favorable conditions and there have been no independent trials of the technology. Results: In this study after providing brief picture on development of various techniques for iris recognition, hamming distance coupled with neural network based iris recognition techniques were discussed. Perfect recognition on a set of 150 eye images has been achieved through this approach. Further, Tests on another set of 801 images resulted in false accept and false reject rates of 0.0005 and 0.187% respectively, providing the reliability and accuracy of the biometric technology. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study provided results of iris recognition performed applying Hamming distance, Feed forward back propagation, Cascade forward back propagation, Elman forward back propagation and perceptron. It has been established that the method suggested applying perceptron provides the best accuracy in respect of iris recognition with no major additional computational complexity.

  19. A Survey: Feature Extraction Methods for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Choudhary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biometrics is the study of physical traits or behavioral characteristics of human include items such as finger prints, face, hand geometry, gait, keystrokes, voice and iris. Among the biometrics, iris has highly accurate and reliable characteristics. An iris has unique structure and it remains stable over a person life time. Iris recognition is one of the biometric identification and authentication that employs pattern recognition technology with the help of high resolution. A general approach of iris recognition system includes image acquisition, segmentation, feature Extraction, matching/classification. The performance of biometric system based on iris recognition depends on the selection of iris features. In this work performance of various feature extraction methods are analyzed for iris recognition

  20. Improved Block Based Feature Level Image Fusion Technique Using Contourlet with Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.Sheela Rani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As multisensory data is made available in many areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging, etc, the sensor fusion has become a new field for research. Multisensor image fusion mainly focuses on combining spatial information of a high resolution panchromatic (PAN image with spectral information of a low resolution multispectral image (MS to produce an image with highest spatial content while preserving spectral resolution. A geometrical transform called contourlet transform (CT is introduced, which represents images containing contours and textures. This paper derived an efficient block based feature level contourlet transform with neural network (BFCN model for image fusion. The proposed BFCN model integrates CT with neural network (NN, which plays a significant role in feature extraction and detection in machine learning applications. In the proposed BFCN model, the two fusion techniques, CT and NN are discussed for fusing the IRS-1D images using LISS III scanner about the locations Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam, Mahaboobnagar and Patancheru in Andhra Pradesh, India. Also Landsat 7 image data and QuickBird image data are used to perform experiments on the proposed BFCN model. The features under study are contrast visibility, spatial frequency, energy of gradient, variance and edge information. Feed forward back propagation neural network is trained and tested for classification, since the learning capability of NN makes it feasible to customize the image fusion process. The trained NN is then used to fuse the pair of source images. The proposed BFCN model is compared with other techniques to assess the quality of the fused image. Experimental results clearly prove that the proposed BFCN model is an efficient and feasible algorithm for image fusion.

  1. Improved Block Based Feature Level Image Fusion Technique Using Contourlet with Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.Sheela Rani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As multisensory data is made available in many areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging, etc, thesensor fusion has become a new field for research. Multisensor image fusion mainly focuses on combining spatial information of a high resolution panchromatic (PAN image with spectral information of a low resolution multispectral image (MS to produce an image with highest spatial content while preserving spectral resolution. A geometrical transform called contourlet transform (CT is introduced, which represents images containing contours and textures. This paper derived an efficient block based feature level contourlet transform with neural network (BFCN model for image fusion. The proposed BFCN model integrates CT with neural network (NN, which plays a significant role in feature extraction and detection in machine learning applications. In the proposed BFCN model, the two fusion techniques, CT and NN are discussed for fusing the IRS-1D images using LISS III scanner about the locations Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam, Mahaboobnagar and Patancheru in Andhra Pradesh, India. Also Landsat 7 image data and QuickBird image data are used to perform experiments on the proposed BFCN model. The features under study are contrast visibility, spatial frequency, energy of gradient, variance and edge information. Feed forward back propagation neural network is trained and tested for classification, since the learning capability of NN makes it feasible to customize the image fusion process. The trained NN is then used to fuse the pair of source images. The proposed BFCN model is compared with other techniques to assess the quality of the fused image. Experimental results clearly prove that the proposed BFCN model is an efficient and feasible algorithm for image fusion.

  2. A Novel Robust Digital Watermarking Technique Using Compressive Sensing for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Thanki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are those which utilize or are capability of utilizing characteristics of human for enrolment, verification or authentication. Biometrics based authentication system that use physiological and/or behavioral traits likes fingerprint, face, signature, palm print and voice are accept and use by many organization now days. But these biometric authentication systems are vulnerable against different attacks when biometric data transfer from one check point to other check point. In this paper, by combined compressive sensing theory and the correlation approach of White Gaussian Noise based robust digital watermarking technique is proposed for biometric embedding. The technique is divided into five steps: generation of linear measurement from watermark biometric data, embedding linear measurement into another biometric data, extraction of secure biometric from linear measurement, compressive sensing recovery process of biometric data and recognition of reconstructed biometric data with enrol biometric data for user authenticity. The proposed technique is providing more security and more payload capacity compare to traditional watermarking technique in spatial domain. The proposed technique is evaluated based on parameter like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Similarity Factor between reconstruct biometric data and enrolled biometric data. This proposed technique is increased overall data storage capacity in term secure enrolled biometric data of biometric authentication system

  3. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Shuo Li; Yilong Yin; Gongping Yang; Ying Li

    2012-01-01

    Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, w...

  4. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  5. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  6. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  7. Contactless Biometrics in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    Security can be enhanced through wireless sensor network using contactless biometrics and it remains a challenging and demanding task due to several limitations of wireless sensor network. Network life time is very less if it involves image processing task due to heavy energy required for image processing and image communication. Contactless biometrics such as face recognition is most suitable and applicable for wireless sensor network. Distributed face recognition in WSN not only help to reduce the communication overload but it also increase the node life time by distributing the work load on the nodes. This paper presents state-of-art of biometrics in wireless sensor network.

  8. Enhancing Information Security and Privacy by Combining Biometrics with Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with "crypto-biometrics", a relatively new and multi-disciplinary area of research (started in 1998). Combining biometrics and cryptography provides multiple advantages, such as, revocability, template diversity, better verification accuracy, and generation of cryptographically usable keys that are strongly linked to the user identity. In this text, a thorough review of the subject is provided and then some of the main categories are illustrated with recently proposed systems by the authors. Beginning with the basics, this text deals with various aspects of crypto-biometrics, i

  9. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and challenging branch in biometrics technologies.

  10. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  11. Recognition of Pitman shorthand text using tangent feature values at word level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Nagabhushan; S Murali

    2003-12-01

    Recognition of text recorded in Pitman shorthand language (PSL) is an interesting research problem. Automatic reading of PSL and generating equivalent English text is very challenging. The most important task involved here is the accurate recognition of Pitman stroke patterns, which constitute “text” in PSL. The paper describes automatic recognition of the strokes of the PSL at word level. A pen-down to pen-up sequence makes a stroke, which is a composition of primitives. The words are separated based on pen-down and pen-up points. The features that form a word (a stroke) are grouped first. Next, primitives and their sequence are identified and passed to a recognizer which identifies the word. A tangent-based vector through the contour of a stroke identifies the consonant primitives. Any other marks close to the stroke but not associated with the contour of a stroke represent the vowel markers.

  12. Personal Identification with F ace Bio metrics using Co lor Local Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A.Hiremani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Facerecognition (FR has received a significantinterest in pattern recognition and computer visiondue to the wide range of applications includingvideo surveillance, biometric identification, and faceindexing in multimedia contents. Recently, localtexturefeatures have gained reputation as powerfulface descriptors because they are believed to bemore robust to variations of facial pose, expression,occlusion, etc. In particular,local binary pattern(LBPtexture feature hasproven to be highlydiscriminative for FR due to different levels oflocality. Hence, it is proposedto employ thesefeatures along withcolor local texture feature forefficient FR system.The personal identificationaccuracy with face modality using color localtexture featuresis around 97% is achieved

  13. Design features of shipping containers for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of Intermediate Level Waste and Low Level Waste concentrates in cement matrices has been accepted as a conditioning process and is widely used in India since long. To keep pace with the increasing throughputs from recent solidification plants, shipping casks with improved designs are being adopted to transport single and multiple product drums from plant to storage/disposal sites. A salient feature of the vertical bottom loading shipping containers is the adoption of modular concept incorporating the loading/unloading platforms, the transportation unit and the lifting system as separable modules. Emphasis has been mainly on making the transportation units compact and devoid of any drives, controls and sensors which are prone to damages during transit which have been provided on the stationary loading/unloading platforms. The product entry into the cask is through a single bottom door in place of the split door design practised earlier thereby avoiding bulky compensatory shielding around the opening. THe lifting system accommodates the lifting tackle for the cask as well as the hoisting system for the product drum. The casks are designed to employ a fail safe and load positive pneumatic grapple where pneumatic actuation is utilized for releasing the grapple once the load is stably supported. While the intermediate level shipping container is meant for a single drum, the low level shipping container has been designed to accommodate multiple drums inside the housing with provision of a rugged mechanized conveyor segment for handling the drums within the cask. Limitation of capacity of the design has been only availability of space and handling systems at the existing facilities. The cask designs have been evaluated analytically to determine their compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. (author). 2 refs

  14. Design features of shipping containers for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilisation of Intermediate Level Waste and Low Level Waste concentrates in cement matrices has been accepted as a conditioning process and has been widely used in India for some time. To keep pace with the increasingly throughputs from recent solidification plants, shipping casks with improved designs are being adopted to transport single and multiple product drums from plant to storage/disposal sites. A salient feature of the vertical bottom loading shipping containers is the adoption of a modular concept incorporating the loading/unloading platforms, the transport unit and the lifting system as separable modules. Emphasis has been mainly on making the transport units compact and devoid of any drives, controls and sensors which are prone to damage during transit and which have been provided on the stationary loading/unloading platforms. The product entry into the cask is through a single bottom door in place of the split door design practised earlier, thereby avoiding bulky compensatory shielding around the opening. The cask designs have been evaluated analytically to determine their compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. (author)

  15. Biometric Authorization System using Gait Biometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sudha, L R

    2011-01-01

    Human gait, which is a new biometric aimed to recognize individuals by the way they walk have come to play an increasingly important role in visual surveillance applications. In this paper a novel hybrid holistic approach is proposed to show how behavioural walking characteristics can be used to recognize unauthorized and suspicious persons when they enter a surveillance area. Initially background is modelled from the input video captured from cameras deployed for security and the foreground moving object in the individual frames are segmented using the background subtraction algorithm. Then gait representing spatial, temporal and wavelet components are extracted and fused for training and testing multi class support vector machine models (SVM). The proposed system is evaluated using side view videos of NLPR database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves a pleasing recognition rate and also the results indicate that the classification ability of SVM with Radial Basis Function...

  16. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  17. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  18. Using Biometrics in Evaluating Ritual Gestures in Wearable Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei

    2015-01-01

    The article emphasized on the versatility of designing interactions with considerations of wearable technology under the principle of slow technology. It also proposed a new way of evaluating the emotional effect of wearable devices by using the biometric approach.

  19. An analysis of issues in biometric finger identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Kumar Veerasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Person's identity is an essential factor in this vastly connected society. Biometric Finger has wide acceptance as a genuine method for determining an individual’s identity. Biometric Finger authentication is reliable, since physical characteristics in humans are difficult to forge, harder to change or make copies. Biometric fingerprinting is one of the most popular and legally accepted biometrics used in person identification. Finger print authentication applications include Computer Applications, Network Access, Data Protection, Transaction Security, and Web Security. E-commerce and E-governments can carry out strong authentication rules. This paper analyzes issues related to Fingerprint identification to suggest viable alternatives. Keywords: Fingerprint Identification, Optical Sensors, Ultrasound Sensors, Issues in Finger Print Identification.

  20. Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Gentles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz., the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking these areas/issues into consideration we have now come with the biometrics authenticated mobile voting system, to start with for a country like Jamaica. The technology being proposed now is novel and the first of its kind proposed at present. It is proposed that using fingerprint supported biometric control information and encryption along with Secure Socket Layer i.e. SSL using VeriSign, would make the software involved in the voting process well secured. In addition tying the credentials to a mobile device will make the system even more robust. We have considered the mobile equipment for the present system development, a smart phone using Android 3.0 (Honeycomb. The details of the proposed development are presented in this paper.

  1. Embedded system for individual recognition based on ECG biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biometric recognition is emerging has an alternative solution for applications where the privacy of the information is crucial. This paper presents an embedded biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signals (ECG) for individual identification and authentication. The proposed system implements a real-time state-of-the-art recognition algorithm, which extracts information from the frequency domain. The system is based on a ARM Cortex 4. Preliminary results show ...

  2. Biometric recognition system using low bandwidth ECG signals

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents a biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signal (ECG). The proposed system is based on a state-of-the-art recognition method which extracts information from the frequency domain. In this paper we propose a new method to increase the spectral resolution of low bandwidth ECG signals due to the limited bandwid...

  3. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Bekiaris; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Ioannis G. Damousis

    2008-01-01

    Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO) (2007) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each ind...

  4. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugapriya, D.; Dr. G.Padmavathi

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are g...

  5. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-01-01

    The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and c...

  6. Biometrics and smart card based applications for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biometrics has emerged as a convenient, foolproof and well-accepted technology for identification around the globe. Nucleonix has developed innovative solutions based on finger scan biometrics for various industries. This paper closely looks into the application areas for the nuclear industry and how it will benefit this industry, in terms of identification, access control, security of PCs and applications, attendance, machinery usage control and other custom applications. (author)

  7. Dual Transform based Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is a biometric tool for authentication and verification, has great emphasis in both research and practical applications. Increased requirement on security, fully automated biometrics on personal identification and verification has received extensive attention over the past few years. In this paper Dual Transform based Feature Extraction for Face Recognition (DTBFEFR is proposed. The images from database are of different size and format, and hence are to be converted into standard dimension, which is appropriate for applying DT-CWT. Variation due to expression and illumination are compensated by applying DWT on an image and also DWT reduces image dimension by decomposition. The DT-CWT is applied on LL subband, which is generated after two-level DWT, to generate DT-CWT coefficients to form feature vectors. The feature vectors of database and test face are compared using Random Forest, Euclidian Distance and Support Vector Machine matching algorithms. The correct recognition rate, false reject rate, false acceptance rate and efficiency are better in the case of proposed method as compared to existing techniques.

  8. Biometric Attendance and Big Data Analysis for Optimizing Work Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neetu; Xavier, Teenu; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Although biometric attendance management is available, large healthcare organizations have difficulty in big data analysis for optimization of work processes. The aim of this project was to assess the implementation of a biometric attendance system and its utility following big data analysis. In this prospective study the implementation of biometric system was evaluated over 3 month period at our institution. Software integration with other existing systems for data analysis was also evaluated. Implementation of the biometric system could be successfully done over a two month period with enrollment of 10,000 employees into the system. However generating reports and taking action this large number of staff was a challenge. For this purpose software was made for capturing the duty roster of each employee and integrating it with the biometric system and adding an SMS gateway. This helped in automating the process of sending SMSs to each employee who had not signed in. Standalone biometric systems have limited functionality in large organizations unless it is meshed with employee duty roster. PMID:27332164

  9. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs. PMID:26513169

  10. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability. PMID:24350272

  11. Infrared and visible image fusion scheme based on NSCT and low-level visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafeng; Qiu, Hongmei; Yu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-05-01

    Multi-scale transform (MST) is an efficient tool for image fusion. Recently, many fusion methods have been developed based on different MSTs, and they have shown potential application in many fields. In this paper, we propose an effective infrared and visible image fusion scheme in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the NSCT is firstly employed to decompose each of the source images into a series of high frequency subbands and one low frequency subband. To improve the fusion performance we designed two new activity measures for fusion of the lowpass subbands and the highpass subbands. These measures are developed based on the fact that the human visual system (HVS) percept the image quality mainly according to its some low-level features. Then, the selection principles of different subbands are presented based on the corresponding activity measures. Finally, the merged subbands are constructed according to the selection principles, and the final fused image is produced by applying the inverse NSCT on these merged subbands. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art fusion methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation results.

  12. Iris Recognition Using Scattering Transform and Textural Features

    OpenAIRE

    Minaee, Shervin; Abdolrashidi, AmirAli; Wang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Iris recognition has drawn a lot of attention since the mid-twentieth century. Among all biometric features, iris is known to possess a rich set of features. Different features have been used to perform iris recognition in the past. In this paper, two powerful sets of features are introduced to be used for iris recognition: scattering transform-based features and textural features. PCA is also applied on the extracted features to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector while preservin...

  13. Unsupervised Categorization of Objects into Artificial and Natural Superordinate Classes Using Features from Low-Level Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition problem has mainly focused on classification of specific object classes and not much work is devoted to the problem of automatic recognition of general object classes. The aim of this paper is to distinguish between the highest levels of conceptual object classes (i.e. artificial vs. natural objects by defining features extracted from energy of low level visual characteristics of color, orientation and frequency. We have examined two modes of global and local feature extraction. In local strategy, only features from a limited number of random small windows are extracted, while in global strategy, features are taken from the whole image. Unlike many other object recognition approaches, we used unsupervised learning technique for distinguishing between two classes of artificial and natural objects based on experimental results which show that distinction of visual object super-classes is not based on long term memory. Therein, a clustering task is performed to divide the feature space into two parts without supervision. Comparison of clustering results using different sets of defined low level visual features show that frequency features obtained by applying Fourier transfer could provide the highest distinction between artificial and natural objects.

  14. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  15. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  16. An efficient approach for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from normal elderly based on multicenter MRI using gray-level invariant features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwei Li

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques, along with imaging markers extracted from structural magnetic resonance images, have been shown to increase the accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal elderly controls. Several forms of anatomical features, such as cortical volume, shape, and thickness, have demonstrated discriminative capability. These approaches rely on accurate non-linear image transformation, which could invite several nuisance factors, such as dependency on transformation parameters and the degree of anatomical abnormality, and an unpredictable influence of residual registration errors. In this study, we tested a simple method to extract disease-related anatomical features, which is suitable for initial stratification of the heterogeneous patient populations often encountered in clinical data. The method employed gray-level invariant features, which were extracted from linearly transformed images, to characterize AD-specific anatomical features. The intensity information from a disease-specific spatial masking, which was linearly registered to each patient, was used to capture the anatomical features. We implemented a two-step feature selection for anatomic recognition. First, a statistic-based feature selection was implemented to extract AD-related anatomical features while excluding non-significant features. Then, seven knowledge-based ROIs were used to capture the local discriminative powers of selected voxels within areas that were sensitive to AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The discriminative capability of the proposed feature was measured by its performance in differentiating AD or MCI from normal elderly controls (NC using a support vector machine. The statistic-based feature selection, together with the knowledge-based masks, provided a promising solution for capturing anatomical features of the brain efficiently. For the analysis of clinical populations, which are inherently heterogeneous

  17. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1 automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2 applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3 extracting the line-like features (LLFs from the fused image; (4 obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5 using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  18. Biometric study using hyperspectral imaging during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sheela; Quoraishee, Shafik; Chan, Gabriel; Short, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    To the casual observer, transient stress results in a variety of physiological changes that can be seen in the face. Although the conditions can be seen visibly, the conditions affect the emissivity and absorption properties of the skin, which imaging spectrometers, commonly referred to as Hyperspectral (HS) cameras, can quantify at every image pixel. The study reported on in this paper, using Hyperspectral cameras, provides a basis for continued study of HS imaging to eventually quantify biometric stress. This study was limited to the visible to near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Signal processing tools and algorithms have been developed and are described for using HS face data from human subjects. The subjects were placed in psychologically stressful situations and the camera data were analyzed to detect stress through changes in dermal reflectance and emissivity. Results indicate that hyperspectral imaging may potentially serve as a non-invasive tool to measure changes in skin emissivity indicative of a stressful incident. Particular narrow spectral bands in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum seem especially important. Further studies need to be performed to determine the optimal spectral bands and to generalize the conclusions. The enormous information available in hyperspectral imaging needs further analysis and more spectral regions need to be exploited. Non-invasive stress detection is a prominent area of research with countless applications for both military and commercial use including border patrol, stand-off interrogation, access control, surveillance, and non-invasive and un-attended patient monitoring.

  19. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used. PMID:26737619

  20. Androgen levels in women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction : Associations with cardiometabolic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N. M P; Jaspers, L.; Koster, M. P H; Broekmans, F. J M; De Rijke, Y. B.; Franco, O. H.; Laven, J. S E; Kavousi, M.; Fauser, B. C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are differences in androgen levels among women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities? SUMMARY ANSWER Androgen levels differed substantially between women with and without ovarian dysfunction, and increased androgen levels were associat

  1. Security EvaBio: An Analysis Tool for the Security Evaluation of Biometric Authentication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed, Mohamad; Lacharme, Patrick; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Biometric systems present several drawbacks that may significantly decrease their utility. Nowadays, several platforms (such as the FVC-onGoing) exist to assess the performance of such systems. Despite this, none platform exists for the security evaluation of biometric systems. Hence, the aim of this paper is to present an on-line platform for the security evaluation of biometric systems. The key benefits of the presented platform are twofold. First, it provides biometrics community an evalua...

  2. Biometric applications related to human beings: there is life beyond security

    OpenAIRE

    Faúndez Zanuy, Marcos; Hussain, Amir; Mekyska, Jiri; Sesa Nogueras, Enric; Monte Moreno, Enrique; Esposito, Anna; Chetouani, Mohamed; Garre Olmo, Josep; Abel, Andrew; Smékal, Zdenek; Lopez-De-Ipina, Karmele

    2013-01-01

    The use of biometrics has been successfully applied to security applications for some time. However, the extension of other potential applications with the use of biometric information is a very recent development. This paper summarizes the field of biometrics and investigates the potential of utilizing biometrics beyond the presently limited field of security applications. There are some synergies that can be established within security-related applications. These can...

  3. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  4. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  5. BIOMETRICS SOCIETY AND THE PROGRESS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Romanian animal, agricultural and biological sciences were seriously damaged in the period 1948-1964 by the introduction of the Stalinsko- lasenko approach in the field of Genetics and by an empiric-pragmatic approach of agricultural theory. In 1965, it started the reintroduction of the real genetic science and in 1969 a small group of scientists (22, 3 animal scientists, 3 agriculturalists registered in International Biometric Society aiming to change the scientific approach in experimental technique, genetic and animal breeding, ecological vision of animal production, education system. An international Congress of International Biometric Society was held in Romania. Some progress was achieved in all biological fields, but generally it was braked by the routine, by inertia. The number of Romanian agricultural members of Biometric Society decreased, the group disappeared after the year 1990, the biometricians were not present in research and education, but a correct approach is visible in Animal Breeding theory. It is noted that the biometric approach in biological sciences is originated from Darwin and Mendel theory, it was concretized by Galton and Pearson but the origin of Biometric Society (1946 is connected with S. Wright. Some basic scientific works of Quantitative Genetics and Evolution theory are noted.

  6. A NOVEL BIOMETRICS TRIGGERED WATERMARKING OF IMAGES BASED ON WAVELET BASED CONTOURLET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elakkiya Soundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of network and digital technology has led to several issues to the digital content. The technical solution to provide law enforcement and copyright protection is achieved by digital watermarking Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital image in a way that is difficult to remove. The proposed method contains following phases (i Pre-processing of biometric image (ii key generation from the biometrics of the owner/user and randomization of the host image using Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF (iii Wavelet-Based Contourlet Transform (WBCT is applied on the host image. The WBCT can give the anisotropy optimal representation of the edges and contours in the image by virtue of the characteristics of multi-scale framework and multi-directionality (iv Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is enforced over the watermark image (v Embedding of the host image with the watermark image. The comparative analysis confirms the efficiency and robustness of the proposed system Index Terms— Digital Watermarking, copyright, Pre-processing, wavelet, Speeded-Up Robust Features.

  7. A Robust Biometric Authentication and PIN Distribution Technique for Secure Mobile Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun Prakash

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile emerging world, user authentication, service provider authentication and security is very important in mobile commerce. User authentication is performed by using fingerprint based biometric methodology. Existing system used for Mobile purchasing/payment services in handheld devices does not analyze fingerprint matching and feature extraction techniques in an efficient way. Also the existing system is not secure and accurate for m-payments applications. We propose secure, efficient and accurate m-commerce architecture for m-commerce applications. This involves fusion of Minutiae Maps (MM and Orientation Maps (OM for fingerprint feature extraction. The fingerprint is sent to the biometric server in a secure way using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT data hiding method. User fingerprint will be checked and compared using MM and OM methods to figure out the fingerprint threshold matching score. If the threshold is 80-99% PIN distribution process is initiated, otherwise user authentication is failed. The user PIN is converted into a unique sequence and divided into two parts. Along with the user PIN, user IP address, time stamp, user ID are encrypted using RC4 (stream cipher algorithm. Also a hash function is appended to the cipher text using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA4. One half is verified by the authentication server and the other half is verified by the external server. After verification both the servers sends only OK message to the bank. This study looks to provide a high secure and efficient solution for m-commerce applications.

  8. 78 FR 22274 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... biometrics in connection with their admission to the United States. See 73 FR 77473 (Dec. 19, 2008). OMB is... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM) Biometric...: 1600- 0006. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and...

  9. A Preliminary Review of Behavioural Biometrics for Health Monitoring in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vancea, Mihaela; March Amengual, Jaume Miquel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential of ICT-based biometrics for monitoring the health status of the elderly people. It departs from specific ageing and biometric traits to then focus on behavioural biometric traits like handwriting, speech and gait to finally explore their practical application in health monitoring of elderly.

  10. Guide to biometrics for large-scale systems technological, operational, and user-related factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Presents a review of biometric technology and biometric systems, and the concept of identity management Discusses the legal, political and societal factors of biometric technology, in addition to user psychology and other human factors Provides chapter-ending review questions and discussion points

  11. Enhancement of low sampling frequency recordings for ECG biometric matching using interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) based biometric matching suffers from high misclassification error with lower sampling frequency data. This situation may lead to an unreliable and vulnerable identity authentication process in high security applications. In this paper, quality enhancement techniques for ECG data with low sampling frequency has been proposed for person identification based on piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation (PCHIP) and piecewise cubic spline interpolation (SPLINE). A total of 70 ECG recordings from 4 different public ECG databases with 2 different sampling frequencies were applied for development and performance comparison purposes. An analytical method was used for feature extraction. The ECG recordings were segmented into two parts: the enrolment and recognition datasets. Three biometric matching methods, namely, Cross Correlation (CC), Percent Root-Mean-Square Deviation (PRD) and Wavelet Distance Measurement (WDM) were used for performance evaluation before and after applying interpolation techniques. Results of the experiments suggest that biometric matching with interpolated ECG data on average achieved higher matching percentage value of up to 4% for CC, 3% for PRD and 94% for WDM. These results are compared with the existing method when using ECG recordings with lower sampling frequency. Moreover, increasing the sample size from 56 to 70 subjects improves the results of the experiment by 4% for CC, 14.6% for PRD and 0.3% for WDM. Furthermore, higher classification accuracy of up to 99.1% for PCHIP and 99.2% for SPLINE with interpolated ECG data as compared of up to 97.2% without interpolation ECG data verifies the study claim that applying interpolation techniques enhances the quality of the ECG data. PMID:23062461

  12. The use of biometrics in the Personal Health Record (PHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Personal Health Record (PHR) has made individual health information more readily accessible to a wide range of users including patients, consumers, practitioners, and healthcare providers. However, increased accessibility of PHR threatens the confidentiality, privacy, and security of personalized health information. Therefore, a need for robust and reliable forms of authentication is of prime concern. The concept of biometric authentication is now highly visible to healthcare providers as a technology to prevent unauthorized access to individual health information. Implementing biometric authentication mechanisms to protect PHR facilitates access control and secure exchange of health information. In this paper, a literature review is used to explore the key benefits, technical barriers, challenges, and ethical implications for using biometric authentication in PHR. PMID:21335696

  13. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  14. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  15. Contact-free and pose-invariant hand-biometric-based personal identification system using RGB and depth data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can WANG; Hong LIU; Xing LIU

    2014-01-01

    Hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation is considered to be an effective method for automatic recognition. However, existing systems require strict constraints during data acquisition, such as costly devices, specifi ed postures, simple background, and stable illumination. In this paper, a contactless personal identifi cation system is proposed based on matching hand geometry features and color features. An inexpensive Kinect sensor is used to acquire depth and color images of the hand. During image acquisition, no pegs or surfaces are used to constrain hand position or posture. We segment the hand from the background through depth images through a process which is insensitive to illumination and background. Then fi nger orientations and landmark points, like fi nger tips or fi nger valleys, are obtained by geodesic hand contour analysis. Geometric features are extracted from depth images and palmprint features from intensity images. In previous systems, hand features like fi nger length and width are normalized, which results in the loss of the original geometric features. In our system, we transform 2D image points into real world coordinates, so that the geometric features remain invariant to distance and perspective effects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation system is effective and robust in various practical situations.

  16. Agatha: Multimodal Biometric Authentication Platform in Large-Scale Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Gómez, David; Saeta, Javier Rodríguez; Ejarque, Pascual; Hernando, Javier

    Biometric technologies are each time more demanded for security applications. In this sense, systems for identifying people are gaining popularity, especially in governmental sectors, and forensic applications have climbed to the top of the list when talking about biometrics. However, some problems still remain as cornerstones in identification processes, all of them linked to the length of the databases in which the individual is supposed to be. The speed and the error are parameters that depend on the number of users in the database and measure the quality of the whole system.

  17. A new approach for willingness test in biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Biometrics identifies/verifies a person using his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics. It is becoming an important ally for law enforcement and homeland security. However, there are some safety and privacy concerns: biometric based systems can be accessed when users are under threat, reluctant or even unconscious states. In this paper, we introduce a new method which can identify a person and detect his/her willingness. Our experimental results show that the new approach can enhance the security by checking the consent signature while achieving very high recognition accuracy.

  18. Securing Biometric Templates Where Similarity Is Measured with Set Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socek, Daniel; Božović, Vladimir; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    A novel scheme for securing biometric templates of variable size and order is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on a new similarity measure approach, namely the set intersection, which strongly resembles the methodology used in most of the current state-of-the-art biometrics matching systems. The applicability of the new scheme is compared with that of the existing principal schemes, and it is shown that the new scheme has definite advantages over the existing approaches. The proposed scheme is analyzed both in terms of security and performance.

  19. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Shanmugapriya, D

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are given in this study. This paper also discusses about the various security issues and challenges faced by keystroke dynamics.

  20. Fingerprints, Iris and DNA Features based Multimodal Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are alternates to the traditional identification systems. This paper provides an overview of single feature and multiple features based biometric systems, including the performance of physiological characteristics (such as fingerprint, hand geometry, head recognition, iris, retina, face recognition, DNA recognition, palm prints, heartbeat, finger veins, palates etc and behavioral characteristics (such as body language, facial expression, signature verification, speech recognition, Gait Signature etc.. The fingerprints, iris image, and DNA features based multimodal systems and their performances are analyzed in terms of security, reliability, accuracy, and long-term stability. The strengths and weaknesses of various multiple features based biometric approaches published so far are analyzed. The directions of future research work for robust personal identification is outlined.

  1. Quality-aware features-based noise level estimator for block matching and three-dimensional filtering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Hu, Lingyan; Yang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The performance of conventional denoising algorithms is usually controlled by one or several parameters whose optimal settings depend on the contents of the processed images and the characteristics of the noises. Among these parameters, noise level is a fundamental parameter that is always assumed to be known by most of the existing denoising algorithms (so-called nonblind denoising algorithms), which largely limits the applicability of these nonblind denoising algorithms in many applications. Moreover, these nonblind algorithms do not always achieve the best denoised images in visual quality even when fed with the actual noise level parameter. To address these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a new quality-aware features-based noise level estimator (NLE), which consists of quality-aware features extraction and optimal noise level parameter prediction. First, considering that image local contrast features convey important structural information that is closely related to image perceptual quality, we utilize the marginal statistics of two local contrast operators, i.e., the gradient magnitude and the Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), to extract quality-aware features. The proposed quality-aware features have very low computational complexity, making them well suited for time-constrained applications. Then we propose a learning-based framework where the noise level parameter is estimated based on the quality-aware features. Based on the proposed NLE, we develop a blind block matching and three-dimensional filtering (BBM3D) denoising algorithm which is capable of effectively removing additive white Gaussian noise, even coupled with impulse noise. The noise level parameter of the BBM3D algorithm is automatically tuned according to the quality-aware features, guaranteeing the best performance. As such, the classical block matching and three-dimensional algorithm can be transformed into a blind one in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results demonstrate that the

  2. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN. PMID:20703727

  3. 生物特征识别技术研究及应用%Biometric Technology: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉峰; 王小林; 张传文

    2012-01-01

    An accurate automatic personal identification is critical to our highly inter-connected information society. As a way of auto- matic identification, Biometrics have unique advantages because it is based on biolo~gical and behavioral traits. Biometrics is important to information safety. In this paper the concept of biological features and many common biometric technologies are introduced, also the identification principle and character of different methods are fully discussed.%生物特征识别技术作为一种身份识别的手段,具有独特的优势,对信息安全具有重要意义,近年来已逐渐成为国际上的研究热点。本文介绍了生物特征的概念及多种常见生物特征识别技术,对不同的识别方法的原理、特征及性能做了较详细的分析与评价。

  4. Experimental study on vacuum level impacting features based on portable α spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the influence of vacuum level on peak position,energy resolution and detection efficiency in α Spectrum analysis, the experimental study based on self-developed portable α spectrometer was carried out. Given other experimental conditions consistency, we tested 239Pu standard source on the impact of six kinds of vacuum level. The results show that, α spectrum peak channel and energy resolution have linear relationships with vacuum degree, both of them increase linearly with vacuum level, detection efficiency increases exponentially with it. Meanwhile, according to measured results,the characteristic equations were established respectively. The proposal is that, in working conditions permitting, we can increase vacuum level,improve the performance of α spectrometer. (authors)

  5. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme. PMID:24888983

  6. Evaluatin of the GGT levels in Alcohol dependence and correlation with biyochemical tests and clinical features

    OpenAIRE

    Salış, Osman; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the correlation between blood GGT levels and biochemical tests also sosyodemografic data who have alcohol dependence Materials and Methods: We intestigated a retrospective way for alcohol dependence patient records in Samsun Mental Hospital. We recorded patients GGT levels and other labarotory tests and sociodemografic data. We excluded other drug abuse or dependence. Results: The present analyses consisted of 83 participants who have alcohol dependence. ...

  7. Forgiveness As A Leadership Feature And A Study O n Its Effects On Organizational Level

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Şener

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on forgiveness notion, which is mainly related to the rel igion but has significant effects on organizational level. The frequency of the forgiveness studies on the organization and administration level in the Christian culture is more striking than the Muslim culture. But the rational aspect of this notion is addressed rather than the emotional and religious aspects and its personal and organizational effects are e...

  8. An Introduction to Biometrics Technology: Its Place in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Peters, Jerry L.; Rishel, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The increased utilization of biometrics technology in the past few years has contributed to a strong growth pattern as the technology is used in a variety of facilities, including schools. Due to media exposure, students' familiarity with technology will continue to increase proportionately, which will result in an increased curiosity about…

  9. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  10. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  11. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.116 Additional requirements for biometrics. (a) If one of the factors used to authenticate to the electronic prescription...-approved government or nongovernment laboratory. Such testing must comply with the requirements...

  12. Quantifying privacy and security of biometric fuzzy commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Veldhuis, Raymond; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy commitment is an efficient template protection algorithm that can improve security and safeguard privacy of biometrics. Existing theoretical security analysis has proved that although privacy leakage is unavoidable, perfect security from information-theoretical points of view is possible when

  13. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinc

  14. A Composite Approach To The Identification Of High-Level Topological Features In A Histopathologic Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, W. P.; Bartels, H. G.; Bartels, P. H.; Richards, D. L.; Saffer, J. S.; Shoemaker, R. L.

    1988-06-01

    Analysis of the large amounts of image data obtainable from very-high-speed scanning laser microscopes places severe demands on computer software and hardware architectures. The automated calculation of features over entire images can provide quantitative data useful to a pathologist who must make a diagnosis. A program that identifies objects of diagnostic interest in an image must utilize a model of the image. An expert system is an effective method for building abstract models of object hierarchies and for utilizing heuristic information. In this paper we discuss a composite approach to image understanding and assessment that utilizes an expert system to control a set of image processing functions for the recognition of various objects in an image.

  15. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice. Their group models, which were represented by discourse and blood circulation diagrams, were analyzed for the development of the framework that informed the model evaluation levels and epistemological features. The model evaluation levels were categorized into levels one to four based on the following evaluation criteria: no evaluation, authoritative sources, superficial criteria, and more comprehensive criteria. The qualities of group models varied with the criteria of model evaluation. While students who used authoritative sources for evaluating the group model appeared to have an absolutist epistemology, students who evaluated according to the superficial criteria and more comprehensive criteria appeared to have an evaluative epistemology. Furthermore, groups with Level four showed a chain reaction of cognitive reasoning during the modeling practice concerning practical epistemology. The findings have implications for science teachers and education researchers who want to understand the context for developing students' practical epistemologies.

  16. A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User’s Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Seo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods ‐ looked upon as good alternatives ‐ are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobile devices by analysing the user’s input patterns, such as a finger’s touch duration, pressure level and the touching width of the finger on the touch screen. We collected the input pattern data of individuals to empirically test our method. Our testing results show that this method effectively identifies users with near a 100% rate of accuracy.

  17. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys;

    2015-01-01

    PBMC content of deoxythymidine-triphosphate (dTTP) (20%), but not mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters measured in this study or mitochondrial ROS. Levels of dTTP in PBMCs are indicators of relative cognitive change suggesting a role of deoxyribonucleotides in the etiology of AD....

  18. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    OpenAIRE

    Swayampakala Kamala; Maslow Andréa L; Colabianchi Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed...

  19. Multiple Levels of Recognition in Ants: A Feature of Complex Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    diverse. In ants, social interactions are regulated by at least three levels of recognition. Nestmate recognition occurs between colonies, is very effective, and involves fast processing. Within a colony, division of labor is enhanced by recognition of different classes of individuals. Ultimately, in...... particular circumstances, such as cooperative colony founding with stable dominance hierarchies, ants are capable of individual recognition. The underlying recognition cues and mechanisms appear to be specific to each recognition level, and their integrated understanding could contribute to the......Communication and recognition are essential for social life. Social insects are good model systems to study social behavior and complexity because their societies are evolutionarily stable and ecologically successful. Ants, in particular, show a large variety of adaptations and are extremely...

  20. Exploring Discourse-level Features for Audiobook-based Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Manuel Sam

    2013-01-01

    Audiobooks are a powerful source of rich information for speech synthesis. Recent work has been focusing on this type of data to improve synthetic speech on two essential dimensions: naturalness and expressiveness. In audiobooks, sentences are not spoken in isolation, as in traditional speech synthesis databases, which allow us to explore discourse-level effects in synthetic speech. Furthermore, audiobook readers often change their voices to impersonate certain characters or to...