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Sample records for biometrics feature level

  1. Feature Level Clustering of Large Biometric Database

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Radhika, V Bhawani; Majhi, Banshidhar; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient technique for partitioning large biometric database during identification. In this technique feature vector which comprises of global and local descriptors extracted from offline signature are used by fuzzy clustering technique to partition the database. As biometric features posses no natural order of sorting, thus it is difficult to index them alphabetically or numerically. Hence, some supervised criteria is required to partition the search space. At the time of identification the fuzziness criterion is introduced to find the nearest clusters for declaring the identity of query sample. The system is tested using bin-miss rate and performs better in comparison to traditional k-means approach.

  2. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rattani, Ajita; Bicego, Manuele; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the fusion at feature extraction level for face and fingerprint biometrics. The proposed approach is based on the fusion of the two traits by extracting independent feature pointsets from the two modalities, and making the two pointsets compatible for concatenation. Moreover, to handle the problem of curse of dimensionality, the feature pointsets are properly reduced in dimension. Different feature reduction techniques are implemented, prior and after the feature pointsets fusion, and the results are duly recorded. The fused feature pointset for the database and the query face and fingerprint images are matched using techniques based on either the point pattern matching, or the Delaunay triangulation. Comparative experiments are conducted on chimeric and real databases, to assess the actual advantage of the fusion performed at the feature extraction level, in comparison to the matching score level.

  3. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  4. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion Of Fingerprint And Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jagadeesan,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide bettersecurity. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1 Feature extraction, 2 Multimodal biometric template generation and 3 Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from the fingerprint and iris images respectively. Subsequently, the extracted features are fused together at the feature level to construct the multi-biometric template. Finally, a 256-bit secure cryptographic key is generated from the multi-biometric template. For experimentation, we have employed the fingerprint images obtained from publicly available sources and the iris images from CASIA Iris Database. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics Feature Level Fusion Of Fingerprint And Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the users biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the users biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from...

  6. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted fr...

  7. Feature Level Fusion of Biometrics Cues: Human Identification with Doddingtons Caricature

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal biometric system of fingerprint and ear biometrics. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptor based feature sets extracted from fingerprint and ear are fused. The fused set is encoded by K-medoids partitioning approach with less number of feature points in the set. K-medoids partition the whole dataset into clusters to minimize the error between data points belonging to the clusters and its center. Reduced feature set is used to match between two biometric sets. Matching scores are generated using wolf-lamb user-dependent feature weighting scheme introduced by Doddington. The technique is tested to exhibit its robust performance.

  8. Multimodal Biometrics using Feature Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishneswari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biometrics is a unique, measurable physiological or behavioural characteristic of a person and finds extensive applications in authentication and authorization. Fingerprint, palm print, iris, voice, are some of the most widely used biometrics for personal identification. To reduce the error rates and enhance the usability of biometric system, multimodal biometric systems are used where more than one biometric characteristics are used. Approach: In this study it is proposed to investigate the performance of multimodal biometrics using palm print and fingerprint. Features are extracted using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and attributes selected using Information Gain (IG. Results and Conclusion: The proposed technique shows an average improvement of 8.52% compared to using palmprint technique alone. The processing time does not increase for verification compared to palm print techniques.

  9. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Palmprint Biometrics by Isomorphic Graph-based Improved K-Medoids Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feature level fusion approach which uses the improved K-medoids clustering algorithm and isomorphic graph for face and palmprint biometrics. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) algorithm is used to partition the set of n invariant feature points of the face and palmprint images into k clusters. By partitioning the face and palmprint images with scale invariant features SIFT points, a number of clusters is formed on both the images. Then on each cluster, an isomorphic graph is drawn. In the next step, the most probable pair of graphs is searched using iterative relaxation algorithm from all possible isomorphic graphs for a pair of corresponding face and palmprint images. Finally, graphs are fused by pairing the isomorphic graphs into augmented groups in terms of addition of invariant SIFT points and in terms of combining pair of keypoint descriptors by concatenation rule. Experimental results obtained from the extensive evaluation show that the proposed feature level fusion with the improve...

  10. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  11. RANK LEVEL FUSION USING FINGERPRINT AND IRIS BIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of users is an essential and difficult to achieve in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers (PIN or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. The biometric improves the capability to recognize the persons. A biometric identificationsystem is an automatic recognition system that recognizes a person based on the physiological (e.g., fingerprints,face, retina, iris, ear or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature, voice characteristics. In many real-world applications,unimodal biometric systems often face has significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intra classvariability, data quality, non-universality, and other factors. Multimodal biometric systems overcome some of these limitations. Multimodal biometric system provides more accuracy when compared to unimodal biometric system. The main goal of multimodal biometric system is to develop the security system for the areas that require high level of security. The proposed system focused on developing a multimodal biometrics system,which uses biometrics such as fingerprint and iris. Fusion of biometrics is performed by means of rank level fusion. The features from the biometrics are obtained by using the FLD (Fisher Linear Discriminant. The experimental result shows the performance of the proposed multimodal biometrics system. In this paper, the decision is made using rank level fusion and the ranks of individual persons are calculated using the Borda count, and Logistic regression approaches.

  12. Biometric features and privacy : condemned, based upon your finger print

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What information is available in biometric features besides that needed for the biometric recognition process? What if a biometric feature contains Personally Identifiable Information? Will the whole biometric system become a threat to privacy? This paper is an attempt to quantifiy the link between

  13. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwarappa M.N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The latest research indicates multimodal person authentication system is more effective and more challenging. This work demonstrates that the fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. As a result, the identification performance is 100% and verification performances, False Acceptance Rate (FAR is 0%, and False Rejection Rate (FRR is 0%.

  14. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal......? This paper proposes total sensitivity analysis about the mean for this purpose for two different biometric traits, iris and face. Experimental results on multiple public databases show the superiority of the proposed system, using the found influential features, compared to state-of-the-art biometric...

  15. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Balakumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according to the physiological features or behavioral features to be recognized without human involvement. This leads to the world wide usage of biometrics to secure the system. The various biometrics used in securing system are fingerprint, iris, retina, etc. The construction of cryptographic key from biometrics is used generally to secure the system. The efficiency and the flexibility of the cryptographic make it suitable for securing purpose. In some times, biometrics can be stolen; this makes the attackers to access the system for any time. This problem is diminished in this paper by using two biometrics features. The biometrics used in this paper is fingerprint and iris. These two features are combined with the help of fusion algorithm. From the combined features, cryptographic key is generated. The experimental result shows that the proposed techniques results in better security than the existing techniques.

  16. Measuring Biometric Sample Quality in terms of Biometric Feature Information in Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Youmaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.

  17. 基于特征融合的多模态身份识别方法研究%Research on multimodal biometric authentication using feature level fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 周新民; 商琳; 高阳

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal biometric authentication method is proposed, which combines the features of human faces and palmprints. Biometrics features are extracted using Gabor wavelet and two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) techniques, and identification is carried out by the nearest neighbor classifier according to the combined biometric features of two modals and a new weighting strategy. The AMP, ORL and Poly-U databases are used as the test data in the experiments. Experimental results show that combination of two different modals can provide more authentication information, which generates higher security and more accuracy than the single model authentication.%研究了多模态身份识别问题,结合人脸和掌纹两种不同生理特征,提出了基于特征融合的多模态身份识别方法.对人脸和掌纹图像分别进行Gabor小波、二维主元变换(2DPCA)提取图像特征,根据新的权重算法,结合两种模态的特征,利用最邻近分类器进行分类识别.在AMP、ORL人脸库和Poly-U掌纹图像库中的实验结果表明,两种模态的融合能更多地给出决策分析所需的特征信息相比传统的单一模态的人脸或掌纹识别具有较高的识别率,更具安全性和准确性.

  18. Efficient Multimodal Biometric Authentication Using Fast Fingerprint Verification and Enhanced Iris Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Basha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The accuracy of biometric systems varies with the kind of biometric feature used in it. The Unmoral biometric system is prone to interclass variations. Approach: We implement Multimodal biometric systems to overcome the limitations by using multiple pieces of evidence of the same identity. However, the multimodal biometric system is limited to the time constraints due to its multiple processing stages. To improve the speed of authentication in the biometric system with acceptable accuracy, we have introduced a dynamic fingerprint verification technique fused with enhanced iris recognition using the adaptive rank level fusion method. Results: When tested upon the standard biometric dataset the system shows improvement in the False Acceptance Rate (FAR and Equal Error Rate (EER curves. Essentially, the time taken for the training and verification phase has a reduction of 10% when compared with the existing systems. Conclusion: The multimodel system has necessarily increased the speed and performance of the verification system especially when tested on slow processing and low memory devices.

  19. Sparse Representation Fusion of Fingerprint, Iris and Palmprint Biometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Anu H Nair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized. But the computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper multimodal biometric image such as fingerprint, palmprint, and iris are extracted individually and are fused together using a sparse fusion mechanism. A multimodal sparse representation method is proposed, which interprets the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. The images are pre-processed for feature extraction. In this process Sobel, canny, Prewitt edge detection methods were applied. The image quality was measured using PSNR, NAE, and NCC metrics. Based on the results obtained, Sobel edge detection was used for feature extraction. Extracted features were subjected to sparse representation for the fusion of different modalities. The fused template can be used for watermarking and person identification application. CASIA database is chosen for the biometric images.

  20. Hybrid Level Integration of Biometric Traits for Security Applications

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    Manjunath S Gabasavalagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In reality the security is to be provided in different levels based on the application and requirement. In attendance related applications require low level security, banking applications may need medium level security and defence applications require high level security. This paper presents a hybrid-modal (Unimodal or Multimodal biometric system which is used to provide better security to applications based on their requirement. Based on the security level, the system uses both single evidence (unimodal for lower level and multiple evidences (multimodal for higher level security. The developed hybrid-modal system employs one or more biometric modalities such as face, voice and fingerprint by alleviating some of the challenges identified in fingerprint, face and voice biometrics modalities. These biometric modalities are selected as they are independent, non-intrusive and robust. Depends on the applications security level requirements like low, medium and high, the number of biometric modalities are provided as evidence to the system. The developed system is tested for 60 users. The accuracy for low level security applications using either fingerprint or face or voice the accuracy of around 94%, 93% and 82% respectively have achieved. The accuracy for medium level security applications using face & fingerprint, face & voice and voice & fingerprint are 91%, 81% and 88% respectively. Further, for high level security using all the three biometric traits the accuracy of 80% is achieved. The developed system provides promising results for all level of security applications.

  1. Generating One Biometric Feature from Another: Faces from Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seref Sagiroglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces from another (only fingerprints. An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces.

  2. Generating one biometric feature from another: faces from fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Necla; Sagiroglu, Seref

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces) from another (only fingerprints). An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces.

  3. Biometric hashing for handwriting: entropy-based feature selection and semantic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidat, Tobias; Vielhauer, Claus

    2008-02-01

    Some biometric algorithms lack of the problem of using a great number of features, which were extracted from the raw data. This often results in feature vectors of high dimensionality and thus high computational complexity. However, in many cases subsets of features do not contribute or with only little impact to the correct classification of biometric algorithms. The process of choosing more discriminative features from a given set is commonly referred to as feature selection. In this paper we present a study on feature selection for an existing biometric hash generation algorithm for the handwriting modality, which is based on the strategy of entropy analysis of single components of biometric hash vectors, in order to identify and suppress elements carrying little information. To evaluate the impact of our feature selection scheme to the authentication performance of our biometric algorithm, we present an experimental study based on data of 86 users. Besides discussing common biometric error rates such as Equal Error Rates, we suggest a novel measurement to determine the reproduction rate probability for biometric hashes. Our experiments show that, while the feature set size may be significantly reduced by 45% using our scheme, there are marginal changes both in the results of a verification process as well as in the reproducibility of biometric hashes. Since multi-biometrics is a recent topic, we additionally carry out a first study on a pair wise multi-semantic fusion based on reduced hashes and analyze it by the introduced reproducibility measure.

  4. 指纹与指静脉的特征层动态加权融合识别%Feature level fusion of fingerprint and finger vein biometrics based on dynamic weighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永明; 林坤明; 韩凤玲; 张祖泷

    2012-01-01

    To study the fusion at feature extraction level for fingerprint and finger vein biometrics, a dynamic weighting matching algorithm based on predictive quality evaluation of interest features is proposed. The proposed approach is based on the fusion of the two traits by extracting independent feature point-sets from the two modalities, and making the two point-sets compatible for concatenation. According to the results of features evaluation, dynamic weighting strategy is introduction for the fusion biometrics. The weight of excellent features in fusion is improved, aiming to weaken the influence of low quality and false features so that better effects of fusion can be achieved. Experimental results based on FVC2000 and self-constructed databases of finger vein show that our scheme achieves 98.9% recognition rate, compared with fingerprint recognition and finger vein recognition increased by 6. 6% and 9. 6% respectively, compared with fusion recognition at matching level increased by 5.4 %.%结合指纹与指静脉两种生物特征的优点进行多模态特征识别,提出一种特征层动态加权融合匹配算法。在图像预处理的基础上分别提取两模式源的有效特征矢量,根据近邻消除和特殊区域保留原则对特征矢量进行降维;从待识别特征角度对特征点集的相对质量进行评价,根据对双模态特征优和差的分类引入动态加权策略,提高质量较好特征所占权重,削弱低质量及伪特征对识别结果的影响,实现了特征层特征自适应优化融合。在FVC2000公开指纹库和指静脉自建数据库上的测试取得了98.9%的识别率,较指纹、指静脉单模态识别分别提高了6.6%和9.6%,较匹配层加权平均融合识别提高了5.4%。

  5. Compressed domain ECG biometric with two-lead features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Jou; Chang, Wen-Whei

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a new method to combine ECG biometrics with data compression within a common JPEG2000 framework. We target the two-lead ECG configuration that is routinely used in long-term heart monitoring. Incorporation of compressed-domain biometric techniques enables faster person identification as it by-passes the full decompression. Experiments on public ECG databases demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for biometric identification with high accuracies on both healthy and diseased subjects.

  6. Secure access control to hidden data by biometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellaro, M.; Carli, M.; Egiazarian, K.; Neri, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a novel authentications system combining biometric cryptosystems with digital watermarking is presented. One of the main vulnerabilities of the existing data hiding systems is the public knowledge of the embedding domain. We propose the use of biometric data, minutiae fingerprint set, for generating the encryption key needed to decompose an image in the Tree structured Haar transform. The uniqueness of the biometrics key together with other, embedded, biometric information guarantee the authentication of the user. Experimental tests show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    , which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems...

  8. Feature exploration for biometric recognition using millimetre wave body images

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13640-015-0084-3 The use of millimetre wave images has been proposed recently in the biometric field to overcome certain limitations when using images acquired at visible frequencies. Furthermore, the security community has started using millimetre wave screening scanners in order to detect concealed objects. We believe we can exploit the use of these devices by incorporating b...

  9. A New Feature Extraction Technique for Person Identification Using Multimodal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Malathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unimodal biometric systems when compared with multimodal systems can be easily spoofed and may get affected by noisy data. Due to the limitations faced by unimodal systems, the need for multimodal biometric systems has rapidly increased. Multimodal systems are more reliable as it uses more than one independent biometric trait to recognize a person. These systems are more secured and have less enrollment problems compared to unimodal systems. A new Enhanced Local Line Binary Pattern (ELLBP method is devised to extract features from ear and fingerprint so as to improve recognition rate and to provide a more reliable and secured multimodal system. The features extracted are stored in the database and compared with the test features for matching. Hamming distance is used as the metric for identification. Experiments were conducted with publicly available databases and were observed that this enhanced method provides excellent results compared to earlier methods. The method was analyzed for performance with Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP. The results of our multimodal system were compared with individual biometric traits and also with ear and fingerprint fused together using enhanced LLPD and other earlier methods. It is observed that our method outperforms earlier methods.

  10. Towards the Development of a Thyroid Ultrasound Biometric Scheme Based on Tissue Echo-morphological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Josè C. R.; Fred, Ana L. N.

    This paper proposes a biometric system based on features extracted from the thyroid tissue accessed through 2D ultrasound. Tissue echo-morphology, which accounts for the intensity (echogenicity), texture and structure has started to be used as a relevant parameter in a clinical setting. In this paper, features related to texture, morphology and tissue reflectivity are extracted from the ultrasound images and the most discriminant ones are selected as an input for a prototype biometric identification system. Several classifiers were tested, with the best results being achieved by a combination of classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbors, MAP and entropy distance). Using leave-one-out cross-validation method the identification rate was up to 94%. Features related to texture and echogenicity were tested individually with high identification rates up to 78% and 70%, respectively. This suggests that the acoustic impedance (reflectivity or echogenicity) of the tissue as well as texture are feasible parameters to discriminate between distinct subjects. This paper shows the effectiveness of the proposed classification, which can be used not only as a new biometric modality but also as a diagnostic tool.

  11. A novel feature ranking algorithm for biometric recognition with PPG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reşit Kavsaoğlu, A; Polat, Kemal; Recep Bozkurt, M

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended for describing the application of the Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal and the time domain features acquired from its first and second derivatives for biometric identification. For this purpose, a sum of 40 features has been extracted and a feature-ranking algorithm is proposed. This proposed algorithm calculates the contribution of each feature to biometric recognition and collocates the features, the contribution of which is from great to small. While identifying the contribution of the features, the Euclidean distance and absolute distance formulas are used. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by the results of the k-NN (k-nearest neighbor) classifier applications of the features. During application, each 15-period-PPG signal belonging to two different durations from each of the thirty healthy subjects were used with a PPG data acquisition card. The first PPG signals recorded from the subjects were evaluated as the 1st configuration; the PPG signals recorded later at a different time as the 2nd configuration and the combination of both were evaluated as the 3rd configuration. When the results were evaluated for the k-NN classifier model created along with the proposed algorithm, an identification of 90.44% for the 1st configuration, 94.44% for the 2nd configuration, and 87.22% for the 3rd configuration has successfully been attained. The obtained results showed that both the proposed algorithm and the biometric identification model based on this developed PPG signal are very promising for contactless recognizing the people with the proposed method.

  12. An Algorithm for Multimodal Biometrics Feature Level Fusion Recognition Based on the Second-Generation Curvelet and 2D Log-Gabor Filter%一种基于二代Curvelet和2D Log—Gabor滤波器的多模特征层融合识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏国淇; 张新曼; 王栋; 刘杨; 许学斌; 田中民

    2012-01-01

    针对单模生物特征识别在实际应用中易受干扰、识别率低且无法达到零错误识别的问题,提出一种基于二代Curvelet和2DLog-Gabor滤波器的人脸与虹膜特征层融合识别算法.该方法利用二代曲波变换提取人脸特征,用2DLog-Gabor幅值法提取虹膜特征,通过PCA降维单模特征向量,在特征层进行融合,通过SVM分类识别融合特征向量.在ORL人脸库和CISIA虹膜库构成的多模生物特征库上进行测试.实验结果表明:该算法正确识别率能达到100%,较单模人脸、单模虹膜识别方法的识别率均提高3.33%,为多模生物特征识别提供了一种有效模型.%For single-modal biometric system is susceptible to interference in appliacation, with low recognition rate, and not able to achieve zero error identification, a new fusion recognition approach in feature level of face and iris is proposed, based on the second-generation Curvelet and 2D Log-Gabor filtering. In the proposed approach, the second generation Curvelet is employed to extract face information, and amplitudes of 2D Log-Gabor are used to extract iris information. Then we use PCA to reduce the dimention of single-modal feature vectors, combine them in feature level, and distinguish fusion feature vectors by SVM. Experimental results on ORL face database and CASIA iris database show that: the correct fusion recognition rate can reach 100%, improved both 3. 33% compared with single face feature and single iris feature, and the proposed algorithm is an effective model for multimodal biometric recognition.

  13. Fingerprint matching system using Level 3 features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint biometric security system identifies the unique property in human being and matching with template stored in database. Fingerprint details are generally defined in three levels i.e. Level 1 (Pattern, Level 2(Minutiae points and Level 3 (pores and contour ridges. Level 3 features are barely used by automated fingerprintverification system. This research paper presents a Level 3 ingerprint matching system. In this paper, we deal with pores for matching with template. With the local pore model, a SIFT algorithm is used to match the pores with template. Experiments on a good quality fingerprint dataset are performed and the results demonstrate that the proposed Level 3 features matching model performed more accurately and robustly.

  14. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc. in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coefficients of face; (ii the relationship between the feature spaces of different biometric systems may not be known; (iii concatenating two feature vectors may result in a feature vector with very large dimensionality leading to the `curse of dimensionality problem, huge storage space and different processing algorithm. Also if we are use multiple images of single biometric trait, then it doesn’t show much variations. So in this paper, we present a efficient technique of feature-based fusion in a multimodal system where left eye and right eye are used as input. Iris recognition basically contains iris location, feature extraction, and identification. This algorithm uses canny edge detection to identify inner and outer boundary of iris. Then this image is feed to Gabor wavelet transform to extract the feature and finally matching is done by using indexing algorithm. The results from the analysis of works indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in performance.

  15. Feature Extraction using Sparse SVD for Biometric Fusion in Multimodal Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ramakrishna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Token based security (ID Cards have been used to restrictaccess to the Securedsystems.The purpose ofBiometricsistoidentify / verifythe correctness of an individualby using certain physiological orbehaviouraltraits associated with the person.Current biometric systems make use of face, fingerprints,iris,hand geometry,retina, signature, palm print, voiceprint and so on to establish a person’s identity.Biometrics isone of the primary key concepts of realapplicationdomains such asaadhar card, passport,pancard, etc.In this paper, we consider face andfingerprint patternsforidentification/verification.Usingthis data weproposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometricsoften called Context-SensitiveExponentAssociative Memory Model (CSEAM.It provides different stagesof securityforbiometricsfusionpatterns.Instage1,fusion offace and finger patternsusingPrincipal ComponentAnalysis (PCA,in stage 2by applyingSparseSVD decomposition toextract the feature patternsfrom thefusion data and face pattern and thenin stage 3,using CSEAM model,theextracted feature vectorscan beencoded.Thefinal key will be stored in the smart cardsas Associative Memory (M, which is often calledContext-Sensitive Associative Memory (CSAM. In CSEAM model,theCSEAMwill be computed usingexponential kronecker productforencodingand verificationofthe chosen samplesfrom the users.Theexponentialof matrixcan be computed in various ways such as Taylor Series, Pade Approximation andalso using OrdinaryDifferential Equations (O.D.E.. Among these approaches we considered first twomethods for computing exponential of a feature space.The result analysis of SVD and Sparse SVD forfeature extraction process and also authentication/verification process of the proposed systemin terms ofperformance measuresasMean square error rateswill be presented

  16. Threshold-optimized decision-level fusion and its application to biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to increase the reliability of biometric verification. In this paper, we propose an optimal fusion scheme at decision level by the AND or OR rule, based on optimizing matching score thresholds. The proposed fusion scheme will always give an improvement in the Neyman–Pear

  17. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  18. Transformation of Hand-Shape Features for a Biometric Identification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso, Carlos M.; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Alonso, Jesús B.

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class). Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database). Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success. PMID:22368506

  19. Performance Enhancement Of Multimodal Biometrics Using Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskaan,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics means the unification of two or more uni modal biometrics so as to make the system more reliable and secure. Such systems promise better security. This study is a blend of iris and fingerprint recognition technique and their fusion at feature level. Our work comprises of two main sections: feature extraction of both modalities and fusing them before matching and finally application of an encryption technique to enhance the security of the fused template.

  20. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  1. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  2. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  3. Multifinger Feature Level Fusion Based Fingerprint Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint based authentication systems are one of the cost-effective biometric authentication techniques employed for personal identification. As the data base population increases, fast identification/recognition algorithms are required with high accuracy. Accuracy can be increased using multimodal evidences collected by multiple biometric traits. In this work, consecutive fingerprint images are taken, global singularities are located using directional field strength and their local orientation vector is formulated with respect to the base line of the finger. Featurelevel fusion is carried out and a 32 element feature template is obtained. A matching score is formulated for the identification and 100% accuracy was obtained for a database of 300 persons. The polygonal feature vector helps to reduce the size of the feature database from the present 70-100 minutiae features to just 32 features and also a lower matching threshold can be fixed compared to single finger based identification

  4. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  5. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  6. Biometrics and Kansei engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes a section on touchscreen devices Proposes a new mathematical model on Iris Recognition Introduces a new technological system dealing with human Kansei Covers the latest achievements in biometric application features

  7. Benchmarking Quality-Dependent and Cost-Sensitive Score-Level Multimodal Biometric Fusion Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poh, N.; Bourlai, T.; Kittler, J.; Allano, L.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Ambekar, O.; Baker, J.; Dorizzi, B.; Fatukasi, O.; Fierrez, J.; Ganster, H.; Ortegia-Garcia, J.; Maurer, D.; Salah, A.A.; Scheidat, T.; Vielhauer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Automatically verifying the identity of a person by means of biometrics (e.g. face and fingerprint) is an important application in our to-day activities such as accessing banking services and security control in airports. To increase the system reliability, several biometric devices are often used.

  8. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  9. A concatenated coding scheme for biometric template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Xiaoying; Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography may mitigate the privacy problem in biometric recognition systems. However, cryptography technologies lack error-tolerance and biometric samples cannot be reproduced exactly, rising the robustness problem. The biometric template protection system needs a good feature extraction algorith

  10. Pain Expression as a Biometric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    . Thus, in this paper we investigated the relevance of pain expression from facial video to be used as a biometric or soft-biometric trait. In order to do that, we employed a biometric person recognition scenario by using features obtained from the pain expression pattern found in the temporal axis...... of subjects’ videos. The results confirmed that the pain expression patterns have distinctive features between the subjects of the UNBC McMaster shoulder pain database. We concluded that as the pain expression patterns have subjective features as a biometric, this can also cause the difference between self...

  11. An Efficient Secure Multimodal Biometric Fusion Using Palmprint and Face Image

    CERN Document Server

    Nageshkumar, M; Swamy, M N S

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence a person's identity. A multimodal biometric systems consolidate the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources and typically better recognition performance compare to system based on a single biometric modality. This paper proposes an authentication method for a multimodal biometric system identification using two traits i.e. face and palmprint. The proposed system is designed for application where the training data contains a face and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and face features increases robustness of the person authentication. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which features vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment template, which are stored during database preparation. Multimodal biometric system is developed through fusion of face and palmprint recognition.

  12. Seasonality of Water Chemistry, Carbonate Production, and Biometric Features of Two Species of Chara in a Shallow Clear Water Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pukacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal variability of biometric features and the carbonate production of two charophytes: Chara polyacantha A. Braun and Chara rudis A. Braun against the background of the physical-chemical properties of water. The investigation was carried out in a small, mid-forest Lake Jasne (western Poland. It is a polymictic, mesotrophic, hardwater ecosystem dominated by charophyte vegetation. Each month, 10 individuals of each species were characterized in terms of morphometric features, fresh and dry weight, and the percentage of calcium carbonate. Additionally, physical-chemical parameters of the water were studied. The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species. Despite smaller dry weight C. polyacantha was characterized by greater morphological variability and higher rates of growth and percentage share of calcium carbonate in dry mass than C. rudis. The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha in July and August. For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found. The obtained results show the great importance of charophyte vegetation in carbon cycling and functioning of lake ecosystems.

  13. Finger-vein and fingerprint recognition based on a feature-level fusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Hong, Bofeng

    2013-07-01

    Multimodal biometrics based on the finger identification is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-vein based biometric method is proposed to improve the reliability and accuracy of the finger recognition system. First, the second order steerable filters are used here to enhance and extract the minutiae features of the fingerprint (FP) and finger-vein (FV). Second, the texture features of fingerprint and finger-vein are extracted by a bank of Gabor filter. Third, a new triangle-region fusion method is proposed to integrate all the fingerprint and finger-vein features in feature-level. Thus, the fusion features contain both the finger texture-information and the minutiae triangular geometry structure. Finally, experimental results performed on the self-constructed finger-vein and fingerprint databases are shown that the proposed method is reliable and precise in personal identification.

  14. Practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Berkay; Karabat, Cagatay; Azadmanesh, Matin; Erdogan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Biometric hashing is a cancelable biometric verification method that has received research interest recently. This method can be considered as a two-factor authentication method which combines a personal password (or secret key) with a biometric to obtain a secure binary template which is used for authentication. We present novel practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing when the attacker is assumed to know the user's password in order to quantify the additional protection due to biometrics when the password is compromised. We present four methods that can reconstruct a biometric feature and/or the image from a hash and one method which can find the closest biometric data (i.e., face image) from a database. Two of the reconstruction methods are based on 1-bit compressed sensing signal reconstruction for which the data acquisition scenario is very similar to biometric hashing. Previous literature introduced simple attack methods, but we show that we can achieve higher level of security threats using compressed sensing recovery techniques. In addition, we present privacy attacks which reconstruct a biometric image which resembles the original image. We quantify the performance of the attacks using detection error tradeoff curves and equal error rates under advanced attack scenarios. We show that conventional biometric hashing methods suffer from high security and privacy leaks under practical attacks, and we believe more advanced hash generation methods are necessary to avoid these attacks.

  15. Biometric Authentication Using ElGamal Cryptosystem And DNA Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.SAMUEL SUSAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics are automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on a Physiological or behavioral characteristic. Physiological haracteristics include hand or finger images, facial characteristics and iris recognition. Behavioral characteristics include dynamic signature verification, speaker verification and keystroke dynamics. DNA is unique feature among individuals. DNA provides high security level, long term stability, user acceptance and is intrusive. Combining ElGamal cryptosystem and DNA sequence, a novel biometric authentication scheme is proposed.

  16. PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF THE MULTIMODAL DECISION-LEVEL FUSION SCHEME IN AUTOMATIC BIOMETRIC PERSON’S IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Timofeev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an original method of structure parametric optimization for multimodal decision-level fusion scheme which combines the results of the partial solution for the classification task obtained from assembly of the monomodal classifiers. As a result, a multimodal fusion classifier which has the minimum value of the total error rate has been obtained. Properties of the proposed approach are proved rigorously. Suggested method has an urgent practical application in the automatic multimodal biometric person’s identification systems and in the systems for remote monitoring of extended objects. The proposed solution is easy for practical implementation into real operating systems. The paper presents a simulation study of the effectiveness of this optimized multimodal fusion classifier carried out on special bimodal biometrical database. Simulation results showed high practical effectiveness of the suggested method.

  17. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  18. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  19. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  20. An Efficient Human Identification through MultiModal Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human identification is essential for proper functioning of society. Human identification through multimodal biometrics is becoming an emerging trend, and one of the reasons is to improve recognition accuracy. Unimodal biometric systems are affected by various problemssuch as noisy sensor data,non-universality, lack of individuality, lack of invariant representation and susceptibility to circumvention.A unimodal system has limited accuracy. Hence, Multimodal biometric systems by combining more than one biometric feature in different levels are proposed in order to enhance the performance of the system. A supervisor module combines the different opinions or decisions delivered by each subsystem and then make a final decision. In this paper, a multimodal biometrics authentication is proposed by combining face, iris and finger features. Biometric features are extracted by Local Derivative Ternary Pattern (LDTP in Contourlet domain and an extensive evaluation of LDTP is done using Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighborhood Classifier. The experimental evaluations are performed on a public dataset demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed system compared with the existing systems. It is observed that, the combination of face, fingerprint and iris gives better performance in terms of accuracy, False Acceptance Rate, False Rejection Rate with minimum computation time.

  1. Using Brain Waves as New Biometric Feature for Authenticating a Computer User in Real-Time

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Mohanchandra; Lingaraju G M; Prashanth Kambli; Vinay Krishnamurthy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Electroencephalogram based Brain Computer Interface as a new modality for Person Authentication and develop a screen lock application that will lock and unlock the computer screen at the users will. The brain waves of the person, recorded in real time are used as password to unlock the screen. Data fusion from 14 sensors of the Emotiv headset is done to enhance the signal features. The power spectral density of the intermingle signals is computed. The channel spect...

  2. Multi-biometric templates using fingerprint and voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlikaya, Eren; Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin

    2008-03-01

    As biometrics gains popularity, there is an increasing concern about privacy and misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. Furthermore, biometric verification systems face challenges arising from noise and intra-class variations. To tackle both problems, a multimodal biometric verification system combining fingerprint and voice modalities is proposed. The system combines the two modalities at the template level, using multibiometric templates. The fusion of fingerprint and voice data successfully diminishes privacy concerns by hiding the minutiae points from the fingerprint, among the artificial points generated by the features obtained from the spoken utterance of the speaker. Equal error rates are observed to be under 2% for the system where 600 utterances from 30 people have been processed and fused with a database of 400 fingerprints from 200 individuals. Accuracy is increased compared to the previous results for voice verification over the same speaker database.

  3. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  4. Multimodal Biometric Systems - Study to Improve Accuracy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sasidhar, K; Ramakrishna, Kolikipogu; KailasaRao, K

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data of human body, extracting a feature set from the acquired data, and comparing this set against to the template set in the database. Experimental studies show that Unimodal biometric systems had many disadvantages regarding performance and accuracy. Multimodal biometric systems perform better than unimodal biometric systems and are popular even more complex also. We examine the accuracy and performance of multimodal biometric authentication systems using state of the art Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) products. Here we discuss fingerprint and face biometric systems, decision and fusion techniques used in these systems. We also discuss their advantage over unimodal biometric systems.

  5. Concealing the Level-3 features of Fingerprint in a Facial Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Seshadri,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available individual based on their physical, chemical and behavioral characteristics of the person. Biometrics is increasingly being used for authentication and protection purposes and this has generated considerable interest from many parts of the information technology people. In this paper we proposed facial image Watermarking methods that can embedded fingerprint level-3 features information into host facial images. This scheme has the advantage that in addition to facial matching, the recovered fingerprint level-3 features during the decoding can be used to establish the authentication. Here the proposed system concealing of vital information human being for identification and at the same time the system protect themselves fromattackers.

  6. Biometric Person Identification System: A Multimodal Approach Employing Spectral Graph Characteristics of Hand Geometry and Palmprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukhappa A. Angadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication systems operating in real world environments using a single modality are found to be insecure and unreliable due to numerous limitations. Multimodal biometric systems have better accuracy and reliability due to the use of multiple biometric traits to authenticate a claimed identity or perform identification. In this paper a novel method for person identification using multimodal biometrics with hand geometry and palmprint biometric traits is proposed. The geometrical information embedded in the user hand and palmprint images are brought out through the graph representations. The topological characterization of the image moments, represented as the virtual nodes of the palmprint image graph is a novel feature of this work. The user hand and palmprint images are represented as weighted undirected graphs and spectral characteristics of the graphs are extracted as features vectors. The feature vectors of the hand geometry and palmprint are fused at feature level to obtain a graph spectral feature vector to represent the person. User identification is performed by using a multiclass support vector machine (SVM classifier. The experimental results demonstrate, an appreciable performance giving identification rate of 99.19% for multimodal biometric after feature level fusion of hand geometry and palmprint modalities. The performance is investigated by conducting the experiments separately for handgeometry, palmprint and fused feature vectors for person identification. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system achieves better performance than the unimodal cues, and can be used in high security applications. Further comparison show that it is better than similar other multimodal techniques.

  7. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  8. Biometric features of the capybara´s body and small intestine Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Hydrochaeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcízio Antônio Rego de Paula

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric aspects of the body were analyzed, as well as some aspects of the small intestine of the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris wild species, particularly those that have been provoking economic interest in meat and leather production. Data such as age, corporal weight and length and thoracic perimeter and height were analyzed. Significant correlations were found between the age and the crown-rump (CR and snout-rump (SR corporal lengths, and between the corporal weight and the parameters of corporal length, thoracic perimeter and height, so that the age and the corporal weight could be obtained starting from more accessible biometric parameters, relative to corporal measurement. Most of the correlations were more significant in the male animals, especially the correlations between the corporal weight and the parameters CR length, thoracic perimeter and height, as well as the correlation among CR length and thoracic height and perimeter, suggesting the existence of possible sexual dimorphism. In relation to the small intestine, estimates were made of the length and volumetric capacity totals as well as those of its individual segments. The capybara possesses a small intestine that is relatively long, about five times longer than the corporal length, and with a volumetric capacity that is relatively high, representing 6.7% of the corporal weight.

  9. Evaluation of biometric security systems against artificial fingers

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Verification of users’ identities are normally carried out via PIN-codes or ID- cards. Biometric identification, identification of unique body features, offers an alternative solution to these methods. Fingerprint scanning is the most common biometric identification method used today. It uses a simple and quick method of identification and has therefore been favored instead of other biometric identification methods such as retina scan or signature verification. In this report biometric secu...

  10. Biometric technology overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Biometrics was identified as one amongst 10 emerging technologies which would change the world in the twenty-first century. Components and processes of biometric system and the relevant technologies are explained in this article. Examples of biometric applications and trends of biometric research, together with industry development,are introduced, which illustrate the challenges and opportunities of this technology.

  11. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  12. Cancelable biometrics realization with multispace random projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yuang, Chong Tze

    2007-10-01

    Biometric characteristics cannot be changed; therefore, the loss of privacy is permanent if they are ever compromised. This paper presents a two-factor cancelable formulation, where the biometric data are distorted in a revocable but non-reversible manner by first transforming the raw biometric data into a fixed-length feature vector and then projecting the feature vector onto a sequence of random subspaces that were derived from a user-specific pseudorandom number (PRN). This process is revocable and makes replacing biometrics as easy as replacing PRNs. The formulation has been verified under a number of scenarios (normal, stolen PRN, and compromised biometrics scenarios) using 2400 Facial Recognition Technology face images. The diversity property is also examined.

  13. Physiological Biometric Authentication Systems Advantages Disadvantages And Future Development A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Alsaadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing users private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face finger iris scanning voice signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

  14. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola M. Aly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted using (PSO Particle Swarm Optimization to ensure the desired system performance corresponding to the desired level of security. The experimental results prove that the proposed multimodal biometric system is appropriate for applications that require different levels of security.

  15. Applications of a hologram watermarking protocol: aging-aware biometric signature verification and time validity check with personal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2003-06-01

    Our paper addresses two issues of a biometric authentication algorithm for ID cardholders previously presented namely the security of the embedded reference data and the aging process of the biometric data. We describe a protocol that allows two levels of verification, combining a biometric hash technique based on handwritten signature and hologram watermarks with cryptographic signatures in a verification infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of a Trusted Central Public Authority (TCPA), which serves numerous Enrollment Stations (ES) in a secure environment. Each individual performs an enrollment at an ES, which provides the TCPA with the full biometric reference data and a document hash. The TCPA then calculates the authentication record (AR) with the biometric hash, a validity timestamp, and a document hash provided by the ES. The AR is then signed with a cryptographic signature function, initialized with the TCPA's private key and embedded in the ID card as a watermark. Authentication is performed at Verification Stations (VS), where the ID card will be scanned and the signed AR is retrieved from the watermark. Due to the timestamp mechanism and a two level biometric verification technique based on offline and online features, the AR can deal with the aging process of the biometric feature by forcing a re-enrollment of the user after expiry, making use of the ES infrastructure. We describe some attack scenarios and we illustrate the watermarking embedding, retrieval and dispute protocols, analyzing their requisites, advantages and disadvantages in relation to security requirements.

  16. Highly Secured Bio-Metric Authentication Model with Palm Print Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raja Murali Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For securing personal identifications and highly secure identification problems, biometric technologies will provide higher security with improved accuracy. This has become an emerging technology in recent years due to the transaction frauds, security breaches and personal identification etc. The beauty of biometric technology is it provides a unique code for each person and it can’t be copied or forged by others. To overcome the draw backs of finger print identification systems, here in this paper we proposed a palm print based personal identification system, which is a most promising and emerging research area in biometric identification systems due to its uniqueness, scalability, faster execution speed and large area for extracting the features. It provides higher security over finger print biometric systems with its rich features like wrinkles, continuous ridges, principal lines, minutiae points, and singular points. The main aim of proposed palm print identification system is to implement a system with higher accuracy and increased speed in identifying the palm prints of several users. Here, in this we presented a highly secured palm print identification system with extraction of region of interest (ROI with morphological operation there by applying un-decimated bi-orthogonal wavelet (UDBW transform to extract the low level features of registered palm prints to calculate its feature vectors (FV then after the comparison is done by measuring the distance between registered palm feature vector and testing palm print feature vector. Simulation results show that the proposed biometric identification system provides more accuracy and reliable recognition rate.

  17. Protection of Biometric Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevenaar, Tom

    The field of biometrics is concerned with recognizing individuals by means of unique physiological or behavioral characteristics. In practical systems, several biometric modalities are used, such as fingerprint, face, iris, hand geometry, and so forth. Recently, biometric systems are becoming increasingly popular because they potentially offer more secure solutions than other identification means such as PIN codes and security badges because a biometric is tightly linked to an individual. For the same reason, biometrics can prevent the use of several identities by a single individual. Finally, biometrics are also more convenient because, unlike passwords and PIN codes, they cannot be forgotten and are always at hand.

  18. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  19. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  20. On the Feasibility of Interoperable Schemes in Hand Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Aythami; González, Ester; Ferrer, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Personal recognition through hand-based biometrics has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last twenty years. A significant number of proposals based on different procedures and acquisition devices have been published in the literature. However, comparisons between devices and their interoperability have not been thoroughly studied. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing procedures to improve the interoperability among different hand biometric schemes. The experiments were conducted on a database made up of 8,320 hand images acquired from six different hand biometric schemes, including a flat scanner, webcams at different wavelengths, high quality cameras, and contactless devices. Acquisitions on both sides of the hand were included. Our experiment includes four feature extraction methods which determine the best performance among the different scenarios for two of the most popular hand biometrics: hand shape and palm print. We propose smoothing techniques at the image and feature levels to reduce interdevice variability. Results suggest that comparative hand shape offers better performance in terms of interoperability than palm prints, but palm prints can be more effective when using similar sensors. PMID:22438714

  1. On the feasibility of interoperable schemes in hand biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Aythami; González, Ester; Ferrer, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Personal recognition through hand-based biometrics has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last twenty years. A significant number of proposals based on different procedures and acquisition devices have been published in the literature. However, comparisons between devices and their interoperability have not been thoroughly studied. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing procedures to improve the interoperability among different hand biometric schemes. The experiments were conducted on a database made up of 8,320 hand images acquired from six different hand biometric schemes, including a flat scanner, webcams at different wavelengths, high quality cameras, and contactless devices. Acquisitions on both sides of the hand were included. Our experiment includes four feature extraction methods which determine the best performance among the different scenarios for two of the most popular hand biometrics: hand shape and palm print. We propose smoothing techniques at the image and feature levels to reduce interdevice variability. Results suggest that comparative hand shape offers better performance in terms of interoperability than palm prints, but palm prints can be more effective when using similar sensors.

  2. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  3. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  4. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  5. Improving Existing e-payment Systems by Implementing the Concept of Cancelable Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric Security Systems have numerous problems because of the fact that the biometric data of a person is stored in the system. These problems would arise when that data is compromised. The standard password based security systems have the ability to cancel the compromised password and reissue a new one. The biometrics cannot becanceled or changed which can be their advantage and a disadvantage in this particular situation. The concept of cancelable biometrics can improve the biometric security system so that it gains the advantages of the password based security system, by not losing the inherent superiority. This paper proposes a novel approach by utilizing cancelable biometric features for securely storing the fingerprint template by generating Secured Feature Matrix and keys for cryptographic techniques applied for data Encryption or Decryption. The conservative techniques rely on biometric features such as face, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris, signature, keystroke, voice, etc for extracting key information. If a Biometric Key is lost or stolen, it is lost forever and perhaps for every application where the biometric is used, because a biometric is enduringly linked with a user and cannot be changed. The use of cancelable biometric features enhances the robustness and reliability of the cryptography technique. There are several biometric systems invented for cryptography, but the proposed cancelable biometric cryptography technique fashions novel biometric systems to generate Cryptographic Key.

  6. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  7. A Survey of Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pin Shen Teh; Andrew Beng Jin Teoh; Shigang Yue

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an...

  8. Biometric data reduction for embedding in small images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq Qazi, Naseem

    2003-06-01

    Biometric authentication systems require a fast and accurate method of matching biometric data for identification purposes. This paper introduces a data reduction technique based on image processing to better embed biometric data in small images. For the most part, biometric data cannot be directly embedded in small images, because of limited embedding capacities and a large amount of data in biometric images. An image processing technique to extract features from biometric data, like fingerprints and retinal scans, has been developed and tested. This new technique developed to extract features is based on the Hough transform and has been tested on a large volume of real image data. The data reduction technique was applied to these images and the data reduced to size, which could be easily embedded in small pictures, like those on identity cards. Existing embedding algorithms were utilized.

  9. Identifying People with Soft-Biometrics at Fleet Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Forensics , Security and Intelligence, Firenze, Italy, 2010, pp. 25-30. [7] U. Park and A. Jain, "Face matching and retrieval using soft biometrics ...Identifying People with Soft- Biometrics at Fleet Week Eric Martinson NRC Post-Doctoral Fellow US Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC...number of different features by which people can be identified. This work describes three alternative, soft biometrics (clothing, complexion, and

  10. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... of the Workshop are: The European Biometrics Forum, The Danish Biometrics Research Project Consortium, the UK Biometrics Institute and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. The BIOID workshop was jointly organized and held at the Roskilde University in Denmark from May 7 — May 9, 2008....

  11. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  12. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  13. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  14. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  15. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    CERN Document Server

    Padmavathi, V S Meenakshi; Dr G

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function is changed new revocable/cancelable templates are generated. Soft biometrics is ancillary information that can be combined with primary biometrics to identify a person in a better way. Iris has certain advantage compared to other biometric traits like fingerprint. Iris is an internal part that is less prone to damage. Moreover is very difficult for an attacker to capture an iris. The key advantage of iris biometrics is its stability or template longevity. Biometric systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. This work...

  16. A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems have very success rate in identifying an individual based on ones biological traits. In biometric history some features like weight, age, height etc. are also there to provide user recognition to some extent but not fully upto the mark because of their changing nature according to time and environment. These features are called soft biometric traits. Soft biometric traits are lack of permanence but they have some positive aspects in respect of enhancing the biometric system performance. Here in this paper, we have also highlighting the similar point but with a new aspect that is integrating the soft biometrics with fingerprint and face for improving the performance of biometric system. Here we have proposed an architecture of three different sensors to evaluate the system performance. The approach includes soft biometrics, fingerprint and face features, we have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio and total response time, with the help of MUBI tool (Multimodal Biometrics Integration.

  17. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  18. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  19. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  20. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  1. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  2. Biometric template transformation: a security analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Abhishek; Nandakumar, Karthik; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical steps in designing a secure biometric system is protecting the templates of the users that are stored either in a central database or on smart cards. If a biometric template is compromised, it leads to serious security and privacy threats because unlike passwords, it is not possible for a legitimate user to revoke his biometric identifiers and switch to another set of uncompromised identifiers. One methodology for biometric template protection is the template transformation approach, where the template, consisting of the features extracted from the biometric trait, is transformed using parameters derived from a user specific password or key. Only the transformed template is stored and matching is performed directly in the transformed domain. In this paper, we formally investigate the security strength of template transformation techniques and define six metrics that facilitate a holistic security evaluation. Furthermore, we analyze the security of two wellknown template transformation techniques, namely, Biohashing and cancelable fingerprint templates based on the proposed metrics. Our analysis indicates that both these schemes are vulnerable to intrusion and linkage attacks because it is relatively easy to obtain either a close approximation of the original template (Biohashing) or a pre-image of the transformed template (cancelable fingerprints). We argue that the security strength of template transformation techniques must consider also consider the computational complexity of obtaining a complete pre-image of the transformed template in addition to the complexity of recovering the original biometric template.

  3. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...

  4. Two-Factor Cancelable Biometrics Authenticator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Han Pang; Andrew T. B. J; David N. C. L

    2007-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication system offers advantages of providing high reliability and accuracy.However,the contemporary authentication system is impuissance to compromise.If a biometrics data is compromised, it cannot be replaced and rendered unusable.In this paper, a cancelable biometrics-based authenticator is proposed to solve this irrevocability issue.The proposed approach is a two-factor authentication system, which requires both of the random data and facial feature in order to access the system.In this system, tokenized pseudo-random data is coupled with moment-based facial feature via inner product algorithm.The output of the product is then discretized to generate a set of private binary code, coined as 2factor-Hashing code, which is acted as verification key.If this biometrics-based verification key is compromised, a new one can be issued by replacing a different set of random number via token replacement.Then, the compromised one is rendered completely useless.This feature offers an extra protection layer against biometrics fabrication since the verification code is replaceable.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides zero Equal Error Rate in which there is a clear separation in between the genuine and the imposter distribution populations.

  5. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  6. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  7. Biometrics and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address.

  8. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  9. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  10. Keystroke Biometric For User Authentication - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yevale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, users are authenticated under the normal user name and password procedure. The latest trend in authentication is using Biometric as a feature for identifying users. By using biometrics as the integral part of authentication, the chances of imposters entering in a secured system becomes very low. Keystroke Biometric uses the behavioral typing pattern as a biometric for identifying a user. In this paper, a survey is carried out on three different approaches that implements keystroke biometric system. 1 Clustering Di-Graph (CDG: This method uses clustering digraphs based on temporal features. This method joins consecutive keystrokes for representing keystroke pattern. 2 Hamming Distance-like Filtering (HDF: In this method, the dissimilarity has their EER(Equal Error Rate depending upon filtering of predefined value of gathered data. It is based on resemblance to Hamming Distance. 3 Free Text and Euclidean Distance based Approach (FTED: In this method, keys are classified into two halves (left - right and four lines (total eight groups and then timing vectors (of flight time are obtained between these key groups. For distinguishing the legitimate user from imposters, Timing Vectors are used.

  11. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  12. Biometrics, identification and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David

    2008-11-01

    Governing by identity describes the emerging regime of a globalizing, mobile world. Governance depends on identification but identification increasingly depends on biometrics. This 'solution' to difficulties of verification is described and some technical weaknesses are discussed. The role of biometrics in classification systems is also considered and is shown to contain possible prejudice in relation to racialized criteria of identity. Lastly, the culture of biometric identification is shown to be limited to abstract data, artificially separated from the lived experience of the body including the orientation to others. It is proposed that creators of national ID systems in particular address these crucial deficiencies in their attempt to provide new modes of verification.

  13. Biometrics and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Venu

    The science of Biometrics is concerned with recognizing people based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. It has emerged as a vibrant field of research in today's security conscious society. In this talk we will introduce the important research challenges in Biometrics and specifically address the following topics: i) unobtrusive people tracking using a novel evolutionary recognition paradigm, ii) efficient indexing and searching of large fingerprint databases, iii) cancelability of templates where the task is to ensure that enrolled biometric templates can be revoked and new templates issued, and iv) fusion of fingerprints with other biometric modalities such as face where we will explore optimal trainable functions that operate on the scores returned by individual matchers.

  14. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  15. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  16. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  17. A Survey of Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Shen Teh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions.

  18. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions.

  19. Alignment and bit extraction for secure fingerprint biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, A.; Rane, S.; Vetro, A.

    2010-01-01

    Security of biometric templates stored in a system is important because a stolen template can compromise system security as well as user privacy. Therefore, a number of secure biometrics schemes have been proposed that facilitate matching of feature templates without the need for a stored biometric sample. However, most of these schemes suffer from poor matching performance owing to the difficulty of designing biometric features that remain robust over repeated biometric measurements. This paper describes a scheme to extract binary features from fingerprints using minutia points and fingerprint ridges. The features are amenable to direct matching based on binary Hamming distance, but are especially suitable for use in secure biometric cryptosystems that use standard error correcting codes. Given all binary features, a method for retaining only the most discriminable features is presented which improves the Genuine Accept Rate (GAR) from 82% to 90% at a False Accept Rate (FAR) of 0.1% on a well-known public database. Additionally, incorporating singular points such as a core or delta feature is shown to improve the matching tradeoff.

  20. Multimodal Biometrics Based on Fingerprint and Finger Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems identify a person through physical traits or verify his/her identity through automatic processes. Various systems were used over years including systems like fingerprint, iris, facial images, hand geometry and speaker recognition. For biometric systems successful implementation, it has to address issues like efficiency, accuracy, applicability, robustness and universality. Single modality based recognition verifications are not robust while combining information from different biometric modalities ensures better performance. Multimodal biometric systems use multiple biometrics and integrate information for identification. It compensates unimodal biometric systems limitations. This study considers multimodal biometrics based on fingerprint and finger veins. Gabor features are extracted from finger vein using Gabor filter with orientation of 0, 15, 45, 60 and 75°, respectively. For fingerprint images, energy coefficients are attained using wavelet packet tree. Both features are normalized using min max normalization and fused with concatenation. Feature selection is through PCA and kernel PCA. Classification is achieved through KNN, Naïve Bayes and RBF Neural Network Classifiers.

  1. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Electronic Vision Research Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  2. The biometric menagerie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Neil; Dunstone, Ted

    2010-02-01

    It is commonly accepted that users of a biometric system may have differing degrees of accuracy within the system. Some people may have trouble authenticating, while others may be particularly vulnerable to impersonation. Goats, wolves, and lambs are labels commonly applied to these problem users. These user types are defined in terms of verification performance when users are matched against themselves (goats) or when matched against others (lambs and wolves). The relationship between a user's genuine and impostor match results suggests four new user groups: worms, doves, chameleons, and phantoms. We establish formal definitions for these animals and a statistical test for their existence. A thorough investigation is conducted using a broad range of biometric modalities, including 2D and 3D faces, fingerprints, iris, speech, and keystroke dynamics. Patterns that emerge from the results expose novel, important, and encouraging insights into the nature of biometric match results. A new framework for the evaluation of biometric systems based on the biometric menagerie, as opposed to collective statistics, is proposed.

  3. Mining Mid-level Features for Image Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Fromont, Elisa; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Mid-level or semi-local features learnt using class-level information are potentially more distinctive than the traditional low-level local features constructed in a purely bottom-up fashion. At the same time they preserve some of the robustness properties with respect to occlusions and image clutter. In this paper we propose a new and effective scheme for extracting mid-level features for image classification, based on relevant pattern mining. In par- ticular, we mine...

  4. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  5. Biometrics Security using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is at risk to a variety of attacks. These attacks are intended to either avoid thesecurity afforded by the system or to put off the normal functioning of the system. Various riskshave been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of cryptography greatly reducesthe risks in biometric systems as the hackers have to find both secret key and template. It isnotified that still fraudrant goes on to some extent. Here in this paper a new idea is presented tomake system more secure by use of steganography. Here the secret key (which is in the form ofpixel intensities will be merged in the picture itself while encoding, and at decoding end only theauthentic user will be allowed to decode.

  6. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life.

  7. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  8. Product of Likelihood Ratio Scores Fusion of Dynamic Face, Text Independent Speech and On-line Signature Based Biometrics Verification Application Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SOLTANE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of finite Gaussian mixture modal (GMM tuned using Expectation Maximization (EM estimating algorithms for score level data fusion is proposed. Automated biometric systems for human identification measure a “signature” of the human body, compare the resulting characteristic to a database, and render an application dependent decision. These biometric systems for personal authentication and identification are based upon physiological or behavioral features which are typically distinctive, Multi-biometric systems, which consolidate information from multiple biometric sources, are gaining popularity because they are able to overcome limitations such as non-universality, noisy sensor data, large intra-user variations and susceptibility to spoof attacks that are commonly encountered in mono modal biometric systems. Simulation result show that finite mixture modal (GMM is quite effective in modelling the genuine and impostor score densities, fusion based the product of Likelihood Ratio achieves a significant performance on eNTERFACE 2005 multi-biometric database based on dynamic face, on-line signature and text independent speech modalities.

  9. Multimodal biometric method that combines veins, prints, and shape of a finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Yoo, Jang-Hee; Kim, Jeong Nyeo

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal biometrics provides high recognition accuracy and population coverage by using various biometric features. A single finger contains finger veins, fingerprints, and finger geometry features; by using multimodal biometrics, information on these multiple features can be simultaneously obtained in a short time and their fusion can outperform the use of a single feature. This paper proposes a new finger recognition method based on the score-level fusion of finger veins, fingerprints, and finger geometry features. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the performances of the finger-vein and fingerprint recognition are improved by using a method based on a local derivative pattern. Second, the accuracy of the finger geometry recognition is greatly increased by combining a Fourier descriptor with principal component analysis. Third, a fuzzy score normalization method is introduced; its performance is better than the conventional Z-score normalization method. Fourth, finger-vein, fingerprint, and finger geometry recognitions are combined by using three support vector machines and a weighted SUM rule. Experimental results showed that the equal error rate of the proposed method was 0.254%, which was lower than those of the other methods.

  10. Biometric verification with correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  11. Optimized Radial Basis Function Classifier for Multi Modal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems can be used for the identification or verification of humans based on their physiological or behavioral features. In these systems the biometric characteristics such as fingerprints, palm-print, iris or speech can be recorded and are compared with the samples for the identification or verification. Multimodal biometrics is more accurate and solves spoof attacks than the single modal bio metrics systems. In this study, a multimodal biometric system using fingerprint images and finger-vein patterns is proposed and also an optimized Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel classifier is proposed to identify the authorized users. The extracted features from these modalities are selected by PCA and kernel PCA and combined to classify by RBF classifier. The parameters of RBF classifier is optimized by using BAT algorithm with local search. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with the KNN classifier, Naïve Bayesian classifier and non-optimized RBF classifier.

  12. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Soria, E.; Martin, J.D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but

  13. Performance evaluation of fusing protected fingerprint minutiae templates on the decision level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; de Groot, Koen; Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N J

    2012-01-01

    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric characteristic. Compared to an unprotected system, most existing biometric template protection methods cause to a certain extent degradation in biometric performance. Fusion is therefore a promising way to enhance the biometric performance in template-protected biometric systems. Compared to feature level fusion and score level fusion, decision level fusion has not only the least fusion complexity, but also the maximum interoperability across different biometric features, template protection and recognition algorithms, templates formats, and comparison score rules. However, performance improvement via decision level fusion is not obvious. It is influenced by both the dependency and the performance gap among the conducted tests for fusion. We investigate in this paper several fusion scenarios (multi-sample, multi-instance, multi-sensor, multi-algorithm, and their combinations) on the binary decision level, and evaluate their biometric performance and fusion efficiency on a multi-sensor fingerprint database with 71,994 samples.

  14. Soft Biometrics Database: A Benchmark For Keystroke Dynamics Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Among all the existing biometric modalities, authentication systems based on keystroke dynamics are particularly interesting for usability reasons. Many researchers proposed in the last decades some algorithms to increase the efficiency of this biometric modality. Propose in this paper: a benchmark testing suite composed of a database containing multiple data (keystroke dynamics templates, soft biometric traits . . . ), which will be made available for the research com...

  15. Development of Palmprint Verification System Using Biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Shobha; M. Krishna; S.C. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Palmprint verification system using Biometrics is one of the emerging technologies, which recognizes a person based on the principle lines, wrinkles and ridges on the surface of the palm. These line structures are stable and remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual. More importantly, no two palmprints from different individuals are the same, and normally people do not feel uneasy to have their palmprint images taken for testing. Therefore palmprint recognition offers a promising future for medium-security access control systems. In this paper, a new approach for personal authentication using hand images is discussed. Gray-Scale palm images are captured using a digital camera at a resolution of 640′480. Each of these gray-scale images is aligned and then used to extract palmprint and hand geometry features. These features are then used for authenticating users. The image acquisition setup used here is inherently simple and it does not employ any special illumination nor does it use any pegs that might cause any inconvenience to users. Experimental results show that the designed system achieves an acceptable level of performance.

  16. Biometric user authentication using Gray Wolf Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandrasekar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Major issue in computer security is the need to protect data and computer system from intruders. Hence user authentication is certainly an interesting option for standard security. Keystrokedynamics is a biometrics technique and it plays an important role in user authentication.It is based on the analysis of typing rhythm. In this paper the feature data values are recorded, Hausdroff timing values are calculated and stored as a dataset. Using the dataset the keystroke dynamics provide a more performance. The proposed Gray wolf optimization is used for feature selection. By providing sufficient training and testing the text length, number of dataset and same keyboard type, the keystroke biometric effectively identified the genuine user and impostor.

  17. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  18. A Unique Wavelet Steganography Based Voice Biometric Protection Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaypande M. B

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Voice biometric is an easy and cost effective biometric technique which requires minimalistic hardware and software complexity. General voice biometric needs a voice phrase by user which is processed with Mel Filter and Vector Quantized features are extracted. Vector quantization reduces the codebook size but decreases the accuracy of recognition. Therefore we propose a voice biometric system where voice file's non quantized code books are matched with spoken phrase. In order to ensure security to such direct voice sample we embed the voice file in a randomly selected image using DWT technique. Imposters are exposed to only images and are unaware of the voice files. We show that the technique produces better efficiency in comparison to VQ based technique.

  19. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  20. BIOMETRICS IN ZOOTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Biometrics in zootechnics, by authors Prof.Dr.Sc.Dr.hc. Gordana Kralik, Prof.Dr. Zoran Škrtić and Assist.Prof.Dr. Zlata Kralik from the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, contains the following chapters: 1. Introduction overview, 2. Sample analysis, 3. Parameter estimation, 4. Hypothesis testing, 5. Variance analysis of experimental plans, 6. Regression and correlation, 7. Calculation of statistical parameters in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, 8. Scientific and professional work, Literature, Symbols and formulas, Material (tables and Index – glossary. The textbook is written for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek. As longtime university teachers, authors noticed the need for publishing textbook Biometrics in zootechnics due to the lack of literature. The textbook can also be used by students from other agricultural universities and agronomists who want to acquire basic knowledge about the use of biometric methods in the zootechnics. The aim of the authors is to clarify the core issues of research work and biometric data processing to interested readers in a simple and acceptable way. Students and professionals who wish to be engaged in research work should be familiar with the planning and conduction of experiments, data collection and analysis, data processing, as well as interpretation of results. From cooperation and contacts with the students, authors have realized the fact that many of them are not prone to mathematics. The textbook is written without mathematical “derivation” and theoretical interpretations and is easily accessible to students and experts to whom it is intended.

  1. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  2. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  3. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  4. Two-level hierarchical feature learning for image classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-hui SONG; Xiao-gang JIN; Gen-lang CHEN; Yan NIE

    2016-01-01

    In some image classifi cation tasks, similarities among different categories are different and the samples are usually misclassifi ed as highly similar categories. To distinguish highly similar categories, more specifi c features are required so that the classifi er can improve the classifi cation performance. In this paper, we propose a novel two-level hierarchical feature learning framework based on the deep convolutional neural network (CNN), which is simple and effective. First, the deep feature extractors of different levels are trained using the transfer learning method that fi ne-tunes the pre-trained deep CNN model toward the new target dataset. Second, the general feature extracted from all the categories and the specifi c feature extracted from highly similar categories are fused into a feature vector. Then the fi nal feature representation is fed into a linear classifi er. Finally, experiments using the Caltech-256, Oxford Flower-102, and Tasmania Coral Point Count (CPC) datasets demonstrate that the expression ability of the deep features resulting from two-level hierarchical feature learning is powerful. Our proposed method effectively increases the classifi cation accuracy in comparison with fl at multiple classifi cation methods.

  5. Meta-Level Runtime Feature Awareness for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    introduce the concept of runtime feature awareness that enables a running program to establish and make use of its own feature-code traceability links. We present an implementation of this idea, a dynamic-analysis Java library called JAwareness. JAwareness provides a meta-level architecture that can be non...

  6. Level Sets and Voronoi based Feature Extraction from any Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, O.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    Polygon features are of interest in many GEOProcessing applications like shoreline mapping, boundary delineation, change detection, etc. This paper presents a unique new GPU-based methodology to automate feature extraction combining level sets, or mean shift based segmentation together with Voronoi...

  7. An Efficient Secure Biometric System with Non-Invertible Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Radha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric scheme are being widely employed because their security merits over the earlier authentication system based on records that can be easily lost, guessed or forged. High scale employments and the related template storage have increased the requirement to guard the biometric data stored in the system. Theft of biometric information is a negotiation of the users privacy. In Addition, the stolen biometric information can be used to access other biometric systems that have the similar feature provided for the user. Several alternative functions have been identified in literature for creating revocable or non-invertible biometric templates. Although, their security examination either disregards the distribution of biometric features or uses inefficient feature matching. This generally shows the way to unrealistic approximation of security. In this paper a novel approach for the Non-Invertible biometric system is proposed to secure the biometric template. Security of a feature transformation method can be assessed according to the two main factors: i non-invertibility, and ii diversity. Non-invertibility represents the complexity in obtaining the original biometric when the secure template is provided and diversity represents the complexity in guessing one secure template when a different secure template created from the identical biometric is provided. The proposed Non-invertible Gabor transform possess both the non invertible and diversity features which enhances the security of the system to a large extent. The proposed approach is very much resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. The experimental result shows the better performance of the proposed technique compared to the existing system.

  8. Zeroing Biometrics: Collecting Biometrics Before the Shooting Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    21 mantra , “something you have, something you know and something you are.”11 This is specifically concerned with matching the biometrics of one...D.C., April 25, 2007). 49 Biometric Policy on Collection and Sharing The memorandum on collection and sharing is a brand new document issued by

  9. Finger Multimodal Biometric Verification based on Score-level Fusion%基于三角范数的多模态手指生物特征的分数层融合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭加亮; 李琼; 牛夏牧

    2014-01-01

    多模态的生物特征融合已成为目前生物识别研究领域的主要发展趋势,从防伪性角度出发,满足普适性和易采集、易接受性的应用需求,提出了基于手指静脉,并结合指纹、指关节纹和指形的分数层融合来实现多模态生物特征的身份认证方案。实验结果表明,本文提出基于Sugeno-Weber三角范数的分数层融合方法,能够增大类内与类间匹配分数分布间的距离,提高了多模态生物特征的身份认证性能。%Multimodal biometrics has become the main trend in the field of current biometric research .From the anti-spoo-fing point of view, the paper proposes the finger multimodal biometric approach that combines finger vein , fingerprint, fin-ger knuckle print and finger shape to meet the actual demand of universality , acquisition and acceptance convenience .The experimental results show that the proposed score-level fusion approach using triangular norm can enlarge the distance be-tween intra-class and inter-class matching scores and make verification performance improvement over the existing score -lev-el fusion approaches .

  10. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  11. Biometric identification using holographic radar imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  12. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  13. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this fi

  14. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  15. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy k-means classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based ...

  16. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy kmeans classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based o...

  17. Ultrasound of the fingers for human identification using biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Fowlkes, J Brian; Kripfgans, Oliver D; Jacobson, Jon A; De Maeseneer, Michel; Schmitt, Rainer M; Carson, Paul L

    2008-03-01

    It was hypothesized that the use of internal finger structure as imaged using commercially available ultrasound (US) scanners could act as a supplement to standard methods of biometric identification, as well as a means of assessing physiological and cardiovascular status. Anatomical structures in the finger including bone contour, tendon and features along the interphalangeal joint were investigated as potential biometric identifiers. Thirty-six pairs of three-dimensional (3D) gray-scale images of second to fourth finger (index, middle and ring) data taken from 20 individuals were spatially registered using MIAMI-Fuse software developed at our institution and also visually matched by four readers. The image-based registration met the criteria for matching successfully in 14 out of 15 image pairs on the same individual and did not meet criteria for matching in any of the 12 image pairs from different subjects, providing a sensitivity and specificity of 0.93 and 1.00, respectively. Visual matching of all image pairs by four readers yielded 96% successful match. Power Doppler imaging was performed to calculate the change in color pixel density due to physical exercise as a surrogate of stress level and to provide basic physiological information. (E-mail: gnarayan@umich.edu).

  18. A Film Classifier Based on Low-level Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to classify the film classes by using low level features and visual features. This approach aims to classify the films into genres. Our current domain of study is using the movie preview. A movie preview often emphasizes the theme of a film and hence provides suitable information for classifying process. In our approach, we categorize films into three broad categories: action, dramas, and thriller films. Four computable video features (average shot length, color variance, motion content and lighting key and visual features (show and fast moving effects are combined in our approach to provide the advantage information to demonstrate the movie category. The experimental results present that visual features are the useful messages for processing the film classification. On the other hand, our approach can also be extended for other potential applications, including the browsing and retrieval of videos on the internet, video-on-demand, and video libraries.

  19. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    and managed technologically as risks through surveillance and storage of data, whereas citizens are managed as holders of access to privileges. The technique however of both circuits is using bodily coded information through fingerprints and emphasizes the general tendency of ‘securitization of identity...... identifier is stored in order to link a specific body to specific information related to status (asylum seeker, entry banned, convicted etc.). Finger prints are also integrated in passports in the EU, but this biometric information is restricted to establish only the link between the body and the passport...

  20. Biometric authentication for ID cards with hologram watermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Mayerhoefer, Astrid; Frank, Marcus; Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of a new technique for the authentication of ID cardholders, based on the integration of a biometrics-based authentication system with digital watermarks. The chosen biometric authentication method is the dynamic signature verification of the ID cardholder, while we use a specific integrity watermark technique we developed, called Hologram Watermark, to embed and retrieve the off-line data onto an ID card. We take advantage of the fact, that two static biometric features (images of the user's face and signature) are already integral part of ID cards for manual verification and extent the stored biometric information by embedding on-line handwriting features of the signature as holographic watermarks in the overall image information of an ID card. Manipulation of any of the image information can be detected and will further disallow biometric verification of the forger. The Hologram Watermark technique produces content-related data using computer-generated hologram coding techniques. These data are embedded with watermarking techniques into the personal data printed on an ID card. The content-related data in this specific application are the dynamic features of the cardholder's signature. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the suitability of dynamic signature verification in combination with the Hologram Watermark technique, to facilitate automated user authentication based on information transparently embedded in ID cards.

  1. Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Quoc V; Devin, Matthieu; Corrado, Greg; Chen, Kai; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio; Dean, Jeff; Ng, Andrew Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of building detectors for high-level concepts using only unsupervised feature learning. For example, we would like to understand if it is possible to learn a face detector using only unlabeled images downloaded from the internet. To answer this question, we trained a simple feature learning algorithm on a large dataset of images (10 million images, each image is 200x200). The simulation is performed on a cluster of 1000 machines with fast network hardware for one week. Extensive experimental results reveal surprising evidence that such high-level concepts can indeed be learned using only unlabeled data and a simple learning algorithm.

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  3. A Novel Digital Signature Algorithm based on Biometric Hash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Signature protects the document`s integrity and binds the authenticity of the user who have signed. Present Digital Signature algorithm confirms authenticity but it does not ensure secrecy of the data. Techniques like encryption and decryption are needed to be used for this purpose. Biometric security has been a useful way for authentication and security as it provides a unique identity of the user. In this paper we have discussed the user authentication process and development of digital signatures. Authentication was based on hash functions which uses biometric features. Hash codes are being used to maintain the integrity of the document which is digitally signed. For security purpose, Encryption and Decryption techniques are used to develop a bio -cryptosystem. User information when gets concatenated with feature vector of biometric data, which actually justifies the sense of authentication. Various online or offline transaction where authenticity and integrity is the top most priority can make use of this development.

  4. An efficient visualization method for analyzing biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; McGonagle, Mike; Yates, J. Harlan; Henning, Ronda; Hackett, Jay

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a novel application for biometric data analysis. This technology can be used as part of a unique and systematic approach designed to augment existing processing chains. Our system provides image quality control and analysis capabilities. We show how analysis and efficient visualization are used as part of an automated process. The goal of this system is to provide a unified platform for the analysis of biometric images that reduce manual effort and increase the likelihood of a match being brought to an examiner's attention from either a manual or lights-out application. We discuss the functionality of FeatureSCOPE™ which provides an efficient tool for feature analysis and quality control of biometric extracted features. Biometric databases must be checked for accuracy for a large volume of data attributes. Our solution accelerates review of features by a factor of up to 100 times. Review of qualitative results and cost reduction is shown by using efficient parallel visual review for quality control. Our process automatically sorts and filters features for examination, and packs these into a condensed view. An analyst can then rapidly page through screens of features and flag and annotate outliers as necessary.

  5. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  6. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  7. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  8. Learning high-level features for chord recognition using Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongthongloa, Vilailukkana; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol

    2016-07-01

    Chord transcription is valuable to do by itself. It is known that the manual transcription of chords is very tiresome, time-consuming. It requires, moreover, musical knowledge. Automatic chord recognition has recently attracted a number of researches in the Music Information Retrieval field. It has known that a pitch class profile (PCP) is the commonly signal representation of musical harmonic analysis. However, the PCP may contain additional non-harmonic noise such as harmonic overtones and transient noise. The problem of non-harmonic might be generating the sound energy in term of frequency more than the actual notes of the respective chord. Autoencoder neural network may be trained to learn a mapping from low level feature to one or more higher-level representation. These high-level representations can explain dependencies of the inputs and reduce the effect of non-harmonic noise. Then these improve features are fed into neural network classifier. The proposed high-level musical features show 80.90% of accuracy. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in comparison with other based method.

  9. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  10. A new threshold signature scheme based on fuzzy biometric identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongquan Cai; Ke Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the first threshold signature scheme based on biometric identity, which is acquired from a recently proposed fuzzy identities-based encryption scheme. An important feature of this scheme, which is different from other previous ID-based threshold signature schemes, is that it can be applied to situations using not only average personal attributes in social contact but also people's noisy biometric inputs as identities. The security of our scheme in the selective-lD model reduces the limit in the hardness of the Decisional BDH Assumption.

  11. Chaotic Neural Network for Biometric Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushan Ahmadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric pattern recognition emerged as one of the predominant research directions in modern security systems. It plays a crucial role in authentication of both real-world and virtual reality entities to allow system to make an informed decision on granting access privileges or providing specialized services. The major issues tackled by the researchers are arising from the ever-growing demands on precision and performance of security systems and at the same time increasing complexity of data and/or behavioral patterns to be recognized. In this paper, we propose to deal with both issues by introducing the new approach to biometric pattern recognition, based on chaotic neural network (CNN. The proposed method allows learning the complex data patterns easily while concentrating on the most important for correct authentication features and employs a unique method to train different classifiers based on each feature set. The aggregation result depicts the final decision over the recognized identity. In order to train accurate set of classifiers, the subspace clustering method has been used to overcome the problem of high dimensionality of the feature space. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.

  12. Curvelet and Ridgelet-based Multimodal Biometric Recognition System using Weighted Similarity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric security artifacts for establishing the identity of a person with high confidence have evoked enormous interest in security and access control applications for the past few years. Biometric systems based solely on unimodal biometrics often suffer from problems such as noise, intra-class variations and spoof attacks. This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric recognition system by integrating three biometric traits namely iris, fingerprint and face using weighted similarity approach. In this work, the multi-resolution features are extracted independently from query images using curvelet and ridgelet transforms, and are then compared to the enrolled templates stored in the database containing features of each biometric trait. The final decision is made by normalizing the feature vectors, assigning different weights to the modalities and fusing the computed scores using score combination techniques. This system is tested with the public unimodal databases such as CASIA–Iris-V3-Interval, FVC2004, ORL and self-built multimodal databases. Experimental results obtained shows that the designed system achieves an excellent recognition rate of 98.75 per cent and 100 per cent for the public and self-built databases respectively and provides ultra high security than unimodal biometric systems.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 106-114. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3469

  13. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Jørgensen, Lotte Ishoy;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...... measures show a negative effect on the subjects’ overall experience of the video and their empathy and identification with the main characters compared to the remaining subjects. We observed a 30 second return period from abnormal arousal levels after the self-reporting interruptions....

  14. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    that fusion of two remote biometric modalities, facial recognition and appearance analysis, gives a significant improvement over each of the individual experts. Furthermore, the experimental results show that using remote biometrics increases the performance of tracking in persistent authentication...

  15. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible watermarking maintains high quality of biometric data. This paper proposes Rotational Replacement of LSB as a reversible watermarking scheme for biometric images. PSNR is the regular method used for quality measurement of biometric data. In this paper we also show that SSIM Index is a better alternate for effective quality assessment for reversible watermarked biometric data by comparing with the well known reversible watermarking scheme using Difference Expansion.

  16. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  17. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T.; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated. PMID:28123263

  18. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  19. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  20. Ocular biometric changes after trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Alvani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article aimed to evaluate ocular biometric changes after trabeculectomy. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “axial length” (AL, “anterior chamber depth” (ACD, “corneal astigmatism,” “corneal topography” and “trabeculectomy.” The extracted studies were categorized based on the evaluated parameters and the biometry method (contact and non-contact. Comparable studies with respect to their sample size were combined for statistical analysis. Twenty-five studies including 690 individuals which met the inclusion criteria were selected. After trabeculectomy, a significant and persistent AL reduction, with a range of 0.1-0.19 and 0.1-0.9 mm measured with contact and non-contact methods, respectively, was observed. With respect to topographic changes, 0.38-1.4 diopters (D with-the-rule (WTR astigmatism was induced postoperatively. All studies revealed ACD reduction immediately after surgery, which gradually deepened and approximated its preoperative levels on day 14. ACD reduction was not significant after that period in the majority of cases. In conclusion, changes in ACD is of small amount and of short period, thus it can be ignored; however, reported changes in AL and keratometry are of sufficient magnitude and can affect the refractive prediction of combined cataract surgery and trabeculectomy.

  1. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics...

  2. Review: Biometric and GSM Security for Lockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar S. Palsodkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we will develop biometric (finger or face and GSM technology for bank lockers. Because in this system bank will collect the biometric data of each person for accessing the lockers because in this system only authenticated person recover the money, documents from the lockers. So the biometric and GSM security has more advantages then other system. Because biometric is stored individual identity of a person and GSM is used for sending and receiving message.

  3. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment.

  4. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  5. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  6. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%.

  7. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  8. Analysis of Biometric Authentication Protocols in the Blackbox Model

    CERN Document Server

    Simoens, Koen; Chabanne, Hervé; Seys, Stefaan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze different biometric authentication protocols considering an internal adversary. Our contribution takes place at two levels. On the one hand, we introduce a new comprehensive framework that encompasses the various schemes we want to look at. On the other hand, we exhibit actual attacks on recent schemes such as those introduced at ACISP 2007, ACISP 2008, and SPIE 2010, and some others. We follow a blackbox approach in which we consider components that perform operations on the biometric data they contain and where only the input/output behavior of these components is analyzed.

  9. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for automated teller machine (ATM banking systems is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, a fingerprint biometric technique is fused with the ATM for person authentication to ameliorate the security level.

  10. Analysis of Image Fusion Techniques for fingerprint Palmprint Multimodal Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H Naira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information has been widely recognized. However computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper the fingerprint and palmprint images are chosen and fused together using image fusion methods. The biometric features are subjected to modality extraction. Different fusion methods like average fusion, minimum fusion, maximum fusion, discrete wavelet transform fusion and stationary wavelet transformfusion are implemented for the fusion of extracting modalities. The best fused template is analyzed by applying various fusion metrics. Here the DWT fused image provided better results.

  11. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure...... a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...

  12. Biometrics, biomathematics and the morphometric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, F L

    1996-03-01

    At the core of contemporary morphometrics--the quantitative study of biological shape variation--is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach, couched solely in the linear geometry of covariance structures, ignores biomathematical aspects of the original measurements. The other tributary emphasizes the direct visualization of changes in biological form. However, making objective the biological meaning of the features seen in those diagrams was always problematical; also, the representation of variation, as distinct from pairwise difference, proved infeasible. To combine these two variants of biomathematical modeling into a valid praxis for quantitative studies of biological shape was a goal earnestly sought though most of this century. That goal was finally achieved in the 1980s when techniques from mathematical statistics, multivariate biometrics, non-Euclidean geometry and computer graphics were combined in a coherent new system of tools for the complete regionalized quantitative analysis of landmark points together with the biomedical images in which they are seen. In this morphometric synthesis, correspondence of landmarks (biologically labeled geometric points, like "bridge of the nose") across specimens is taken as a biomathematical primitive. The shapes of configurations of landmarks are defined as equivalence classes with respect to the Euclidean similarity group and then represented as single points in David Kendall's shape space, a Riemannian manifold with Procrustes distance as metric. All conventional multivariate strategies carry over to the study of shape variation and covariation when shapes are interpreted in the tangent space to the shape manifold at an average shape. For biomathematical interpretation of such analyses, one needs a basis

  13. Solid waste bin level detection using gray level co-occurrence matrix feature extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents solid waste bin level detection and classification using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature extraction methods. GLCM parameters, such as displacement, d, quantization, G, and the number of textural features, are investigated to determine the best parameter values of the bin images. The parameter values and number of texture features are used to form the GLCM database. The most appropriate features collected from the GLCM are then used as inputs to the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers for bin image classification and grading. The classification and grading performance for DB1, DB2 and DB3 features were selected with both MLP and KNN classifiers. The results demonstrated that the KNN classifier, at KNN = 3, d = 1 and maximum G values, performs better than using the MLP classifier with the same database. Based on the results, this method has the potential to be used in solid waste bin level classification and grading to provide a robust solution for solid waste bin level detection, monitoring and management.

  14. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  15. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  16. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  17. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  18. Comparison of DCT, SVD and BFOA based multimodal biometric watermarking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is a major domain for hiding the biometric information, in which the watermark data are made to be concealed inside a host image imposing imperceptible change in the picture. Due to the advance in digital image watermarking, the majority of research aims to make a reliable improvement in robustness to prevent the attack. The reversible invisible watermarking scheme is used for fingerprint and iris multimodal biometric system. A novel approach is used for fusing different biometric modalities. Individual unique modalities of fingerprint and iris biometric are extracted and fused using different fusion techniques. The performance of different fusion techniques is evaluated and the Discrete Wavelet Transform fusion method is identified as the best. Then the best fused biometric template is watermarked into a cover image. The various watermarking techniques such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA are implemented to the fused biometric feature image. Performance of watermarking systems is compared using different metrics. It is found that the watermarked images are found robust over different attacks and they are able to reverse the biometric template for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA watermarking technique.

  19. Counting people with low-level features and Bayesian regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-04-01

    An approach to the problem of estimating the size of inhomogeneous crowds, which are composed of pedestrians that travel in different directions, without using explicit object segmentation or tracking is proposed. Instead, the crowd is segmented into components of homogeneous motion, using the mixture of dynamic-texture motion model. A set of holistic low-level features is extracted from each segmented region, and a function that maps features into estimates of the number of people per segment is learned with Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian regression models are examined. The first is a combination of Gaussian process regression with a compound kernel, which accounts for both the global and local trends of the count mapping but is limited by the real-valued outputs that do not match the discrete counts. We address this limitation with a second model, which is based on a Bayesian treatment of Poisson regression that introduces a prior distribution on the linear weights of the model. Since exact inference is analytically intractable, a closed-form approximation is derived that is computationally efficient and kernelizable, enabling the representation of nonlinear functions. An approximate marginal likelihood is also derived for kernel hyperparameter learning. The two regression-based crowd counting methods are evaluated on a large pedestrian data set, containing very distinct camera views, pedestrian traffic, and outliers, such as bikes or skateboarders. Experimental results show that regression-based counts are accurate regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors. Results on 2 h of video demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the regression-based crowd size estimation over long periods of time.

  20. Advent of Biometric Sensors in Field of Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing biological data. It is used to uniquely identify individuals by their physical characteristics or personal behavior traits.The results from scrutiny of various themes including unimodal, multimodal, physiological, behavioural bio-metrics. Bio-metrics, Physiological and behavioural are compared in the review. The article addresses a particular aspect of utilizing biometrics for authentication, identification and access control. The use of systems like fingerprint, face recognition, hand geometry, Palm print, DNA analysis, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent will be dealt with herewith. This study deals with various applications of this technology, like surveillance, employee identification, device access etc with mentions respective of hardware used. The influence of such features is yet to be documented properly, but it is safe to say that it has been a huge step towards better information security and identification control.Over the course of this text, we will try to bring to light our analysis of the subject and provide an in-depth examination of contemporary and futuristic technologies pertaining to this field.

  1. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large.

  2. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, R. N. J.; Kevenaar, T. A. M.; Akkermans, A. H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP) approach and a greedy search (GS) approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  3. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  4. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  5. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Data Representation by AVT Hierarchical Data Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user’s medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents’ medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data. Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  6. ORNL Biometric Eye Model for Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Iris recognition has been proven to be an accurate and reliable biometric. However, the recognition of non-ideal iris images such as off angle images is still an unsolved problem. We propose a new biometric targeted eye model and a method to reconstruct the off-axis eye to its frontal view allowing for recognition using existing methods and algorithms. This allows for existing enterprise level algorithms and approaches to be largely unmodified by using our work as a pre-processor to improve performance. In addition, we describe the `Limbus effect' and its importance for an accurate segmentation of off-axis irides. Our method uses an anatomically accurate human eye model and ray-tracing techniques to compute a transformation function, which reconstructs the iris to its frontal, non-refracted state. Then, the same eye model is used to render a frontal view of the reconstructed iris. The proposed method is fully described and results from synthetic data are shown to establish an upper limit on performance improvement and establish the importance of the proposed approach over traditional linear elliptical unwrapping methods. Our results with synthetic data demonstrate the ability to perform an accurate iris recognition with an image taken as much as 70 degrees off-axis.

  7. Biometric Authentication System based on Iris Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present age of digital impersonation, biometrictechniques are being used increasingly to prevaricateagainst identity thefts. Iris recognition is a proven,accurate means to identify people. Iris is regarded as themost reliable biometric feature in terms of its uniquenessand robustness. The objective of this work is to present abiometric authentication system for high securityphysical access control based on iris pattern. Theproposed iris recognition with improvement in segmentation and matching stages using Hamming distance provides match for iris pattern if hamming distance is below 0.15. The CASIA IRIS image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.2%.

  8. Supervised retinal biometrics in different lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che; Kumar, Dinesh K; Sugavaneswaran, Lakshmi; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Retinal image has been considered for number of health and biometrics applications. However, the reliability of these has not been investigated thoroughly. The variation observed in retina scans taken at different times is attributable to differences in illumination and positioning of the camera. It causes some missing bifurcations and crossovers from the retinal vessels. Exhaustive selection of optimal parameters is needed to construct the best similarity metrics equation to overcome the incomplete landmarks. In this paper, we extracted multiple features from the retina scans and employs supervised classification to overcome the shortcomings of the current techniques. The experimental results of 60 retina scans with different lightning conditions demonstrate the efficacy of this technique. The results were compared with the existing methods.

  9. Impact of the lips for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Fu; Lin, Chao-Yu; Guo, Jing-Ming

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the impact of the lips for identity recognition is investigated. In fact, it is a challenging issue for identity recognition solely by the lips. In the first stage of the proposed system, a fast box filtering is proposed to generate a noise-free source with high processing efficiency. Afterward, five various mouth corners are detected through the proposed system, in which it is also able to resist shadow, beard, and rotation problems. For the feature extraction, two geometric ratios and ten parabolic-related parameters are adopted for further recognition through the support vector machine. Experimental results demonstrate that, when the number of subjects is fewer or equal to 29, the correct accept rate (CAR) is greater than 98%, and the false accept rate (FAR) is smaller than 0.066%. (CAR > 95.02%, FAR biometrics applications when other facial organs are covered or when it is applied for an access control system.

  10. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  11. Joint Sparsity-Based Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-07

    joint sparsity-based algorithm for multimodal biometrics recognition. Our method is based on the well known regu- larized regression method, multi-task...multivariate Lasso [7, 8]. Figure. 1 presents an overview of our method. This paper makes the following contributions: – We present a robust feature...reduces to the conventional Lasso [10] when D = 1 and d = 1. For D = 1 (1), it is equivalent to multivariate Lasso [7]. 2.2 Robust Multimodal

  12. Biometric technology in rural credit markets

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Identity theft is a common crime the world over. In developing countries, the damage caused by identity theft and identity fraud goes far beyond the individual victim, however, and ultimately creates a direct impediment to progress, particularly in credit markets. Recent research reveals that biometric technology can help reduce these problems. A biometric is a measurement of physical or behavioral characteristics used to verify or analyze identity. Common biometrics include a person’s finger...

  13. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schatten, Markus; Cubrilo, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  14. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  15. Identification with Encrypted Biometric Data Made Feasible

    CERN Document Server

    Bringer, Julien; Kindarji, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics make human identification possible with a sample of a biometric trait and an associated database. Classical identification techniques lead to privacy concerns. This paper introduces a new method to identify someone using his biometrics in an encrypted way. Our construction combines Bloom Filters with Storage and Locality-Sensitive Hashing. We apply this error-tolerant scheme, in a Hamming space, to achieve biometric identification in an efficient way. This is the first non-trivial identification scheme dealing with fuzziness and encrypted data.

  16. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  17. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  18. Application of Digital-based Biometric Feature Recognition Technology in Victim Search System%基于数字生物特征识别技术在罹难人员搜索系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓民; 苏加乐; 刘志强; 狳新萍; 王德文

    2011-01-01

    论述了国际维和部队和警察罹难人员搜索系统装备列装意义,利用生物特征识别技术设计了罹难人员的软硬件系统装备,分析了其在研制和列装中存在的若干问题,为尽快开展我国国际维和部队和警察罹难人员搜索系统装备的研制提供了整体方案.%It discusses the significance of equipment fielding in victim search system of international peacekeepingforces and polices, and with the help of biometric technology, it designs the soft hardware system of equipments ofvictim searching, analyzes the problems in manufacturing and fielding and provides integrated plan for the manufactureof victim search system for international peacekeeping forces and polices in China.

  19. Opinion mining feature-level using Naive Bayes and feature extraction based analysis dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Regi; Baizal, Z. K. Abdurahman; Nhita, Fhira

    2015-12-01

    Development of internet and technology, has major impact and providing new business called e-commerce. Many e-commerce sites that provide convenience in transaction, and consumers can also provide reviews or opinions on products that purchased. These opinions can be used by consumers and producers. Consumers to know the advantages and disadvantages of particular feature of the product. Procuders can analyse own strengths and weaknesses as well as it's competitors products. Many opinions need a method that the reader can know the point of whole opinion. The idea emerged from review summarization that summarizes the overall opinion based on sentiment and features contain. In this study, the domain that become the main focus is about the digital camera. This research consisted of four steps 1) giving the knowledge to the system to recognize the semantic orientation of an opinion 2) indentify the features of product 3) indentify whether the opinion gives a positive or negative 4) summarizing the result. In this research discussed the methods such as Naï;ve Bayes for sentiment classification, and feature extraction algorithm based on Dependencies Analysis, which is one of the tools in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and knowledge based dictionary which is useful for handling implicit features. The end result of research is a summary that contains a bunch of reviews from consumers on the features and sentiment. With proposed method, accuration for sentiment classification giving 81.2 % for positive test data, 80.2 % for negative test data, and accuration for feature extraction reach 90.3 %.

  20. FEATURE FUSION TECHNIQUE FOR COLOUR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmuganathan, K. L.; A. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an efficient feature fusion based technique for the classification of colour texture images in VisTex album is presented. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and its associated texture features contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity are used in the proposed approach. The proposed GLCM texture features are obtained from the original colour texture as well as the first non singleton dimension of the same image. These features are fused at feature level to classify the c...

  1. Computerized lung cancer malignancy level analysis using 3D texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Huang, Xia; Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Based on the likelihood of malignancy, the nodules are classified into five different levels in Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. In this study, we tested the possibility of using threedimensional (3D) texture features to identify the malignancy level of each nodule. Five groups of features were implemented and tested on 172 nodules with confident malignancy levels from four radiologists. These five feature groups are: grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, local binary pattern (LBP) features, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features, steerable features, and wavelet features. Because of the high dimensionality of our proposed features, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used for dimension reduction. RUSBoost was applied for our extracted features for classification, due to its advantages in handling imbalanced dataset. Each group of features and the final combined features were used to classify nodules highly suspicious for cancer (level 5) and moderately suspicious (level 4). The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy are 0.7659 and 0.8365 when using the finalized features. These features were also tested on differentiating benign and malignant cases, and the reported AUC and accuracy were 0.8901 and 0.9353.

  2. Biometric systems technology, design and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wayman, James; Maltoni, Davide

    2005-01-01

    A reference book for anyone involved in the design, management or implementation of biometric systems, and provides all the information needed to a build reliable system. It focuses on the four most widely used types of biometric technology - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition.

  3. BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS: EVOLUTION, APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes.

  4. Biometric Systems: Evolution, Applications and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes

  5. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms.

  6. Sustaining Security In MANET: Biometric Stationed Authentication Protocol (BSAP Inculcating Meta-Heuristic Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprehends an impending accost of intensifying biometric stationed authentication protocol(BSAP bestowing meta-heuristic genetic algorithm for securing MANET. Biometric authentication using fingerprint, facial, iris scan, voice recognition etc. have gain a lot of importance in recent years to provide security in MANET. Biometrics are more advantageous and secure as compared to prevailing data security techniques like password or token mechanisms. A higher level of security is achieved in our impending approach using genetic algorithm to overcome the security and privacy concerns that exist in biometric technology. The foremost requirement of our protocol is to overcome various data attacks such as wormhole, cache poisoning, invisible node attack etc. that are confronted by MANET and make the network more secure.

  7. Two-level evaluation on sensor interoperability of features in fingerprint image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongping; Li, Ying; Yin, Yilong; Li, Ya-Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature's ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  8. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  9. FEATURE FUSION TECHNIQUE FOR COLOUR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Shunmuganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient feature fusion based technique for the classification of colour texture images in VisTex album is presented. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM and its associated texture features contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity are used in the proposed approach. The proposed GLCM texture features are obtained from the original colour texture as well as the first non singleton dimension of the same image. These features are fused at feature level to classify the colour texture image using nearest neighbor classifier. The results demonstrate that the proposed fusion of difference image GLCM features is much more efficient than the original GLCM features.

  10. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  11. Feature level fusion of polarimetric infrared and GPR data for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Kovalenko, V.; Bloemenkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Feature-level sensor fusion is the process where specific information (i.e. features) from objects detected by different sensors are combined and classified. This paper focuses on the feature-level fusion procedure for a sensor combination consisting of a polarimetric infrared (IR) imaging sensor an

  12. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section...

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  14. Machine-learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia using combined sensor-level and source-level EEG features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Miseon; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Recently, an increasing number of researchers have endeavored to develop practical tools for diagnosing patients with schizophrenia using machine learning techniques applied to EEG biomarkers. Although a number of studies showed that source-level EEG features can potentially be applied to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia, most studies have used only sensor-level EEG features such as ERP peak amplitude and power spectrum for machine learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we used both sensor-level and source-level features extracted from EEG signals recorded during an auditory oddball task for the classification of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. EEG signals were recorded from 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy controls while each subject was asked to attend to oddball tones. Our results demonstrated higher classification accuracy when source-level features were used together with sensor-level features, compared to when only sensor-level features were used. In addition, the selected sensor-level features were mostly found in the frontal area, and the selected source-level features were mostly extracted from the temporal area, which coincide well with the well-known pathological region of cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. Our results suggest that our approach would be a promising tool for the computer-aided diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  15. GMM-WSUM based multiple biometrics identification with two level fusion strategy%基于GMM-WSUM的多生物特征二级融合识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄; 张东波

    2014-01-01

    结合基于密度估计和归一化两种融合方法的优点,在匹配分数层级提出了一种基于高斯混合模型(Guassian Mixture Model,GMM)和加权和(Weighted Sums,WSUM)的多生物特征二级融合识别方法。利用GMM对匹配分数建模后,采用N-P准则作为第一级融合策略;第二级融合采用基于加权和的归一化方法,较好地解决了分数归一化融合方法在单模识别算法识别率相差较大时融合识别性能差的问题。在ORL、AR人脸数据库和FVC2004组成的人脸-指纹多模数据库上进行了实验,结果表明,该方法有效地提升了识别性能。%By combining the merits of density estimation and score normalization, a multi-biometric two level fusion method based on GMM(Guassian Mixture Model)and WSUM(Weighted Sums), is proposed in this paper. N-P criteria is adopted as the first-level fusion strategy after the probability distribution of scores has been built by GMM model. And a weighted sums normalization is introduced as the second-level fusion strategy. This two level fusion method provides a better solution for the poor performance of score normalization fusion method when single-mode identification algorithms have great difference. The ORL and AR face database, FVC2004 fingerprint database are collected to build a face-fingerprint multimode database to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively improve the performance of recognition.

  16. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  17. Biometrics: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Tactical Employment of Biometrics in Support of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence Activities Biometrics-Enabled Intelligence USCG Biometrics-at-Sea: Business Rules for...Biometrics in Support of Operations Biometrics-at-Sea: Business Rules for South Florida United States...South Florida, USCG Maritime Law Enforcement Manual Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and

  18. Low-Level Color and Texture Feature Extraction of Coral Reef Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sheila Angeli Marcos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-based classifier that automates coral reef assessmentfrom digitized underwater video. We extract low-level color and texture features from coral images toserve as input to a high-level classifier. Low-level features for color were labeled blue, green, yellow/brown/orange, and gray/white, which are described by the normalized chromaticity histograms of thesemajor colors. The color matching capability of these features was determined through a technique called“Histogram Backprojection”. The low-level texture feature marks a region as coarse or fine dependingon the gray-level variance of the region.

  19. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  20. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  1. User Authentication based on Continuous Touch Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Kroeze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones have until now been protected by traditional authentication methods, including passwords or pattern locks. These authentication mechanisms are difficult to remember and are often disabled, leaving the device vulnerable if stolen. This paper investigates the possibility of unobtrusive, continuous authentication for smartphones based on biometric data collected using a touchscreen. The possibility of authenticating users on a smartphone was evaluated by conducting an experiment simulating real-world touch interaction. Touch data was collected from 30 participants during normal phone use. The touch features were analysed in terms of the information provided for authentication. It was found that features such as finger pressure, location of touch interaction and shape of the finger were important discriminators for authentication. The touch data was also analysed using two classification algorithms to measure the authentication accuracy. The results show that touch data is sufficiently distinct between users to be used in authentication without disrupting normal touch interaction. It is also shown that the raw touch data was more effective in authentication than the aggregated gesture data.

  2. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  3. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  4. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  5. Enhanced ATM Security System using Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Oko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there hasbeen a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. In this paper the existing security of the ATM (Automated Teller Machine system has been improved by integrating the fingerprint of the user into the banks database as to further authenticate it. This was achieved by modelling and building an ATM simulator that will mimic a typical ATM system. The end result is an enhanced biometric authenticated ATM system that ensures greater security and increased customers confidence in the banking sector.

  6. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  7. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  8. Pores and ridges: high-resolution fingerprint matching using level 3 features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Chen, Yi; Demirkus, Meltem

    2007-01-01

    Fingerprint friction ridge details are generally described in a hierarchical order at three different levels, namely, Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (pores and ridge contours). Although latent print examiners frequently take advantage of Level 3 features to assist in identification, Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) currently rely only on Level 1 and Level 2 features. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) standard of fingerprint resolution for AFIS is 500 pixels per inch (ppi), which is inadequate for capturing Level 3 features, such as pores. With the advances in fingerprint sensing technology, many sensors are now equipped with dual resolution (500 ppi/1,000 ppi) scanning capability. However, increasing the scan resolution alone does not necessarily provide any performance improvement in fingerprint matching, unless an extended feature set is utilized. As a result, a systematic study to determine how much performance gain one can achieve by introducing Level 3 features in AFIS is highly desired. We propose a hierarchical matching system that utilizes features at all the three levels extracted from 1,000 ppi fingerprint scans. Level 3 features, including pores and ridge contours, are automatically extracted using Gabor filters and wavelet transform and are locally matched using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Our experiments show that Level 3 features carry significant discriminatory information. There is a relative reduction of 20 percent in the equal error rate (EER) of the matching system when Level 3 features are employed in combination with Level 1 and 2 features. This significant performance gain is consistently observed across various quality fingerprint images.

  9. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  10. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  11. Autopoietic Theory as a Framework for Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autopoietic theory which represents a framework for describing complex non-linear and especially living systems is described in a context of biometric characteristics. It is argued that any living system by performing an internal process of reproducing its structural components yields physical biometric characteristics. Likewise any living system when structurally coupling to another (eventually allopoietic system yields a behavioral or psychological characteristic of the living system. It is shown that any system that can be considered as autopoietic can potentially be measured, authenticated and/or identified using adequate biometric methods, and thus biometrics is applicable to any autopoietic system: living beings, groups of living beings, social systems, organizations as well as information systems. In the end implications of such a conceptualization are discussed as well as possible applications.

  12. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Polar Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chun; Veldhuis, Raymond; Tistarelli, M.; Nixon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Binary biometric representations have great significance for data compression and template protection. In this paper, we introduce pairwise polar quantization. Furthermore, aiming to optimize the discrimination between the genuine Hamming distance (GHD) and the imposter Hamming distance (IHD), we pr

  13. BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION: A MODERN ERA FOR SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAY DHIR,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of systems require some reliable recognition system that gives the identity of a person. There are many applications that need the identity of a person to operate such as ATM, Laptops, Access to buildings, cellular Phones & some sensitive security locations. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an ndividual’s identity based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card or “what she remembers” (e.g., a password. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  14. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...... put forward by the Danish Board of Technology. The recommendations are discussed and compared to the similar proposal put forward by the European Article 29 Data Protection Working Party....

  15. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  16. Biometric analysis of the Arkhangelskiella group in the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the stevns-1 borehole, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of the calcareous nannofossil Arkhangelskiella is revised using the results of a biometric analysis performed on 599 specimens from various stratigraphic levels throughout the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Combined qualitative labelling and biometric...... in the coccolith length and in the rim width, and that the central opening is an important additional parameter allowing distinction between the different morphogroups. Biometric analysis shows, however, that the morphogroups are strongly overlapping on all measured parameters. Therefore, the three distinct...

  17. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  18. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  19. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features.

  20. BioTwist: overcoming severe distortions in ridge-based biometrics for successful identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotzerke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics rely on a physical trait's permanence and stability over time, as well as its individuality, robustness and ease to be captured. Challenges arise when working with newborns or infants because of the tininess and fragility of an infant's features, their uncooperative nature and their rapid

  1. Biometric system for user authentication based on Hough transform and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dubey Dheeraj Agrawal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of a person is the major concern in this era for security purposes. In biometric systems Signature is one of the behavioural features used for the authentication purpose. In this paper we work on the offline signature collected through different persons. Morphological operations are applied on these signature images with Hough transform to determine regular shape which assists in authentication process. The values extracted from this Hough space is used in the feed forward neural network which is trained using back-propagation algorithm. After the different training stages efficiency found above more than 95%. Application of this system will be in the security concerned fields, in the defence security, biometric authentication, as biometric computer protection or as

  2. A High Performance Biometric System Based on Image Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Augusto Rocchietti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, many of the algorithms used and proposed for digital imaging biometric systems are based on mathematical complex models, and this fact is directly related to the performance of any computer implementation of these algorithms. On the other hand, as they are conceived for general purpose digital imaging, these algorithms do not take advantage of any common morphological features from its given domains. In this paper we developed a novel algorithm for the segmentation of the pupil and iris in human eye images, whose improvement’s hope lies in the use of morphological features of the images of the human eye. Based on the basic structure of a standard biometric system we developed and implemented an innovation for each phase of the system, avoiding the use of mathematical complex models and exploiting some common features in any digital image of the human eye from the dataset that we used. Finally, we compared the testing results against other known state of the art works developed over the same dataset.

  3. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Multi-Level Feature Descriptor for Robust Texture Classification via Locality-Constrained Collaborative Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shu

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple but highly efficient ensemble for robust texture classification, which can effectively deal with translation, scale and changes of significant viewpoint problems. The proposed method first inherits the spirit of spatial pyramid matching model (SPM), which is popular for encoding spatial distribution of local features, but in a flexible way, partitioning the original image into different levels and incorporating different overlapping patterns of each level. This flexible setup helps capture the informative features and produces sufficient local feature codes by some well-chosen aggregation statistics or pooling operations within each partitioned region, even when only a few sample images are available for training. Then each texture image is represented by several orderless feature codes and thereby all the training data form a reliable feature pond. Finally, to take full advantage of this feature pond, we develop a collaborative representation-based strategy with locality constr...

  5. A method of recognition based on the feature layer fusion of palmprint and hand vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Yang, Xiaoping; Shi, Guangyuan

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a method of recognition of multi-modal biometrics for palmprint and hand vein based on the feature layer fusion is proposed, combined with the characteristics of an improved canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). After pretreatment respectively, feature vectors of palmprint and hand vein images are extracted using two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA),then fused in the feature level using the improved canonical correlation analysis(CCA), so identification can be done by a adjacent classifier finally. Using this method, two biometric information can be fused and the redundancy of information between features can effectively eliminated, the problem of the high-dimensional and small sample size can be overcome too. Simulation experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper can effectively improve the recognition rate of identification.

  6. Biometrics in support of special forces medical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on ways in which the ODA can leverage biometrics in medical operations to improve their security, improve relations with indigenous personnel, and contribute to the larger theater biometrics program.

  7. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrices: Generalisation and Some New Features

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Bino; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) are one of the earliest techniques used for image texture analysis. In this paper we defined a new feature called trace extracted from the GLCM and its implications in texture analysis are discussed in the context of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). The theoretical extension of GLCM to n-dimensional gray scale images are also discussed. The results indicate that trace features outperform Haralick features when applied to CBIR.

  8. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shuo Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  9. Parallel implementation of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices and Haralick texture features on cell architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbahrami, A.; Pham, T.A.; Bertels, K.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Texture features extraction algorithms are key functions in various image processing applications such as medical images, remote sensing, and content-based image retrieval. The most common way to extract texture features is the use of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). The GLCM contains the

  10. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  11. Multi Feature Content Based Video Retrieval Using High Level Semantic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy K. Elminir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Content-based retrieval allows finding information by searching its content rather than its attributes. The challenge facing content-based video retrieval (CBVR is to design systems that can accurately and automatically process large amounts of heterogeneous videos. Moreover, content-based video retrieval system requires in its first stage to segment the video stream into separate shots. Afterwards features are extracted for video shots representation. And finally, choose a similarity/distance metric and an algorithm that is efficient enough to retrieve query - related videos results. There are two main issues in this process; the first is how to determine the best way for video segmentation and key frame selection. The second is the features used for video representation. Various features can be extracted for this sake including either low or high level features. A key issue is how to bridge the gap between low and high level features. This paper proposes a system for a content based video retrieval system that tries to address the aforementioned issues by using adaptive threshold for video segmentation and key frame selection as well as using both low level features together with high level semantic object annotation for video representation. Experimental results show that the use of multi features increases both precision and recall rates by about 13% to 19 % than traditional system that uses only color feature for video retrieval.

  12. GREYC Keystroke: a Benchmark for Keystroke Dynamics Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giot, Romain; El-Abed, Mohamad; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Even if the market penetration rate of biometric technologies is still far below its potential, many biometric systems are used in our daily real-life. One of the main reasons to its low proliferation is the lack of a generic and complete approach that quantifies the performance of biometric systems taking into account individuals' perception among the process. Among all the existing biometric modalities, authentication systems based on keystroke dynamics are particula...

  13. Protection of Patient Identity and Privacy Using Vascular Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    C.Lakshmi Deepika; A.Kandaswamy; C.Vimal

    2010-01-01

    Biometric systems are being used in hospitals to streamline patient registration and identification, as an effective measure to protect patient privacy and prevent identity theft. Many Hospitals and Healthcare institutions are turning towards Vascular Biometrics which complement the biometric recognition with hygiene and improved accuracy. In this paper, a multimodal hand vein system and a multibiometric fingerprint-hand vein biometric system are proposed. The multimodal hand vein system is a...

  14. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  15. Self-calibrating view-invariant gait biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Bouchrika, Imed; Carter, John N; Nixon, Mark S

    2010-08-01

    We present a new method for viewpoint independent gait biometrics. The system relies on a single camera, does not require camera calibration, and works with a wide range of camera views. This is achieved by a formulation where the gait is self-calibrating. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for identification by gait, where the advantages of completely unobtrusiveness, remoteness, and covertness of the biometric system preclude the availability of camera information and specific walking directions. The approach has been assessed for feature extraction and recognition capabilities on the SOTON gait database and then evaluated on a multiview database to establish recognition capability with respect to view invariance. Moreover, tests on the multiview CASIA-B database, composed of more than 2270 video sequences with 65 different subjects walking freely along different walking directions, have been performed. The obtained results show that human identification by gait can be achieved without any knowledge of internal or external camera parameters with a mean correct classification rate of 73.6% across all views using purely dynamic gait features. The performance of the proposed method is particularly encouraging for application in surveillance scenarios.

  16. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint c

  17. Facial Age Estimation based on Decision Level Fusion of AAM, LBP and Gabor Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Günay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new hierarchical age estimation method based on decision level fusion of global and local features is proposed. The shape and appearance information of human faces which are extracted with active appearance models (AAM are used as global facial features. The local facial features are the wrinkle features extracted with Gabor filters and skin features extracted with local binary patterns (LBP. Then feature classification is performed using a hierarchical classifier which is the combination of an age group classification and detailed age estimation. In the age group classification phase, three distinct support vector machines (SVM classifiers are trained using each feature vector. Then decision level fusion is performed to combine the results of these classifiers. The detailed age of the classified image is then estimated in that age group, using the aging functions modeled with global and local features, separately. Aging functions are modeled with multiple linear regression. To make a final decision, the results of these aging functions are also fused in decision level. Experimental results on the FG-NET and PAL aging databases have shown that the age estimation accuracy of the proposed method is better than the previous methods.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Biometric Template Update

    CERN Document Server

    Giot, Romain; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Template update allows to modify the biometric reference of a user while he uses the biometric system. With such kind of mechanism we expect the biometric system uses always an up to date representation of the user, by capturing his intra-class (temporary or permanent) variability. Although several studies exist in the literature, there is no commonly adopted evaluation scheme. This does not ease the comparison of the different systems of the literature. In this paper, we show that using different evaluation procedures can lead in different, and contradictory, interpretations of the results. We use a keystroke dynamics (which is a modality suffering of template ageing quickly) template update system on a dataset consisting of height different sessions to illustrate this point. Even if we do not answer to this problematic, it shows that it is necessary to normalize the template update evaluation procedures.

  19. CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROTOCOL DEPENDING ON BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJUKTA PAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern age, security is the most challenging issue for using the secure data used by computer. This cryptographic protocol on biometric authentication is nothing but the combination of cryptography and biometric authentication. Here the same idea of cryptography is working (i.e. using key, conversion of plain textinto cipher text called encryption and the reverse, means cipher text to plain text called decryption. Here the most promising method fingerprint geometry of biometric authentication is used as the key for encryption and decryption. Here this cryptographic protocol is just an algorithm for matching the key means matching of stored fingerprint images say DB Images with further given fingerprint image say Final Image. For matching purpose we used binary conversion of images. This algorithm is suitable for any type of data (means text data, multimedia data etc.

  20. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  1. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Balanoiu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system.

  2. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  3. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  4. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  5. INTEGRATED EXPRESSIONAL AND COLOR INVARIANT FACIAL RECOGNITION SCHEME FOR HUMAN BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Punithavalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many practical applications like biometrics, video surveillance and human computer interaction, face recognition plays a major role. The previous works focused on recognizing and enhancing the biometric systems based on the facial components of the system. In this work, we are going to build Integrated Expressional and Color Invariant Facial Recognition scheme for human biometric recognition suited to different security provisioning public participation areas.At first, the features of the face are identified and processed using bayes classifier with RGB and HSV color bands. Second, psychological emotional variance are identified and linked with the respective human facial expression based on the facial action code system. Finally, an integrated expressional and color invariant facial recognition is proposed for varied conditions of illumination, pose, transformation, etc. These conditions on color invariant model are suited to easy and more efficient biometric recognition system in public domain and high confidential security zones. The integration is made derived genetic operation on the color and expression components of the facial feature system. Experimental evaluation is planned to done with public face databases (DBs such as CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0 to estimate the performance of the proposed integrated expressional facial and color invariant recognition scheme [IEFCIRS]. Performance evaluation is done based on the constraints like recognition rate, security and evalaution time.

  6. Iris Image Quality Assessment for Biometric Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. M. Chaskar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Image quality assessment plays an important role in the performance of biometric system involving iris images. Data quality assessment is a key issue in order to broaden the applicability of iris biometrics to unconstrained imaging conditions. In this paper, we have proposed the quality factors of individual iris images by assessing their prominent factors by their scores. The work has been carried out for the following databases: CASIA, UBIRIS, UPOL, MMU and our own created COEP Database using HIS 5000 HUVITZ Iris Camera. The comparison is also done with existing databases which in turn will act as a benchmark in increasing the efficiency of further processing.

  7. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  8. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  9. The Rett Syndrome Complex: Communicative Functions in Relation to Developmental Level and Autistic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Ehlers, Stephan; Hagberg, Bengt; Gillberg, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Communicative functions, overall developmental level, and autistic features were studied in eight females (ages 11-36) with Rett Syndrome. Low levels of communicative abilities and overall functioning were demonstrated, and joint attention behaviors and expression of communicative intent were rare. Six subjects, however, showed clear examples of…

  10. Comparison of different EEG features in estimation of hypnosis susceptibility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2012-05-01

    Hypnosis has long been known to be associated with heightened control over physical processes and researchers put it under consideration because of its usage as a therapeutic tool in many medical and psychological problems. Determination of hypnosis susceptibility level is important before prescribing any hypnotic treatment. In this study different features are introduced to classify hypnotizability levels. These features were extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals which were recorded from 32 subjects during hypnosis suggestion. Based on the obtained result, a method was suggested to estimate the hypnosis susceptibility level from hypnosis EEG signals instead of using traditional clinical subjective tests.

  11. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N.Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample and by creating a physical spoof.Susceptibility of the database can have a disastrous impact on the whole authentication system. The potential disclosure of digitally stored biometric data raises serious concerns about privacy and data protection. Therefore, we propose a method which would integrate conventional cryptography techniques with biometrics. In this work, we present a biometric crypto system which encrypts the biometric template and the encryption is done by generating pseudo random numbers, based on non-linear dynamics.

  12. Security analysis for biometric data in ID documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Sascha; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus; Kalker, Ton

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we analyze chances and challenges with respect to the security of using biometrics in ID documents. We identify goals for ID documents, set by national and international authorities, and discuss the degree of security, which is obtainable with the inclusion of biometric into documents like passports. Starting from classical techniques for manual authentication of ID card holders, we expand our view towards automatic methods based on biometrics. We do so by reviewing different human biometric attributes by modality, as well as by discussing possible techniques for storing and handling the particular biometric data on the document. Further, we explore possible vulnerabilities of potential biometric passport systems. Based on the findings of that discussion we will expand upon two exemplary approaches for including digital biometric data in the context of ID documents and present potential risks attack scenarios along with technical aspects such as capacity and robustness.

  13. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  14. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  15. Multimodal Biometric-based Secured Authentication System using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swamynathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main challenge in the design of a security system for high security mobile ad OC network is how to prevent the attacks against data modification and authentication. Approach: In this novel proposed system the messages communicated between the users are encrypted by the cancellable cryptographic key generated from fingerprint features of the receiver by applying genetic operators and are embedded inside the scrambled face biometrics of the sender using steganography method. Results: The receiver first unscrambles the facial image of the sender and separates the facial image and the encrypted data. Then he verifies the sender by using an Eigen face recognition algorithm and if he is a genuine sender he decrypts the cipher text with the key generated using the receiver’s fingerprint biometric. Conclusion/Recommendations: By this way, the receiver ensures the genuineness of the sender and data confidentiality. Revocability is also guaranteed since we apply genetic operator to randomize the cryptographic key whenever it is necessary. By simulation results, we also show that the proposed method is more efficient mechanism for authentication and security.

  16. Biometric Authentication System on Mobile Personal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Qian; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    We propose a secure, robust, and low-cost biometric authentication system on the mobile personal device for the personal network. The system consists of the following five key modules: 1) face detection; 2) face registration; 3) illumination normalization; 4) face verification; and 5) information fu

  17. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye i...

  18. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  19. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Ghouzali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biometric mobile applications are also vulnerable to several types of attacks that can decrease their security. Biometric information itself is considered sensitive data; for example, fingerprints can leave traces in touched objects and facial images can be captured everywhere or accessed by the attacker if the facial image is stored in the mobile device (lost or stolen. Hence, an attacker can easily forge the identity of a legitimate user and access data on a device. In this paper, the effects of a trace attack on the sensitivity of biometric mobile applications are investigated in terms of security and user privacy. Experimental results carried out on facial and fingerprint mobile authentication applications using different databases have shown that these mobile applications are vulnerable to the proposed attack, which poses a serious threat to the overall system security and user privacy.

  20. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURE FEATURES FOR GLAUCOMA DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy disease characterized by elevated Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP. As the visual loss caused by the disease is irreversible, early detection is essential. Fundus images are used as input and it is preprocessed using histogram equalization. First order features from histogram and second order features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM are extracted from the preprocessed image as textural features reflects physiological changes in the fundus images. Second order textural features are extracted for different quantization levels namely 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 in four orientations viz 0, 45, 90 and 135° for various distances. Extracted features are selected using Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS technique.The selected features are fed to Back Propagation Network (BPN for classification as normal and abnormal images. The proposed computer aided diagnostic system achieved 96% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 95% accuracy and can be used for screening purposes. In this study, the analysis of gray levels have shown their significance in the classification of glaucoma.

  1. Computing multiple aggregation levels and contextual features for road facilities recognition using mobile laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bisheng; Dong, Zhen; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, updating the inventory of road infrastructures based on field work is labor intensive, time consuming, and costly. Fortunately, vehicle-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems provide an efficient solution to rapidly capture three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of road environments with high flexibility and precision. However, robust recognition of road facilities from huge volumes of 3D point clouds is still a challenging issue because of complicated and incomplete structures, occlusions and varied point densities. Most existing methods utilize point or object based features to recognize object candidates, and can only extract limited types of objects with a relatively low recognition rate, especially for incomplete and small objects. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a semantic labeling framework by combing multiple aggregation levels (point-segment-object) of features and contextual features to recognize road facilities, such as road surfaces, road boundaries, buildings, guardrails, street lamps, traffic signs, roadside-trees, power lines, and cars, for highway infrastructure inventory. The proposed method first identifies ground and non-ground points, and extracts road surfaces facilities from ground points. Non-ground points are segmented into individual candidate objects based on the proposed multi-rule region growing method. Then, the multiple aggregation levels of features and the contextual features (relative positions, relative directions, and spatial patterns) associated with each candidate object are calculated and fed into a SVM classifier to label the corresponding candidate object. The recognition performance of combining multiple aggregation levels and contextual features was compared with single level (point, segment, or object) based features using large-scale highway scene point clouds. Comparative studies demonstrated that the proposed semantic labeling framework significantly improves road facilities recognition

  2. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits.

  3. Age Estimation-Based Soft Biometrics Considering Optical Blurring Based on Symmetrical Sub-Blocks for MLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its many useful applications, human age estimation has been considered in many previous studies as a soft biometrics. However, most existing methods of age estimation require a clear and focused facial image as input in order to obtain a trustworthy estimation result; otherwise, the methods might produce increased estimation error when an image of poor quality is used as input. Image blurring is one of major factors that affect estimation accuracies because it can cause a face to appear younger (i.e., reduce the age feature in the face region. Therefore, we propose a new human age estimation method that is robust even with an image that has the optical blurring effect by using symmetrical focus mask and sub-blocks for multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP. Experiment results show that the proposed method can enhance age estimation accuracy compared with the conventional system, which does not consider the effects of blurring.

  4. Texture Feature Extraction Method Combining Nonsubsampled Contour Transformation with Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan He

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is an important method to extract the image texture features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR. However, GLCM can only extract the textures under single scale and single direction. A kind of texture feature extraction method combining nonsubsampled contour transformation (NSCT and GLCM is proposed, so as to achieve the extraction of texture features under multi-scale and multi-direction. We firstly conducted multi-scale and multi-direction decomposition on the SAR images with NSCT, secondly extracted the symbiosis amount with GLCM from the obtained sub-band images, then conducted the correlation analysis for the extracted symbiosis amount to remove the redundant characteristic quantity; and combined it with the gray features to constitute the multi-feature vector. Finally, we made full use of the advantages of the support vector machine in the aspects of small sample database and generalization ability, and completed the division of multi-feature vector space by SVM so as to achieve the SAR image segmentation. The results of the experiment showed that the segmentation accuracy rate could be improved and good edge retention effect could be obtained through using the GLCM texture extraction method based on NSCT domain and multi-feature fusion in the SAR image segmentation.

  5. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person’s overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA. Specifically, one person’s different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  6. A User Authentication Scheme Using Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics for Multitouch Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorng-Shiuh Koong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage.

  7. A user authentication scheme using physiological and behavioral biometrics for multitouch devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Yang, Tzu-I; Tseng, Chien-Chao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage.

  8. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  9. Stromatoporoid biometrics using image analysis software: A first order approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-01

    Strommetric is a new image analysis computer program that performs morphometric measurements of stromatoporoid sponges. The program measures 15 features of skeletal elements (pillars and laminae) visible in both longitudinal and transverse thin sections. The software is implemented in C++, using the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) library. The image analysis system distinguishes skeletal elements from sparry calcite using Otsu's method for image thresholding. More than 150 photos of thin sections were used as a test set, from which 36,159 measurements were obtained. The software provided about one hundred times more data than the current method applied until now. The data obtained are reproducible, even if the work is repeated by different workers. Thus the method makes the biometric studies of stromatoporoids objective.

  10. New Biometric Approaches for Improved Person Identification Using Facial Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is measurable characteristics specific to an individual. Face detection has diverse applications especially as an identification solution which can meet the crying needs in security areas. While traditionally 2D images of faces have been used, 3D scans that contain both 3D data and registered color are becoming easier to acquire. Before 3D face images can be used to identify an individual, they require some form of initial alignment information, typically based on facial feature locations. We follow this by a discussion of the algorithms performance when constrained to frontal images and an analysis of its performance on a more complex dataset with significant head pose variation using 3D face data for detection provides a promising route to improved performance.

  11. Biometric Authentication Through a Virtual Keyboard for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Trojahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Security through biometric keystroke authentication on mobile phones with a capacitive display and aQWERTZ-layout is a new approach. Keystroke on mobile phones with a 12-key layout has already shownthe possibility for authentication on these devices. But with hardware changes, new general requirementshave been arisen.In this paper, we focus on the authentication with keystroke dynamics. Therefore, we are presenting newimplemented keyboard layouts to show differences between a 12-key layout and a QWERTZ-layout. Inaddition, we compare a numerical (PIN and alphabetic (password input for mobile phones. For this, weadded new features for a keystroke authentication with a capacitive display. With the knowledge of the faultrates, we discuss the improvement of the security for keystroke dynamics with different virtual keyboardlayouts. Our results show, even with new hardware factors, that an authentication via keystroke dynamicsis possible.

  12. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  13. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  14. A Survey of Security of Multimodal Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing G. Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system being used in adversarial environment. Since, biometric system like any conventional security system is exposed to malicious adversaries, who can manipulate data to make the system ineffective by compromising its integrity. Current theory and design methods of biometric systems do not take into account the vulnerability to such adversary attacks. Therefore, evaluation of classical design methods is an open problem to investigate whether they lead to design secure systems. In order to make biometric systems secure it is necessary to understand and evaluate the threats and to thus develop effective countermeasures and robust system designs, both technical and procedural, if necessary. Accordingly, the extension of theory and design methods of biometric systems is mandatory to safeguard the security and reliability of biometric systems in adversarial environments.

  15. An Intelligent Fingerprint-Biometric Image Scrambling Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Zhang, Jiashu

    To obstruct the attacks, and to hamper with the liveness and retransmission issues of biometrics images, we have researched on the challenge/response-based biometrics scrambled image transmission. We proposed an intelligent biometrics sensor, which has computational power to receive challenges from the authentication server and generate response against the challenge with the encrypted biometric image. We utilized the FRT for biometric image encryption and used its scaling factors and random phase mask as the additional secret keys. In addition, we chaotically generated the random phase masks by a chaotic map to further improve the encryption security. Experimental and simulation results have shown that the presented system is secure, robust, and deters the risks of attacks of biometrics image transmission.

  16. Biometric Passport Validation Scheme using Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biometric passports issued nowadays have an embedded RFID chip that carries digitally signed biometric information. This RIFD chip is integrated into the cover of a passport, called a biometric passport. Electronic passports as it is sometimes called, represents a bold initiative in the deployment of two new technologies: RIFD and biometrics such as face, fingerprints, palm prints and iris. The electronic passport is the privacy and security risks that arise by embedding RFID technology. The goal of the adoption of the biometric passport is not only to expedite processing at border crossings, but also to increase security. Policymakers have put their faith in the technological promise of biometric identification because absolute identification could eliminate mismatched computer records and stolen identities.

  17. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  18. A Robust Biometric Authentication and PIN Distribution Technique for Secure Mobile Commerce Applications

    OpenAIRE

    R. Arun Prakash; Mehata, K. M.; Chellappan, C.

    2015-01-01

    In a mobile emerging world, user authentication, service provider authentication and security is very important in mobile commerce. User authentication is performed by using fingerprint based biometric methodology. Existing system used for Mobile purchasing/payment services in handheld devices does not analyze fingerprint matching and feature extraction techniques in an efficient way. Also the existing system is not secure and accurate for m-payments applications. We propose secure, efficient...

  19. Information Fusion in Biometrics: A Case Study in Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang,Xiaoyan; Fu,Desheng

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics is an emerging topic in the field of signal processing. Multibiometric systems can improve the performance of identification by integrating information presented by single or multiple biometric indicators and a lot of researchers are working on it. As fingerprints is one of the most studied and popular biometrics, researches that have approached the challenges in fingerprints from an information fusion perspective is provided in this paper.

  20. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Automated Biometrics Identification System (DoD ABIS). DoD ABIS is an information technology system that supports identity superiority by providing the... identification or verification of identity; retain the collected biometrics and related information for the necessary amount of time; transfer (send and receive...long term support strategy for the DoD Automated Biometrics Identification System repository to ensure continued capability. Firm, Fixed-Price

  1. Soft Biometrics for Keystroke Dynamics: Profiling Individuals While Typing Passwords

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new profiling approach of individuals based on soft biometrics for keystroke dynamics. Soft biometric traits are unique representation of a person, which can be in a form of physical, behavioural or biological human characteristics that differentiate between him/her into a group people (e.g. gender, age, height, colour, race etc.). Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality to recognise how a person types on a keyboard. In this paper, ...

  2. Architecture and Assessment: Privacy Preserving Biometrically Secured Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    biometric version of the Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) travel authorization required by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) for...This document explores an application which uses biometrics to secure electronic travel authorizations granted to foreign passport holders wishing to...information must be stored by the application. We describe the architecture and key algorithms for a biometric-enabled electronic Travel Authority(b

  3. Face Recognition (Patterns Matching & Bio-Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Dhirubhai Hirapara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies are investing a considerable amount of resources into improving security systems as result of recent terrorist events that dangerously exposed flaws and weaknesses in today’s safety mechanisms. Badge or password-based authentication procedures are too easy to hack. Biometrics represents a valid alternative but they suffer of drawbacks as well. Iris scanning, for example, is very reliable but too intrusive; fingerprints are socially accepted, but not applicable to non-con sentient people. On the other hand, face recognition represents a good compromise between what’s socially acceptable and what’s reliable, even when operating under controlled conditions. In last decade, many algorithms based on linear/nonlinear methods, neural networks, wavelets, etc. have been proposed. Nevertheless, Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002 shown that most of these approaches encountered problems in outdoor conditions. This lowered their reliability compared to state of the art biometrics.

  4. Pattern recognition, machine intelligence and biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Patrick S P

    2012-01-01

    ""Pattern Recognition, Machine Intelligence and Biometrics"" covers the most recent developments in Pattern Recognition and its applications, using artificial intelligence technologies within an increasingly critical field. It covers topics such as: image analysis and fingerprint recognition; facial expressions and emotions; handwriting and signatures; iris recognition; hand-palm gestures; and multimodal based research. The applications span many fields, from engineering, scientific studies and experiments, to biomedical and diagnostic applications, to personal identification and homeland secu

  5. Prospects of Biometrics at-a-Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Identification System IDF Indirect Fire IOT In order to ISR Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance JIFX Joint Interagency Field Experimentation...this thesis. Thank you for allowing me to access the biometric collection devices mentioned herein. I would like to thank my friend LT Adam Sinsel...on the move. For instances where the use of such devices may not permit transmission of data outside the configured protocols, modifications could

  6. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  7. Universal access through biometrics in mobile scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Blanco-Gonzalo, Ramon; Liu-Jimenez, Judith; López García, Mariano; Camós Andreu, Carles

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the development of a new technology for biometric recognition that allows safe and secure access to universal services such as credit card payment, ATMs, access control, border control, etc. The technology being developed is very generic and ea sily adaptable to the specific particularities of disabled people; a collective that represents an important proportion of current po pulation (e.g. about the 9% of the total Spanish populatio...

  8. Analysing the maximum level of customer satisfaction in grocery stores: the influence of feature advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Martínez Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From the initial consideration of the store attributes that the marketing literature has identified as key in order that grocery retailers manage to design their differentiation strategies, this work identifies the main factors underlying the above mentioned attributes. The goal is to analyze which of these factors exert a bigger influence on the highest level of customer satisfaction. With this intention, we have examined a sample of 422 consumers who had carried out their purchase in different types of store formats in Spain, considering the influence of feature advertising on the clientele behavior. Interesting conclusions related to the aspects that most impact on the maximum level of customer satisfaction depending on the influence of feature advertising stem from this work.

  9. Invariant Surface EMG Feature Against Varying Contraction Level for Myoelectric Control Based on Muscle Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Li, Shunchong; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Variations in muscle contraction effort have a substantial impact on performance of pattern recognition based myoelectric control. Though incorporating changes into training phase could decrease the effect, the training time would be increased and the clinical viability would be limited. The modulation of force relies on the coordination of multiple muscles, which provides a possibility to classify motions with different forces without adding extra training samples. This study explores the property of muscle coordination in the frequency domain and found that the orientation of muscle activation pattern vector of the frequency band is similar for the same motion with different force levels. Two novel features based on discrete Fourier transform and muscle coordination were proposed subsequently, and the classification accuracy was increased by around 11% compared to the traditional time domain feature sets when classifying nine classes of motions with three different force levels. Further analysis found that both features decreased the difference among different forces of the same motion ) and maintained the distance among different motions p > 0.1). This study also provided a potential way for simultaneous classification of hand motions and forces without training at all force levels.

  10. The Iris biometric feature segmentation using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibitayo LANLEGE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents a method for segmentation of iris images based on a deformable contour (active contour paradigm. The deformable contour is a novel approach in image segmentation. A type of active contour is the Snake. Snake is a parametric curve defined within the domain of the image. Snake properties are specified through a function called energy functional. This means they consist of packets of energy which expressed as partial Differential Equations. The partial Differential Equation is the controlling engine of the active contour since this project, the Finite Element Method (Standard Galerkin Method implementation for deformable model is presented.

  11. Evaluating the competent use of EAP linguistic features in relation to CEFRL English levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Durán Escribano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the competent use of EAP linguistic features (passive voice, use of nominal groups, typical verb forms, and modality, by the Technical University of Madrid engineering students, in relation to their CEFR competence levels, from A2 to C1. The results obtained with the STATGRAPHICS programme serve to identify those specific grammar structures most difficult to Spanish engineering students so that their learning may be favoured. Results calibration to CERF reference levels also renders a more complete scale of linguistic competence applied to EAP contexts.

  12. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  13. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A.; Khan, Mosin S.; Malik, Showkat A.; Raina, AB Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J.; Bhat, Javed I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. Aim The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Results Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (pCFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. Conclusion The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test. PMID:28208841

  14. Temporal Stability of Visual Search-Driven Biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual s visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant s "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, fairly stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  15. Temporal stability of visual search-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual's visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant's "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, temporally stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  16. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  17. A Novel Crypt-Biometric Perception Algorithm to Protract Security in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are networks that have properties of self configuration and multi hopping. These networks do not have any fixed infrastructure and need to be dynamic in nature. The specification of dynamism leads to various security breaches that a MANET suffers from such as impersonation, data modification etc. which results in degradation of performance and hence QOS is strongly affected. Hence this paper focuses on improving security performance of MANET by employing biometric technique in combination with cryptography, since biometric perception is specified as the most neoteric technological advancement which enhance security specifications of various networks by specifying exclusive human identification features. Cryptography is designed on computational hardness assumptions making various algorithms hard to break by an adversary. Simulation and experimental results specify that the proposed crypto-metric perception technique leads in achieving better QOS parameters by avoiding security intrusions hence better performance of mobile ad-hoc networks.

  18. Secure access to patient's health records using SpeechXRays a mutli-channel biometrics platform for user authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Spanakis, Marios; Karantanas, Apostolos; Marias, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    The most commonly used method for user authentication in ICT services or systems is the application of identification tools such as passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs). The rapid development in ICT technology regarding smart devices (laptops, tablets and smartphones) has allowed also the advance of hardware components that capture several biometric traits such as fingerprints and voice. These components are aiming among others to overcome weaknesses and flaws of password usage under the prism of improved user authentication with higher level of security, privacy and usability. To this respect, the potential application of biometrics for secure user authentication regarding access in systems with sensitive data (i.e. patient's data from electronic health records) shows great potentials. SpeechXRays aims to provide a user recognition platform based on biometrics of voice acoustics analysis and audio-visual identity verification. Among others, the platform aims to be applied as an authentication tool for medical personnel in order to gain specific access to patient's electronic health records. In this work a short description of SpeechXrays implementation tool regarding eHealth is provided and analyzed. This study explores security and privacy issues, and offers a comprehensive overview of biometrics technology applications in addressing the e-Health security challenges. We present and describe the necessary requirement for an eHealth platform concerning biometric security.

  19. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  20. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Akkermans, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for

  1. Multimodal biometric fusion using multiple-input correlation filter classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Pablo; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-03-01

    In this work we apply a computationally efficient, closed form design of a jointly optimized filter bank of correlation filter classifiers for biometric verification with the use of multiple biometrics from individuals. Advanced correlation filters have been used successfully for biometric classification, and have shown robustness in verifying faces, palmprints and fingerprints. In this study we address the issues of performing robust biometric verification when multiple biometrics from the same person are available at the moment of authentication; we implement biometric fusion by using a filter bank of correlation filter classifiers which are jointly optimized with each biometric, instead of designing separate independent correlation filter classifiers for each biometric and then fuse the resulting match scores. We present results using fingerprint and palmprint images from a data set of 40 people, showing a considerable advantage in verification performance producing a large margin of separation between the impostor and authentic match scores. The method proposed in this paper is a robust and secure method for authenticating an individual.

  2. Efficient and privacy-preserving biometric identification in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Hahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in the development of smart devices equipped with biometric sensors, client identification system using biometric traits are widely adopted across various applications. Among many biometric traits, fingerprint-based identification systems have been extensively studied and deployed. However, to adopt biometric identification systems in practical applications, two main obstacles in terms of efficiency and client privacy must be resolved simultaneously. That is, identification should be performed at an acceptable time, and only a client should have access to his/her biometric traits, which are not revocable if leaked. Until now, multiple studies have demonstrated successful protection of client biometric data; however, such systems lack efficiency that leads to excessive time utilization for identification. The most recently researched scheme shows efficiency improvements but reveals client biometric traits to other entities such as biometric database server. This violates client privacy. In this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving fingerprint identification scheme by using cloud systems. The proposed scheme extensively exploits the computation power of a cloud so that most of the laborious computations are performed by the cloud service provider. According to our experimental results on an Amazon EC2 cloud, the proposed scheme is faster than the existing schemes and guarantees client privacy by exploiting symmetric homomorphic encryption. Our security analysis shows that during identification, the client fingerprint data is not disclosed to the cloud service provider or fingerprint database server.

  3. Automated Human Identification Scheme using Ear Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. Biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. Ear on the other hand, has a more uniform distribution of color, so almost all information is conserved when converting the original image into gray scales. We propose the ear as a biometric and investigate it with both 2D and 3D data. The ICP-based algorithm also demonstrates good scalability with size of dataset. These results are encouraging in that they suggest a strong potential for 3D ear shape as a biometric. Multi-biometric 2D and 3D ear recognition are also explored. The proposed automatic ear detection method will integrate with the current system, and the performance will be evaluated with the original one. The investigation of ear recognition under less controlled conditions will focus on the robustness and variability of ear biometrics. Multi-modal biometrics using 3D ear images will be explored, and the performance will be compared to existing biometrics experimental results.

  4. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  5. Forgiveness As A Leadership Feature And A Study O n Its Effects On Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on forgiveness notion, which is mainly related to the rel igion but has significant effects on organizational level. The frequency of the forgiveness studies on the organization and administration level in the Christian culture is more striking than the Muslim culture. But the rational aspect of this notion is addressed rather than the emotional and religious aspects and its personal and organizational effects are explained. The forgiveness notion which is found to be a feature of both transformationa l and servantleadership in the literature, the things to do to use it as an intervention agent on the organizational level are explained. In this study it is suggested that the reasons why forgiveness is not widely used in practice despite being one of the important element of our culture and qualitative and quantitative research on the use of forgiveness as a culture and intervention agent should be done.

  6. A system-level pathway-phenotype association analysis using synthetic feature random forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qinxin; Hu, Ting; Malley, James D; Andrew, Angeline S; Karagas, Margaret R; Moore, Jason H

    2014-04-01

    As the cost of genome-wide genotyping decreases, the number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has increased considerably. However, the transition from GWAS findings to the underlying biology of various phenotypes remains challenging. As a result, due to its system-level interpretability, pathway analysis has become a popular tool for gaining insights on the underlying biology from high-throughput genetic association data. In pathway analyses, gene sets representing particular biological processes are tested for significant associations with a given phenotype. Most existing pathway analysis approaches rely on single-marker statistics and assume that pathways are independent of each other. As biological systems are driven by complex biomolecular interactions, embracing the complex relationships between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pathways needs to be addressed. To incorporate the complexity of gene-gene interactions and pathway-pathway relationships, we propose a system-level pathway analysis approach, synthetic feature random forest (SF-RF), which is designed to detect pathway-phenotype associations without making assumptions about the relationships among SNPs or pathways. In our approach, the genotypes of SNPs in a particular pathway are aggregated into a synthetic feature representing that pathway via Random Forest (RF). Multiple synthetic features are analyzed using RF simultaneously and the significance of a synthetic feature indicates the significance of the corresponding pathway. We further complement SF-RF with pathway-based Statistical Epistasis Network (SEN) analysis that evaluates interactions among pathways. By investigating the pathway SEN, we hope to gain additional insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to the pathway-phenotype association. We apply SF-RF to a population-based genetic study of bladder cancer and further investigate the mechanisms that help explain the pathway-phenotype associations using SEN. The

  7. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  8. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets.

  9. Thermal imaging as a biometrics approach to facial signature authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, A M; Goryawala, M; Wang, Jin; Barreto, A; Andrian, J; Rishe, N; Adjouadi, M

    2013-01-01

    A new thermal imaging framework with unique feature extraction and similarity measurements for face recognition is presented. The research premise is to design specialized algorithms that would extract vasculature information, create a thermal facial signature and identify the individual. The proposed algorithm is fully integrated and consolidates the critical steps of feature extraction through the use of morphological operators, registration using the Linear Image Registration Tool and matching through unique similarity measures designed for this task. The novel approach at developing a thermal signature template using four images taken at various instants of time ensured that unforeseen changes in the vasculature over time did not affect the biometric matching process as the authentication process relied only on consistent thermal features. Thirteen subjects were used for testing the developed technique on an in-house thermal imaging system. The matching using the similarity measures showed an average accuracy of 88.46% for skeletonized signatures and 90.39% for anisotropically diffused signatures. The highly accurate results obtained in the matching process clearly demonstrate the ability of the thermal infrared system to extend in application to other thermal imaging based systems. Empirical results applying this approach to an existing database of thermal images proves this assertion.

  10. Automatic Personal Identification Using Feature Similarity Index Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biometrics based personal identification is as an effective method for automatically recognizing, a persons identity with high confidence. Palmprint is an essential biometric feature for use in access control and forensic applications. In this study, we present a multi feature extraction, based on edge detection scheme, applying Log Gabor filter to enhance image structures and suppress noise. Approach: A novel Feature-Similarity Indexing (FSIM of image algorithm is used to generate the matching score between the original image in database and the input test image. Feature Similarity (FSIM index for full reference (image quality assurance IQA is proposed based on the fact that Human Visual System (HVS understands an image mainly according to its low-level features. Results and Conclusion: The experimental results achieve recognition accuracy using canny and perwitt FSIM of 97.3227 and 94.718%, respectively, on the publicly available database of Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Totally 500 images of 100 individuals, 4 samples for each palm are randomly selected to train in this research. Then we get every person each palm image as a template (total 100. Experimental evaluation using palmprint image databases clearly demonstrates the efficient recognition performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the conventional palmprint recognition algorithms.

  11. Multi-biometric feature fusion identification based on D-S evident theory of image quality with different weights%基于图像质量加权的D-S证据理论多生物特征融合识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宾杰

    2012-01-01

    对人脸和指静脉在决策层的融合识别,给出一种新的组合图像质量评价方法,并采用一种改进的基于图像质量加权的D-S证据理论融合这两种生物特征.首先,组合图像质量评价法采用清晰度和对比度、相关系数的组合方法来评价生物特征图像质量;其次,应用改进的基于图像质量的匹配值增强方法和D-S证据理论,减少了极大值图像质量指标的影响,使图像质量加权与实际情况更趋一致.实验结果表明,与没有考虑图像质量因素相比,考虑了图像质量信息的D-S证据理论融合方法提高了识别效果.%For the fusing recognition with face and finger-vein at decision level, a new quality score of image by combining three indexes was presented, and an improved fusion strategy based on D-S evident theory was adopted to fuse two biometric characteristics. At first, the quality score of image was computed by combining index of distinct, contrast and coefficient. Then an improved method based on image quality and D-S evident theory was adopted. This improved method reduced the impact of maximum of image quality score and made the weighted parameter with the actual situation more consistent. Compared with the result of D-S evident theory with no regard to image quality, the results reveal that the fusion method in this paper based on D-S evident theory taking account of image quality information improves the performance.

  12. Fatigue Level Estimation of Bill Based on Acoustic Signal Feature by Supervised SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued bills have harmful influence on daily operation of Automated Teller Machine(ATM). To make the fatigued bills classification more efficient, development of an automatic fatigued bill classification method is desired. We propose a new method to estimate bending rigidity of bill from acoustic signal feature of banking machines. The estimated bending rigidities are used as continuous fatigue level for classification of fatigued bill. By using the supervised Self-Organizing Map(supervised SOM), we estimate the bending rigidity from only the acoustic energy pattern effectively. The experimental result with real bill samples shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. A Novel Feature-Level Data Fusion Method for Indoor Autonomous Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel feature-level data fusion method for autonomous localization in an inactive multiple reference unknown indoor environment. Since monocular sensors cannot provide the depth information directly, the proposed method incorporates the edge information of images from a camera with homologous depth information received from an infrared sensor. Real-time experimental results demonstrate that the accuracies of position and orientation are greatly improved by using the proposed fusion method in an unknown complex indoor environment. Compared to monocular localization, the proposed method is found to have up to 70 percent improvement in accuracy.

  14. Biometry, biometrics, biostatistics, bioinformatics,..., bio-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-03-01

    Recent scientific evolutions force us to rethink our profession's position on the scientific map, in relation to our neighboring professions, the ones with which we traditionally have strong collaborative links as well as the newly emerging fields, but also within our own, diverse professional group. We will show that great inspiration can be drawn from our own history, in fact from the early days of the Society. A recent inspiring example has been set by the late Rob Kempton, who died suddenly just months before he was to become President of the International Biometric Society.

  15. Multimodal Biometrics Recognition by Dimensionality Diminution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric system utilizes two or more character modalities, e.g., face, ear, and fingerprint, Signature, plamprint to improve the recognition accuracy of conventional unimodal methods. We propose a new dimensionality reduction method called Dimension Diminish Projection (DDP in this paper. DDP can not only preserve local information by capturing the intra-modal geometry, but also extract between-class relevant structures for classification effectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other algorithms including PCA, LDA and MFA.

  16. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  17. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Jian Ling; Cui, Sheng Jie; Sun, Ying Cal; Cui, Feng Zhen [Dept. of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laborary of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  18. LOW-LEVEL TIE FEATURE EXTRACTION OF MOBILE MAPPING DATA (MLS/IMAGES AND AERIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jende

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping (MM is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform’s position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS. However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform’s defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform’s three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed

  19. Low-Level Tie Feature Extraction of Mobile Mapping Data (mls/images) and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jende, P.; Hussnain, Z.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile Mapping (MM) is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform's position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform's defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform's three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed as well as an outline of

  20. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  1. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Representation in Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Maeva, E. Y.; Severin, F. M.

    Biometrics is an important field which studies different possible ways of personal identification. Among a number of existing biometric techniques fingerprint recognition stands alone - because very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are an important evidence that can be collected at a crime scene. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. Ultrasonic method of fingerprint imaging was originally introduced over a decade as the mapping of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the finger and a covering plate and has shown very good reliability and free from imperfections of previous two methods. This work introduces a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging, focusing on the imaging of the internal structures of fingerprints (including sweat pores) with raw acoustic resolution of about 500 dpi (0.05 mm) using a scanning acoustic microscope to obtain images and acoustic data in the form of 3D data array. C-scans from different depths inside the fingerprint area of fingers of several volunteers were obtained and showed good contrast of ridges-and-valleys patterns and practically exact correspondence to the standard ink-and-paper prints of the same areas. Important feature reveled on the acoustic images was the clear appearance of the sweat pores, which could provide additional means of identification.

  2. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  3. Multimodal biometrics for identity documents (MBioID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessimoz, Damien; Richiardi, Jonas; Champod, Christophe; Drygajlo, Andrzej

    2007-04-11

    The MBioID initiative has been set up to address the following germane question: What and how biometric technologies could be deployed in identity documents in the foreseeable future? This research effort proposes to look at current and future practices and systems of establishing and using biometric identity documents (IDs) and evaluate their effectiveness in large-scale developments. The first objective of the MBioID project is to present a review document establishing the current state-of-the-art related to the use of multimodal biometrics in an IDs application. This research report gives the main definitions, properties and the framework of use related to biometrics, an overview of the main standards developed in the biometric industry and standardisation organisations to ensure interoperability, as well as some of the legal framework and the issues associated to biometrics such as privacy and personal data protection. The state-of-the-art in terms of technological development is also summarised for a range of single biometric modalities (2D and 3D face, fingerprint, iris, on-line signature and speech), chosen according to ICAO recommendations and availabilities, and for various multimodal approaches. This paper gives a summary of the main elements of that report. The second objective of the MBioID project is to propose relevant acquisition and evaluation protocols for a large-scale deployment of biometric IDs. Combined with the protocols, a multimodal database will be acquired in a realistic way, in order to be as close as possible to a real biometric IDs deployment. In this paper, the issues and solutions related to the acquisition setup are briefly presented.

  4. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: franciscogiacometto@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  5. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  6. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  7. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and challenging branch in biometrics technologies.

  8. Features coping strategies convicted with different levels of resilience are registered as suicidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikova A.I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of further study of psychological mechanisms that contribute to suicide convicted, suggesting that this would more effectively psychoprophylactic work with this category of citizens. As the features of the psychological mechanisms of coping strategies of behavior condemned with different levels of resilience. There is currently no evidence-based studies on the relationship of these mechanisms with suicidal behavior and convicted person in particular. The study was conducted on the basis of one of the prisons of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. Theoretical basis for the study were conceptual approaches to the study of personality DA Leontiev, the concept of resilience S. Muddy, scientific understanding of suicidal behavior AG Ambrumovoy., VA Tihonenko, GV Starshenbaum, modern studies of suicidal behavior convicted. The paper analyzes the typical coping strategies of behavior for prisoners who are prone to suicidal behavior and the control sample are shown resilience in particular manifestations of convicts and its relationship with the level of coping strategies of behavior of prisoners. The article identified promising areas for further research aimed at reducing the level of suicides among prisoners.

  9. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  10. Confidence level fusion of edge histogram descriptor, hidden Markov model, spectral correlation feature, and NUKEv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, P. D.; Frigui, H.; Wilson, J. N.

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the confidence level fusion of several promising algorithms for the vehiclemounted ground penetrating radar landmine detection system. The detection algorithms considered here include Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Spectral Correlation Feature (SCF) and NUKEv6. We first form a confidence vector by collecting the confidence values from the four individual detectors. The fused confidence is assigned to be the difference in the square of the Mahalanobis distance to the non-mine class and the square of the Mahalanobis distance to the mine class. Experimental results on a data collection that contains over 1500 mine encounters indicate that the proposed fusion technique can reduce the false alarm rate by a factor of two at 90% probability of detection when compared to the best individual detector.

  11. Digging deeper into platform game level design: session size and sequential features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend within computational intelligence and games research is to investigate how to affect video game players’ in-game experience by designing and/or modifying aspects of game content. Analysing the relationship between game content, player behaviour and self-reported affective states...... constitutes an important step towards understanding game experience and constructing effective game adaptation mechanisms. This papers reports on further refinement of a method to understand this relationship by analysing data collected from players, building models that predict player experience...... and analysing what features of game and player data predict player affect best. We analyse data from players playing 780 pairs of short game sessions of the platform game Super Mario Bros, investigate the impact of the session size and what part of the level that has the major affect on player experience...

  12. Recognition of Pitman shorthand text using tangent feature values at word level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Nagabhushan; S Murali

    2003-12-01

    Recognition of text recorded in Pitman shorthand language (PSL) is an interesting research problem. Automatic reading of PSL and generating equivalent English text is very challenging. The most important task involved here is the accurate recognition of Pitman stroke patterns, which constitute “text” in PSL. The paper describes automatic recognition of the strokes of the PSL at word level. A pen-down to pen-up sequence makes a stroke, which is a composition of primitives. The words are separated based on pen-down and pen-up points. The features that form a word (a stroke) are grouped first. Next, primitives and their sequence are identified and passed to a recognizer which identifies the word. A tangent-based vector through the contour of a stroke identifies the consonant primitives. Any other marks close to the stroke but not associated with the contour of a stroke represent the vowel markers.

  13. Personal Identification with F ace Bio metrics using Co lor Local Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A.Hiremani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Facerecognition (FR has received a significantinterest in pattern recognition and computer visiondue to the wide range of applications includingvideo surveillance, biometric identification, and faceindexing in multimedia contents. Recently, localtexturefeatures have gained reputation as powerfulface descriptors because they are believed to bemore robust to variations of facial pose, expression,occlusion, etc. In particular,local binary pattern(LBPtexture feature hasproven to be highlydiscriminative for FR due to different levels oflocality. Hence, it is proposedto employ thesefeatures along withcolor local texture feature forefficient FR system.The personal identificationaccuracy with face modality using color localtexture featuresis around 97% is achieved

  14. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Taubert

    Full Text Available In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  15. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  16. Pulmonary Nodule Detection Model Based on SVM and CT Image Feature-Level Fusion with Rough Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiling; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the detection accuracy of pulmonary nodules in CT image, considering two problems of pulmonary nodules detection model, including unreasonable feature structure and nontightness of feature representation, a pulmonary nodules detection algorithm is proposed based on SVM and CT image feature-level fusion with rough sets. Firstly, CT images of pulmonary nodule are analyzed, and 42-dimensional feature components are extracted, including six new 3-dimensional features proposed by this paper and others 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional features. Secondly, these features are reduced for five times with rough set based on feature-level fusion. Thirdly, a grid optimization model is used to optimize the kernel function of support vector machine (SVM), which is used as a classifier to identify pulmonary nodules. Finally, lung CT images of 70 patients with pulmonary nodules are collected as the original samples, which are used to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model by four groups' comparative experiments. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model based on rough set feature-level fusion are improved in some degrees.

  17. On using gait in forensic biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchrika, Imed; Goffredo, Michaela; Carter, John; Nixon, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Given the continuing advances in gait biometrics, it appears prudent to investigate the translation of these techniques for forensic use. We address the question as to the confidence that might be given between any two such measurements. We use the locations of ankle, knee, and hip to derive a measure of the match between walking subjects in image sequences. The Instantaneous Posture Match algorithm, using Harr templates, kinematics, and anthropomorphic knowledge is used to determine their location. This is demonstrated using real CCTV recorded at Gatwick International Airport, laboratory images from the multiview CASIA-B data set, and an example of real scene of crime video. To access the measurement confidence, we study the mean intra- and inter-match scores as a function of database size. These measures converge to constant and separate values, indicating that the match measure derived from individual comparisons is considerably smaller than the average match measure from a population.

  18. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  19. Genetics, biometrics and the informatization of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Irma

    2007-01-01

    "Genetics" is a term covering a wide set of theories, practices, and technologies, only some of which overlap with the practices and technologies of biometrics. In this paper some current technological developments relating to biometric applications of genetics will be highlighted. Next, the author will elaborate the notion of the informatization of the body, by means of a brief philosophical detour on the dualisms of language and reality, words and things. In the subsequent sections she will then draw out some of the questions relevant to the purposes of Biometrics Identification Technology Ethics (BITE), and discuss the ethical problems associated with the informatization of the body. There are, however some problems and limitations to the currently dominant ethical discourse to deal with all things ethical in relation to information technology in general, and biometrics or genetics in particular. The final section will discuss some of these meta-problems.

  20. Joint sparse representation for robust multimodal biometrics recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Sumit; Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advantage of using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized, computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. We propose a multimodal sparse representation method, which represents the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. Thus, we simultaneously take into account correlations as well as coupling information among biometric modalities. A multimodal quality measure is also proposed to weigh each modality as it gets fused. Furthermore, we also kernelize the algorithm to handle nonlinearity in data. The optimization problem is solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Various experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with competing fusion-based methods.

  1. Using Biometrics in Evaluating Ritual Gestures in Wearable Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei

    2015-01-01

    The article emphasized on the versatility of designing interactions with considerations of wearable technology under the principle of slow technology. It also proposed a new way of evaluating the emotional effect of wearable devices by using the biometric approach.

  2. Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Gentles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz., the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking these areas/issues into consideration we have now come with the biometrics authenticated mobile voting system, to start with for a country like Jamaica. The technology being proposed now is novel and the first of its kind proposed at present. It is proposed that using fingerprint supported biometric control information and encryption along with Secure Socket Layer i.e. SSL using VeriSign, would make the software involved in the voting process well secured. In addition tying the credentials to a mobile device will make the system even more robust. We have considered the mobile equipment for the present system development, a smart phone using Android 3.0 (Honeycomb. The details of the proposed development are presented in this paper.

  3. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    D. Shanmugapriya; Padmavathi, Dr. G.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are g...

  4. Privacy Protection of Data Using Chaos and Biometric Template

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gupta; Dr. Amar Kumar Mohapatra

    2013-01-01

    The problem with traditional cryptography authentication is that the keys that are very long, difficult to memorize and can easily be attacked. Although it provides sample security but these algorithms are secure only when the key is secure. So instead of using conventional cryptographic approach for protecting or authenticating user data, biometric security techniques are used. In this paper the concept of bio-chaotic algorithm is proposed to generate a biometric chaotic -keys to encrypt and...

  5. Reduced NM23 Protein Level Correlates With Worse Clinicopathologic Features in Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Chen, Bo-Zan; Li, Dan-Feng; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Wei, Hong-Fa; Zeng, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The clinical value of a prominent metastasis suppressor, nonmetastatic protein 23 (NM23), remains controversial. In this study, we examined the correlation between NM23 protein levels and the clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancers (CRC), and assessed the overall prognostic value of NM23 for CRC. Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and other scientific literature databases were exhaustively searched to identify relevant studies published prior to June 31, 2015. The methodological qualities of selected studies were scored based on the critical appraisal skills program (CASP) criteria, as independently assessed by 2 reviewers. NM23 protein levels in tumor tissues of CRC patients were examined in relation to Dukes stage, differentiation grade, T-stage, lymph node metastasis status, and overall survival (OS). STATA software version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX) was used for statistical analysis of data pooled from selected studies. Nineteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria for present study and contained a combined total of 2148 study subjects. Pooled odd ratios (ORs) for NM23 expression revealed that reduced NM23 protein levels in CRC tumor tissues correlated with Dukes stage C and D (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06–3.39, P = 0.032), poor differentiation grades (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03–1.94, P = 0.032), and positive lymph node metastasis status (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.95–5.29, P < 0.001). On the other hand, no such correlations were evident with T-stage T3-4 (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.60–4.06, P = 0.367) or OS (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58–1.08, P = 0.138). Our analysis of pooled data found that NM23 expression is reduced in CRC tissues and low NM23 levels tightly correlate with higher Dukes stages, poorer differentiation grade, and positive lymph node metastases. However, NM23 levels did not influence the OS in CRC patients. PMID:26825905

  6. Global patterns of ecosystem carbon flux in forests: A biometric data-based synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Shen, Haihua; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-09-01

    Forest ecosystems function as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, our understanding of global patterns of forest carbon fluxes remains controversial. Here we examined global patterns and environmental controls of forest carbon balance using biometric measurements derived from 243 sites and synthesized from 81 publications around the world. Our results showed that both production and respiration increased with mean annual temperature and exhibited unimodal patterns along a gradient of precipitation. However, net ecosystem production (NEP) initially increased and subsequently declined along gradients of both temperature and precipitation. Our results also indicated that ecosystem production increased during stand development but eventually leveled off, whereas respiration was significantly higher in mature and old forests than in young forests. The residual variation of carbon flux along climatic and age gradients might be explained by other factors such as atmospheric CO2 elevation and disturbances (e.g., forest fire, storm damage, and selective harvest). Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was positively associated with net primary production (NPP), but the Rh-NPP relationship differed between natural and planted forests: Rh increased exponentially with NPP in natural forests but tended toward saturation with increased NPP in planted forests. Comparison of biometric measurements with eddy covariance observations revealed that ecosystem carbon balance derived from the latter generated higher overall NEP estimates. These results suggest that the eddy covariance observations may overestimate the strength of carbon sinks, and thus, biometric measurements need to be incorporated into global assessments of the forest carbon balance.

  7. DYNAMIC FEATURE SELECTION FOR WEB USER IDENTIFICATION ON LINGUISTIC AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ONLINE TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identification and authentication of web users participating in the Internet information processes (based on features of online texts.In digital forensics web user identification based on various linguistic features can be used to discover identity of individuals, criminals or terrorists using the Internet to commit cybercrimes. Internet could be used as a tool in different types of cybercrimes (fraud and identity theft, harassment and anonymous threats, terrorist or extremist statements, distribution of illegal content and information warfare. Linguistic identification of web users is a kind of biometric identification, it can be used to narrow down the suspects, identify a criminal and prosecute him. Feature set includes various linguistic and stylistic features extracted from online texts. We propose dynamic feature selection for each web user identification task. Selection is based on calculating Manhattan distance to k-nearest neighbors (Relief-f algorithm. This approach improves the identification accuracy and minimizes the number of features. Experiments were carried out on several datasets with different level of class imbalance. Experiment results showed that features relevance varies in different set of web users (probable authors of some text; features selection for each set of web users improves identification accuracy by 4% at the average that is approximately 1% higher than with the use of static set of features. The proposed approach is most effective for a small number of training samples (messages per user.

  8. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  9. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  10. Infrared and visible image fusion scheme based on NSCT and low-level visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafeng; Qiu, Hongmei; Yu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-05-01

    Multi-scale transform (MST) is an efficient tool for image fusion. Recently, many fusion methods have been developed based on different MSTs, and they have shown potential application in many fields. In this paper, we propose an effective infrared and visible image fusion scheme in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the NSCT is firstly employed to decompose each of the source images into a series of high frequency subbands and one low frequency subband. To improve the fusion performance we designed two new activity measures for fusion of the lowpass subbands and the highpass subbands. These measures are developed based on the fact that the human visual system (HVS) percept the image quality mainly according to its some low-level features. Then, the selection principles of different subbands are presented based on the corresponding activity measures. Finally, the merged subbands are constructed according to the selection principles, and the final fused image is produced by applying the inverse NSCT on these merged subbands. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art fusion methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation results.

  11. Model features as the basis of preparation of boxers individualization principal level (elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelec O.J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose to improve the system of training boxers of higher categories (elite. Individualization of the training process using the model characteristics special physical preparedness. Materials : The study was conducted during 2000-2010. Participated boxers national team of Ukraine in the amount of 43 people. Of those honored masters of sport 6, masters of sports of international class 16, masters of sports 21. The average age of the athletes 23.5 years. Results : justified and features a specially designed model of physical fitness boxing class. It is established that the boxers middle weight classes (64 75 kg have an advantage over other boxers weight categories (light and after a hard in the development of speed and strength endurance. The presented model characteristics can guide the professional fitness boxing (elite, as representatives of the sport. Conclusions : It is established that the structure of the special physical training boxers depends on many components, such as weight category, tactical fighter role, skill level, stage of preparation.

  12. [Biometric ranging of the corpses destroyed at the site of a catastrophe in terms of gender, longitudinal and circumferencial dimensions, and the degree of subcutaneous fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Negasheva, M A

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative criteria for biometric ranging of destroyed corpses in terms of anatomical localization, gender, longitudinal length, trunk circumference, and the folds of subcutaneous fat are proposed. The wealth of anthropometric materials obtained in the studies of various Caucasoid populations was used to calculate the normative tables for biometric ranging of the decomposed corpses. The proposed technology excludes the subjective assessments for the purpose of such classification at the sites of catastrophes. Moreover, it promotes the accumulation of the variety of valuable information, such as the size of the collar, headwear, and footwear, clothing size and height, and portrait features, that can be used for victim identification.

  13. Contrasting effects of feature-based statistics on the categorisation and basic-level identification of visual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kirsten I; Devereux, Barry J; Acres, Kadia; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual representations are at the heart of our mental lives, involved in every aspect of cognitive functioning. Despite their centrality, a long-standing debate persists as to how the meanings of concepts are represented and processed. Many accounts agree that the meanings of concrete concepts are represented by their individual features, but disagree about the importance of different feature-based variables: some views stress the importance of the information carried by distinctive features in conceptual processing, others the features which are shared over many concepts, and still others the extent to which features co-occur. We suggest that previously disparate theoretical positions and experimental findings can be unified by an account which claims that task demands determine how concepts are processed in addition to the effects of feature distinctiveness and co-occurrence. We tested these predictions in a basic-level naming task which relies on distinctive feature information (Experiment 1) and a domain decision task which relies on shared feature information (Experiment 2). Both used large-scale regression designs with the same visual objects, and mixed-effects models incorporating participant, session, stimulus-related and feature statistic variables to model the performance. We found that concepts with relatively more distinctive and more highly correlated distinctive relative to shared features facilitated basic-level naming latencies, while concepts with relatively more shared and more highly correlated shared relative to distinctive features speeded domain decisions. These findings demonstrate that the feature statistics of distinctiveness (shared vs. distinctive) and correlational strength, as well as the task demands, determine how concept meaning is processed in the conceptual system.

  14. VARIATION OF WITHIN-STEM BIOMETRICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY INDICES OF WOOD FROM CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Khalil Hosseini Hashemi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in average tracheid dimensions (such as length, diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness and its biometrical ratios including slenderness ratio, flexibility ratio, and Runkell ratio, oven-dry and basic density, longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volume shrinkage, maximum moisture content, and porosity of cypress trees wood (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis, which was cultivated in the north of Iran, were studied from the pith to bark (radial position, and along the stem from the base upwards. To measure the mentioned traits, the test specimens were prepared from three stands and 9 discs at different height levels (5, 25, and 50% of the total tree height based on ASTM-D143 standard. Results indicated that the tracheid length, tracheid cross-sectional dimensions, and its biometrical ratios irregularly varied at each height level, along the stem from the bottom to top, but within the discs, at the same height level biometrical traits in the radial position regularly increased from the pith to bark. Within the tree, wood oven-dry and basic density, longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volume shrinkage varied at each height level, decreasing along the stem from the base upwards. Within the discs, at the same height level, wood density and shrinkage, except for longitudinal shrinkage in the radial position, increased from the pith to bark. The maximum moisture content and porosity varied at each height level, increasing along the stem from the bottom to the top of the tree. Moreover, within the discs, at the same height level in the radial direction porosity decreased and maximum moisture content increased except for at 5% of height level from the pith to bark.

  15. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  16. Spatial frequency training modulates neural face processing : learning transfers from low- to high-level visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether t

  17. Spatial Frequency Training Modulates Neural Face Processing : Learning Transfers from Low- to High-Level Visual Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether t

  18. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  19. An efficient approach for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from normal elderly based on multicenter MRI using gray-level invariant features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwei Li

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques, along with imaging markers extracted from structural magnetic resonance images, have been shown to increase the accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal elderly controls. Several forms of anatomical features, such as cortical volume, shape, and thickness, have demonstrated discriminative capability. These approaches rely on accurate non-linear image transformation, which could invite several nuisance factors, such as dependency on transformation parameters and the degree of anatomical abnormality, and an unpredictable influence of residual registration errors. In this study, we tested a simple method to extract disease-related anatomical features, which is suitable for initial stratification of the heterogeneous patient populations often encountered in clinical data. The method employed gray-level invariant features, which were extracted from linearly transformed images, to characterize AD-specific anatomical features. The intensity information from a disease-specific spatial masking, which was linearly registered to each patient, was used to capture the anatomical features. We implemented a two-step feature selection for anatomic recognition. First, a statistic-based feature selection was implemented to extract AD-related anatomical features while excluding non-significant features. Then, seven knowledge-based ROIs were used to capture the local discriminative powers of selected voxels within areas that were sensitive to AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The discriminative capability of the proposed feature was measured by its performance in differentiating AD or MCI from normal elderly controls (NC using a support vector machine. The statistic-based feature selection, together with the knowledge-based masks, provided a promising solution for capturing anatomical features of the brain efficiently. For the analysis of clinical populations, which are inherently heterogeneous

  20. Biometric security and privacy opportunities & challenges in the big data era

    CERN Document Server

    Al-maadeed, Somaya; Bouridane, Ahmed; Crookes, Prof; Beghdadi, Azeddine

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent research advances on biometrics using new methods such as deep learning, nonlinear graph embedding, fuzzy approaches, and ensemble learning. Included are special biometric technologies related to privacy and security issues, such as quality issue, biometric template protection, and anti-spoofing. The book also focuses on several emerging topics such as big data issues, mobile biometrics and multispectral biometrics, and includes a number of new biometrics such as vein pattern, acoustic biometrics, eye-blinking EOG, ECG, gait and handwriting. Authors also show how to use biometrics in cyber security applications and its relevant legal matters under EU legislation. The contributors cover the topics, their methods, and their applications in depth.

  1. A MEMS-based, wireless, biometric-like security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Joshua D.; Schneiter, John L.; Leiby, Grant A.; McCarter, Steven; Smith, Jeremiah; Budka, Thomas P.

    2010-04-01

    We present a system for secure identification applications that is based upon biometric-like MEMS chips. The MEMS chips have unique frequency signatures resulting from fabrication process variations. The MEMS chips possess something analogous to a "voiceprint". The chips are vacuum encapsulated, rugged, and suitable for low-cost, highvolume mass production. Furthermore, the fabrication process is fully integrated with standard CMOS fabrication methods. One is able to operate the MEMS-based identification system similarly to a conventional RFID system: the reader (essentially a custom network analyzer) detects the power reflected across a frequency spectrum from a MEMS chip in its vicinity. We demonstrate prototype "tags" - MEMS chips placed on a credit card-like substrate - to show how the system could be used in standard identification or authentication applications. We have integrated power scavenging to provide DC bias for the MEMS chips through the use of a 915 MHz source in the reader and a RF-DC conversion circuit on the tag. The system enables a high level of protection against typical RFID hacking attacks. There is no need for signal encryption, so back-end infrastructure is minimal. We believe this system would make a viable low-cost, high-security system for a variety of identification and authentication applications.

  2. Androgen levels in women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction : Associations with cardiometabolic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N. M P; Jaspers, L.; Koster, M. P H; Broekmans, F. J M; De Rijke, Y. B.; Franco, O. H.; Laven, J. S E; Kavousi, M.; Fauser, B. C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are differences in androgen levels among women with various forms of ovarian dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities? SUMMARY ANSWER Androgen levels differed substantially between women with and without ovarian dysfunction, and increased androgen levels were associat

  3. An automated method for segmenting white matter lesions through multi-level morphometric feature classification with application to lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Scully

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an automated, multi-level method to segment white matter brain lesions and apply it to lupus. The method makes use of local morphometric features based on multiple MR sequences, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, and intensity standardization, 49 features are calculated for each brain voxel based on local morphometry. At each level of segmentation a supervised classifier takes advantage of a different subset of the features to conservatively segment lesion voxels, passing on more difficult voxels to the next classifier. This multi-level approach allows for a fast lesion classification method with tunable trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity producing accuracy comparable to a human rater.

  4. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  5. BIOMETRICS SOCIETY AND THE PROGRESS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Romanian animal, agricultural and biological sciences were seriously damaged in the period 1948-1964 by the introduction of the Stalinsko- lasenko approach in the field of Genetics and by an empiric-pragmatic approach of agricultural theory. In 1965, it started the reintroduction of the real genetic science and in 1969 a small group of scientists (22, 3 animal scientists, 3 agriculturalists registered in International Biometric Society aiming to change the scientific approach in experimental technique, genetic and animal breeding, ecological vision of animal production, education system. An international Congress of International Biometric Society was held in Romania. Some progress was achieved in all biological fields, but generally it was braked by the routine, by inertia. The number of Romanian agricultural members of Biometric Society decreased, the group disappeared after the year 1990, the biometricians were not present in research and education, but a correct approach is visible in Animal Breeding theory. It is noted that the biometric approach in biological sciences is originated from Darwin and Mendel theory, it was concretized by Galton and Pearson but the origin of Biometric Society (1946 is connected with S. Wright. Some basic scientific works of Quantitative Genetics and Evolution theory are noted.

  6. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  7. A NOVEL BIOMETRICS TRIGGERED WATERMARKING OF IMAGES BASED ON WAVELET BASED CONTOURLET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elakkiya Soundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of network and digital technology has led to several issues to the digital content. The technical solution to provide law enforcement and copyright protection is achieved by digital watermarking Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital image in a way that is difficult to remove. The proposed method contains following phases (i Pre-processing of biometric image (ii key generation from the biometrics of the owner/user and randomization of the host image using Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF (iii Wavelet-Based Contourlet Transform (WBCT is applied on the host image. The WBCT can give the anisotropy optimal representation of the edges and contours in the image by virtue of the characteristics of multi-scale framework and multi-directionality (iv Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is enforced over the watermark image (v Embedding of the host image with the watermark image. The comparative analysis confirms the efficiency and robustness of the proposed system Index Terms— Digital Watermarking, copyright, Pre-processing, wavelet, Speeded-Up Robust Features.

  8. A Robust Biometric Authentication and PIN Distribution Technique for Secure Mobile Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun Prakash

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile emerging world, user authentication, service provider authentication and security is very important in mobile commerce. User authentication is performed by using fingerprint based biometric methodology. Existing system used for Mobile purchasing/payment services in handheld devices does not analyze fingerprint matching and feature extraction techniques in an efficient way. Also the existing system is not secure and accurate for m-payments applications. We propose secure, efficient and accurate m-commerce architecture for m-commerce applications. This involves fusion of Minutiae Maps (MM and Orientation Maps (OM for fingerprint feature extraction. The fingerprint is sent to the biometric server in a secure way using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT data hiding method. User fingerprint will be checked and compared using MM and OM methods to figure out the fingerprint threshold matching score. If the threshold is 80-99% PIN distribution process is initiated, otherwise user authentication is failed. The user PIN is converted into a unique sequence and divided into two parts. Along with the user PIN, user IP address, time stamp, user ID are encrypted using RC4 (stream cipher algorithm. Also a hash function is appended to the cipher text using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA4. One half is verified by the authentication server and the other half is verified by the external server. After verification both the servers sends only OK message to the bank. This study looks to provide a high secure and efficient solution for m-commerce applications.

  9. Binary Biometrics: An Analytic Framework to Estimate the Bit Error Probability under Gaussian Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Molina, G.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Jonker, W.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the protection of biometric data has gained increased interest from the scientific community. Methods such as the helper data system, fuzzy extractors, fuzzy vault and cancellable biometrics have been proposed for protecting biometric data. Most of these methods use cryptographic pri

  10. Binary Biometrics: An Analytic Framework to Estimate the Performance Curves Under Gaussian Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, Emile J.C.; Garcia Molina, Gary; Breebaart, Jeroen; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Jonker, Willem

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the protection of biometric data has gained increased interest from the scientific community. Methods such as the fuzzy commitment scheme, helper-data system, fuzzy extractors, fuzzy vault, and cancelable biometrics have been proposed for protecting biometric data. Most of these met

  11. A novel method for morphological pleomorphism and heterogeneity quantitative measurement: Named cell feature level co-occurrence matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Saito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent developments in molecular pathology and genetic/epigenetic analysis of cancer tissue have resulted in a marked increase in objective and measurable data. In comparison, the traditional morphological analysis approach to pathology diagnosis, which can connect these molecular data and clinical diagnosis, is still mostly subjective. Even though the advent and popularization of digital pathology has provided a boost to computer-aided diagnosis, some important pathological concepts still remain largely non-quantitative and their associated data measurements depend on the pathologist′s sense and experience. Such features include pleomorphism and heterogeneity. Methods and Results: In this paper, we propose a method for the objective measurement of pleomorphism and heterogeneity, using the cell-level co-occurrence matrix. Our method is based on the widely used Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, where relations between neighboring pixel intensity levels are captured into a co-occurrence matrix, followed by the application of analysis functions such as Haralick features. In the pathological tissue image, through image processing techniques, each nucleus can be measured and each nucleus has its own measureable features like nucleus size, roundness, contour length, intra-nucleus texture data (GLCM is one of the methods. In GLCM each nucleus in the tissue image corresponds to one pixel. In this approach the most important point is how to define the neighborhood of each nucleus. We define three types of neighborhoods of a nucleus, then create the co-occurrence matrix and apply Haralick feature functions. In each image pleomorphism and heterogeneity are then determined quantitatively. For our method, one pixel corresponds to one nucleus feature, and we therefore named our method Cell Feature Level Co-occurrence Matrix (CFLCM. We tested this method for several nucleus features. Conclusion: CFLCM is showed as a useful quantitative

  12. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  13. New surveillance technologies and their publics: A case of biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron K; Donovan, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    Before a newly-elected government abandoned the project in 2010, for at least eight years the British state actively sought to introduce a mandatory national identification scheme for which the science and technology of biometrics was central. Throughout the effort, government representatives attempted to portray biometrics as a technology that was easily understandable and readily accepted by the public. However, neither task was straightforward. Instead, particular publics emerged that showed biometric technology was rarely well understood and often disagreeable. In contrast to some traditional conceptualizations of the relationship between public understanding and science, it was often those entities that best understood the technology that found it least acceptable, rather than those populations that lacked knowledge. This paper analyzes the discourses that pervaded the case in order to untangle how various publics are formed and exhibit differing, conflicting understandings of a novel technology.

  14. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  15. Privacy Preserving Facial and Fingerprint Multi-biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaku, Esla Timothy; Sohn, Hosik; Ro, Yong Man

    The cases of identity theft can be mitigated by the adoption of secure authentication methods. Biohashing and its variants, which utilizes secret keys and biometrics, are promising methods for secure authentication; however, their shortcoming is the degraded performance under the assumption that secret keys are compromised. In this paper, we extend the concept of Biohashing to multi-biometrics - facial and fingerprint traits. We chose these traits because they are widely used, howbeit, little research attention has been given to designing privacy preserving multi-biometric systems using them. Instead of just using a single modality (facial or fingerprint), we presented a framework for using both modalities. The improved performance of the proposed method, using face and fingerprint, as against either facial or fingerprint trait used in isolation is evaluated using two chimerical bimodal databases formed from publicly available facial and fingerprint databases.

  16. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-12-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses.

  17. Contact-free and pose-invariant hand-biometric-based personal identification system using RGB and depth data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can WANG; Hong LIU; Xing LIU

    2014-01-01

    Hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation is considered to be an effective method for automatic recognition. However, existing systems require strict constraints during data acquisition, such as costly devices, specifi ed postures, simple background, and stable illumination. In this paper, a contactless personal identifi cation system is proposed based on matching hand geometry features and color features. An inexpensive Kinect sensor is used to acquire depth and color images of the hand. During image acquisition, no pegs or surfaces are used to constrain hand position or posture. We segment the hand from the background through depth images through a process which is insensitive to illumination and background. Then fi nger orientations and landmark points, like fi nger tips or fi nger valleys, are obtained by geodesic hand contour analysis. Geometric features are extracted from depth images and palmprint features from intensity images. In previous systems, hand features like fi nger length and width are normalized, which results in the loss of the original geometric features. In our system, we transform 2D image points into real world coordinates, so that the geometric features remain invariant to distance and perspective effects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation system is effective and robust in various practical situations.

  18. 基于生物识别的网络身份认证新方案%A New Network Authentication Scheme based on Biometric Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓娜; 吕秋云

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了现今基于生物识别技术的网络认证没被广泛应用的原因:生物特征的提取一般需要特殊的专用设备、指纹的利用比较泛滥、生物特征遗失后挂失比较困难等。文章同时对比了几种比较主流的生物特征识别技术,分析了它们各自的实用性、便捷性以及安全性,指出生物3D打印技术在未来对生物识别技术带来冲击的可能。文章提出了一种基于动态人脸识别的网络认证方案,该方案利用人脸作为网络认证的基础,通过跟踪实时人脸活动来实现实时人脸图像的采集,预防了照片攻击和视频攻击,提高了认证的可靠性和安全性。文章最后通过分析该方案的可实现性、可叠加性和安全性,并从成本等方面考虑,得出该方案性能较优的结论,同时对生物识别技术应用于网络认证进行了展望。由于生物特征具有唯一性和不可重置的特点,所以生物特征保护需要引起更高的关注,也需要更多学者做相关的研究,更好地利用生物特征。%This paper analyzes the causes of today's network authentication based on biometric recognition has not been widely used : the need for special equipments to extract biometric features, the rampant use of ifngerprints , and the dififculties of reporting biometric features loss. Meanwhile, this paper compares several major biometric recognition technologies to analyze the practicality, the convenience and the security. By judging from the rapid development of the Bio-3D printing technology, this paper points out that the Bio-3D printing technology may bring impact to the biometric recognition in the future. In this paper, a network authentication scheme based on face recognition is proposed ,in which faces are used as the basis for network authentication. By tracking facial activities in real time to achieve real-time facial image ,the system can prevent the photo and video attacks

  19. 全手形特征的生物识别技术综述%Review of Biometric Identification Technology Based on Characteristics of the Whole Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于为民; 赵继印; 李敏; 郑蕊蕊; 许爽

    2012-01-01

    全手形特征多模态生物识别是结合指纹、手形和掌纹的全手形特征信息,具有信息更全面可靠的独特优势,能有效地提高生物特征识别的准确率。简述了全手形生物特征识别技术的基本原理和一些关键技术,对目前流行的各种单模态和多模态生物特征的优势和不足进行了分析,并对生物特征识别技术中存在的问题和未来的研究方向进行了讨论。%The multi - modal biometric recognition of the whole hand is an identification technol- ogy using comprehensive feature of fingerprint, hand shape and palm, which have more compre- hensive and reliable information and can effectively improve the accuracy of biometric recogni- tion. Firstly, in this paper, the basic principles and some key technologies of the whole hand bi- ometric technology are described . Then, the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of popular single- mode and multi- modal biometric feature are anslysized. Finally, problems and future research directions biometric identification technology are discussed.

  20. Spectral feature with sub-natural linewidth due to quantum interference in a four-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li-Jun; Zhang Lian-Shui; Zhuang Zhong-Hong; Guo Qing-Lin; Fu Guang-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the narrow spectral feature appearing in a four-level system coupled by two strong coherent fields and probed by a weak laser field. The linewidth is examined as a function of the Rabi frequencies of coupling fields, and the result is explained by using the dressed-state formalism.

  1. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. D. Shanmugapriya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are given in this study. This paper also discusses about the various security issues and challenges faced by keystroke dynamics..Keywords- Biometris; Keystroke Dynamics; computer Security; Information Security; User Authentication.

  2. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Shanmugapriya, D

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are given in this study. This paper also discusses about the various security issues and challenges faced by keystroke dynamics.

  3. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate......, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time...

  4. Attacks on biometric systems: a case study in fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Umut; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-06-01

    In spite of numerous advantages of biometrics-based personal authentication systems over traditional security systems based on token or knowledge, they are vulnerable to attacks that can decrease their security considerably. In this paper, we analyze these attacks in the realm of a fingerprint biometric system. We propose an attack system that uses a hill climbing procedure to synthesize the target minutia templates and evaluate its feasibility with extensive experimental results conducted on a large fingerprint database. Several measures that can be utilized to decrease the probability of such attacks and their ramifications are also presented.

  5. Quality-aware features-based noise level estimator for block matching and three-dimensional filtering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Hu, Lingyan; Yang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The performance of conventional denoising algorithms is usually controlled by one or several parameters whose optimal settings depend on the contents of the processed images and the characteristics of the noises. Among these parameters, noise level is a fundamental parameter that is always assumed to be known by most of the existing denoising algorithms (so-called nonblind denoising algorithms), which largely limits the applicability of these nonblind denoising algorithms in many applications. Moreover, these nonblind algorithms do not always achieve the best denoised images in visual quality even when fed with the actual noise level parameter. To address these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a new quality-aware features-based noise level estimator (NLE), which consists of quality-aware features extraction and optimal noise level parameter prediction. First, considering that image local contrast features convey important structural information that is closely related to image perceptual quality, we utilize the marginal statistics of two local contrast operators, i.e., the gradient magnitude and the Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), to extract quality-aware features. The proposed quality-aware features have very low computational complexity, making them well suited for time-constrained applications. Then we propose a learning-based framework where the noise level parameter is estimated based on the quality-aware features. Based on the proposed NLE, we develop a blind block matching and three-dimensional filtering (BBM3D) denoising algorithm which is capable of effectively removing additive white Gaussian noise, even coupled with impulse noise. The noise level parameter of the BBM3D algorithm is automatically tuned according to the quality-aware features, guaranteeing the best performance. As such, the classical block matching and three-dimensional algorithm can be transformed into a blind one in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results demonstrate that the

  6. Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues.

  7. Multi-resolution analysis for ear recognition using wavelet features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, M.; Basit, A.; Faye, I.

    2016-11-01

    Security is very important and in order to avoid any physical contact, identification of human when they are moving is necessary. Ear biometric is one of the methods by which a person can be identified using surveillance cameras. Various techniques have been proposed to increase the ear based recognition systems. In this work, a feature extraction method for human ear recognition based on wavelet transforms is proposed. The proposed features are approximation coefficients and specific details of level two after applying various types of wavelet transforms. Different wavelet transforms are applied to find the suitable wavelet. Minimum Euclidean distance is used as a matching criterion. Results achieved by the proposed method are promising and can be used in real time ear recognition system.

  8. 手指静脉身份识别技术最新进展%Recent advances in finger vein based biometric techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭营; 王军

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics based on finger vein patterns is a burgeoning biometric technique. It will undoubtedly become one of the most important techniques and receive extensive application in many fields because of its many virtues, such as protection against forgery, low cost, and ease of capture. This paper surveys the present condition and development of biometrics based on finger veins. First of all, the origin and development of finger vein based biometrics were reviewed; then, the general framework of finger vein based biometrics was presented. In particular, several key techniques for realizing finger vein based biometrics were examined, including sample image acquisition, image enhancement, feature extraction, and pattern matching. Furthermore, the performance of the state-of-the-art algorithms for finger vein based biometrics was systematically evaluated. Finally, the current situation and development prospects of the application of finger vein based biometrics were summarized and its future research direction was further indicated.%基于手指静脉的身份识别是一种新兴的生物身份识别技术,由于手指静脉身份识别具有强防伪、低成本、易获取等优良特性,在许多领域得到广泛应用,成为一种最重要的生物识别技术之一.对手指静脉身份识别技术的现状和发展进行了总结和评述.首先,回顾了手指静脉身份识别的起源和发展过程,然后,总结了该技术的通用实现流程,对实现手指静脉的几大关键技术(如样本获取、图像增强、特征提取和匹配方法等)的最新研究成果进行了全面介绍.进一步,对现有典型方法的性能进行了系统评估.最后,总结了现有手指静脉识别技术的应用现状,展望了其发展前景,并指明了下一步的研究方向.

  9. Desempenho produtivo e biometria das vísceras de codornas francesas alimentadas com diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável e proteína bruta - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1810 Productive performance and biometrics of French quail viscera, fed on different levels of metabolizable energy and crude protein - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e a biometria de vísceras de codornas francesas na fase inicial (0 a 14 dias, 3.768 codornas com um dia de vida foram submetidas a dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, fatorial 2x4, com dois níveis de energia metabolizável (2.900 e 3.000 kcal EM/kg, e quatro níveis de proteína bruta (20,5; 21,5; 22,5 e 23,5% e, três repetições de 157 codornas por unidade experimental. Aos sete dias, não foi observada diferença significativa nos parâmetros ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar; já aos 14 dias, verificou-se influência da energia metabolizável no consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade. No estudo biométrico, o peso do pâncreas e o peso da moela apresentaram diferenças significativas aos sete dias, e aos 14 dias apenas o peso relativo do fígado foi influenciado pelos níveis de proteína bruta.The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate performance and biometrics of French quails viscera in initial phase (0 to 14 days. A total of 3,768 one day-old quails were submitted to diets in different levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy. The utilized design was entirely randomized in a 2x4 factorial, in two levels of metabolizable energy (2,900 and 3,000 kcal ME/kg, four levels of crude protein (20.5; 21.5; 22.5 and 23.5%, and three replications of 157 quails per experimental unit. Over seven days, no significant differences were verified in parameters of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. However, by 14 days, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were influenced by the metabolizable energy. In the biometric study, pancreas and gizzard weight presented significant differences at seventh and fourteenth days during the treatments. Crude protein levels influenced liver weight.

  10. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-03-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  11. 生物特征识别技术研究及应用%Biometric Technology: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉峰; 王小林; 张传文

    2012-01-01

    An accurate automatic personal identification is critical to our highly inter-connected information society. As a way of auto- matic identification, Biometrics have unique advantages because it is based on biolo~gical and behavioral traits. Biometrics is important to information safety. In this paper the concept of biological features and many common biometric technologies are introduced, also the identification principle and character of different methods are fully discussed.%生物特征识别技术作为一种身份识别的手段,具有独特的优势,对信息安全具有重要意义,近年来已逐渐成为国际上的研究热点。本文介绍了生物特征的概念及多种常见生物特征识别技术,对不同的识别方法的原理、特征及性能做了较详细的分析与评价。

  12. Brain Tumour Segmentation based on Extremely Randomized Forest with high-level features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Adriano; Pereira, Sergio; Correia, Higino; Oliveira, J; Rasteiro, Deolinda M L D; Silva, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive brain tumours. Segmentation of these tumours is important for surgery and treatment planning, but also for follow-up evaluations. However, it is a difficult task, given that its size and locations are variable, and the delineation of all tumour tissue is not trivial, even with all the different modalities of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We propose a discriminative and fully automatic method for the segmentation of gliomas, using appearance- and context-based features to feed an Extremely Randomized Forest (Extra-Trees). Some of these features are computed over a non-linear transformation of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using the publicly available Challenge database from BraTS 2013, having obtained a Dice score of 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73 for the complete tumour, and the core and the enhanced regions, respectively. Our results are competitive, when compared against other results reported using the same database.

  13. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  14. Web Science: understanding the emergence of macro-level features on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron; Contractor, Noshir S.; Hall, Wendy; Hendler, James A.; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    In this monograph we consider the development of Web Science since the launch of this journal and its inaugural publication ‘A Framework for Web Science’. The theme of emergence is discussed as the characteristic phenomenon of Web-scale applications, where many unrelated micro-level actions and decisions, uninformed by knowledge about the macro-level, still produce noticeable and coherent effects at the scale of the Web. A model of emergence is mapped onto the multitheoretical multilevel (MTM...

  15. Glottal Source Biometrical Signature for Voice Pathology Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Vilda, Pedro; Fernández-Baillo, Roberto; Rodellar-Biarge, Victoria; Lluis, Víctor Nieto; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Mazaira-Fernández, Luis Miguel; Martínez-Olalla, Rafael; Godino-Llorente, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Glottal Source Biometrical Signature for Voice Pathology Detection correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +34.913367384; fax: +34.913366601. (Gomez-Vilda, Pedro) (Gomez-Vilda, Pedro) Facultad de Informatica--> , Universidad Politecnica de Madrid--> , Campus de Montegancedo--> , s/n--> , 28660 Boadilla del Monte--> , Madrid--> - SPAIN (Gomez-Vilda, Pedro) ...

  16. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinc

  17. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.116 Additional requirements for biometrics. (a) If one of the factors used to authenticate to the electronic prescription...-approved government or nongovernment laboratory. Such testing must comply with the requirements...

  18. SAS Launches Biometric Identification at Airports All Over Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scandinavian Airlines is to launch a new biometric identification system throughout Sweden.When traveling, your fingerprint will be matched to your check-in baggage. This makes the check-in process easier and improves security. The new technology will be launched during November and December at almost all airports served by Scandinavian Airlines in Sweden.

  19. The state of the art in abuse of biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, Ileana; Hartel, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the standard architecture of a biometric system is extended by adding components like crypto, audit

  20. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  1. An Introduction to Biometrics Technology: Its Place in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Peters, Jerry L.; Rishel, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The increased utilization of biometrics technology in the past few years has contributed to a strong growth pattern as the technology is used in a variety of facilities, including schools. Due to media exposure, students' familiarity with technology will continue to increase proportionately, which will result in an increased curiosity about…

  2. Polymer thick-film sensors: possibilities for smartcard biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the potential of polymer thick-film sensors are assessed for use as biometric sensors on smartcards. Piezoelectric and piezoresistive sensors have been printed on flexible polyester, then bonded to smartcard blanks. The tactile interaction of a person with these sensors has been invest

  3. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last two decades. Its contribution is re

  4. Multi-level governance of forest resources (Editorial to the special feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Mwangi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for many researchers and practitioners relates to how to recognize and address cross-scale dynamics in space and over time in order to design and implement effective governance arrangements. This editorial provides an overview of the concept of multi-level governance (MLG. In particular we highlight definitional issues, why the concept matters as well as more practical concerns related to the processes and structure of multi-level governance. It is increasingly clear that multi-level governance of forest resources involves complex interactions of state, private and civil society actors at various levels, and institutions linking higher levels of social and political organization. Local communities are increasingly connected to global networks and influences. This creates new opportunities to learn and address problems but may also introduce new pressures and risks. We conclude by stressing the need for a much complex approach to the varieties of MLG to better understand how policies work as instruments of governance and to organize communities within systems of power and authority.

  5. Serum Cytokine Levels and Their Relation to Clinical Features in Patients with Autoimmune Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberova, Dilyara; Kiassov, Andrei P.

    2017-01-01

    Serum cytokine levels were explored in a combined group of patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) and separately in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and overlap syndrome. Overall, 60 patients with AILD, among them 32 patients with AIH and 28 patients with overlap syndrome, were included in the cross-sectional study. Serum cytokine levels were measured at baseline and compared to those of 21 healthy controls. Patients with AILD had significantly higher levels of IL-6 (0.70 (range 0.17–99.86) in patients with AILD compared to 0.40 (range 0.14–2.65) in controls, p < 0.01), IL-8 (1.66 (0.45–34.58) versus 0.53 (0.35–2.38), resp., p < 0.01), and TNF-α (2.61 (0.23–120.88) versus 1.65 (0.21–7.54), resp., p < 0.01). Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed a pronounced relation of IL-8 and AILD, 48.36 (3.63–643.60), as well as AIH, 18.54 (1.08–318.54), and overlap syndrome, 23.85 (2.37–240.23), while the associations between the level of other cytokines and AILD were assessed as nonsignificant. In the language of absolute numbers, the increase of IL-8 serum level by 1 pg/mL had increased the chance for a patient to find himself in a group of AILD by 48.36 times. Also, high IL-8 serum levels were strongly related to clinical parameters. PMID:28299346

  6. Biometric Secured Result Processing Software For Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Oluwasegun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the challenges facing result processing in Nigerian tertiary institutions is the problem of insecurity. Untraceable changes are made to students result and this result to various disasters such as innocent people losing their jobs since their innocence cannot be proven. Biometric based systems operate on behavioral and physiological biometric data to identify a person and grant required access to a user. Physiological characteristics such as fingerprint remains unchanged throughout an individuals life time and thus it can serve as a viable means of identifying and authenticating users who are to access a system. In this study fingerprint biometric based result processing software is developed to ensure that users are well authenticated and are made to see only what they are pre-configured to see and work with. The fingerprint authentication system was developed using visual basic.net. Staff fingerprints were enrolled into the system to form a biometric template which the system validates against at every login attempt on the result processing software. The digital personal one touch ID sdk and other libraries were used in developing the authentication system. The result processing software also ensures that all write transactions to the database are confirmed and identified by forcing another biometric authentication at the point of making a write request to the web server and associated database. This ensures that the exact person initiating the transaction was the same user who logged in to the application. The users identified at login and various confirmation milestones set for write transactions are logged into a table for future reference and audit trail. Conclusively the developed system has helped to eradicate the problem of user impersonation by ensuring only authorized users are made to access the software and in-turn participate in result processing activities.

  7. Impact of increased erythropoietin receptor expression and elevated serum erythropoietin levels on clinicopathological features and prognosis in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ITO, KEIICHI; YOSHII, HIDEHIKO; ASANO, TAKAKO; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; Sumitomo, Makoto; Hayakawa, Masamichi; ASANO, TOMOHIKO

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) expression and EPO receptor (EpoR) expression have been demonstrated in various malignant tumors. EPO-EpoR signaling can activate several downstream signal transduction pathways that enhance tumor aggressiveness. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of overexpression of EpoR and elevated serum EPO (sEPO) levels on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). EpoR expression was evaluated immunohistochemical...

  8. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys;

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of deoxythymidine-triphosphate (dTTP) (20%), but not mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters measured in this study or mitochondrial ROS. Levels of dTTP in PBMCs are indicators of relative cognitive change suggesting a role of deoxyribonucleotides in the etiology of AD....... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  9. Characteristic Features of Sea Level Series Analysis in the World Ocean Current Climatic Eustasy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, G.; Tsivtsivadze, N.; Tavartqiladze, K.; Dokhnadze, G.; Lagidze, L.; Motsonelidze, N.

    2012-04-01

    Climatic eustasy - sea level long-term rise or decrease, is the result of ocean waters thermal expansion and the freshwater balance between land and ocean. This phenomenon accompanies climate change with some delay and like air temperature changes is an ongoing process. It is positive in warm climatic cycles and vice versa. The global climate warming, has provoked current climatic eustasy, which is started in high Northern latitudes in second part of 1890 's, and in secondary ones (basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas)- in 1915-1923. In 2010 it caused the sea level raise at these latitudes at 0.3-0.4 m, but in the basins of these seas at 0.15 -0.20 m respectively. Climatic eustasy cycles and their continuity significantly influence on the comfortable environment forming process for living organisms in the sea and the coast. Therefore, the study of fundamental characteristics of this phenomena and its forecast in the near future (2025-2030) is highly topical issues. The solution of mentioned problems, with high precision and accuracy, is possible using "sea levels' long statistic series", combined with similar series of air and sea temperatures. The "long" is referred to as levels series if they are composed by two fragments of statistically sufficient length. First one contains information covering the period of negative eustasy, but the second- positive one. Before the using, from the fragments, the "noises", accompanying climatic fluctuations, various short-term trials and errors associated with data collection and processing have to be excluded. With special care the geological trend, caused by the altitude displacement of the coast, carried a data collection system, also should be excluded from them. Out of processed fragments, by the relevant methods, the amount of negative (Hn) and positive (Hp) eustasies, with precision of mm/year is determined. The sum of the absolute value of latter ones is the absolute eustasy (Ha), representing the local rate of

  10. Characteristic Feature of Self-Consistent Mean-Field in Level Crossing Region

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, L; Zhao, E G; Guo, Lu; Sakata, Fumihiko; Zhao, En-Guang

    2004-01-01

    A shape change of the self-consistent mean-field induced by a configuration change is discussed within the conventional constrained Hartree-Fock (CHF) theory. It is stressed that a single-particle level crossing dynamics should be treated carefully, because the shape of the mean-field in such a finite many-body system as the nucleus strongly changes depending on its configuration. This situation is clearly shown by applying an adiabatic assumption, where the most energetically favorable single-particle states are assumed to be occupied. The excited HF states and the continuously-connected potential energy curves are given by applying the configuration dictated CHF method. The effect of pairing correlation is discussed in the level crossing region. Triaxial deformed results in our Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculation with Gogny force nicely reproduce the available experimental data of Ge isotopes. From our numerical calculation, it is concluded that the CHFB state is more fragile than the CHF state in the...

  11. Exploring the Unique Features of a First Nations Graduate-Level Social Work Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C. Bodor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a one-time cohort of graduate-level social work students completed a unique MSW program. The program was delivered in partnership between the Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary and Blue Quills First Nations College and, of the twenty four graduates; twenty-one were of First Nations or Me´tis ancestry. The program honored traditional knowledge and ways of learning combined with a critical analysis of Western perspectives of social work knowledge. Strong fiscal resources enabled the program to establish a formal support network for the students and to support the development of Indigenous curriculum and programming that encouraged success for the students. The program was fundamentally different than urban on-campus programs while still maintaining graduate level accreditation requirements. This analysis of the program required the use of Indigenous Research Methodology to collect and create an understanding of the program. Instructors commented on the centered, empowered, balanced, and congruent students. The formal and informal, concrete and invisible supports to the students ensured the success of this program and this cohort of students. As one student commented, the program started in ceremony, ended in ceremony, and could not fail within the context ceremony.

  12. Securing Revocable Iris and Retinal Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Multimodal Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Meenakshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are subjected to a variety of attacks. Stored biometric template attack is very severe compared to all other attacks. Providing security to biometric templates is an important issue in building a reliable personal identification system. Multi biometric systems are more resistive towards spoof attacks compared to unibiometric counterpart. Soft biometric are ancillary information about a person. This work provides security and revocability to iris and retinal templates using combined user and soft biometric based password hardened multimodal biometric fuzzy vault. Password hardening provides security and revocability to biometric templates. Eye biometrics namely iris and retina have certain merits compared to fingerprint. Iris and retina capturing cameras can be mounted on a single device to improve user convenience. Security of the vault is measured in terms of min-entropy.

  13. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Yazicioglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish.

  14. A Novel Steganalytic Algorithm based on III Level DWT with Energy as Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.S. Sree Rathna Lakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel steganalytic algorithm which can differentiate between the normal and the stego image is proposed, in order to break a steganographic method, whose stego image is of high quality. The proposed steganographic method is employed to hide multiple images, in a JPEG cover image without any compromise in quality and is shown in experimental results. The steganographic method makes sense for JPEG, PNG and BMP image formats. The steganalytic algorithm exploits ‘3-Level DWT’ and the energy value is calculated, based on which classification between the stego and the normal image is carried out. However, the proposed steganalytic algorithm proves its accuracy, by identifying between the stego and normal image with 90% accuracy, over the existing method which shows 80% accuracy rate and is shown in experimental results.

  15. Cox-2 levels in canine mammary tumors, including inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological features and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Felisbina Luisa; Perez-Alenza, Maria Dolores; Silvan, Gema; Peña, Laura; Lopes, Carlos; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Cyclo-oxygenase (Cox-2) plays an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, nevertheless, its role in canine mammary tumors, and particularly in inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC), is unknown. Tumor Cox-2 levels were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay, in post-surgical tumor homogenates of 129 mammary tumors (62 dysplasias and benign tumors, 57 malignant non-IMC and 10 IMC) from 57 female dogs. The highest Cox-2 values were detected in the IMC group. In non-IMC malignant tumors, high values of Cox-2 were related to skin ulceration (p IMC cases could indicate a special role of Cox-2 in the inflammatory phenotype and open the possibility of additional new therapeutic approaches in this special type of mammary cancer in humans and dogs.

  16. Designing for adaptation to novelty and change: functional information, emergent feature graphics, and higher-level control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdukiewicz, John R; Vicente, Kim J

    2002-01-01

    Ecological interface design (EID) is a theoretical framework that aims to support worker adaptation to change and novelty in complex systems. Previous evaluations of EID have emphasized representativeness to enhance generalizability of results to operational settings. The research presented here is complementary, emphasizing experimental control to enhance theory building. Two experiments were conducted to test the impact of functional information and emergent feature graphics on adaptation to novelty and change in a thermal-hydraulic process control microworld. Presenting functional information in an interface using emergent features encouraged experienced participants to become perceptually coupled to the interface and thereby to exhibit higher-level control and more successful adaptation to unanticipated events. The absence of functional information or of emergent features generally led to lower-level control and less success at adaptation, the exception being a minority of participants who compensated by relying on analytical reasoning. These findings may have practical implications for shaping coordination in complex systems and fundamental implications for the development of a general unified theory of coordination for the technical, human, and social sciences. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of human-computer interfaces that improve safety in complex sociotechnical systems.

  17. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  18. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  19. Biometrics-based service marketing issues: exploring acceptability and risk factors of iris scans associated with registered travel programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    The marketability and viability of biometric technologies by companies marketing their own versions of pre-approved registered travel programmes have generated a number of controversies. Data were collected and analysed to formulate graphs, run regression and correlation analyses, and use Chi-square to formally test basic research propositions on a sample of 241 professionals in the Pittsburgh area. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the respondents' familiarity with new technology (namely web-enabled and internet sophistication) and knowledge of biometrics, in particular iris scans. Participants who frequently use the internet are more comfortable with innovative technology; although individuals with higher income levels have less trust in the government, it appeared that virtually everyone is concerned about trusting the government with their personal information. Healthcare professionals need to document the safety, CRM-related factors, and provide leadership in the international collaboration of biometric-related personal identification technologies, since they will be one of the main beneficiaries of the implementation of such technologies.

  20. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  1. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  2. Testing the reliability of hands and ears as biometrics: the importance of viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Walpole, Catherine; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue M

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments are presented to explore the limits when matching a sample to a suspect utilising the hand as a novel biometric. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that novice participants were able to match hands at above-chance levels as viewpoint changed. Notably, a moderate change in viewpoint had no notable effect, but a more substantial change in viewpoint affected performance significantly. Importantly, the impact of viewpoint when matching hands was smaller than that when matching ears in a control condition. This was consistent with the suggestion that the flexibility of the hand may have minimised the negative impact of a sub-optimal view. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed that training via a 10-min expert video was sufficient to reduce the impact of viewpoint in the most difficult case but not to remove it entirely. The implications of these results were discussed in terms of the theoretical importance of function when considering the canonical view and in terms of the applied value of the hand as a reliable biometric across viewing conditions.

  3. Identity based Encryption and Biometric Authentication Scheme for Secure Data Access in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongbing; Rong, Chunming; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing will be a main information infrastructure in the future; it consists of many large datacenters which are usually geographically distributed and heterogeneous. How to design a secure data access for cloud computing platform is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a secure data...... distribution, feature template creation, cloud data processing and secure data access control. Finally, we compare the proposed scheme with other schemes through comprehensive analysis and simulation. The results show that the proposed data access scheme is feasible and secure for cloud computing....... access scheme based on identity-based encryption and biometric authentication for cloud computing. Firstly, we describe the security concern of cloud computing and then propose an integrated data access scheme for cloud computing, the procedure of the proposed scheme include parameter setup, key...

  4. Efficient Implementation of Electronic Passport Scheme Using Cryptographic Security Along With Multiple Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic passports have known a wide and fast deployment all around the world since the International Civil Aviation Organization the world has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers. The use of biometrics for identification has the potential to make the lives easier, and the world people live in a safer place. The purpose of biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The paper analyses the face, fingerprint, palm print and iris biometric e-passport design. The paper also provides a cryptographic security analysis of the e-passport using face fingerprint, palm print and iris biometric that are intended to provide improved security in protecting biometric information of the e-passport bearer.

  5. AN APPROACH TO REDUCE THE STORAGE REQUIREMENT FOR BIOMETRIC DATA IN AADHAR PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADHAR is an Indian Government Project to provide unique identification to each Citizen of India. The objective of the project is to collect all the personal details and the biometric traits from each individual. Biometric traits such as iris, face and fingerprint are being collected for authentication. All the information will be stored in a centralized data repository. Considering about the storage requirement for the biometric data of the entire population of India, approximately 20,218 TB of storage space will be required. Since 10 fingerprint data are stored, fingerprint details will take most of the space. In this paper, the storage requirement for the biometric data in the AADHAR project is analyzed and a method is proposed to reduce the storage by cropping the original biometric image before storing. This method can reduce the storage space of the biometric data drastically. All the measurements given in this paper are approximate only.

  6. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  7. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi; Alima Damak Masmoudi; Dorra Sellami Masmoudi

    2013-01-01

    As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP), and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matche...

  8. Performance of Personal Identification System Technique Using Iris Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iris identification as one of the significant techniques of biometric identification systems s and iris recognition algorithm is described. Biometric technology advances intellectual properties are wanted by many unauthorized personnel. As a result many researchers have being searching ways for more secure authentication methods for the user access. Iris recognition uses iris patterns for personnel identification. The system steps are capturing iris patterns; determining the location of iris boundaries; converting the iris boundary to the stretched polar coordinate system; extracting iris code based on texture analysis. The system has been implemented and tested using dataset of number of samples of iris data with different contrast quality. The developed algorithm performs satisfactorily on the images, provides 93% accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance.

  9. Realistic Measurement of Student Attendance in LMS Using Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisardo Gonzalez-Agulla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a solution to obtain useful and reliable student session logs in a Learning Management System (LMS combining current logs with biometrics-based logs that show the student behaviour during the whole learning session. The aims of our solution are to guarantee that the online student is who he/she claims to be, and also to know exactly how much time he/she spends in front of the computer reading each LMS content. Even when the proposed solution does not completely avoid cheating, the use of biometric data during authentication and face tracking provides additional help to validate student performance during learning sessions. In this way it is possible to improve security for specific contents, to gain feedback of the student effort and to check the actual time spent in learning.

  10. Development of a Mobile EEG-based Biometric Authentication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonovs, Juris; Petersen, Christoffer Kjeldgaard; Olesen, Henning

    In recent years the need for greater security for storing personal and business data or accessing corporate networks on mobile devices is growing rapidly, and one of the potential solutions is to employ the innovative biometric authentication techniques. This paper presents the development...... of a mobile biometric authentication system based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in combination with already proven technologies such as facial detection and near-field communication (NFC). The overall goal of this work is to fill the gap between mobile web technologies and wireless EEG devices...... and to develop a new authentication technique and a feasible application. Therefore, we review the relevant literature, conduct several EEG measurement experiments and discuss their procedure and results with experts in the EEG and digital signal processing (DSP) fields. Based on these results we build...

  11. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  12. Internet Passport Authentication System Using Multiple Biometric Identification Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic passports (e-Passports have known a wide and fast deployment all around the world since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO the world has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers. The purpose of biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The paper consider only those passport scenarios whose passport protocols base on public-key cryptography, certificates, and a public key infrastructure without addressing the protocols itself detailed, but this is no strong constraint. Furthermore assume the potential passport applier to use ordinary PCs with Windows or Linux software and an arbitrary connection to the Internet. Technological securities issues are to be found in several dimension, but below paper focus on hardware, software, and infrastructure as some of the most critical issues.

  13. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabham, N J; White, N M [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved.

  14. Rotation, Scaling and Translation Analysis of Biometric Signature Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Chadha, Aman; Roja, M Mani

    2011-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems that make use of signature verification methods often render optimum performance only under limited and restricted conditions. Such methods utilize several training samples so as to achieve high accuracy. Moreover, several constraints are imposed on the end-user so that the system may work optimally, and as expected. For example, the user is made to sign within a small box, in order to limit their signature to a predefined set of dimensions, thus eliminating scaling. Moreover, the angular rotation with respect to the referenced signature that will be inadvertently introduced as human error, hampers performance of biometric signature verification systems. To eliminate this, traditionally, a user is asked to sign exactly on top of a reference line. In this paper, we propose a robust system that optimizes the signature obtained from the user for a large range of variation in Rotation-Scaling-Translation (RST) and resolves these error parameters in the user signature according to ...

  15. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  16. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabham, N. J.; White, N. M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved.

  17. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  18. SD LMS L-Filters for Filtration of Gray Level Images in Timespatial Domain Based on GLCM Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hudec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the new kind of adaptive signal-dependent LMS L-filter for suppression of a mixed noise in greyscale images is developed. It is based on the texture parameter measurement as modification of spatial impulse detector structure. Moreover, the one of GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix features, namely, the contrast or inertia adjusted by threshold as switch between partial filters is utilised. Finally, at the positions of partial filters the adaptive LMS versions of L-filters are chosen.

  19. Levels of personality functioning and their association with clinical features and interpersonal functioning in patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowyck, Benedicte; Luyten, Patrick; Verhaest, Yannic; Vandeneede, Bart; Vermote, Rudi

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed a multiple level approach toward the classification and diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), with the first level entailing a rating of impairments in levels of personality functioning. Although a number of measures that assess levels of personality functioning have been validated, given its prominent status in the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary theories of personality pathology, the Work Group has called for more research in this area (e.g., Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). In response to this call, this study investigates the relationship between two major, well-validated dimensional measures of levels of personality functioning, that is, the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale (DR-S; Diamond, Blatt, Stayner, & Kaslow, 1991), as scored on the Object Relations Inventory (ORI; Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979), and the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Lenzenweger, Clarkin, Kernberg, & Foelsch, 2001), a self-report instrument, and their relationship with different measures of clinical and interpersonal functioning in 70 patients with a PD. First, results showed that higher levels of differentiation and relatedness of descriptions of self and significant others, and of the self in particular, were negatively related to indices of personality functioning as assessed by the IPO. Lower levels of personality functioning, as measured with both the DR-S and the IPO, were positively related to severity of depression, symptomatic distress, self-harm, and interpersonal problems. Finally, results showed that the DR-S and the IPO independently predicted clinical features and interpersonal functioning. Hence, this study lends further support for the concurrent and predictive validity of the DR-S and the IPO in assessing levels of personality functioning. However, more research concerning the validity of these measures in assessing levels of personality functioning is needed

  20. Complexion as a Soft Biometric in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    detec- tion skin in images. Zarit et al. [16] studied skin detection in five different color spaces: normalized RGB, YCrCb, HSV, Fleck HS, and CIE ...biometric us- ing color (histograms) and texture (local binary patterns). We train a linear SVM to distinguish between the individual and impostors. We...complexion, we measure the color appearance of the head, which can include skin color , hair color , facial hair color , etc. Complexion has nice proper- ties

  1. Joint Sparse Representation for Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regression method, multi-task multi-variate Lasso [23], [24]. Our method imposes common sparsities both within each biometric modality and across...International Conference on Information Fusion, pp. 1–8, Chicago, USA, July 2011. [29] R. Tibshirani, “ Regression shrinkage and selection via the lasso ,” Jour...tation. For example, Yuan and Yan [25] proposed a multi-task sparse linear regression model for image classification. This method uses group sparsity to

  2. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  3. Biometric-based personal identity-authentication system and security analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YANG Yi-xian; NIU Xin-xin

    2006-01-01

    The traditional authentication system is based on the secret key, and is mainly based on public key infrastructure (PKI). Unfortunately, a key has many disadvantages, for example, the key can be forgotten or stolen, and can be easily cracked. Nowadays, authentication systems using biometric technology have become more prevalent because of the advantages over password-based authentication systems. In this article, several biometric authentication models are presented,upon which most biometric authentication systems are based.Biometric authentication systems based-on these models provide high security for access control in non-face-to-face environment such as e-commerce, over open network.

  4. Development of Electronic Passport Scheme for Cryptographic Security and Face, Fingerprint Biometrics using ASP.Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The e-passport, as it is sometimes called, represents a bold initiative in the deployment of two new technologies: Cryptography security and biometrics face and fingerprints. The privacy and security implications of this impending worldwide experiment in biometrics face and fingerprints authentication technology. An overall security process that involves people, technology and procedures can overcome limitations of the Cryptography security and face and fingerprint biometric passport using ASP.Net.

  5. Accuracy, security, and processing time comparisons of biometric fingerprint recognition system using digital and optical enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Jagapathi, Rajendarreddy

    2011-06-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most commonly used forms of biometrics and has been widely used in daily life due to its feasibility, distinctiveness, permanence, accuracy, reliability, and acceptability. Besides cost, issues related to accuracy, security, and processing time in practical biometric recognition systems represent the most critical factors that makes these systems widely acceptable. Accurate and secure biometric systems often require sophisticated enhancement and encoding techniques that burdens the overall processing time of the system. In this paper we present a comparison between common digital and optical enhancementencoding techniques with respect to their accuracy, security and processing time, when applied to biometric fingerprint systems.

  6. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus Biometrics and Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodriguez-Marin

    Full Text Available The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled, covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR. The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  7. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments. PMID:26505476

  8. Skull Triangles: Flinders Petrie, Race Theory and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Challis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1902 the Egyptian archaeologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie published a graph of triangles indicating skull size, shape and ‘racial ability’. In the same year a paper on Naqada crania that had been excavated by Petrie’s team in 1894–5 was published in the anthropometric journal Biometrika, which played an important part in the methodology of cranial measuring in biometrics and helped establish Karl Pearson’s biometric laboratory at University College London. Cicely D. Fawcett’s and Alice Lee’s paper on the variation and correlation of the human skull used the Naqada crania to argue for a controlled system of measurement of skull size and shape to establish homogeneous racial groups, patterns of migration and evolutionary development. Their work was more cautious in tone and judgement than Petrie’s pronouncements on the racial origins of the early Egyptians but both the graph and the paper illustrated shared ideas about skull size, shape, statistical analysis and the ability and need to define ‘race’. This paper explores how Petrie shared his archaeological work with a broad number of people and disciplines, including statistics and biometrics, and the context for measuring and analysing skulls at the turn of the twentieth century.

  9. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  10. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  11. Desempenho, balanço e retenção de nutrientes e biometria dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial Performance, nutrient balance and retention and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broilers fed different dietary protein levels in the pre-starter period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o desempenho, o balanço e a retenção de MS, EE e PB e os parâmetros biométricos do trato gastrintestinal de frangos de corte recebendo diferentes níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias. No experimento 1, 560 pintos Avian Farms foram distribuídos em baterias segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, e dois sexos, com dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de 14 aves. No experimento 2, 1.860 pintos machos e fêmeas Ross foram distribuídos em boxes de 2,0 x 2,5 m, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (níveis de proteína, 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26%, cada um com seis repetições de 62 aves. No experimento 1, os níveis crescentes de PB da dieta não afetaram significativamente os dados de desempenho, mas o balanço e a quantidade retida do EE promoveram efeito linear positivo. O balanço de proteína não foi afetado, mas a retenção de proteína apresentou efeito linear positivo. A biometria dos órgãos não foi significativamente influenciada aos quatro dias. Nos períodos seguintes, os níveis crescentes de proteína afetaram positivamente o peso relativo do pâncreas. No experimento 2, observou-se, com base nos resultados de desempenho, que os mais altos níveis de proteína na ração pré-inicial atenderam às necessidades nutricionais das aves.Two trials were carried out to evaluate performance, balance and retention of EE, DM and CP and biometrical measures of digestive organs of broiler chicks fed different dietary CP levels in the pre-starter period (1 - 7 d. In the first experiment, 560 one-day-old Avian Farms chicks were allotted to a complete randomized design with ten treatments, with a 5 x 2 (protein levels: 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26% x sex factorial arrangement and four replicates of 14 birds each. In the second experiment, 1,860 one-day-old Ross

  12. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli.

  13. Multimodal biometrics approach using face and ear recognition to overcome adverse effects of pose changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Dejian; Yu, Chongchong; Jiang, Tongqiang; Liu, Zaiwen

    2012-10-01

    A personal identification method is proposed which uses face and ear together to overcome mass information loss resulting from pose changes. Several aspects are mainly considered: First, ears are at both sides of the face. Their physiological position is approximately orthogonal and their information is complementary to each other when the head pose changes. Therefore, fusing the face and ear is reasonable. Second, the texture feature is extracted using a uniform local binary pattern (ULBP) descriptor which is more compact. Third, Haar wavelet transform, blocked-based, and multiscale ideas are taken into account to further strengthen the extracted texture information. Finally, texture features of face and ear are fused using serial strategy, parallel strategy, and kernel canonical correlation analysis to further increase the recognition rate. Experimental results show that it is both fast and robust to use ULBP to extract texture features. Haar wavelet transform, block-based, and multiscale methods can effectively enhance texture information of the face or ear ULBP descriptor. Multimodal biometrics fusion about face and ear is feasible and effective. The recognition rates of the proposed approach outperform remarkably those of the classic principal component analysis (PCA), kernel PCA, or Gabor texture feature extraction method especially when sharp pose change happens.

  14. PARENT’S SATISFACTION WITH SOME FEATURES OF EARLY CARE PROVISIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana PINTARIC MLINAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Probably from the very beginning of the human curiosity in disability features for family’s values, structures, parenting styles, circles of support, strengths and others, have been just as appealing as the child or adult with disabilities themselves. As many studies confirmed, professionals' approach to parents, getting adequate information and type of treatment present a challenge to families of children with established developmental disabilities and those at risk for disability. The main purpose of this study was to analyze parents' satisfaction with these three main features of support in early treatment of their child with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 81 families with intellectually disabled child, recruited from seven types of care provided in three towns in Croatia. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA comparing variety of parents satisfaction in four groups formed according to the level of intellectual disability. The method revealed a significant difference among groups in the variable referring to the parents satisfaction with treatment accessibility and its frequency provided.

  15. Clinical features of hepatitis B and C virus infections, with high α-fetoprotein levels but not hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cha Young; Kim, Bo Ra; Lee, Sang Soo; Jeon, Dae-Hong; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Wan Soo; Cho, Hyun Chin; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The appropriate α-fetoprotein (AFP) level to confirm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could be 100 ng/mL; however, the clinical significance of falsely elevated AFP in patients without HCC has not been fully studied. We investigated the clinical features and outcome of patients without HCC but with high AFP levels (100 ng/mL), especially with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or C (CHC). The sample included 124 consecutive patients with CHB (n = 97) or CHC (n = 27), with AFP levels >100 ng/mL and without HCC at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with AFP normalization and HCC development. During the mean 52-month follow-up, the proportion of patients with CHB with AFP normalization (90.7%) was significantly higher than the proportion of patients with CHC (59.3%, P 100 ng/mL). With either CHB or CHC, persistent AFP elevation (>12 months), regardless of antiviral treatment, might be an important marker of HCC development. PMID:28079817

  16. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  17. Skin Detection Based on Color Model and Low Level Features Combined with Explicit Region and Parametric Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARPREET KAUR SAINI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin detection is active research area in the field of computer vision which can be applied in the application of face detection, eye detection, etc. These detection helps in various applications such as driver fatigue monitoring system, surveillance system etc. In Computer vision applications, the color model and representations of the human image in color model is one of major module to detect the skin pixels. The mainstream technology is based on the individual pixels and selection of the pixels to detect the skin part in the whole image. In this thesis implementation, we presents a novel technique for skin color detection incorporating with explicit region based and parametric based approach which gives the better efficiency and performances in terms of skin detection in human images. Color models and image quantization technique is used to extract the regions of the images and to represent the image in a particular color model such as RGB and HSV, and then the parametric based approach is applied by selecting the low level skin features are applied to extract the skin and non-skin pixels of the images. In the first step, our technique uses the state-of-the-art non-parametric approach which we call the template based technique or explicitly defined skin regions technique. Then the low level features of the human skin are being extracted such as edge, corner detection which is also known as parametric method. The experimental results depict the improvement in detection rate of the skin pixels by this novel approach. And in the end we discuss the experimental results to prove the algorithmic improvements.

  18. Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2: Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2 Initial...Operational Test and Evaluation Report May 2015 This report on the Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2 Initial Operational Test

  19. The Impact of User Privacy Concerns and Ethnic Cultural Values on Attitudes toward the Use of Biometric Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Darrell R.

    2011-01-01

    Biometric technology is rapidly gaining popularity as an access control mechanism in the workplace. In some instances, systems relying on biometric technology have not been well received by employees. One reason for resistance may be perceived privacy issues associated with biometrics. This research draws on previous organizational information…

  20. Biometric template data protection in mobile device environment using XML-database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirumathyam, Rubathas; Derawi, Mohammad; Fischer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    recognition or gait recognition. To gain a real understanding of how it is possible to protect the biometric data, this paper first starts out with introducing a technique for security in a biometric system and emphasizes that template protection is important by going through the vulnerabilities and threats...