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Sample records for biomembrane mimetic polymer

  1. Interfacing biomembrane mimetic polymer surfaces with living cells - Surface modification for reliable bioartificial liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takami, Utae; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2008-01-01

    The surface design used for reducing nonspecific biofouling is one of the most important issues for the fabrication of medical devices. We present here a newly synthesized a carbohydrate-immobilized phosphorylcholine polymer for surface modification of medical devices to control the interface with living cells. A random copolymer composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization. The monomer feeding ratio in the copolymer was adjusted to 24/75/1 (MPC/BMA/LAMA). The copolymer (PMBL1.0) could be coated by solvent evaporation from an ethanol solution. Cells of the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) having asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) were seeded on PMBL1.0 or poly(BMA) (PBMA)-coated PET plates. On PBMA, many adherent cells were observed and were well spread with monolayer adhesion. HepG2 adhesion was observed on PMBL1.0 because the cell has ASGPRs. Furthermore, some of the cells adhering to PMBL1.0 had a spheroid formation and similarly shaped spheroids were scattered on the surface. According to confocal laser microscopic observation after 96 h cultivation, it was found that albumin production preferentially occurred in the center of the spheroid. The albumin production of the cells that adhered to PBMA was sparse. The amount of albumin production per unit cell that adhered to PMBL1.0 was determined by ELISA and was significantly higher than that which adhered to PBMA. Long-term cultivation of HepG2 was also performed using hollow fiber mini-modules coated with PMBL1.0. The concentration of albumin produced from HepG2 increased continuously for one month. In the mini-module, the function of HepG2 was effectively preserved for that period. On the hollow fiber membrane, spheroid formation of HepG2 cells was also observed. In conclusion, PMBL1.0 can provide a suitable surface for the cultivation of

  2. Molecular modeling in confined polymer and biomembrane systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Ghosh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The computational study of soft materials under confinement for bio- and nanotechnology still poses significantchallenges but has come a long way in the last decade. It is possible to realistically model and understand the fundamentalmechanisms which are at play if soft materials are confined to nanometer dimensions. Here, we present several recentexamples of such studies. Thin polymer films are abundantly used as friction modifiers or steric stabilizers. We show howsystematic modeling can shed light on the interplay between entropic and energetic interactions. Thin glassy films arecritical for the success of nanolithography. For that we have to understand the effect of confinement on the glass transitionbehavior in order to guarantee the stability and integrity of the lithographic masks. Simulations aim to understand the fundamental differences in the densities of states of glass formers in bulk and under confinement. With the advent of bionanotechnology the structure and phase behavior of lipid membranes as models for cellular membranes at the nano scale length is of importance due to implications in understanding the role of the lipids in biochemical membrane processes.

  3. Modeling biomembranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Effects of Covalently Attached Biomembrane-Mimic Polymer Grafts on Gore-Tex Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young Ju; Kang, Sunah; Park, Pona; Choi, Dongkil; Kim, Dae Woo; Jung, Dongwook; Koh, Jaemoon; Jeon, Joohee; Lee, Myoungjin; Ham, Jiyeon; Seo, Ji-Hun; Jin, Hong-Ryul; Lee, Yan

    2017-06-07

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), also known as Gore-Tex, is widely used as an implantable biomaterial in biomedical applications because of its favorable mechanical properties and biochemical inertness. However, infection and inflammation are two major complications with ePTFE implantations, because pathogenic bacteria can inhabit the microsized pores, without clearance by host immune cells, and the limited biocompatibility can induce foreign body reactions. To minimize these complications, we covalently grafted a biomembrane-mimic polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), by partial defluorination followed by UV-induced polymerization with cross-linkers on the ePTFE surface. PMPC grafting greatly reduced serum protein adsorption as well as fibroblast adhesion on the ePTFE surface. Moreover, the PMPC-grafted ePTFE surface exhibited a dramatic inhibition of the adhesion and growth of Staphylococcus aureus, a typical pathogenic bacterium in ePTFE implants, in the porous network. On the basis of an analysis of immune cells and inflammation-related factors, i.e., transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), we confirmed that inflammation was efficiently alleviated in tissues around PMPC-grafted ePTFE plates implanted in the backs of rats. Covalent PMPC may be an effective strategy for promoting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions in ePTFE implants and to reduce side effects in biomedical applications of ePTFE.

  5. iBodies: Modular Synthetic Antibody Mimetics Based on Hydrophilic Polymers Decorated with Functional Moieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šácha, Pavel; Knedlík, Tomáš; Schimer, Jiří; Tykvart, Jan; Parolek, Jan; Navrátil, Václav; Dvořáková, Petra; Sedlák, František; Ulbrich, Karel; Strohalm, Jiří; Majer, Pavel; Šubr, Vladimír; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 7 (2016), s. 2356-2360 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : antibody mimetics * HPMA * molecular recognition * polymer conjugates * protein targeting Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201508642/full

  6. An extended study of the phase separation between phospholipids and grafted polymers on a bilayer biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, M; Joudar, I; Kaidi, H; Elhasnaoui, K; Ridouane, H; Qamar, H, E-mail: benhamou.mabrouk@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Polymeres et Phenomenes Critiques, Faculte des Sciences, Ben M' sik, PO Box 7955, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-06-01

    We re-examine here the phase separation between phospholipids and adsorbed polymer chains on a fluid membrane with a change in some suitable parameter (temperature). Our purpose is to quantify the significant effects of the solvent quality and of the polydispersity of adsorbed loops formed by grafted polymer chains on the segregation phenomenon. To this end, we elaborate on a theoretical model that allows us to derive the expression for the mixing free energy. From this, we extract the phase diagram shape in the composition-temperature plane. Our main conclusion is that the polymer chain condensation is very sensitive to the solvent quality and to the polydispersity of loops of adsorbed chains.

  7. Fabrication of cell outer membrane mimetic polymer brush on polysulfone surface via RAFT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qian; Zhang Hui; Zhao Jiang; Gong Yongkuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone surface. ► Graft density and polymerization degree were calculated from XPS results. ► Water contact angle measurements showed an extremely hydrophilic surface. ► Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results suggested excellent antifouling ability. - Abstract: Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone (PSF) membrane by surface-induced reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The RAFT agent immobilized PSF substrate was prepared by successive chloromethylation, amination with ethylenediamine (EDA) and amidation of the amine group of grafted EDA with the carboxylic group of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate (CPAD). The surface RAFT polymerization of MPC was initiated in aqueous solution by 4,4′-azobis-4-cyanopentanoic acid (ACPA). The formation of PMPC brush coating is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. The degree of polymerization of PMPC and the polymer grafting density were calculated from the high resolution XPS spectra. The platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results showed that the PMPC-grafted PSF surface has excellent antifouling ability to resist platelet adhesion completely and suppress protein adsorption significantly. This biomimetic and bio-friendly surface RAFT polymerization strategy could be promising for a variety of biomedical applications.

  8. Molecular Design, Structures, and Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide-Mimetic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Haruko; Palermo, Edmund F.; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Caputo, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics which are effective against drug-resistant bacteria without contributing to resistance development. We have designed and developed antimicrobial copolymers with cationic amphiphilic structures based on the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. These copolymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no adverse hemolytic activity. Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli. The peptide-mimetic design principle offers significant flexibility and diversity in the creation of new antimicrobial materials and their potential biomedical applications. PMID:23832766

  9. Dynamic bio-adhesion of polymer nanoparticles on MDCK epithelial cells and its impact on bio-membranes, endocytosis and paracytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yuan, Lan; Dai, Wenbing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-21

    Nowadays, concern about the use of nanotechnology for biomedical application is unprecedentedly increasing. In fact, nanosystems applied for various potential clinical uses always have to cross the primary biological barrier consisting of epithelial cells. However, little is really known currently in terms of the influence of the dynamic bio-adhesion of nanosystems on bio-membranes as well as on endocytosis and transcytosis. This was investigated here using polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as the models. Firstly, the adhesion of PNs on cell membranes was found to be time-dependent with a shift of both location and dispersion pattern, from the lateral adhesion of mainly mono-dispersed PNs initially to the apical coverage of the PN aggregate later. Then, it was interesting to observe in this study that the dynamic bio-adhesion of PNs only affected their endocytosis but not their transcytosis. It was important to find that the endocytosis of PNs was not a constant process. A GM1 dependent CDE (caveolae dependent endocytosis) pathway was dominant in the preliminary stage, followed by the co-existence of a CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) pathway for the PN aggregate at a later stage, in accordance with the adhesion features of PNs, suggesting the modification of PN adhesion patterns on the endocytosis pathways. Next, the PN adhesion was noticed to affect the structure of cell junctions, via altering the extra- and intra-cellular calcium levels, leading to the enhanced paracellular transport of small molecules, but not favorably enough for the obviously increased passing of PNs themselves. Finally, FRAP and other techniques all demonstrated the obvious impact of PN adhesion on the membrane confirmation, independent of the adhesion location and time, which might lower the threshold for the internalization of PNs, even their aggregates. Generally, these findings confirm that the transport pathway mechanism of PNs through epithelial cells is rather

  10. Dynamic bio-adhesion of polymer nanoparticles on MDCK epithelial cells and its impact on bio-membranes, endocytosis and paracytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yuan, Lan; Dai, Wenbing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, concern about the use of nanotechnology for biomedical application is unprecedentedly increasing. In fact, nanosystems applied for various potential clinical uses always have to cross the primary biological barrier consisting of epithelial cells. However, little is really known currently in terms of the influence of the dynamic bio-adhesion of nanosystems on bio-membranes as well as on endocytosis and transcytosis. This was investigated here using polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as the models. Firstly, the adhesion of PNs on cell membranes was found to be time-dependent with a shift of both location and dispersion pattern, from the lateral adhesion of mainly mono-dispersed PNs initially to the apical coverage of the PN aggregate later. Then, it was interesting to observe in this study that the dynamic bio-adhesion of PNs only affected their endocytosis but not their transcytosis. It was important to find that the endocytosis of PNs was not a constant process. A GM1 dependent CDE (caveolae dependent endocytosis) pathway was dominant in the preliminary stage, followed by the co-existence of a CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) pathway for the PN aggregate at a later stage, in accordance with the adhesion features of PNs, suggesting the modification of PN adhesion patterns on the endocytosis pathways. Next, the PN adhesion was noticed to affect the structure of cell junctions, via altering the extra- and intra-cellular calcium levels, leading to the enhanced paracellular transport of small molecules, but not favorably enough for the obviously increased passing of PNs themselves. Finally, FRAP and other techniques all demonstrated the obvious impact of PN adhesion on the membrane confirmation, independent of the adhesion location and time, which might lower the threshold for the internalization of PNs, even their aggregates. Generally, these findings confirm that the transport pathway mechanism of PNs through epithelial cells is rather

  11. Conformational assembly and biological properties of collagen mimetic peptides and their thermally responsive polymer conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ohm Divyam

    2011-12-01

    Collagens are one of the most abundant proteins found in body tissues and organs, endowing structural integrity, mechanical strength, and multiple biological functions. Destabilized collagen inside human body leads to various degenerative diseases (ex. osteoarthritis) and ageing. This has continued to motivate the design of synthetic peptides and bio-synthetic polypeptides to closely mimic the native collagens in terms of triple helix structure and stability, potential for higher order assembly, and biological properties. However, the widespread application of de novo collagens has been limited in part by the need for hydroxylated proline in the formation of stable triple helical structures. To address this continued need, a hydroxyproline-free, thermally stable collagen-mimetic peptide (CLP-Cys) was rationally designed via the incorporation of electrostatically stabilized amino acid triplets. CLP-Cys was synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis. The formation and stability of the triple helical structure were indicated via circular dichroism (CD) experiments and confirmed via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. CLP-Cys also self-assembled into nano-rods and micro-fibrils, as evidenced via a combination of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Given the high thermal stability and its propensity for higher-order assembly, CLP-Cys was further functionalized at both the ends with a thermally responsive polymer, poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate), (PDEGMEMA) to synthesize a biohybrid triblock copolymer. The CD results indicated that the triple helical form is retained, the thermal unfolding is sustained and helix to coil transition is reversible in the triblock hybrid context. The LCST of PDEGMEMA homopolymer (26 °C) is increased (to 35 °C) upon conjugation to the hydrophilic collagen peptide domain. Further, a combination of static light scattering, Cryo-SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy elucidated that the

  12. iBodies: modular synthetic antibody mimetics based on hydrophilic polymers decorated with functional moieties as tools for molecular recognition, imaging and specific drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šácha, Pavel; Dvořáková, Petra; Knedlík, Tomáš; Schimer, Jiří; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel; Bušek, P.; Navrátil, Václav; Sedlák, František; Majer, Pavel; Šedo, A.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 340 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : antibody mimetics * molecular recognition * polymer conjugates Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Mimetic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wulf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic learning, learning by imitation, constitutes one of the most important forms of learning. Mimetic learning does not, however, just denote mere imitation or copying: Rather, it is a process by which the act of relating to other persons and worlds in a mimetic way leads to an en-hancement of one’s own world view, action, and behaviour. Mimetic learning is productive; it is related to the body, and it establishes a connection between the individual and the world as well as other persons; it creates practical knowledge, which is what makes it constitutive of social, artistic, and practical action. Mimetic learning is cultural learning, and as such it is crucial to teaching and education (Wulf, 2004; 2005.

  14. Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and in biomembranes...Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes Report Title The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and...producing PZT nanoribbons for energy harvesters. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or

  15. Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.

    2010-05-01

    We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.

  16. Dicarboxylic phospholipids and irradiated biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, Nicole.

    1977-01-01

    It was decided to study the effects of ionizing radiations on biomembranes, with special reference to erythrocytes and liver microsomes representing two kinds of membrane very common in nature. Diacid phospholipids were observed at these membranes and the results are reported in part one of this work. It appeared essential to examine as far as possible the metabolism, in vitro and in animals, of these diacids and to find out whether certain harmful effects of radiations on the proteins (membrane permeability changes and enzyme inactivation) could be due to the action of these newly formed compounds. The study of acid compounds formed under irradiation was limited to nonanal-9-oic acid and azelaic acid. Part two deals with the incorporation of acid and diacid compounds into lipids and the effects of diacid phospholipids on the membrane permeability. A chapter is devoted to the changes in certain enzyme activities brought about by diacid phospholipids [fr

  17. Electrowetting of liquid polymer on petal-mimetic microbowl-array surfaces for formation of microlens array with varying focus on a single substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmeng; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, microlens array with varying focal lengths were fabricated on a single microbowl-array textured substrate. The solid microbowl-arrayed NOA61 (kind of polyurethane-based polymer with UV curablity) surface was resulted from nanoimprinting by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The PDMS mold was replicated from an SU-8 master which was generated by electron beam lithography. Such microbowl-arrayed surfaces demonstrate petal-mimetic highly adhesive hydrophobic wetting properties, which can promote an irreversible electrowetting (EW) effect and a dereased contact angle of water droplets as well as other liquid droplets by applying direct current (DC) voltage. To fabricate a microlens array with varying focal-lengths, liquid NOA61 was supplied from a syringe on the solid NOA61 microtextured film and DC voltage was applied succesively. After removing the DC voltage, these liquid NOA61 microdrops deposited on the solid microtextured NOA61 surface on tin-indium-oxide coated substrate could be solidified via UV irradiation, thus leading to microlens array with uneven numerical apertures on a single substrate. Numerical simulation was also done to verify the EW effect. Finally, optical imaging characterization was performed to confirm the varied focus of the NOA61 microdrops.

  18. Thioridazine – tracking its interaction with biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren Bo; Kristiansen, Jette; Kallipolitis, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Multi-resistant bacteria may be re-sensitized towards antibiotic drugs by a group of compounds termed Phenothiazines1. The mechanism of re-sensitization is uncertain, however, the wide range of effects caused by phenothiazines suggests that the unspecific physical interaction with a biomembrane m...

  19. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  20. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Gochev, Georgi; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell–cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure–distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces. (paper)

  1. Unimodular-mimetic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Oikonomou, V K

    2016-01-01

    We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein–Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity. (paper)

  2. Mimetic finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  3. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  4. Intelligent biomembranes and biochips by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, H.; Sutani, K.; Sakata, S.; Kita, Y.; Kaetsu, I.; Uchida, K.; Matsubara, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The authors have studied stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte and polyampholyte hydrogels. Thermo-responsive copolymer hydrogels also have been studied. Recently, the authors have applied those hydrogels to radiation curable intelligent coatings for the gating of drug release channel. One way of this application is the coating on a drug including membrane to initiate and stop the drug release by on-off switching of stimulations. Some practical intelligent biomembranes such as glucose responsive insulin release membrane, glucose responsive nicotine release membrane and temperature responsive perfume release membrane were investigated and proved the function. On the other hand, the stimuli-responsive coating was applied to the porous biochip to cover the multi-drug reservoirs in the chip and computer programmed drug release from the biochip was investigated. Some results of primary studies proved the possibility of techniques for the application to biochip systems such as multi-signals responsive multi-drug release systems

  5. Three dimensional nano-assemblies of noble metal nanoparticle-infinite coordination polymers as specific oxidase mimetics for degradation of methylene blue without adding any cosubstrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Zeng, Yi; Shen, Aiguo; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hu, Jiming

    2015-02-07

    Novel three-dimensional (3D) nano-assemblies of noble metal nanoparticle (NP)-infinite coordination polymers (ICPs) are conveniently fabricated through the infiltration of HAuCl4 into hollow Au@Ag@ICPs core-shell nanostructures and its replacement reaction with Au@Ag NPs. The present 3D nano-assemblies exhibit highly efficient and specific intrinsic oxidase-like activity even without adding any cosubstrate.

  6. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  7. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  8. Dynamics of Biomembranes: Effect of the Bulk Fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2011-01-01

    We derive a biomembrane model consisting of a fluid enclosed by a lipid membrane. The membrane is characterized by its Canham-Helfrich energy (Willmore energy with area constraint) and acts as a boundary force on the Navier-Stokes system modeling an incompressible fluid. We give a concise description of the model and of the associated numerical scheme. We provide numerical simulations with emphasis on the comparisons between different types of flow: the geometric model which does not take into account the bulk fluid and the biomembrane model for two different regimes of parameters. © EDP Sciences, 2011.

  9. Geometric theory on the elasticity of bio-membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Z. C.; Ou-Yang, Z. C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the shapes and stabilities of bio-membranes within the framework of exterior differential forms. After a brief review of the current status in theoretical and experimental studies on the shapes of bio-membranes, a geometric scheme is proposed to discuss the shape equation of closed lipid bilayers, the shape equation and boundary conditions of open lipid bilayers and two-component membranes, the shape equation and in-plane strain equations of cell membrane...

  10. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2018-04-01

    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  11. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation on the regulatory function of biomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlakova, E B; Archipova, G V; Shishkina, L N; Goloshchapov, A N; Zaslavskij, Yu A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    Changes of the antioxidative activity in lipids of mitochondria and nuclei as well as the phospholipid content of all organelles from BaIb strain mouse liver are studies at early stages after irradiation. It is supposed that the lipid composition and the structural rearrangements of the biomembrane cause changes in the enzyme activity of irradiated cells.

  13. The basic property of biomembranes: an explanation for the geometric progression of vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bont, Willy S

    2009-05-01

    In order to explain the experimentally obtained results with biomembranes it has been assumed, that the diameter of all vesicles, defined by a lipid bilayer, form a perfect crystal. Later on it appeared that biomembranes are liquid crystals. Nevertheless already with biomembranes as crystals it was possible to calculate the diameters of all existing vesicles. As shown in the present paper, the results with liquid crystals were identical to those with a perfect crystal-model. Here I demonstrate that the geometric progression of the diameters of vesicles of biomembranes is based on the entropy of the lipids and it is shown that the diameters of biomembranes fit four geometric series. The surface areas of these series of biomembranes can be approximated by the two geometric series published previously.

  14. Biomembrane Frontiers Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Roland; Risbud, Subhash H; Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume II: Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life Editors: Roland Faller, PhD, Thomas Jue, PhD, Marjorie L. Longo, PhD, and Subhash H. Risbud, PhD In Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life, prominent researchers have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Perspectives: Complexes in Liquids, 1900–2008 Mol...

  15. A geometric theory on the elasticity of bio-membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Z C; Ou-Yang, Z C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the shapes and stabilities of bio-membranes within the framework of exterior differential forms. After a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental studies on the shapes of bio-membranes, a geometric scheme is proposed to discuss the shape equation of closed lipid bilayers, the shape equation and boundary conditions of open lipid bilayers and two-component membranes, the shape equation and in-plane strain equations of cell membranes with cross-linking structures, and the stabilities of closed lipid bilayers and cell membranes. The key point of this scheme is to deal with the variational problems on surfaces embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space by using exterior differential forms

  16. Quality control in preparation of APA microcapsular immune isolation biomembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinjian; Xue Yilong; Lu Qingguo; Li Yanling; Gao Yuhong

    2005-01-01

    For optimization of preparation condition, simplification of technique and quality control, we observed partial physical and chemical factors in process of preparation of alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) microcapsular immune isolation biomembrane. The result showed that granular diameter of the microcapsules was negatively correlated with pulse frequency of static microcapsule generator and positively correlated with speed of driving pump and bore of pinhead. The membrane thickness was remarkably increased with the increase of polylysine density. Prolonging reaction time of shaping membrane didn't change granular diameter of the microcapsules, but influenced membrane thickness. Liquefaction time of sodium citrate had no remarkable effect on granular diameter and membrane thickness. APA microcapsular immuno isolation biomembrane would have better permeability, flexibility, biological compatibility and intensity by optimizing preparation conditions. (authors)

  17. Morphological and Physical Analysis of Natural Phospholipids-Based Biomembranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquot, Adrien; Francius, Grégory; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Dehghani, Fariba; Tamayol, Ali; Linder, Michel; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Background: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells.Scope of Review: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon ar...

  18. Fabrication of Biomembrane from Banana Stem for Lead Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afianti Sulastri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (i.e. lead (Pb is one of the environmental issues recently due to its danger for human health. Therefore, strategy for removing Pb from waste water treatment is important. One of the prospective methods to remove Pb is membrane biofilter. Here, the purpose of this study was to prepare the membrane biofilter for Pb removal process. In this study, membrane biofilter was produced from banana stem. Banana stem was selected because of its abundant availability   in Indonesia. And, for somewhat, this banana stem can be environmental problems (become waste since Indonesia is one of the top producers in the world. In short of the experimental procedure, we conducted three steps of experiments: (1 Preparation of microbial cellulose using Acetobacter xylinum using banana stem for a main source; (2 Synthesis of cellulose acetate; and (3 Preparation of biomembrane from obtained cellulose acetate. To produce membrane biofilter, the cellulose acetate was dissolved into dichloromethane to form a dope solution. Then, the doped solution was printed in Petri dish. Some biomembrane properties were characterized for identification, i.e. infrared spectra, electron microscope, and elemental analysis. Experimental results showed that we succeeded to prepare biomembrane with a pore size of 5 μm. The filtration efficiency of our prepared membrane was 93.7% of Pb when using Pb with a concentration of 10 ppm.

  19. Cosmological dynamics of mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tamanini, Nicola; Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the dynamical behavior of mimetic gravity with a general potential for the mimetic scalar field. Performing a phase-space and stability analysis, we show that the scenario at hand can successfully describe the thermal history of the universe, namely the successive sequence of radiation, matter, and dark-energy eras. Additionally, at late times the universe can either approach a de Sitter solution, or a scaling accelerated attractor where the dark-matter and dark-energy density parameters are of the same order, thus offering an alleviation of the cosmic coincidence problem. Applying our general analysis to various specific potential choices, including the power-law and the exponential ones, we show that mimetic gravity can be brought into good agreement with the observed behavior of the universe. Moreover, with an inverse square potential we find that mimetic gravity offers an appealing unified cosmological scenario where both dark energy and dark matter are characterized by a single scalar field, and where the cosmic coincidence problem is alleviated.

  20. Biomembrane oxidizing tank used in the process of bacterial heap leaching of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yunsheng; Fan Baotuan; Liu Jian; Zheng Ying; Liu Chao

    2004-01-01

    The construction characteristic of biomembrane oxidizing tank and specialty of packing material used in the process of bacterial heap leaching of uranium ore are introduced in this paper. Method for designing biomembrane oxidizing tank, layout principle of aeration system and measurements on running management are summarized

  1. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  2. Modeling and computation of two phase geometric biomembranes using surface finite elements

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Charles M.; Stinner, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Biomembranes consisting of multiple lipids may involve phase separation phenomena leading to coexisting domains of different lipid compositions. The modeling of such biomembranes involves an elastic or bending energy together with a line energy associated with the phase interfaces. This leads to a free boundary problem for the phase interface on the unknown equilibrium surface which minimizes an energy functional subject to volume and area constraints. In this paper we propose a new computati...

  3. Research progress of nanoparticles as enzyme mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, XiaoNa; Liu, JianBo; Hou, Shuai; Wen, Tao; Liu, WenQi; Zhang, Ke; He, WeiWei; Ji, YingLu; Ren, HongXuan; Wang, Qi; Wu, XiaoChun

    2011-10-01

    Natural enzymes as biological catalysts possess remarkable advantages, especially their highly efficient and selective catalysis under mild conditions. However, most natural enzymes are proteins, thus exhibiting an inherent low durability to harsh reaction conditions. Artificial enzyme mimetics have been pursued extensively to avoid this drawback. Quite recently, some inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to exhibit unique enzyme mimetics. In addition, their much higher stability overcomes the inherent disadvantage of natural enzymes. Furthermore, easy mass-production and low cost endow them more benefits. As a new member of artificial enzyme mimetics, they have received intense attention. In this review article, major progress in this field is summarized and future perspectives are highlighted.

  4. Artificial biomembrane morphology: a dissipative particle dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becton, Matthew; Averett, Rodney; Wang, Xianqiao

    2017-09-18

    Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature. When the initial lipid density is high, a membrane forms, but due to the large number of lipids, the naturally formed membrane would be larger than the simulation box, leading to 'rippling' behavior as the excess repulsive force of the membrane interior overcomes the bending energy of the membrane. Once the density reaches a certain point however, 'bubbles' appear inside the membrane, reducing the rippling behavior and eventually generating a relatively flat, but thick, structure with micelles of water inside the membrane itself. Our simulations also demonstrate that the interaction parameter between individual lipids plays a significant role in the formation and behavior of lipid membrane assemblies, creating similar structures as the initial lipid density distribution. This work provides a comprehensive approach to the intricacies of lipid membranes, and offers a guideline to design biological or polymeric membranes through self-assembly processes as well as develop novel cellular manipulation and destruction techniques.

  5. Morphological and physical analysis of natural phospholipids-based biomembranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Jacquot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon are studied in the form of liposome and as supported lipid bilayer. Dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC are used as references to determine the lipid organization of marine and plant phospholipid based membranes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and force spectroscopy measurements are performed to investigate the membranes' topography at the micrometer scale and to determine their mechanical properties. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: The mechanical properties of the membranes are correlated to the fatty acid composition, the morphology, the electrophoretic mobility and the membrane fluidity. Thus, soft and homogeneous mechanical properties are evidenced for salmon phospholipids membrane containing various polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides, phase segregation in rapeseed membrane and more important mechanical properties were emphasized for this type of membranes by contrast to the marine phospholipids based membranes. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides new information on the nanomechanical and morphological properties of membrane in form of liposome by AFM. The originality of this work is to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanoliposome from the natural sources containing various fatty acids and polar head.

  6. Novel NMR tools to study structure and dynamics of biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrisch, Klaus; Eldho, Nadukkudy V; Polozov, Ivan V

    2002-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on biomembranes have benefited greatly from introduction of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques. Improvements in MAS probe technology, combined with the higher magnetic field strength of modern instruments, enables almost liquid-like resolution of lipid resonances. The cross-relaxation rates measured by nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY) provide new insights into conformation and dynamics of lipids with atomic-scale resolution. The data reflect the tremendous motional disorder in the lipid matrix. Transfer of magnetization by spin diffusion along the proton network of lipids is of secondary relevance, even at a long NOESY mixing time of 300 ms. MAS experiments with re-coupling of anisotropic interactions, like the 13C-(1)H dipolar couplings, benefit from the excellent resolution of 13C shifts that enables assignment of the couplings to specific carbon atoms. The traditional 2H NMR experiments on deuterated lipids have higher sensitivity when conducted on oriented samples at higher magnetic field strength. A very large number of NMR parameters from lipid bilayers is now accessible, providing information about conformation and dynamics for every lipid segment. The NMR methods have the sensitivity and resolution to study lipid-protein interaction, lateral lipid organization, and the location of solvents and drugs in the lipid matrix.

  7. [Incretin mimetic drugs: therapeutic positioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Simarro, F

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, due to the differences among affected individuals, which affect choice of treatment. The number of drug families has increased in the last few years, and these families have widely differing mechanisms of action, which contributes greatly to the individualization of treatment according to the patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The present article discusses incretin mimetic drugs. Their development has been based on knowledge of the effects of natural incretin hormones: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme 4 (DPP4), which rapidly degrade them in the systemic circulation. This group is composed of 2 different types of molecules: GLP-1 analogs and DPP4 enzyme inhibitors. The benefits of these molecules include a reduction in plasma glucose without the risk of hypoglycemias or weight gain. There are a series of questions that require new studies to establish a possible association between the use of these drugs and notification of cases of pancreatitis, as well as their relationship with pancreatic and thyroid cancer. Also awaited is the publication of several studies that will provide information on the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. All these questions will probably be progressively elucidated with greater experience in the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemical screening of biomembrane-active compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadi, Shahrzad, E-mail: cmsm@leeds.ac.uk; Tate, Daniel J.; Vakurov, Alexander; Nelson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Analytical technology application with improvement allowing for on-line high-throughput water toxin screening is presented. • Compound classes of related structure and shape interact with DOPC coated Pt/Hg with a class specific response. • Predecessor membrane system proved as fragile, complex and for environmental application incompatible. - Abstract: Interactions of biomembrane-active compounds with phospholipid monolayers on microfabricated Pt/Hg electrodes in an on-line high throughput flow system are demonstrated by recording capacitance current peak changes as rapid cyclic voltammograms (RCV). Detection limits of the compounds’ effects on the layer have been estimated from the data. Compounds studied include steroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines. The results show that the extent and type of interaction depends on the—(a) presence and number of aromatic rings and substituents, (b) presence and composition of side chains and, (c) molecular shape. Interaction is only indirectly related to compound hydrophobicity. For a selection of tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines the detection limit in water is related to their therapeutic normal threshold. The sensing assay has been tested in the presence of humic acid as a potential interferent and in a tap water matrix. The system can be applied to the screening of putative hazardous substances and pharmaceuticals allowing for early detection thereof in the water supply. The measurements are made in real time which means that potentially toxic compounds are detected rapidly within <10 min per assay. This technology will contribute greatly to environment safety and health.

  9. Electrochemical screening of biomembrane-active compounds in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadi, Shahrzad; Tate, Daniel J.; Vakurov, Alexander; Nelson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Analytical technology application with improvement allowing for on-line high-throughput water toxin screening is presented. • Compound classes of related structure and shape interact with DOPC coated Pt/Hg with a class specific response. • Predecessor membrane system proved as fragile, complex and for environmental application incompatible. - Abstract: Interactions of biomembrane-active compounds with phospholipid monolayers on microfabricated Pt/Hg electrodes in an on-line high throughput flow system are demonstrated by recording capacitance current peak changes as rapid cyclic voltammograms (RCV). Detection limits of the compounds’ effects on the layer have been estimated from the data. Compounds studied include steroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines. The results show that the extent and type of interaction depends on the—(a) presence and number of aromatic rings and substituents, (b) presence and composition of side chains and, (c) molecular shape. Interaction is only indirectly related to compound hydrophobicity. For a selection of tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines the detection limit in water is related to their therapeutic normal threshold. The sensing assay has been tested in the presence of humic acid as a potential interferent and in a tap water matrix. The system can be applied to the screening of putative hazardous substances and pharmaceuticals allowing for early detection thereof in the water supply. The measurements are made in real time which means that potentially toxic compounds are detected rapidly within <10 min per assay. This technology will contribute greatly to environment safety and health

  10. Cardioprotection by Conditioning Mimetic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Elpidio; Migale, Monica; Postacchini, Demetrio; Balestrini, Fabrizio; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2016-01-01

    At present, ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. An important insight into both IHD pathophysiology and cardioprotection was achieved in 1986 when Murry et al. described for the first time the ischemic preconditioning (IP). IP can be defined as an innate phenomenon by which brief episodes of ischemia confer protection to a tissue from a subsequent more protracted ischemic insult. Suggested mechanisms explaining IP comprise the action of circulating substances (e.g. adenosine, bradykinin, nitric oxide). These mediators are released after a prolonged ischemic stress, causing activation of molecular pathways that induce favorable posttranslational changes of proteins and adaptive modifications in genetic expression. Briefly review evidences from clinical studies on drugs that exert their effects by mimicking IP, discussing their therapeutic properties and the potential clinical employment in order to obtain cardioprotection. Literature regarding IP mimicking pharmacological agents was searched in Medline and Google Scholar. Authors reviewed relevant researches in English language including both clinical studies and reviews of clinical studies published from 1986 to 2016. Several pharmacological agents reproducing IP protective actions have been evaluated in many clinical trials. Examined molecules include adenosine, nicorandil and atrial natriuretic peptide. Interestingly IP mimicking effects of drugs have been also analyzed perioperatively in the context of ischaemia-reperfusion heart injury. Moreover evidences suggest that also some anaesthetic drugs (especially volatile agents) are able to provide myocardial protection by inducing IP. Drugs capable of mimicking IP exhibit a high therapeutic potential because of their properties of eliciting an effective cardioprotective signaling. Future studies should clarify the optimal doses and timing of administration of IP mimetic agents in order to favor the advent of

  11. Transfer kinetics from colloidal drug carriers and liposomes to biomembrane models: DSC studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Sarpietro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of bioactive molecules by different delivery systems has been studied. We have proposed a protocol that takes into account a system that is able to carry out the uptake of a bioactive molecule released during the time, resembling an in vivo-like system, and for this reason we have used biomembrane models represented by multi-lamellar and unilamellar vesicles. The bioactive molecule loaded delivery system has been put in contact with the biomembrane model and the release has been evaluated, to consider the effect of the bioactive molecule on the biomembrane model thermotropic behavior, and to compare the results with those obtained when a pure drug interacts with the biomembrane model. The differential scanning calorimetry technique has been employed. Depending on the delivery system used, our research permits to evaluate the effect of different parameters on the bioactive molecule release, such as pH, drug loading degree, delivery system swelling, crosslinking agent, degree of cross-linking, and delivery system side chains.

  12. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  13. Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Destainville, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (includ...

  14. Oestrogene mimetic isoflavones’ pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dragomirescu,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genisteine is the most abundant and the most studied estrogen-mimetic izoflavone. It's chemical formula is 4',5,7 – trihidroxyisoflavone. It has also estrogen-modulated properties by its binding ability to the beta type estrogen receptor. Genisteine presents the following farmacodinamic effects: antiaterogen effect, prevention of estrogen-dependent cancers, especially breast cancer, prevention of skin aging body, osteoprogen effect, prevention of osteoporosis at the menopauses women. Despite all these real benefits, there are also many adverse effects, registered both in humans and animals. Thus, the sheep feeding with some Fabaceae species, containing estrogen-mimetic isoflavones were stopped their reproductive function(isoflavones acted as an oral contraceptive. In humans, phytoestroges influence is still under evaluation, being suspected effects such as cerebral involution - via abusive apoptosis - or disturbance in hormonal status, in male children. All these are added to already known allergies, caused by soy proteins.

  15. Diclofenac Potassium Transdermal Patches Using Natural Rubber Latex Biomembranes as Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Roberto de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a compound transdermal patch containing diclofenac potassium (Dic-K using natural rubber latex (NRL biomembrane. The NRL from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated and low cost and presents high mechanical resistance. It is a biocompatible material which can stimulate natural angiogenesis and is capable of adhering cells on its surface. Recent researches have used the NRL for Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDSs. Dic-K is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and pain relief for postoperative and posttraumatic cases, as well as inflammation and edema. Results showed that the biomembrane can release Dic-K for up to 216 hours. The kinetics of the Dic-K release could be fitted with double exponential function. X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy show some interaction by hydrogen bound. The results indicated the potential of the compound patch.

  16. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: lvh@tum.de; Leibold, Christian [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level.

  17. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van; Leibold, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level

  18. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ijjas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space–times always decreases while in contracting space–times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples. Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein–Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  19. BFPTool: a software tool for analysis of Biomembrane Force Probe experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmít, Daniel; Fouquet, C.; Doulazmi, M.; Pincet, F.; Trembleau, A.; Zápotocký, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, Feb (2017), č. článku 2. ISSN 2046-1682 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-16755S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12FR002 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Biomembrane Force Probe * motion tracking * image analysis * force spectroscopy * cell mechanics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 2.292, year: 2016

  20. The decreasing of corn root biomembrane penetration for acetochlor with vermicompost amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnyk, Svitlana; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    One of the topical environmental security issues is management and control of anthropogenic (artificially synthesized) chemical agents usage and utilization. Protection systems development against toxic effects of herbicides should be based on studies of biological indication mechanisms for identification of stressors effect in organisms. Lipid degradation is non-specific reaction to exogenous chemical agents effects. Therefore it is important to study responses of lipid components depending on the stressor type. We studied physiological and biochemical characteristics of lipid metabolism under action of herbicides of chloracetamide group. Corn at different stages of ontogenesis was used as testing object during model laboratory and microfield experiments. Cattle manure treated with earth worms Essenia Foetida was used as compost fertilizer to add to chain: chernozem (black soil) -corn system. It was found several acetochlor actions as following: -decreasing of sterols, phospholipids, phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines content; -increasing pool of available fatty acids and phosphatidic acids associated with intensification of hydrolysis processes; -lypase activity stimulation under effect of stressor in low concentrations; -lypase activity inhibition under effect of high stressor level; -decreasing of polyenoic free fatty acids indicating biomembrane degradation; -accumulation of phospholipids degradation products (phosphatidic acids); -decreasing of high-molecular compounds (phosphatidylcholin and phosphatidylinositol) concentrations; -change in the index of unsaturated and saturated free fatty acids ratio in biomembranes structure; It was established that incorporation of vermicompost in dose 0.4 kg/m2 in black soil lead to corn roots biomembrane restoration. It was fixed the decreasing roots biomembrane penetration for acetochlor in trial with vermicompost. Second compost substances antidote effect is the soil microorganism's activation

  1. Photoionization of oxidized coenzyme Q in microemulsion: laser flash photolysis study in biomembrane-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Mei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Dongmei; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wang, Shi-Long

    2013-01-01

    Photoexcitation to generate triplet state has been proved to be the main photoreaction in homogeneous system for many benzoquinone derivatives, including oxidized coenzyme Q (CoQ) and its analogs. In the present study, microemulsion of CoQ, a heterogeneous system, is employed to mimic the distribution of CoQ in biomembrane. The photochemistry of CoQ(10) in microemulsion and cyclohexane is investigated and compared using laser flash photolysis and results show that CoQ(10) undergoes photoionization via a monophotonic process to generate radical cation of CoQ(10) in microemulsion and photoexcitation to generate excited triplet state in cyclohexane. Meanwhile, photoreactions of duroquinone (DQ) and CoQ(0) in microemulsion are also investigated to analyze the influence of molecular structure on the photochemistry of benzoquinone derivatives in microemulsion. Results suggest that photoexcitation, which is followed by excited state-involved hydrogen-abstraction reaction, is the main photoreaction for DQ and CoQ(0) in microemulsion. However, photoexcited CoQ(0) also leads to the formation of hydrated electrons. The isoprenoid side chain-involved high resonance stabilization is proposed to explain the difference in photoreactions of CoQ(0) and CoQ(10) in microemulsion. Considering that microemulsion is close to biomembrane system, its photoionization in microemulsion may be helpful to understand the real photochemistry of biological quinones in biomembrane system. © 2012 Tongji University. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Expression of VEGF and collagen using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Alonso Domingos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the VEGF expression and collagen deposition using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2 x 2 cm was sewn to the bladder of rabbits with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate sutures in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were killed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. Sections of 5µm were cut and stained with picrosirius-red in order to estimate the amount of extracellular matrix in the graft. To confirm the presence of VEGF in tissues, protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. A progressive reduction in the amount of collagen occurred in the graft area and was negatively and linearly correlated with time (p < 0.001. VEGF expression was higher in grafted areas when compared to controls at 15 and 45 days after surgery and decreased with time (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane as a matrix for partial bladder replacement in rabbits promotes temporary collagen deposition and stimulates the angiogenic process.

  3. Progress of Mimetic Enzymes and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Deng, Huan; Zhang, Lianming

    2016-11-01

    The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated.

  4. Small Molecule and Polymer Effects on Bio-mimetic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Ignacio J.; Branan, Nicole; Wells, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of biomimetic membranes for the purpose of producing a protein based infrared biosensor has proven to be a difficult obstacle. Several methods have been employed and reproducibility is becoming more frequent. The use of polystyrene as an adhesion layer between the biomimetic and diamond surfaces is the most reliable form of reproducibility yet encountered. Unique properties of acetylcholine esterase based biosensors include infrared absorption bands that are not present in either th...

  5. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  6. Block copolymer vesicles-using concepts from polymer chemistry to mimic biomembranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kita-Tokarczyk, Katarzyna; Grumelard, Julie; Haefele, Thomas; Meier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    A review. Owing to the increasing interest in self-assembled structures from block copolymer materials, we present here a review of recent literature concerning amphiphilic block copolymer vesicles. A vesicular morphol. is applicable not only in such fields like delivery-release and biomineralization, but also has been utilized for prepn. of nanoreactors and incorporation of biol. macromols. The organization of this paper is the following: we first provide the readers with the overview of the...

  7. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  8. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Che-Yu [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite. (orig.)

  9. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite.

  10. Nanoplasmonic sensing and capillary electrophoresis for fast screening of interactions between phosphatidylcholine biomembranes and surfactants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duša, Filip; Chen, W.; Witos, J.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 20 (2018), s. 5889-5900 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MSM200311602 Program:Program na podporu mezinárodní spolupráce začínajících výzkumných pracovníků Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biomembrane * surfactant * nanoplasmon Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  11. Large-scale structure in mimetic Horndeski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroja, Frederico; Okumura, Teppei; Bartolo, Nicola; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to use the mimetic Horndeski model as a model for the dark universe. Both cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy (DE) phenomena are described by a single component, the mimetic field. In linear theory, we show that this component effectively behaves like a perfect fluid with zero sound speed and clusters on all scales. For the simpler mimetic cubic Horndeski model, if the background expansion history is chosen to be identical to a perfect fluid DE (PFDE) then the mimetic model predicts the same power spectrum of the Newtonian potential as the PFDE model with zero sound speed. In particular, if the background is chosen to be the same as that of LCDM, then also in this case the power spectrum of the Newtonian potential in the mimetic model becomes indistinguishable from the power spectrum in LCDM on linear scales. A different conclusion may be found in the case of non-adiabatic perturbations. We also discuss the distinguishability, using power spectrum measurements from LCDM N-body simulations as a proxy for future observations, between these mimetic models and other popular models of DE. For instance, we find that if the background has an equation of state equal to ‑0.95 then we will be able to distinguish the mimetic model from the PFDE model with unity sound speed. On the other hand, it will be hard to do this distinction with respect to the LCDM model.

  12. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  13. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  14. Evaluation of the mechanism of skin enhancing surfactants on the biomembrane of shed snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of different surfactants at various concentrations as a skin penetration enhancer through the biomembrane of the shed skin of Naja kaouthia. Additionally, the enhancer mechanism(s) of each class of surfactants were evaluated using physical characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Our results showed that skin permeability increased with increasing concentrations of surfactants and the degree of increase was higher for the model hydrophilic permeant, deuterium dioxide (D(2)O), than the lipophilic permeant, ketoprofen (KP). Ionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated higher enhancement ability than the polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) non-ionic surfactant, which was consistent with the results from physical characterization studies. Increasing amounts of permeated drug resulted in an increase in membrane interactions. From our observations, it can be assumed that SLS and CTAB can be localized inside the biomembrane and thereby enhance drug permeation mainly through interactions with intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) and the creation of a perturbed microenvironment among lipid alkyl chains and polar head groups.

  15. The mimetic finite difference method for elliptic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Veiga, Lourenço Beirão; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical and computational aspects of the mimetic finite difference method for a wide class of multidimensional elliptic problems, which includes diffusion, advection-diffusion, Stokes, elasticity, magnetostatics and plate bending problems. The modern mimetic discretization technology developed in part by the Authors allows one to solve these equations on unstructured polygonal, polyhedral and generalized polyhedral meshes. The book provides a practical guide for those scientists and engineers that are interested in the computational properties of the mimetic finite difference method such as the accuracy, stability, robustness, and efficiency. Many examples are provided to help the reader to understand and implement this method. This monograph also provides the essential background material and describes basic mathematical tools required to develop further the mimetic discretization technology and to extend it to various applications.

  16. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  17. On the ability of PAMAM dendrimers and dendrimer/DNA aggregates to penetrate POPC model biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Campbell, Richard A; Khalid, Syma; Gillams, Richard J; Rennie, Adrian R; Nylander, Tommy

    2010-06-03

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have previously been shown, as cationic condensing agents of DNA, to have high potential for nonviral gene delivery. This study addresses two key issues for gene delivery: the interaction of the biomembrane with (i) the condensing agent (the cationic PAMAM dendrimer) and (ii) the corresponding dendrimer/DNA aggregate. Using in situ null ellipsometry and neutron reflection, parallel experiments were carried out involving dendrimers of generations 2 (G2), 4 (G4), and 6 (G6). The study demonstrates that free dendrimers of all three generations were able to traverse supported palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers deposited on silica surfaces. The model biomembranes were elevated from the solid surfaces upon dendrimer penetration, which offers a promising new way to generate more realistic model biomembranes where the contact with the supporting surface is reduced and where aqueous cavities are present beneath the bilayer. The largest dendrimer (G6) induced partial bilayer destruction directly upon penetration, whereas the smaller dendrimers (G2 and G4) leave the bilayer intact, so we propose that lower generation dendrimers have greater potential as transfection mediators. In addition to the experimental observations, coarse-grained simulations on the interaction between generation 3 (G3) dendrimers and POPC bilayers were performed in the absence and presence of a bilayer-supporting negatively charged surface that emulates the support. The simulations demonstrate that G3 is transported across free-standing POPC bilayers by direct penetration and not by endocytosis. The penetrability was, however, reduced in the presence of a surface, indicating that the membrane transport observed experimentally was not driven solely by the surface. The experimental reflection techniques were also applied to dendrimer/DNA aggregates of charge ratio = 0.5, and while G2/DNA and G4/DNA aggregates interact with POPC bilayers, G6/DNA

  18. Synergistic Interactions of a Synthetic Lubricin-Mimetic with Fibronectin for Enhanced Wear Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Andresen Eguiluz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lubricin (LUB, a major mucinous glycoprotein of mammalian synovial fluids, is believed to provide excellent lubrication to cartilage surfaces. Consequently, when joint disease or replacement leads to increased friction and surface damage in the joint, robust synthetic LUB alternatives that could be used therapeutically to improve lubrication and surface protection are needed. Here, we report the characterization of a lubricating multiblock bottlebrush polymer whose architecture was inspired by LUB, and we investigate the role of fibronectin (FN, a glycoprotein found in the superficial zone of cartilage, in mediating the tribological properties of the polymer upon shear between mica surfaces. Our surface forces apparatus (SFA normal force measurements indicate that the lubricin-mimetic (mimLUB could be kept anchored between mica surfaces, even under high contact pressures, when an intermediate layer of FN was present. Additional SFA friction measurements show that FN would also extend the wearless friction regime of the polymer up to pressures of 3.4 MPa while ensuring stable friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.28. These results demonstrate synergistic interactions between mimLUB and FN in assisting the lubrication and wear protection of ideal (mica substrates upon shear. Collectively, these findings suggest that our proposed mimLUB might be a promising alternative to LUB, as similar mechanisms could potentially facilitate the interaction between the polymer and cartilage surfaces in articular joints and prosthetic implants in vivo.

  19. Enhancement of biomembrane functions under phase-separated conditions: A self-organized criticality phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, M.O.; Chela Flores, J.

    1993-12-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is hereby proposed as a possible physical basis for explaining observations in the temperature-dependence of the rates of biological membrane-associated events. The biomembrane undergoes a reversible, cooperative, thermotropic gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition which is broad, and involves lateral phase separation. The lateral phase separated (rather than the totally gel-, or the totally liquid crystalline-) membrane state has been observed to be the state in which vital membrane functions are facilitated. The membrane in this unique state is viewed, for our purposes here, as a dynamical, extended dissipative system with spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, exhibiting power law behaviour, typical of the self-organized critical state. Experiments are suggested for verifying this hypothesis. (author). 30 refs

  20. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casuso, I; Fumagalli, L; Samitier, J; Padros, E; Reggiani, L; Akimov, V; Gomila, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general

  1. BFPTool: a software tool for analysis of Biomembrane Force Probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmít, Daniel; Fouquet, Coralie; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Pincet, Frédéric; Trembleau, Alain; Zapotocky, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Biomembrane Force Probe is an approachable experimental technique commonly used for single-molecule force spectroscopy and experiments on biological interfaces. The technique operates in the range of forces from 0.1 pN to 1000 pN. Experiments are typically repeated many times, conditions are often not optimal, the captured video can be unstable and lose focus; this makes efficient analysis challenging, while out-of-the-box non-proprietary solutions are not freely available. This dedicated tool was developed to integrate and simplify the image processing and analysis of videomicroscopy recordings from BFP experiments. A novel processing feature, allowing the tracking of the pipette, was incorporated to address a limitation of preceding methods. Emphasis was placed on versatility and comprehensible user interface implemented in a graphical form. An integrated analytical tool was implemented to provide a faster, simpler and more convenient way to process and analyse BFP experiments.

  2. Lab on a Biomembrane: Rapid prototyping and manipulation of 2D fluidic lipid bilayers circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Hakonen, Bodil; Jesorka, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are among the most ubiquitous structures in the living world, with intricate structural features and a multitude of biological functions. It is attractive to recreate these structures in the laboratory, as this allows mimicking and studying the properties of biomembranes and their constituents, and to specifically exploit the intrinsic two-dimensional fluidity. Even though diverse strategies for membrane fabrication have been reported, the development of related applications and technologies has been hindered by the unavailability of both versatile and simple methods. Here we report a rapid prototyping technology for two-dimensional fluidic devices, based on in-situ generated circuits of phospholipid films. In this “lab on a molecularly thin membrane”, various chemical and physical operations, such as writing, erasing, functionalization, and molecular transport, can be applied to user-defined regions of a membrane circuit. This concept is an enabling technology for research on molecular membranes and their technological use. PMID:24067786

  3. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casuso, I [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Fumagalli, L [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Padros, E [Unitat de BiofIsica, Departamento de BioquImica i de Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina i Centre d' Estudis en BiofIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Reggiani, L [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Akimov, V [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Gomila, G [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general.

  4. Action of the multifunctional peptide BP100 on native biomembranes examined by solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiewicz, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Organic Chemistry (Germany); Afonin, Sergii; Grage, Stephan L.; Berg, Jonas van den; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biological Interfaces (IBG-2) (Germany); Ulrich, Anne S., E-mail: anne.ulrich@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Organic Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Membrane composition is a key factor that regulates the destructive activity of antimicrobial peptides and the non-leaky permeation of cell penetrating peptides in vivo. Hence, the choice of model membrane is a crucial aspect in NMR studies and should reflect the biological situation as closely as possible. Here, we explore the structure and dynamics of the short multifunctional peptide BP100 using a multinuclear solid-state NMR approach. The membrane alignment and mobility of this 11 amino acid peptide was studied in various synthetic lipid bilayers with different net charge, fluidity, and thickness, as well as in native biomembranes harvested from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. {sup 19}F-NMR provided the high sensitivity and lack of natural abundance background that are necessary to observe a labelled peptide even in protoplast membranes from Micrococcus luteus and in erythrocyte ghosts. Six selectively {sup 19}F-labeled BP100 analogues gave remarkably similar spectra in all of the macroscopically oriented membrane systems, which were studied under quasi-native conditions of ambient temperature and full hydration. This similarity suggests that BP100 has the same surface-bound helical structure and high mobility in the different biomembranes and model membranes alike, independent of charge, thickness or cholesterol content of the system. {sup 31}P-NMR spectra of the phospholipid components did not indicate any bilayer perturbation, so the formation of toroidal wormholes or micellarization can be excluded as a mechanism of its antimicrobial or cell penetrating action. However, {sup 2}H-NMR analysis of the acyl chain order parameter profiles showed that BP100 leads to considerable membrane thinning and thereby local destabilization.

  5. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  6. An adaptive meshfree method for phase-field models of biomembranes. Part I: Approximation with maximum-entropy basis functions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolen, A.; Peco, C.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an adaptive meshfree method to approximate phase-field models of biomembranes. In such models, the Helfrich curvature elastic energy, the surface area, and the enclosed volume of a vesicle are written as functionals of a continuous phase-field, which describes the interface in a smeared manner. Such functionals involve up to second-order spatial derivatives of the phase-field, leading to fourth-order Euler–Lagrange partial differential equations (PDE). The solutions develop sharp i...

  7. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of alternative model biomembranes from shed skins of Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in the use of shed snake skin as alternative model biomembrane for human stratum corneum. This research work presented as objective the qualitative characterization of alternative model biomembranes from Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus by FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR and DSC. The employed biophysical techniques permitted the characterization of the biomembranes from shed snake skin of B. jararaca and S. pullatus by the identification of vibrational frequencies and endothermic transitions that are similar to those of the human stratum corneum.Existe atualmente interesse no uso da muda de pele de cobra como modelos alternativos de biomembranas da pele humana. O presente trabalho apresentou como objetivo a caracterização qualitativa de modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes de mudas de pele de cobra da Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus por espectroscopia Raman (FT-Raman, espectroscopia fotoacústica no infravermelho (PAS-FTIR e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. As técnicas biofísicas FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR e DSC permitiram caracterizar qualitativamente os modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes das mudas de pele de cobra da B. jararaca e S. pullatus e identificar freqüências vibracionais e transições endotérmicas similares ao estrato córneo humano.

  8. Maxillary Bone Regeneration Based on Nanoreservoirs Functionalized ε-Polycaprolactone Biomembranes in a Mouse Model of Jaw Bone Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Strub

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches of regenerative therapies constitute strategies for bone tissue reparation and engineering, especially in the context of genetical diseases with skeletal defects. Bone regeneration using electrospun nanofibers’ implant has the following objectives: bone neoformation induction with rapid healing, reduced postoperative complications, and improvement of bone tissue quality. In vivo implantation of polycaprolactone (PCL biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in mouse maxillary defects was followed by bone neoformation kinetics evaluation using microcomputed tomography. Wild-Type (WT and Tabby (Ta mice were used to compare effects on a normal phenotype and on a mutant model of ectodermal dysplasia (ED. After 21 days, no effect on bone neoformation was observed in Ta treated lesion (4% neoformation compared to 13% in the control lesion. Between the 21st and the 30th days, the use of biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in maxillary bone lesions allowed a significant increase in bone neoformation peaks (resp., +8% in mutant Ta and +13% in WT. Histological analyses revealed a neoformed bone with regular trabecular structure, areas of mineralized bone inside the membrane, and an improved neovascularization in the treated lesion with bifunctionalized membrane. In conclusion, PCL functionalized biomembrane promoted bone neoformation, this effect being modulated by the Ta bone phenotype responsible for an alteration of bone response.

  9. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Biomembranes: Setting the Stage for Applications in Pharmacology, Biomedicine, and Bionanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Ballone, Pietro

    2018-03-21

    Empirical evidence and conceptual elaboration reveal and rationalize the remarkable affinity of organic ionic liquids for biomembranes. Cations of the so-called room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), in particular, are readily absorbed into the lipid fraction of biomembranes, causing a variety of observable biological effects, including generic cytotoxicity, broad antibacterial potential, and anticancer activity. Chemical physics analysis of model systems made of phospholipid bilayers, RTIL ions, and water confirm and partially explain this evidence, quantifying the mild destabilizing effect of RTILs on the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of lipids in biomembranes. Our Feature Article presents a brief introduction to these systems and to their roles in biophysics and biotechnology, summarizing recent experimental and computational results on their properties. More importantly, it highlights the many developments in pharmacology, biomedicine, and bionanotechnology expected from the current research effort on this topic. To anticipate future developments, we speculate on (i) potential applications of (magnetic) RTILs to affect and control the rheology of cells and biological tissues, of great relevance for diagnostics and (ii) the use of RTILs to improve the durability, reliability, and output of biomimetic photovoltaic devices.

  10. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  11. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  12. Ionically conducting Er3+-doped DNA-based biomembranes for electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leones, R.; Fernandes, M.; Sentanin, F.; Cesarino, I.; Lima, J.F.; Zea Bermudez, V. de; Pawlicka, A.; Magon, C.J.; Donoso, J.P.; Silva, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer-based membranes have particular interest due to their biocompatibility, Biodegradability, easy extraction from natural resources and low cost. The incorporation of Er 3+ ions into natural macromolecule hosts with the purpose of producing highly efficient emitting phosphors is of widespread interest in materials science, due to their important roles in display devices. Thus, biomembranes may be viewed as innovative materials for the area of optics. This paper describes studies of luminescent material DNA-based membranes doped with erbium triflate and demonstrates that their potential technological applications may be expanded to electrochromic devices. The sample that exhibits the highest ionic conductivity is DNA 10 Er, (1.17 × 10 −5 and 7.76 × 10 −4 S.cm −1 at 30 and 100 °C, respectively). DSC, XRD and POM showed that the inclusion of the guest salt into DNA does not change significantly its amorphous nature. The overall redox stability was ca. 2.0 V indicating that these materials have an acceptable stability window for applications in solid state electrochemical devices. The EPR analysis suggested that the Er 3+ ions are distributed in various environments. A small ECD comprising a Er 3+ -doped DNA-based membrane was assembled and tested by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. These electrochemical analyses revealed a pale blue color to transparent color change and a decrease of the charge density from -4.0 to -1.2 mC.cm −2 during 4000 color/bleaching cycles

  13. Importance of Force Decomposition for Local Stress Calculations in Biomembrane Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Juan M; Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Arroyo, Marino

    2014-02-11

    Local stress fields are routinely computed from molecular dynamics trajectories to understand the structure and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. These calculations can be systematically understood with the Irving-Kirkwood-Noll theory. In identifying the stress tensor, a crucial step is the decomposition of the forces on the particles into pairwise contributions. However, such a decomposition is not unique in general, leading to an ambiguity in the definition of the stress tensor, particularly for multibody potentials. Furthermore, a theoretical treatment of constraints in local stress calculations has been lacking. Here, we present a new implementation of local stress calculations that systematically treats constraints and considers a privileged decomposition, the central force decomposition, that leads to a symmetric stress tensor by construction. We focus on biomembranes, although the methodology presented here is widely applicable. Our results show that some unphysical behavior obtained with previous implementations (e.g. nonconstant normal stress profiles along an isotropic bilayer in equilibrium) is a consequence of an improper treatment of constraints. Furthermore, other valid force decompositions produce significantly different stress profiles, particularly in the presence of dihedral potentials. Our methodology reveals the striking effect of unsaturations on the bilayer mechanics, missed by previous stress calculation implementations.

  14. Eco-Cognitive Computationalism: From Mimetic Minds to Morphology-Based Enhancement of Mimetic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Magnani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Eco-cognitive computationalism sees computation in context, exploiting the ideas developed in those projects that have originated the recent views on embodied, situated, and distributed cognition. Turing’s original intellectual perspective has already clearly depicted the evolutionary emergence in humans of information, meaning, and of the first rudimentary forms of cognition, as the result of a complex interplay and simultaneous coevolution, in time, of the states of brain/mind, body, and external environment. This cognitive process played a fundamental heuristic role in Turing’s invention of the universal logical computing machine. It is by extending this eco-cognitive perspective that we can see that the recent emphasis on the simplification of cognitive and motor tasks generated in organic agents by morphological aspects implies the construction of appropriate “mimetic bodies”, able to render the accompanied computation simpler, according to a general appeal to the “simplexity” of animal embodied cognition. I hope it will become clear that eco-cognitive computationalism does not aim at furnishing a final and stable definition of the concept of computation, such as a textbook or a different epistemological approach could provide: I intend to take into account the historical and dynamical character of the concept, to propose an intellectual framework that depicts how we can understand not only the change of its meaning, but also the “emergence” of new forms of computations.

  15. Engineering and validation of a novel lipid thin film for biomembrane modeling in lipophilicity determination of drugs and xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Udochi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of lipophilicity as a tool for predicting pharmacokinetic molecular behavior is limited by the predictive power of available experimental models of the biomembrane. There is current interest, therefore, in models that accurately simulate the biomembrane structure and function. A novel bio-device; a lipid thin film, was engineered as an alternative approach to the previous use of hydrocarbon thin films in biomembrane modeling. Results Retention behavior of four structurally diverse model compounds; 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA, naproxen (NPX, nabumetone (NBT and halofantrine (HF, representing 4 broad classes of varying molecular polarities and aqueous solubility behavior, was investigated on the lipid film, liquid paraffin, and octadecylsilane layers. Computational, thermodynamic and image analysis confirms the peculiar amphiphilic configuration of the lipid film. Effect of solute-type, layer-type and variables interactions on retention behavior was delineated by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR. Validation of the lipid film was implemented by statistical correlation of a unique chromatographic metric with Log P (octanol/water and several calculated molecular descriptors of bulk and solubility properties. Conclusion The lipid film signifies a biomimetic artificial biological interface capable of both hydrophobic and specific electrostatic interactions. It captures the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB in the determination of lipophilicity of molecules unlike the pure hydrocarbon film of the prior art. The potentials and performance of the bio-device gives the promise of its utility as a predictive analytic tool for early-stage drug discovery science.

  16. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldrick, Zachary [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: eenzc@leeds.ac.uk; Steenson, Paul [School of Electronic Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Millner, Paul [Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Davies, Matthew [Health and Safety Laboratories, Buxton, SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Nelson, Andrew [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s{sup -1} over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  17. Structure effect on the interaction of phenylurea herbicides with model biomembrane as an environmental mobility parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Forte, Stefano; Sarpietro, Maria G

    2004-01-15

    During recent years, intensive use of herbicides has raised increasing concern mainly due to their massive pollution of the environment. As these herbicides are directly or indirectly toxic to a wide range of organisms, their potential for contaminating soil, surface water, and groundwater makes these xenobiotics of special interest from a health and environmental point of view. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which they exert their toxic effects is becoming a need. Because of the herbicides' lipophilicity, a possible site of interaction in the cell is represented by biomembranes. The interaction of four herbicides, difenoxuron, diuron, linuron, and metoxuron, with model membranes constituted of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles was investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry technique. The aim was to study the effects exerted by an increasing amount of the examined compounds on thermotropic behavior of the model phospholipid membranes and to correlate the obtained results with structural features of the herbicides due to their environmental mobility. Among the herbicides studied, linuron is the most effective in perturbing the ordinate structure of vesicles forming phospholipids, whereas metoxuron is the least effective and the others exert an intermediate effect. Linuron exerts its effect both on the transition temperature of the gel to the liquid crystalline phase and on the enthalpy change. Difenoxuron, diuron, and metoxuron cause a change in the transition temperature but have an insignificant effect on the enthalpy change. The calorimetric results, correlated with the structural features of the herbicides, are consistent with their partition coefficient, log K(ow), suggesting that the more hydrophobic compound character causes a greater liposolubility and consequential cellular absorption with more effectiveness on the membrane order.

  18. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldrick, Zachary; Steenson, Paul; Millner, Paul; Davies, Matthew; Nelson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s -1 over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  19. The role of biomembrane lipids in the molecular mechanism of ion transport radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, B.I.; Evtodienko, Yu.V.; Yaguzhinsky, L.S.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Increase in the rate of ATP synthesis (I.4-I.6 times), Ca 2+ -capacity (I.4-I.8 times), membrane potential (by 20-50 mv) and decrease in K - -conductivity (2.5-3 times) in rat liver mitochondria was observed three hours after γ-irradiation at a dose of 1000r. The process of oxidative phosphorylation was normalized 24 hours later, whereas damages of Ca 2+ -accumulation and K + -conductivity remain. The molecular mechanism of reduction in K + -permeability of mitochondrial membranes has been studied. The endogenous regulators of ionic transport in the lipid phase of mitochondrial biomembranes were investigated before and after γ-irradiation. It was revealed that K + -conductivity of the artificial phospholipid membranes (APM) formed of the phospholipids from irradiated mitochondria was substantially lower than that in the control. Using thin-layer chromatography the minor phospholipid fraction which increases K + -conductivity of APM was isolated from the lipids of unirradiated mitochondria. In the lipid preparations of irradiated mitochondria the minor phospholipid fraction content is sharply lowered (or absent at all). Besides the content of lysoforms of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as well as that of fatty acids and cholesterol esters were reduced 24 hours after irradiation. Three compounds with different capability to increase the APM conductivity for monovalent ions were revealed in the composition of the minor fraction. One of these components was shown to be lysopolyglycerophosphatide (lysodiphosphatidylglycerol). The role of the enzyme systems involved in radiational changes of the membrane lipid components and the importance of these phenomena for cell radiosensitivity will be discussed

  20. Influences of excluded volume of molecules on signaling processes on the biomembrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Fujii

    Full Text Available We investigate the influences of the excluded volume of molecules on biochemical reaction processes on 2-dimensional surfaces using a model of signal transduction processes on biomembranes. We perform simulations of the 2-dimensional cell-based model, which describes the reactions and diffusion of the receptors, signaling proteins, target proteins, and crowders on the cell membrane. The signaling proteins are activated by receptors, and these activated signaling proteins activate target proteins that bind autonomously from the cytoplasm to the membrane, and unbind from the membrane if activated. If the target proteins bind frequently, the volume fraction of molecules on the membrane becomes so large that the excluded volume of the molecules for the reaction and diffusion dynamics cannot be negligible. We find that such excluded volume effects of the molecules induce non-trivial variations of the signal flow, defined as the activation frequency of target proteins, as follows. With an increase in the binding rate of target proteins, the signal flow varies by i monotonically increasing; ii increasing then decreasing in a bell-shaped curve; or iii increasing, decreasing, then increasing in an S-shaped curve. We further demonstrate that the excluded volume of molecules influences the hierarchical molecular distributions throughout the reaction processes. In particular, when the system exhibits a large signal flow, the signaling proteins tend to surround the receptors to form receptor-signaling protein clusters, and the target proteins tend to become distributed around such clusters. To explain these phenomena, we analyze the stochastic model of the local motions of molecules around the receptor.

  1. Salicylamide and salicylglycine oxidovanadium complexes with insulin-mimetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jessica; Shteinman, Albert A; Degerman, Eva; Enyedy, Eva A; Kiss, Tamás; Behrens, Ulrich; Rehder, Dieter; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2011-12-01

    Reaction of N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(2-picolyl) glycine (H(2)papy) with VOSO(4) in water gives the oxidovanadium(V) oxido-bridged dimer [{(papy)(VO)}(2) μ-O)] (1). Similarly, reaction of N-(2-hydroxybenzyl) glycine (H(2)glysal) with VOSO(4) gives [(glysal)VO(H(2)O)] (2) and reaction of salicylamide (Hsalam) with VOSO(4) in methanol gives [(salam)(2)VO] (3). The crystal structure of the oxido-bridged complex 1 is reported. The insulin-mimetic activity of all three complexes was evaluated with respect to their ability to phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB). The speciations of complexes 1 and 2 were studied over the pH range 2-10. Complex 1 shows greater stability over the whole pH range but only 2 and 3 exhibit an insulin-mimetic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal stabilization of collagen and de novo designed mimetic peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H.; Belure, Sandeep V.; Hasan, Nida F.; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E.; Shreiber, David I.; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacen...

  3. On (in)stabilities of perturbations in mimetic models with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yunlong; Shen, Liuyuan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Mou, Yicen; Li, Mingzhe, E-mail: zylakx@163.com, E-mail: sly12271103@163.com, E-mail: moinch@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: limz@ustc.edu.cn [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Usually when applying the mimetic model to the early universe, higher derivative terms are needed to promote the mimetic field to be dynamical. However such models suffer from the ghost and/or the gradient instabilities and simple extensions cannot cure this pathology. We point out in this paper that it is possible to overcome this difficulty by considering the direct couplings of the higher derivatives of the mimetic field to the curvature of the spacetime.

  4. The study of the use of a latex biomembrane and conjunctival autograft in rabbit conjunctiva wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Erika Christina Canarim Martha de; Chahud, Fernando; Lachat, João-José; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim José; Sousa, Sidney Julio Faria E

    2018-04-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar o uso da biomembrana de látex e o transplante conjuntival autólogo na cicatrização conjuntival em coelhos. Métodos: Em nove coelhos albinos, neo-zelandeses, machos foram removidas áreas retangulares idênticas, do quadrante supero nasal, adjacente ao limbo, de ambos os olhos. As áreas desnudas da camada esclerótica nos olhos direitos foram recobertas com biomembrana de látex e a dos olhos esquerdos com enxerto conjuntival autólogo. Os animais foram sacrificados em grupos de três, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após a cirurgia. Os tecidos do local cirúrgico, incluindo a córnea, foram fixados em formaldeído, antes de serem processados em parafina e corados com hematoxilina e eosina. A natureza e a intensidade da resposta inflamatória e o padrão de epitelização da superfície conjuntival foram avaliados sob microscopia óptica, em seções histológicas longitudinais, passando pelo centro dos espécimes anatômicos. Resultados: Até o décimo quarto dia pós-operatório, o grupo que recebeu a biomembrana apresentou reação inflamatória mais intensa do que o grupo com auto enxerto conjuntival. Aos 14 dias, os olhos com biomembrana apresentavam-se menos inflamados e com estroma mais espesso do que aos 7 dias. Aos 21 dias, a reparação conjuntival de ambos os grupos apresentavam características semelhantes. Conclusão: Apesar de apresentar uma cicatrização mais lenta, a biomembrana de látex se mostrou tão eficaz quanto o auto enxerto conjuntival na reconstrução da superfície ocular após três semanas de cicatrização pós-operatória. Devido as suas baixas toxicidade e alergenicidade, este material parece ser uma opção terapêutica promissora na reconstrução da conjuntiva.ABSTRACT Purpose: To study a latex biomembrane and conjunctival autograft with regard to the promotion of conjunctival healing in rabbits. The study included nine male albino rabbits. In these rabbits, a rectangular area of the conjunctiva was surgically

  5. Reproductive isolation related to mimetic divergence in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    study the Peruvian poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a mimetic radiation into four distinct morphs. Using a combination of colour–pattern analysis, landscape genetics and mate-choice experiments, we show that a mimetic shift in R. imitator is associated with a narrow...

  6. Cell-free expressed bacteriorhodopsin in different soluble membrane mimetics: biophysical properties and NMR accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Manuel; Raschle, Thomas; Hagn, Franz; Gelev, Vladimir; Rice, Amanda J; Walz, Thomas; Wagner, Gerhard

    2013-03-05

    Selecting a suitable membrane-mimicking environment is of fundamental importance for the investigation of membrane proteins. Nonconventional surfactants, such as amphipathic polymers (amphipols) and lipid bilayer nanodiscs, have been introduced as promising environments that may overcome intrinsic disadvantages of detergent micelle systems. However, structural insights into the effects of different environments on the embedded protein are limited. Here, we present a comparative study of the heptahelical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in detergent micelles, amphipols, and nanodiscs. Our results confirm that nonconventional environments can increase stability of functional bacteriorhodopsin, and demonstrate that well-folded heptahelical membrane proteins are, in principle, accessible by solution-NMR methods in amphipols and phospholipid nanodiscs. Our data distinguish regions of bacteriorhodopsin that mediate membrane/solvent contacts in the tested environments, whereas the protein's functional inner core remains almost unperturbed. The presented data allow comparing the investigated membrane mimetics in terms of NMR spectral quality and thermal stability required for structural studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Overcoming EMT-driven therapeutic resistance by BH3 mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Ulrike; Scheel, Christina; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the progression of cancer through enhanced invasion and stem-like properties of cancer cells. Additionally, EMT confers resistance towards many chemotherapeutics. We recently described a mechanism that mediates EMT-driven chemoresistance through augmented levels of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family (Keitel et al., Oncotarget, in press). Here, we elaborate on how these findings pertain to cancer cells dispersed in the tumor-adjacent stroma of breast cancer tissues, and how BH3-mimetics may provide a therapeutic strategy to eliminate cancer cell populations that have passed through an EMT.

  8. Mimetic Finite Differences for Flow in Fractures from Microseismic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hinai, Omar; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for porous media flow in the presence of complex fracture networks. The approach uses the Mimetic Finite Difference method (MFD) and takes advantage of MFD's ability to solve over a general set of polyhedral cells. This flexibility is used to mesh fracture intersections in two and three-dimensional settings without creating small cells at the intersection point. We also demonstrate how to use general polyhedra for embedding fracture boundaries in the reservoir domain. The target application is representing fracture networks inferred from microseismic analysis.

  9. Board composition, mimetic behaviour and corporate voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshayani Arshad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of board composition and mimetic behaviour on the extent and credibility of corporate voluntary disclosure. The investigation is based on the annual reports of 155 Malaysian listed companies during the period when these companies faced new corporate governance regulation. This study provides evidence that under the influence of dominant owners on board, management voluntary disclosure decisions are driven by incentives to conform when their company is structured to meet expectations of good corporate governance. Such incentive seems to override incentives to disclose credible information to outside investors

  10. Mimetic Finite Differences for Flow in Fractures from Microseismic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hinai, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for porous media flow in the presence of complex fracture networks. The approach uses the Mimetic Finite Difference method (MFD) and takes advantage of MFD\\'s ability to solve over a general set of polyhedral cells. This flexibility is used to mesh fracture intersections in two and three-dimensional settings without creating small cells at the intersection point. We also demonstrate how to use general polyhedra for embedding fracture boundaries in the reservoir domain. The target application is representing fracture networks inferred from microseismic analysis.

  11. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  13. Design, preparation, and application of ordered porous polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qingquan; Tang, Zhe; Ou, Baoli; Liu, Lihua; Zhou, Zhihua; Shen, Shaohua; Duan, Yinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Ordered porous polymer (OPP) materials have extensively application prospects in the field of separation and purification, biomembrane, solid supports for sensors catalysts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, photonic band gap materials owing to ordered pore arrays, uniform and tunable pore size, high specific surface area, great adsorption capacity, and light weight. The present paper reviewed the preparation techniques of OPP materials like breath figures, hard template, and soft template. Finally, the applications of OPP materials in the field of separation, sensors, and biomedicine are introduced, respectively. - Highlights: • Breath figures involve polymer casting under moist ambience. • Hard template employs monodisperse colloidal spheres as a template. • Soft template utilizes the etched block in copolymers as template

  14. Mimetic Gravity: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sebastiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic gravity is a Weyl-symmetric extension of General Relativity, related to the latter by a singular disformal transformation, wherein the appearance of a dust-like perfect fluid can mimic cold dark matter at a cosmological level. Within this framework, it is possible to provide a unified geometrical explanation for dark matter, the late-time acceleration, and inflation, making it a very attractive theory. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of mimetic gravity, as well as extensions of the minimal formulation of the model. We devote particular focus to the reconstruction technique, which allows the realization of any desired expansionary history of the universe by an accurate choice of potential or other functions defined within the theory (as in the case of mimetic f(R gravity. We briefly discuss cosmological perturbation theory within mimetic gravity. As a case study within which we apply the concepts previously discussed, we study a mimetic Hořava-like theory, of which we explore solutions and cosmological perturbations in detail. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing static spherically symmetric solutions within mimetic gravity and apply our findings to the problem of galactic rotation curves. Our review provides an introduction to mimetic gravity, as well as a concise but self-contained summary of recent findings, progress, open questions, and outlooks on future research directions.

  15. HDL mimetic CER-001 targets atherosclerotic plaques in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang He; van der Valk, Fleur M; Smits, Loek P; Sandberg, Mara; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Baron, Rudi; Barbaras, Ronald; Keyserling, Constance; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nell, Thijs E; Vugts, Danielle J; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-01

    Infusion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics aimed at reducing atherosclerotic burden has led to equivocal results, which may relate in part to the inability of HDL mimetics to adequately reach atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This study evaluated delivery of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) containing HDL mimetic CER-001 in carotid plaques in patients. CER-001 was radiolabeled with the long-lived positron emitter zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) to enable positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Eight patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) received a single infusion of unlabeled CER-001 (3 mg/kg), co-administered with 10 mg of (89)Zr-labeled CER-001 (18 MBq). Serial PET/CT imaging and contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) were performed to evaluate targeted delivery of CER-001. One hour after infusion, mean plasma apoA-I levels increased by 9.9 mg/dL (p = 0.026), with a concomitant relative increase in the plasma cholesterol efflux capacity of 13.8% (p CER-001 expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBRmax) increased significantly 24 h after infusion, and remained increased up to 48 h (TBRmax t = 10 min: 0.98; t = 24 h: 1.14 (p = 0.001); t = 48 h: 1.12 (p = 0.007)). TBRmax was higher in plaque compared with non-plaque segments (1.18 vs. 1.05; p CER-001 increases plasma apoA-I concentration and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. Our data support the concept that CER-001 targets plaque regions in patients, which correlates with plaque contrast enhancement. These clinical findings may also guide future nanomedicine development using HDL particles for drug delivery in atherosclerosis. Netherlands Trial Registry - NTR5178. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5178. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  17. An adaptive meshfree method for phase-field models of biomembranes. Part II: A Lagrangian approach for membranes in viscous fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Peco, C.; Rosolen, A.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a Lagrangian phase-field method to study the low Reynolds number dynamics of vesicles embedded in a viscous fluid. In contrast to previous approaches, where the field variables are the phase-field and the fluid velocity, here we exploit the fact that the phasefield tracks a material interface to reformulate the problem in terms of the Lagrangian motion of a background medium, containing both the biomembrane and the fluid. We discretize the equations in space with maximum-entr...

  18. Adsorption and desorption behaviors of cationic liposome-DNA complexes upon lipofection in inside and outside biomembrane models using a dynamic quasi-elastic laser scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yoshiko; Yui, Hiroharu; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2004-11-01

    The dynamic behaviors of cationic liposome-DNA complexes in inside and outside biomembrane models upon lipofection were investigated using the time-resolved quasi-elastic laser scattering (QELS) method. Inside and outside biomembrane models with similar phospholipid compositions to those in living cells were formed at a tetradecane/phosphate buffered saline (TD/PBS) interface. Cationic liposome-DNA complexes were injected into the buffer subphase, and their adsorption/desorption behaviors at the biomembrane models were monitored through changes in the interfacial tension. We found that the adsorption rate of the complexes increased 2.6 times more in the outside model than in the inside one. The adsorption rate of DNA alone did not show a remarkable difference from one side to the other; however, the adsorption rate of the cationic liposome alone showed a similar tendency to that of the liposome-DNA complex. These results indicated that the difference in lipid composition induced a different dynamic behavior of exogenous biomolecules and that the cationic liposomes played an important role in the faster incorporation of DNA into cells upon lipofection.

  19. Self-assembly of fibronectin mimetic peptide-amphiphile nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexeisen, Emilie Lynn

    Many therapeutic strategies incorporate peptides into their designs to mimic the natural protein ligands found in vivo. A few examples are the short peptide sequences RGD and PHSRN that mimic the primary and synergy-binding domains of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, which is recognized by the cell surface receptor, alpha5beta 1 integrin. Even though scaffold modification with biomimetic peptides remains one of the most promising approaches for tissue engineering, the use of these peptides in therapeutic tissue-engineered products and drug delivery systems available on the commercial market is limited because the peptides are not easily able to mimic the natural protein. The design of a peptide that can effectively target the alpha5beta1 integrin would greatly increase biomimetic scaffold therapeutic potential. A novel peptide containing both the RGD primary binding domain and PHSRN synergy-binding domain for fibronectin joined with the appropriate linker should bind alpha 5beta1 integrin more efficiently and lead to greater cell adhesion over RGD alone. Several fibronectin mimetic peptides were designed and coupled to dialkyl hydrocarbon tails to make peptide-amphiphiles. The peptides contained different linkers connecting the two binding domains and different spacers separating the hydrophobic tails from the hydrophilic headgroups. The peptide-amphiphiles were deposited on mica substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Langmuir isotherms indicated that the peptide-amphiphiles that contained higher numbers of serine residues formed a more tightly packed monolayer, but the increased number of serines also made transferring the amphiphiles to the mica substrate more difficult. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the bilayers showed that the headgroups might be bent, forming small divots in the surface. These divots may help expose the PHSRN synergy-binding domain. Parallel studies undertaken by fellow group members showed that human

  20. Thick branes with inner structure in mimetic gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center of Gravitation, Lanzhou (China); Zhong, Yuan [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, Xi' an (China)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, thick branes generated by mimetic scalar field are investigated. Three typical thick brane models are constructed and the linear tensor and scalar perturbations are analyzed. These branes have different inner structures, some of which are absent in general relativity. For each brane model, the solution is stable under both tensor and scalar perturbations. The tensor zero modes are localized on the branes, while the scalar perturbations do not propagate and they are not localized on the brane. As the branes split into multi sub-branes for specific parameters, the potentials of the tensor perturbations also split into multi-wells, and this may lead to new phenomenon in the resonance of the tensor perturbation and the localization of matter fields. (orig.)

  1. Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

  2. Identification of novel small-molecule Ulex europaeus I mimetics for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashin, Christa; Spindler, Lisa; Russell, Shannon; Schink, Amy; Lambkin, Imelda; O'Mahony, Daniel; Houghten, Richard; Pinilla, Clemencia

    2003-11-17

    Lectin mimetics have been identified that may have potential application towards targeted drug delivery. Synthetic multivalent polygalloyl constructs effectively competed with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) for binding to intestinal Caco-2 cell membranes.

  3. A mucosa-mimetic material for the mucoadhesion testing of thermogelling semi-solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jéssica Bassi; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Bruschi, Marcos L; Cook, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-d-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mucosae in the mucoadhesion testing of tablets and solution formulations. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this mucosa-mimetic material in the testing of thermogelling semi-solid formulations, which transition from solution to gel upon warming. Two methods for assessing mucoadhesion have been used; tensile testing and a flow-through system, which allow for investigation under dramatically different conditions. It was found that the mucosa-mimetic material was a good surrogate for buccal mucosa using both testing methods. This material may be used to replace animal tissue in these experiments, potentially reducing the number of laboratory animals used in studies of this type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel peptide thrombopoietin mimetic designing and optimization using computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal kishor Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR is a cytokine receptor protein; activation of cell surface TPOR by thrombopoietin (TPO triggers an intracellular cascade of megakaryocytopoiesis for the formation of platelets. TPO is a glycoprotein hormone which stimulates megakaryocytes formation and maturation to platelets in bone marrow. Ex vivo megakaryocytopoiesis is in highlight for its vast role in therapeutics and field of regenerative medicine. For therapeutic uses, various TPO alternatives have been used however they are associated with issues like recombinant TPO administration is associated with the generation of auto antibodies and its production is an expensive process. Moreover, reported thrombopoietin mimetic peptide (TMP has no sequence homology with TPO and low specificity to TPOR. Hence, in this study, a novel peptidic TPO mimetic is designed through computational studies by studying the binding sites of TPO and TMP to TPOR and analogs of known mimetics. Screening of combinatorial library was done through molecular docking using ClusPro and mimetic-9 was found to have better binding score of -938.8 kcal/mol with seven hydrogen bonds and a high number of hydrophobic interactions, than known mimetic TMP with docking score of -798.4 kcal/mol and TMP dimer with docking score of -811.9 kcal/mol for TPOR. Mimetic-9 interaction with TPOR was further assessed by the molecular dynamics simulation and their complex was found to be stable with an RMSD value of 0.091 Aº. Resulting mimetic-9 was found to have overall good physiochemical properties with positive grand average hydropathy (GRAVY score and high instability index score and it was found to be localized in the extracellular region. The designed mimetic-9 might prove to be a useful lead molecule for mimicking the role of TPO and to help for platelet production in vitro with higher efficiency.

  5. Electrostatic Effects in Phase Transitions of Biomembranes between Cubic Phases and Lamellar Liquid-Crystalline (Lα) phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md.; Li, Shu Jie; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Yuko; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2004-04-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of transitions between cubic phase and liquid-crystalline (Lα) phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases, are essential for understanding of dynamics of biomembranes and topological transformation of lipid membranes. Recently, we found that electrostatic interactions due to surface charges of lipid membranes induce transition between cubic phase and Lα phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases. As electrostatic interactions increase, the most stable phase of a monoolein (MO) membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒ Lα. We also found that a de novo designed peptide partitioning into electrically neutral lipid membrane changed the phase stability of the MO membranes. As peptide-1 concentration increased, the most stable phase of a MO membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒Lα. In both cases, the increase in the electrostatic repulsive interaction greatly reduced the absolute value of spontaneous curvature of the MO monolayer membrane. We also investigated factors such as poly (L-lysine) and osmotic stress to control structure and phase stability of DOPA/MO membranes. Based on these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effect of electrostatic interactions on the stability of cubic phase.

  6. Interaction of Local Anesthetics with Biomembranes Consisting of Phospholipids and Cholesterol: Mechanistic and Clinical Implications for Anesthetic and Cardiotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Tsuchiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history in medical and dental application, the molecular mechanism and precise site of action are still arguable for local anesthetics. Their effects are considered to be induced by acting on functional proteins, on membrane lipids, or on both. Local anesthetics primarily interact with sodium channels embedded in cell membranes to reduce the excitability of nerve cells and cardiomyocytes or produce a malfunction of the cardiovascular system. However, the membrane protein-interacting theory cannot explain all of the pharmacological and toxicological features of local anesthetics. The administered drug molecules must diffuse through the lipid barriers of nerve sheaths and penetrate into or across the lipid bilayers of cell membranes to reach the acting site on transmembrane proteins. Amphiphilic local anesthetics interact hydrophobically and electrostatically with lipid bilayers and modify their physicochemical property, with the direct inhibition of membrane functions, and with the resultant alteration of the membrane lipid environments surrounding transmembrane proteins and the subsequent protein conformational change, leading to the inhibition of channel functions. We review recent studies on the interaction of local anesthetics with biomembranes consisting of phospholipids and cholesterol. Understanding the membrane interactivity of local anesthetics would provide novel insights into their anesthetic and cardiotoxic effects.

  7. Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Mimetic F(R Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Oikonomou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study under which conditions the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole can be a solution of the vacuum mimetic F ( R gravity with Lagrange multiplier and mimetic scalar potential. As the author demonstrates, the resulting picture in the mimetic F ( R gravity case is a trivial extension of the standard F ( R approach, and in effect, the metric perturbations in the mimetic F ( R gravity case, for the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole metric, at the first order of the perturbed variables are the same at the leading order.

  8. Glycosaminoglycan-Mimetic Signals Direct the Osteo/Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Three-Dimensional Peptide Nanofiber Extracellular Matrix Mimetic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Elif; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2016-04-11

    Recent efforts in bioactive scaffold development focus strongly on the elucidation of complex cellular responses through the use of synthetic systems. Designing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) materials must be based on understanding of cellular behaviors upon interaction with natural and artificial scaffolds. Hence, due to their ability to mimic both the biochemical and mechanical properties of the native tissue environment, supramolecular assemblies of bioactive peptide nanostructures are especially promising for development of bioactive ECM-mimetic scaffolds. In this study, we used glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber gel as a three-dimensional (3D) platform to investigate how cell lineage commitment is altered by external factors. We observed that amount of fetal bovine serum (FBS) presented in the cell media had synergistic effects on the ability of GAG-mimetic nanofiber gel to mediate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In particular, lower FBS concentration in the culture medium was observed to enhance osteogenic differentiation while higher amount FBS promotes chondrogenic differentiation in tandem with the effects of the GAG-mimetic 3D peptide nanofiber network, even in the absence of externally administered growth factors. We therefore demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can be specifically controlled by the combined influence of growth medium components and a 3D peptide nanofiber environment.

  9. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  10. Metal Stabilization of Collagen and de Novo Designed Mimetic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Avanish S; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H; Belure, Sandeep V; Hasan, Nida F; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E; Shreiber, David I; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-08-18

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacency of the carboxy-termini of the three chains makes this region an attractive target for introducing metal binding sites. We engineered His3 sites based on structural modeling constraints into a series of designed homotrimeric and heterotrimeric peptides, assessing the capacity of metal binding to improve stability and in the case of heterotrimers, affect specificity of assembly. Notable enhancements in stability for both homo- and heteromeric systems were observed upon addition of zinc(II) and several other metal ions only when all three histidine ligands were present. Metal binding affinities were consistent with the expected Irving-Williams series for imidazole. Unlike other metals tested, copper(II) also bound to peptides lacking histidine ligands. Acetylation of the peptide N-termini prevented copper binding, indicating proline backbone amide metal-coordination at this site. Copper similarly stabilized animal extracted Type I collagen in a metal-specific fashion, highlighting the potential importance of metal homeostasis within the extracellular matrix.

  11. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  12. Interaction of cholesterol-conjugated ionizable amino lipids with biomembranes: lipid polymorphism, structure-activity relationship, and implications for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Fan, Haihong; Levorse, Dorothy A; Crocker, Louis S

    2011-08-02

    Delivery of siRNA is a major obstacle to the advancement of RNAi as a novel therapeutic modality. Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) consisting of ionizable amino lipids are being developed as an important delivery platform for siRNAs, and significant efforts are being made to understand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the lipids. This article uses a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the interaction between cholesterol-conjugated ionizable amino lipids and biomembranes, focusing on an important area of lipid SAR--the ability of lipids to destabilize membrane bilayer structures and facilitate endosomal escape. In this study, cholesterol-conjugated amino lipids were found to be effective in increasing the order of biomembranes and also highly effective in inducing phase changes in biological membranes in vitro (i.e., the lamellar to inverted hexagonal phase transition). The phase transition temperatures, determined using SAXS and DSC, serve as an indicator for ranking the potency of lipids to destabilize endosomal membranes. It was found that the bilayer disruption ability of amino lipids depends strongly on the amino lipid concentration in membranes. Amino lipids with systematic variations in headgroups, the extent of ionization, tail length, the degree of unsaturation, and tail asymmetry were evaluated for their bilayer disruption ability to establish SAR. Overall, it was found that the impact of these lipid structure changes on their bilayer disruption ability agrees well with the results from a conceptual molecular "shape" analysis. Implications of the findings from this study for siRNA delivery are discussed. The methods reported here can be used to support the SAR screening of cationic lipids for siRNA delivery, and the information revealed through the study of the interaction between cationic lipids and biomembranes will contribute significantly to the design of more efficient si

  13. Elementary dispersion analysis of some mimetic discretizations on triangular C-grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, P., E-mail: peter.korn@mpimet.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Danilov, S. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Spurious modes supported by triangular C-grids limit their application for modeling large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. Their behavior can be modified within a mimetic approach that generalizes the scalar product underlying the triangular C-grid discretization. The mimetic approach provides a discrete continuity equation which operates on an averaged combination of normal edge velocities instead of normal edge velocities proper. An elementary analysis of the wave dispersion of the new discretization for Poincaré, Rossby and Kelvin waves shows that, although spurious Poincaré modes are preserved, their frequency tends to zero in the limit of small wavenumbers, which removes the divergence noise in this limit. However, the frequencies of spurious and physical modes become close on shorter scales indicating that spurious modes can be excited unless high-frequency short-scale motions are effectively filtered in numerical codes. We argue that filtering by viscous dissipation is more efficient in the mimetic approach than in the standard C-grid discretization. Lumping of mass matrices appearing with the velocity time derivative in the mimetic discretization only slightly reduces the accuracy of the wave dispersion and can be used in practice. Thus, the mimetic approach cures some difficulties of the traditional triangular C-grid discretization but may still need appropriately tuned viscosity to filter small scales and high frequencies in solutions of full primitive equations when these are excited by nonlinear dynamics.

  14. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  15. Beyond Antibodies as Binding Partners: The Role of Antibody Mimetics in Bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaowen; Yang, Yu-Ping; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-12

    The emergence of novel binding proteins or antibody mimetics capable of binding to ligand analytes in a manner analogous to that of the antigen-antibody interaction has spurred increased interest in the biotechnology and bioanalytical communities. The goal is to produce antibody mimetics designed to outperform antibodies with regard to binding affinities, cellular and tumor penetration, large-scale production, and temperature and pH stability. The generation of antibody mimetics with tailored characteristics involves the identification of a naturally occurring protein scaffold as a template that binds to a desired ligand. This scaffold is then engineered to create a superior binder by first creating a library that is then subjected to a series of selection steps. Antibody mimetics have been successfully used in the development of binding assays for the detection of analytes in biological samples, as well as in separation methods, cancer therapy, targeted drug delivery, and in vivo imaging. This review describes recent advances in the field of antibody mimetics and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry, specifically in diagnostics and other analytical methods.

  16. Structure and dynamics of biomembranes in room-temperature ionic liquid water solutions studied by neutron scattering and by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Ballone, Pietro

    2018-05-01

    Increasing attention is being devoted to the interaction of a new class of organic ionic liquids known as room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with biomolecules, partly because of health and environment concerns, and, even more, for the prospect of exciting new applications in biomedicine, sensing and energy technologies. Here we focus on the interaction between RTILs and phospholipid bilayers that are well-accepted models for bio-membranes. We discuss how neutron scattering has been used to probe both the structure and the dynamics of these systems, and how its integration with molecular dynamics simulation has allowed the determination of the microscopic details of their interaction.

  17. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qianhui [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Hongqi, E-mail: hongqili@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Song, Yanxi [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cong, Peihong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl groups were prepared. • The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals. • The polymer films showed excellent resistance to water, salt, base and acid. • The polymer films displayed good antifouling property. - Abstract: Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings.

  18. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qianhui; Li, Hongqi; Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang; Song, Yanxi; Cong, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl groups were prepared. • The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals. • The polymer films showed excellent resistance to water, salt, base and acid. • The polymer films displayed good antifouling property. - Abstract: Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings

  19. Preparation, property of the complex of carboxymethyl chitosan grafted copolymer with iodine and application of it in cervical antibacterial biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yumin; Liao, Qingping [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Yang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Wanfeng [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Zhao, Jian [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Xionggao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yang [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Chen, Rui [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Cervical erosion is one of the common diseases of women. The loop electrosurgical excisional procedure (LEEP) has been used widely in the treatment of the cervical diseases. However, there are no effective wound dressings for the postoperative care to protect the wound area from further infection, leading to increased secretion and longer healing time. Iodine is a widely used inorganic antibacterial agent with many advantages. However, the carrier for stable iodine complex antibacterial agents is lack. In the present study, a novel iodine carrier, Carboxymethyl chitosan-g-(poly(sodium acrylate)-co-polyvinylpyrrolidone) (CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP), was prepared by graft copolymerization of sodium acrylate (AANa) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) to a carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS) skeleton. The obtained structure could combine prominent property of poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) anionic polyelectrolyte segment and good complex property of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) segment to iodine. The bioactivity of CMCTS could also be kept. The properties of the complex, CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2}, were studied. The in vitro experiment shows that it has broad-spectrum bactericidal effects to virus, fungus, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. A CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} complex contained cervical antibacterial biomembrane (CABM) was prepared. The iodine release from the CABM is pH-dependent. The clinic trial results indicate that CABM has better treatment effectiveness than the conventional treatment in the postoperative care of the LEEP operation. - Highlights: • The multifunctional iodine complexing carrier CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP) was prepared. • CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} with high antibacterial property and bio-safety was studied. • By compositing it with CMCTS and gelatin further, CABM with multifunction was deduced. • The releasing properties of the activated iodine from CABM showed pH sensitivity. • CABM showed good treating effect for

  20. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  1. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  2. Prey from the eyes of predators: Color discriminability of aposematic and mimetic butterflies from an avian visual perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiyu; Lim, Matthew; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2015-11-01

    Predation exerts strong selection on mimetic butterfly wing color patterns, which also serve other functions such as sexual selection. Therefore, specific selection pressures may affect the sexes and signal components differentially. We tested three predictions about the evolution of mimetic resemblance by comparing wing coloration of aposematic butterflies and their Batesian mimics: (a) females gain greater mimetic advantage than males and therefore are better mimics, (b) due to intersexual genetic correlations, sexually monomorphic mimics are better mimics than female-limited mimics, and (c) mimetic resemblance is better on the dorsal wing surface that is visible to predators in flight. Using a physiological model of avian color vision, we quantified mimetic resemblance from predators' perspective, which showed that female butterflies were better mimics than males. Mimetic resemblance in female-limited mimics was comparable to that in sexually monomorphic mimics, suggesting that intersexual genetic correlations did not constrain adaptive response to selection for female-limited mimicry. Mimetic resemblance on the ventral wing surface was better than that on the dorsal wing surface, implying stronger natural and sexual selection on ventral and dorsal surfaces, respectively. These results suggest that mimetic resemblance in butterfly mimicry rings has evolved under various selective pressures acting in a sex- and wing surface-specific manner. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  4. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shin'ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F (R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  5. A review of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion: cruise and fast-start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang, E-mail: PanGuang_010@163.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian 710072 (China)

    2017-08-15

    This paper reviews recent developments in the understanding of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. Two impressive models of underwater propulsion are considered: cruise and fast-start. First, we introduce the progression of bio-mimetic propulsion, especially underwater propulsion, where some primary conceptions are touched upon. Second, the understanding of flapping foils, considered as one of the most efficient cruise styles of aquatic animals, is introduced, where the effect of kinematics and the shape and flexibility of foils on generating thrust are elucidated respectively. Fast-start propulsion is always exhibited when predator behaviour occurs, and we provide an explicit introduction of corresponding zoological experiments and numerical simulations. We also provide some predictions about underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. (review)

  6. A review of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion: cruise and fast-start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the understanding of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. Two impressive models of underwater propulsion are considered: cruise and fast-start. First, we introduce the progression of bio-mimetic propulsion, especially underwater propulsion, where some primary conceptions are touched upon. Second, the understanding of flapping foils, considered as one of the most efficient cruise styles of aquatic animals, is introduced, where the effect of kinematics and the shape and flexibility of foils on generating thrust are elucidated respectively. Fast-start propulsion is always exhibited when predator behaviour occurs, and we provide an explicit introduction of corresponding zoological experiments and numerical simulations. We also provide some predictions about underwater bio-mimetic propulsion.

  7. René Girard and the Mimetic Nature of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Mattias

    2018-03-07

    French historian and literary critic René Girard (1923-2015), most widely known for the concepts of mimetic desire and scapegoating, also engaged in the discussion of the surge of eating disorders in his 1996 essay Eating Disorders and Mimetic Desire. This article explores Girard's ideas on the mimetic nature and origin of eating disorders from a clinical psychiatric perspective and contextualizes them within the field of eating disorders research as well as in relation to broader psychological, sociological and anthropological models of social comparison and non-consumption. Three main themes in Girard's thinking on the topic of eating disorders are identified and explored: the 'end of prohibitions' as a driving force in the emergence of eating disorders, eating disorders as a phenomenon specific to modernity, and the significance of 'conspicuous non-consumption' in the emergence of eating disorders.

  8. Targeting apoptotic machinery as approach for anticancer therapy: Smac mimetics as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevine M.Y. Elsayed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a chief regulator of cellular homeostasis. Impairment of apoptotic machinery is a main characteristic of several diseases such as cancer, where the evasion of apoptosis is a cardinal hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis is regulated by contribution of pro- and anti- apoptotic proteins, where caspases are the main executioners of the apoptotic machinery. IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins is a family of endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis, which perform their function through interference with the function of caspases. Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases is endogenous inhibitor of IAPs, thus it is one of the major proapoptotic endogenous proteins. Thus, the development of Smac mimetics has evolved as an approach for anticancer therapy. Several Smac mimetic agents have been introduced to clinical trial such as birinapanet 12. Herein, the history of development of Smac mimetics along with the recent development in this field is briefly discussed.

  9. Modeling seismic wave propagation using staggered-grid mimetic finite differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freysimar Solano-Feo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic finite difference (MFD approximations of continuous gradient and divergence operators satisfy a discrete version of the Gauss-Divergence theorem on staggered grids. On the mimetic approximation of this integral conservation principle, an unique boundary flux operator is introduced that also intervenes on the discretization of a given boundary value problem (BVP. In this work, we present a second-order MFD scheme for seismic wave propagation on staggered grids that discretized free surface and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC with same accuracy order. This scheme is time explicit after coupling a central three-level finite difference (FD stencil for numerical integration. Here, we briefly discuss the convergence properties of this scheme and show its higher accuracy on a challenging test when compared to a traditional FD method. Preliminary applications to 2-D seismic scenarios are also presented and show the potential of the mimetic finite difference method.

  10. Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter. (paper)

  11. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Shin' ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: s.hirano@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sakine@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F (R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  12. Virus-mimetic polyplex particles for systemic and inflammation-specific targeted delivery of large genetic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S; Lu, K; Leelawattanachai, J; Hu, X; Park, S; Park, T; Min, I M; Jin, M M

    2013-11-01

    Systemic and target-specific delivery of large genetic contents has been difficult to achieve. Although viruses effortlessly deliver kilobase-long genome into cells, its clinical use has been hindered by serious safety concerns and the mismatch between native tropisms and desired targets. Nonviral vectors, in contrast, are limited by low gene transfer efficiency and inherent cytotoxicity. Here we devised virus-mimetic polyplex particles (VMPs) based on electrostatic self-assembly among polyanionic peptide (PAP), cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) and nucleic acids. We fused PAP to the engineered ligand-binding domain of integrin αLβ2 to target intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible marker of inflammation. Fully assembled VMPs packaged large genetic contents, bound specifically to target molecules, elicited receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped endosomal pathway, resembling intracellular delivery processes of viruses. Unlike conventional PEI-mediated transfection, molecular interaction-dependent gene delivery of VMPs was unaffected by the presence of serum and achieved higher efficiency without toxicity. By targeting overexpressed ICAM-1, VMPs delivered genes specifically to inflamed endothelial cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Simplicity and versatility of the platform and inflammation-specific delivery may open up opportunities for multifaceted gene therapy that can be translated into the clinic and treat a broad range of debilitating immune and inflammatory diseases.

  13. A molecularly imprinted electrochemiluminescence sensor based on the mimetic enzyme catalytic effect for ultra-trace Ni2+ determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Lianming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-21

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) electrochemiluminescence (MIP-ECL) sensor was developed for the highly sensitive and selective determination of ultra-trace levels of Ni 2+ . The complex Ni 2+ -dimethylglyoxime (Ni-DMG) was chosen as the template molecule to construct the MIP and then acted as a mimetic enzyme to catalyse the oxidisation of luminol to enhance the ECL signal. When the imprinted cavities were occupied by Ni-DMG in the rebinding process, the ECL intensities produced by the luminol-H 2 O 2 ECL system on the MIP-modified electrode surface increased with increased concentration of the Ni-DMG complex. The highly sensitive determination of Ni 2+ was achieved through a catalytic reaction. This technique could be used for the quantitative analysis of Ni 2+ with concentrations from 3.0 × 10 -12 mol L -1 to 6.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1 . The detection limit was 1.01 × 10 -12 mol L -1 , which is much lower than that reported previously. In addition, the allowable amounts of interference ions in the MIP-ECL sensor were higher than that in other common molecularly imprinted sensors because of its excellent recognition of 3D cavity-to-complex molecules and ligand-to-metal ions. This method was successfully used to determine Ni 2+ in real samples, such as apples, carrots and grapes, and has been proven feasible for practical applications.

  14. Synthesis of new enantiopure poly(hydroxyaminooxepanes as building blocks for multivalent carbohydrate mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Bouché

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New compounds with carbohydrate-similar structure (carbohydrate mimetics are presented in this article. Starting from enantiopure nitrones and lithiated TMSE-allene we prepared three 1,2-oxazine derivatives which underwent a highly stereoselective Lewis acid-induced rearrangement to give bicyclic products in good yield. Subsequent reductive transformations delivered a library of new poly(hydroxyaminooxepane derivatives. The crucial final palladium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of the 1,2-oxazine moiety was optimized resulting in a reasonably efficient approach to a series of new seven-membered carbohydrate mimetics.

  15. Fabrication of biomembrane-like films on carbon electrodes using alkanethiol and diazonium salt and their application for direct electrochemistry of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Saima; Qi, Wenjing; Gao, Wenyue; Zhao, Jianming; Hanif, Saima; Aziz-Ur-Rehman; Xu, Guobao

    2015-03-15

    Alkanethiols generally form self-assembled monolayers on gold electrodes and the electrochemical reduction of aromatic diazonium salts is a popular method for the covalent modification of carbon. Based on the reaction of alkanethiol with aldehyde groups covalently bound on carbon surface by the electrochemical reduction of aromatic diazonium salts, a new strategy for the modification of carbon electrodes with alkanethiols has been developed. The modification of carbon surface with aldehyde groups is achieved by the electrochemical reduction of aromatic diazonium salts in situ electrogenerated from a nitro precursor, p-nitrophenylaldehyde, in the presence of nitrous acid. By this way, in situ electrogenerated p-aminophenyl aldehyde from p-nitrophenylaldehyde immediately reacts with nitrous acid, effectively minimizing the side reaction of amine groups and aldehyde groups. The as-prepared alkanethiol-modified glassy carbon electrode was further used to make biomembrane-like films by casting didodecyldimethylammonium bromide on its surface. The biomembrane-like films enable the direct electrochemistry of immobilized myoglobin for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. The response is linear over the range of 1-600μM with a detection limit of 0.3μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  17. BH3 mimetics inhibit growth of chondrosarcoma--a novel targeted-therapy for candidate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Hornicek, Francis J; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2014-11-01

    Chondrosarcoma is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. BH-3 mimetics ABT-737 and ABT-263 are synthetic small-molecule inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) and Bcl-xL, which play a critical role in survival of chondrosarcoma cells. Chondrosarcoma cell lines SW-1353 and CS-1 were used as the disease model. We used immunoblotting to assess the expression of target molecules Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, and the apoptotic inducers Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl2-antagonist/killer (Bak). In vitro growth inhibition by BH-3 mimetics was confirmed by photomicroscopic cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Apoptotic induction was confirmed by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). In vivo growth inhibition was assessed in a non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mouse model. Expression of the target and effector molecules was confirmed in chondrosarcoma cell lines. BH3 mimetics significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Administration of ABT-263 inhibited chondrosarcoma growth and improved survival in a mouse model. BH3 mimetics represent a novel treatment modality for chondrosarcoma. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Discrete conservation properties for shallow water flows using mixed mimetic spectral elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, D.; Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2018-01-01

    A mixed mimetic spectral element method is applied to solve the rotating shallow water equations. The mixed method uses the recently developed spectral element histopolation functions, which exactly satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus with respect to the standard Lagrange basis functions in

  19. Antifungal Potential of Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C. albicans and NAC. Here, we expand upon our previous works to describe the in vitro and in vivo activity of 11 new HDP mimetics that are active against C. albicans and NAC that are both sensitive and resistant to standard antifungal drugs. These compounds exhibit minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC in the µg/mL range in the presence of serum and are inhibited by divalent cations. Rapid propidium iodide influx into the yeast cells following in vitro exposure suggested that these HDP mimetics were also membrane active. The lead compounds were able to kill C. albicans in an invasive candidiasis CD-1 mouse model with some mimetic candidates decreasing kidney burden by 3–4 logs after 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The data encouraged further development of this new anti-fungal drug class for invasive candidiasis.

  20. Mimetic Divergence and the Speciation Continuum in the Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Mullerian...

  1. Comparative Allometric Growth of the Mimetic Ephippid Reef Fishes Chaetodipterus faber and Platax orbicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Barros

    Full Text Available Mimesis is a relatively widespread phenomenon among reef fish, but the ontogenetic processes relevant for mimetic associations in fish are still poorly understood. In the present study, the allometric growth of two allopatric leaf-mimetic species of ephippid fishes, Chaetodipterus faber from the Atlantic and Platax orbicularis from the Indo-Pacific, was analyzed using ten morphological variables. The development of fins was considered owing to the importance of these structures for mimetic behaviors during early life stages. Despite the anatomical and behavioral similarities in both juvenile and adult stages, C. faber and P. orbicularis showed distinct patterns of growth. The overall shape of C. faber transforms from a rounded-shape in mimetic juveniles to a lengthened profile in adults, while in P. orbicularis, juveniles present an oblong profile including dorsal and anal fins, with relative fin size diminishing while the overall profile grows rounder in adults. Although the two species are closely-related, the present results suggest that growth patterns in C. faber and P. orbicularis are different, and are probably independent events in ephippids that have resulted from similar selective processes.

  2. Novel thrombopoietin mimetic peptides bind c-Mpl receptor: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaquan; Tian, Fang; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Haiqing; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) acts in promoting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and by initiating specific maturation events in megakaryocytes. Now, TPO-mimetic peptides with amino acid sequences unrelated to TPO are of considerable pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, four new TPO mimetic peptides that bind and activate c-Mpl receptor have been identified, synthesized and tested by Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay for biological activities. The molecular modeling research was also approached to understand key molecular mechanisms and structural features responsible for peptide binding with c-Mpl receptor. The results presented that three of four mimetic peptides showed significant activities. In addition, the molecular modeling approaches proved hydrophobic interactions were the driven positive forces for binding behavior between peptides and c-Mpl receptor. TPO peptide residues in P7, P13 and P7' positions were identified by the analysis of hydrogen bonds and energy decompositions as the key ones for benefiting better biological activities. Our data suggested the synthesized peptides have considerable potential for the future development of stable and highly active TPO mimetic peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral mimetic least-squares method for div-curl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, Marc; Palha, Artur; Lirkov, I.; Margenov, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the spectral mimetic least-squares method is applied to a two-dimensional div-curl system. A test problem is solved on orthogonal and curvilinear meshes and both h- and p-convergence results are presented. The resulting solutions will be pointwise divergence-free for these test

  4. The conversion in the René Girard’s mimetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Moreno Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the specific peculiarities of René Girard’s mimetic theory is the recovery of the concept of conversion. In this article we expose, in a detailed way, the three senses of the conversion according to his thinking: novelistic, religious and epistemological. There is an interaction between the three senses and also different significations for each other.

  5. Temperature-sensitive elastin-mimetic dendrimers: Effect of peptide length and dendrimer generation to temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chie; Irie, Kotaro; Tada, Tomoko; Tanaka, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with unique structure, which are a potential scaffold for peptides. Elastin is one of the main components of extracellular matrix and a temperature-sensitive biomacromolecule. Previously, Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly peptides have been conjugated to a dendrimer for designing an elastin-mimetic dendrimer. In this study, various elastin-mimetic dendrimers using different length peptides and different dendrimer generations were synthesized to control the temperature dependency. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed β-turn structure by heating, which was similar to the elastin-like peptides. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers exhibited an inverse phase transition, largely depending on the peptide length and slightly depending on the dendrimer generation. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed aggregates after the phase transition. The endothermal peak was observed in elastin-mimetic dendrimers with long peptides, but not with short ones. The peptide length and the dendrimer generation are important factors to tune the temperature dependency on the elastin-mimetic dendrimer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  7. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  8. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  9. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  10. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  11. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  12. Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of di- and trimeric hydroxylamine-based β-(1→3)-glucan mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Angélique; Malik, Gaëlle; Guinchard, Xavier; Vĕtvička, Václav; Crich, David

    2014-10-22

    Di- and trimeric hydroxylamine-based mimetics of β-(1→3)-glucans have been accessed by an asymmetric synthesis route featuring an iterative double ring-closing reductive amination reaction. These oligomeric hydroxylamines are demonstrated to inhibit the staining of human neutrophils and of mouse macrophages by fluorescent anti-CR3 and anti-dectin-1 antibodies, respectively, and to stimulate phagocytosis, all in a linkage-dependent manner suggestive of binding to the lectin domains of complement receptor 3 (CR3) and dectin-1. The ability of these relatively short mimetics to bind to CR3 and dectin-1, as compared to the greater degree of polymerization required in β-(1→3)-glucans, is discussed in terms of the increased hydrophobicity of the α-face on replacement of the glycosidic bond by the hydroxylamine linkage.

  14. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  15. Enhanced Proton Conductivity and Methanol Permeability Reduction via Sodium Alginate Electrolyte-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Bio-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Basri, S.; Shyuan, L. K.; Masdar, M. S.; Nordin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane. The optimum properties and performances were presented by the SA/SGO membrane with a loading of 0.2 wt% SGO, which gave a proton conductivity of 13.2 × 10-3 Scm-1, and the methanol permeability was 1.535 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C, far below that of Nafion (25.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C. The mechanical properties of the sodium alginate polymer in terms of tensile strength and elongation at break were improved by the addition of SGO.

  16. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: A New Approach for the Treatment of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan eYao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New treatments are needed for severe asthmatics to improve disease control and avoid severe toxicities associated with oral corticosteroids. We have used a murine model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma to identify steroid-unresponsive genes that might represent targets for new therapeutic approaches for severe asthma. This strategy identified apolipoprotein E as a steroid-unresponsive gene with increased mRNA expression in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E functioned as an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental HDM-induced asthma. The ability of apolipoprotein E, which is expressed by lung macrophages, to attenuate AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL receptors expressed by airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, administration of an apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 130 to 149 of the LDL receptor-binding domain of the holo-apoE protein, significantly reduced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia in HDM-challenged apoE-/- mice. These findings identified the apolipoprotein E - LDL receptor pathway as a new druggable target for asthma that can be activated by administration of apoE mimetic peptides. Similarly, apolipoprotein A-I may have therapeutic potential in asthma based upon its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic properties. Furthermore, administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides has attenuated airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in murine models of experimental asthma. Thus, site-directed delivery of inhaled apolipoprotein E or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides may represent novel treatment approaches that can be developed for asthma, including severe disease.

  17. Superstretchable Nacre-Mimetic Graphene/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Composite Film Based on Interfacial Architectural Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nifang; Yang, Miao; Zhao, Qian; Gao, Weiwei; Xie, Tao; Bai, Hao

    2017-05-23

    Through designing hierarchical structures, particularly optimizing the chemical and architectural interactions at its inorganic/organic interface, nacre has achieved an excellent combination of contradictory mechanical properties such as strength and toughness, which is highly demanded yet difficult to achieve by most synthetic materials. Most techniques applied to develop nacre-mimetic composites have been focused on mimicking the "brick-and-mortar" structure, but the interfacial architectural features, especially the asperities and mineral bridges of "bricks", have been rarely concerned, which are of equal importance for enhancing mechanical properties of nacre. Here, we used a modified bidirectional freezing method followed by uniaxial pressing and chemical reduction to assemble a nacre-mimetic graphene/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film, with both asperities and bridges introduced in addition to the lamellar layers to mimic the interfacial architectural interactions found in nacre. As such, we have developed a composite film that is not only strong (up to ∼150.9 MPa), but also tough (up to ∼8.50 MJ/m 3 ), and highly stretchable (up to ∼10.44%), difficult to obtain by other methods. This was all achieved by only interfacial architectural engineering within the traditional "brick-and-mortar" structure, without introducing a third component or employing chemical cross-linker as in some other nacre-mimetic systems. More importantly, we believe that the design principles and processing strategies reported here can also be applied to other material systems to develop strong and stretchable materials.

  18. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  19. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  20. Role of phosphate on stability and catalase mimetic activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ragini; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have been recently shown to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in different experimental model systems. CeNPs (3+) and CeNPs (4+) have been shown to exhibit superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase mimetic activity, respectively. Due to their nanoscale dimension, CeNPs are expected to interact with the components of biologically relevant buffers and medium, which could alter their catalytic properties. We have demonstrated earlier that CeNPs (3+) interact with phosphate and lose the SOD activity. However, very little is known about the interaction of CeNPs (4+) with the phosphate and other anions, predominantly present in biological buffers and their effects on the catalase mimetic-activity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we report that catalase mimetic-activity of CeNPs (4+) is resistant to the phosphate anions, pH changes and composition of cell culture media. Given the abundance of phosphate anions in the biological system, it is likely that internalized CeNPs would be influenced by cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic concentration of phosphate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The reconstruction of f(ϕ)R and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F (R) gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f (ϕ) R and mimetic F (R) gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f (ϕ) R theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F (R) gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F (R) = R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  2. The reconstruction of f(ϕR and mimetic gravity from viable slow-roll inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Odintsov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we extend the bottom-up reconstruction framework of F(R gravity to other modified gravities, and in particular for f(ϕR and mimetic F(R gravities. We investigate which are the important conditions in order for the method to work, and we study several viable cosmological evolutions, focusing on the inflationary era. Particularly, for the f(ϕR theory case, we specify the functional form of the Hubble rate and of the scalar-to-tensor ratio as a function of the e-foldings number and accordingly, the rest of the physical quantities and also the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices can be calculated. The same method is applied in the mimetic F(R gravity case, and in both cases we thoroughly analyze the resulting free parameter space, in order to show that the viability of the models presented is guaranteed and secondly that there is a wide range of values of the free parameters for which the viability of the models occurs. In addition, the reconstruction method is also studied in the context of mimetic F(R=R gravity. As we demonstrate, the resulting theory is viable, and also in this case, only the scalar-to-tensor ratio needs to be specified, since the rest follow from this condition. Finally, we discuss in brief how the reconstruction method could function for other modified gravities.

  3. Interactions of Bio-Inspired Membranes with Peptides and Peptide-Mimetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Via Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD and implicit solvent coarse-grained (CG Molecular Dynamics (MD we examine the interaction of an amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE and its synthetic counterpart with a bio-inspired membrane. We use the DPD technique to investigate the interaction of peptide-mimetic nanoparticles, or nanopins, with a three-component membrane. The CG MD approach is used to investigate the interaction of a cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE with single-component membrane. We observe the spontaneous binding and subsequent insertion of peptide and nanopin in the membrane by using CG MD and DPD approaches, respectively. In addition, we find that the insertion of peptide and nanopins is mainly driven by the favorable enthalpic interactions between the hydrophobic components of the peptide, or nanopin, and the membrane. Our study provides insights into the mechanism underlying the interactions of amphiphilic peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a membrane. The result of this study can be used to guide the functional integration of peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a cell membrane.

  4. Late-time cosmological approach in mimetic f(R, T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffou, E.H. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Natitingou, Natitingou (Benin); Hamani-Daouda, M. [Universite de Niamey, Departement de Physique, Niamey (Niger); Alvarenga, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Engenharia e Ciencias Naturais, CEUNES, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the late-time cosmic acceleration in mimetic f(R, T) gravity with the Lagrange multiplier and potential in a Universe containing, besides radiation and dark energy, a self-interacting (collisional) matter. We obtain through the modified Friedmann equations the main equation that can describe the cosmological evolution. Then, with several models from Q(z) and the well-known particular model f(R, T), we perform an analysis of the late-time evolution. We examine the behavior of the Hubble parameter, the dark energy equation of state and the total effective equation of state and in each case we compare the resulting picture with the non-collisional matter (assumed as dust) and also with the collisional matter in mimetic f(R, T) gravity. The results obtained are in good agreement with the observational data and show that in the presence of the collisional matter the dark energy oscillations in mimetic f(R, T) gravity can be damped. (orig.)

  5. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.

  6. Improved surface bioactivity of stainless steel substrates using osteocalcin mimetic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Samaneh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Although stainless steel has a good biocompatibility for most clinical cases, the higher tissue response (bone bonding property) is required in orthopedic field. In this study, to improve bone-bonding ability of stainless steel substrates, a specific sequence of osteocalcin mimetic peptide is used as bioactive coating material to biochemically modify the surface of metallic samples. This sequence consists of thirteen amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin is synthesized in amidic form and physically adsorbed on the surface of 316LS (316 low carbon surgical grade) stainless steel substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize the surface of peptide coated and uncoated substrates. The bioactivity and bone bonding ability of coated and uncoated substrates are assessed by level of hydroxyapatite formation, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pre-osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation are also evaluated by MTT assay. The results show that the surface of coated sample is homogenously covered by the peptide and display a rougher surface relative to uncoated sample. TEM images reveal the formation of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals in the presence of the peptide and an amorphous calcium phosphate phase without the peptide. Pre-osteoblast cells proliferation is significantly higher on the surface of peptide coated substrate, while cell attachment remains unaffected by the peptide coatings. Pre-osteoblast cells also demonstrate a higher degree of spreading on the surface of coated sample. It is believed that osteocalcin mimetic peptide improve surface bioactivity and promote hydroxyapatite crystal formation may lead to increased mineralization and bone formation on the surface of metallic biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: A peptide sequence located in the first helix of OC is selected based on its

  7. Improved surface bioactivity of stainless steel substrates using osteocalcin mimetic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Samaneh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran 14965/161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi-Manesh, Hossein, E-mail: naderman@modares.ac.ir [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vali, Hojatollah [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, 3640 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 0C7 (Canada); Faghihi, Shahab, E-mail: sfaghihi@nigeb.ac.ir [Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran 14965/161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Although stainless steel has a good biocompatibility for most clinical cases, the higher tissue response (bone bonding property) is required in orthopedic field. In this study, to improve bone-bonding ability of stainless steel substrates, a specific sequence of osteocalcin mimetic peptide is used as bioactive coating material to biochemically modify the surface of metallic samples. This sequence consists of thirteen amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin is synthesized in amidic form and physically adsorbed on the surface of 316LS (316 low carbon surgical grade) stainless steel substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize the surface of peptide coated and uncoated substrates. The bioactivity and bone bonding ability of coated and uncoated substrates are assessed by level of hydroxyapatite formation, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pre-osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation are also evaluated by MTT assay. The results show that the surface of coated sample is homogenously covered by the peptide and display a rougher surface relative to uncoated sample. TEM images reveal the formation of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals in the presence of the peptide and an amorphous calcium phosphate phase without the peptide. Pre-osteoblast cells proliferation is significantly higher on the surface of peptide coated substrate, while cell attachment remains unaffected by the peptide coatings. Pre-osteoblast cells also demonstrate a higher degree of spreading on the surface of coated sample. It is believed that osteocalcin mimetic peptide improve surface bioactivity and promote hydroxyapatite crystal formation may lead to increased mineralization and bone formation on the surface of metallic biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: A peptide sequence located in the first helix of OC is selected based on its

  8. Uso da biomembrana de látex em cavidade exenterada: relato de caso The use of latex biomembrane in exenteration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fugimoto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A membrana de látex é um material extraído da Hevea brasiliensis, e devido às suas propriedades neoangiogênicas, de adesão celular e formação de matriz extracelular, é utilizada em recobrimentos de úlceras, meringoplastias e outras feridas, com sucesso. Neste caso descrevemos seu uso, inédito, na ferida pós-exenteração orbitária por carcinoma basocelular em paciente do sexo masculino, 72 anos, procedente da Bahia com lesão na pálpebra do olho esquerdo há dois anos com prurido, sangramento, lacrimejamento, e dor. Ao exame oftalmológico do olho esquerdo evidenciou-se lesão ulcerada de pálpebra superior e canto medial, hiperemia conjuntival, afilamento corneano, catarata, perfuração ocular. Sem alterações significativas à direita. A tomografia de órbitas revelou lesão expansiva palpebral com invasão pré-septal, osso frontal e lâmina papirácea à esquerda. Realizada exenteração total com curativo de biomembrana de látex; troca a cada 24 horas nos primeiros sete dias e a cada 48 horas nos outros sete dias. Retirou-se a biomembrana de látex por não ter sido evidenciada granulação, o que só ocorreu após um mês e quinze dias. A exenteração orbitária consiste na retirada de todo o conteúdo da órbita, incluindo olho e partes moles. É considerada total quando as pálpebras são incluídas, e subtotal quando as mesmas são preservadas. Existem várias técnicas de reconstrução da cavidade exenterada: como granulação espontânea, enxerto de pele, retalho frontal, retalho miocutâneo, entre outros. Neste caso utilizamos curativo com biomembrana de látex, material que se mostrou eficaz no recobrimento de outros tecidos cruentos como úlceras, mas sem o mesmo sucesso em nossa experiência. Mais estudos são necessários para que possamos concluir as vantagens e desvantagens do uso da biomembrana de látex na área da oftalmologia.The latex biomembrane is a material from Hevea brasiliensis and has angiogenic

  9. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored

  10. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  11. Bio-mimetic mineralization potential of collagen hydrolysate obtained from chromium tanned leather waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Madhu, S.; Chandra Babu, N.K.; Shanthi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics serve as an alternative to autogenous-free bone grafting by virtue of their excellent biocompatibility. However, chemically synthesized HA lacks the strong load-bearing capacity as required by bone. The bio-mimetic growth of HA crystals on collagen surface provides a feasible solution for synthesizing bone substitutes with the desired properties. This study deals with the utilization of the collagen hydrolysate recovered from leather waste as a substrate for promoting HA crystal growth. Bio-mimetic growth of HA was induced by subjecting the hydrolysate to various mineralization conditions. Parameters that would have a direct effect on crystal growth were varied to determine the optimal conditions necessary. Maximum mineralization was achieved with a combination of 10 mM of CaCl 2 , 5 mM of Na 2 HPO 4 , 100 mM of NaCl and 0.575% glutaraldehyde at a pH of 7.4. The metal–protein interactions leading to formation of HA were identified through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystal dimensions were determined to be in the nanoscale range by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size and crystallinity of bio-mimetically grown HA indicate that hydrolysate from leather waste can be used as an ideal alternative substrate for bone growth. - Highlights: • Collagen hydrolysate, extracted from leather industry waste is subjected to biomineralization. • Optimal conditions required for HA growth are identified. • FTIR studies reveal higher Ca−COO − and low C−N stretch with higher HA formation. • AFM and SEM studies reveal nanometer ranged HA crystals

  12. Smac mimetic-derived augmentation of chemotherapeutic response in experimental pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy, in part due to the overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs. Smac is an endogenous IAP-antagonist, which renders synthetic Smac mimetics attractive anticancer agents. We evaluated the benefits of combining a Smac mimetic, JP1201 (JP, with conventional chemotherapy agents used for PDAC management. Methods Cell viability assays and protein expression analysis were performed using WST-1 reagent and Western blotting, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. In vivo tumor growth and survival studies were performed in murine PDAC xenografts. Results JP and gemcitabine (Gem inhibited PDAC cell proliferation with additive effects in combination. The percentage of early apoptotic cells in controls, JP, Gem and JP + Gem was 17%, 26%, 26% and 38%, respectively. JP-induced apoptosis was accompanied by PARP-1 cleavage. Similar additive anti-proliferative effects were seen for combinations of JP with doxorubicin (Dox and docetaxel (DT. The JP + Gem combination caused a 30% decrease in tumor size in vivo compared to controls. Median animal survival was improved significantly in mice treated with JP + Gem (38 d compared to controls (22 d, JP (28 d or Gem (32 d (p = 0.01. Animal survival was also improved with JP + DT treatment (32 d compared to controls (16 d, JP (21 d or DT alone (27 d. Conclusions These results warrant further exploration of strategies that promote chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of tumors and highlight the potential of Smac mimetics in clinical PDAC therapy.

  13. Mimetic Theory and the evolutionary paradox of schizophrenia: The archetypal scapegoat hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia poses an evolutionary paradox, being genetically mediated yet associated with reduced fecundity. Numerous hypotheses have attempted to address this, but few describe how the schizophrenic phenotype itself might constitute an evolutionary adaptation. This paper draws on René Girard's theory on human origins, which claims that humans evolved a tendency to mimic both the desires and the behaviours of each other (mimetic theory). This would have promoted social cohesion and co-operation, but at the cost of intra-group rivalry and conflict. The mimetic dynamic would have escalated such conflicts into reciprocal internecine violence, threatening the survival of the entire group. Girard theorised that the "scapegoat mechanism" emerged, by which means such violence was curtailed by the unanimity of "all against one", thus allowing the mimetic impulse to safely evolve further, making language and complex social behaviours possible. Whereas scapegoating may have emerged in the entire population, and any member of a community could be scapegoated if necessary, this paper proposes that the scapegoat mechanism would have worked better in groups containing members who exhibited traits, recognised by all others, which singled them out as victims. Schizophrenia may be a functional adaptation, similar in evolutionary terms to altruism, in that it may have increased inclusive fitness, by providing scapegoat victims, the choice of whom was likely to be agreed upon unanimously, even during internecine conflict, thus restoring order and protecting the group from self-destruction. This evolutionary hypothesis, uses Girardian anthropology to combine the concept of the schizophrenic as religious shaman with that of the schizophrenic as scapegoat. It may help to reconcile divergent philosophical concepts of mental illness, and also help us to better understand, and thus counter, social exclusion and stigmatisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory and link invariants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Grau, Javier [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Leal, Lorenzo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Centro de Física Teórica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47270, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory is presented. The study relies on the formulation of a theory of differential forms in the lattice, including a consistent definition of the Hodge duality operation. Explicit expressions for the Gauss Linking Number in the lattice, which correspond to their continuum counterparts are given. A discussion of the discretization of metric structures in the space of transverse vector densities is presented. The study of these metrics could serve to obtain explicit formulae for knot an link invariants in the lattice.

  15. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has

  16. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  17. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  18. Stick–slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of gecko ‘frictional-adhesion’ adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick–slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick–slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick–slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. PMID:25589569

  19. Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid (also known as vitamin B3 is a dietary element essential for physiological and antihyperlipidemic functions. This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids. The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. Copper complex of nicotinic-phthalic acids (CuNA/Ph was the most potent with a SOD mimetic activity of IC50 34.42 μM. The SOD activities were observed to correlate well with the theoretical parameters as calculated using density functional theory (DFT at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Interestingly, the SOD activity of the copper complex CuNA/Ph was positively correlated with the electron affinity (EA value. The two quantum chemical parameters, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, were shown to be appropriate for understanding the mechanism of the metal complexes as their calculated energies show good correlation with the SOD activity. Moreover, copper complex with the highest SOD activity were shown to possess the lowest HOMO energy. These findings demonstrate a great potential for the development of value-added metallovitamin-based therapeutics.

  20. Stick-slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-03-06

    The discovery and understanding of gecko 'frictional-adhesion' adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick-slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick-slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick-slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Possess Insulin-Mimetic and Antioxidant Activities in Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Prata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes. Likewise the insulin effect, steviol glycosides caused an increase in glucose uptake into rat fibroblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus inducing Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The presence of S961, an insulin antagonist, completely abolished these effects, allowing to hypothesize that steviol glycosides could act as ligands of the same receptor engaged by insulin. Moreover, steviol glycosides counteracted oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione intracellular levels and upregulating expression and activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. The present work unravels the insulin-mimetic effect and the antioxidant property exerted by steviol glycosides, suggesting their potential beneficial role in the cotreatment of diabetes and in health maintenance.

  2. Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Possess Insulin-Mimetic and Antioxidant Activities in Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Cecilia; Zambonin, Laura; Rizzo, Benedetta; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes. Likewise the insulin effect, steviol glycosides caused an increase in glucose uptake into rat fibroblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus inducing Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The presence of S961, an insulin antagonist, completely abolished these effects, allowing to hypothesize that steviol glycosides could act as ligands of the same receptor engaged by insulin. Moreover, steviol glycosides counteracted oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione intracellular levels and upregulating expression and activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. The present work unravels the insulin-mimetic effect and the antioxidant property exerted by steviol glycosides, suggesting their potential beneficial role in the cotreatment of diabetes and in health maintenance. PMID:28947927

  3. Methods and Experimental Protocols to Design a Simulated Bio-Mimetic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi El Daou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bio-mimetic approach to design and simulate a tortoise-like virtual robot. This study takes a multidisciplinary approach: from in vivo and in vitro experiments on animals, data are collected and used to design, control and simulate a bio-mimetic virtual robot using MD ADAMS platform. From the in vitro experiments, the geometrical and inertial properties of body limbs are measured, and a model of tortoise kinematics is derived. From the in vivo experiments the contact forces between each limb and the ground are measured. The contributions of hind and forelimbs in the generation of propelling and braking forces are studied. The motion of the joints between limb segments are recorded and used to solve the inverse kinematics problem. A virtual model of a tortoise-like robot is built; it is a linkage of 15 rigid bodies articulated by 22 degrees of freedom. This model is referred to as TATOR II. It has the inertial and geometrical properties measured during the in vitro experiments. TATOR II motion is achieved using a Proportional-Derivative controller copying the joint angle trajectories calculated from the in vivo experiments.

  4. A mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem with elected edge bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berirao, L [DIPARTMENTO DI MATERMATICA

    2009-01-01

    A new mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem is proposed and analyzed. The unstable P{sub 1}-P{sub 0} discretization is stabilized by adding a small number of bubble functions to selected mesh edges. A simple strategy for selecting such edges is proposed and verified with numerical experiments. The discretizations schemes for Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations must satisfy the celebrated inf-sup (or the LBB) stability condition. The stability condition implies a balance between discrete spaces for velocity and pressure. In finite elements, this balance is frequently achieved by adding bubble functions to the velocity space. The goal of this article is to show that the stabilizing edge bubble functions can be added only to a small set of mesh edges. This results in a smaller algebraic system and potentially in a faster calculations. We employ the mimetic finite difference (MFD) discretization technique that works for general polyhedral meshes and can accomodate non-uniform distribution of stabilizing bubbles.

  5. Differential Effects of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics after Mechanical Overload of Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell C. Coleman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic osteoarthritis can develop as a result of the initial mechanical impact causing the injury and also as a result of chronic changes in mechanical loading of the joint. Aberrant mechanical loading initiates excessive production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and stress that appears to damage mitochondria in the surviving chondrocytes. To probe the benefits of increasing superoxide removal with small molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetics under severe loads, we applied both impact and overload injury scenarios to bovine osteochondral explants using characterized mechanical platforms with and without GC4403, MnTE-2-PyP, and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP. In impact scenarios, each of these mimetics provides some dose-dependent protection from cell death and loss of mitochondrial content while in repeated overloading scenarios only MnTnBuOE-2-PyP provided a clear benefit to chondrocytes. These results support the hypothesis that superoxide is generated in excess after impact injuries and suggest that superoxide production within the lipid compartment may be a critical mediator of responses to chronic overload. This is an important nuance distinguishing roles of superoxide, and thus superoxide dismutases, in mediating damage to cellular machinery in hyper-acute impact scenarios compared to chronic scenarios.

  6. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  7. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Polymer-Induced Swelling of Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kreuzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH in D2O. The positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules interact with the lipid bilayers and induce a drastic increase in their d-spacing by a factor of ~4. Temperature, time, and pH influence the swollen interfacial lipid linings. From our study, we conclude that electrostatic interactions introduced by the adsorbed PAH are the main cause for the drastic swelling of the lipid coatings. The DMPC membrane stacks do not detach from their solid support at T > Tm. Steric interactions, also introduced by the PAH molecules, are held responsible for the stabilizing effect. We believe that this novel system offers great potential for fundamental studies of biomembrane properties, keeping the membrane’s natural fluidity and freedom, decoupled from a solid support at physiological conditions.

  9. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin when used in conjunction with incretin-mimetic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulcher, G.; Matthews, D. R.; Perkovic, V.; de Zeeuw, D.; Mahaffey, K. W.; Mathieu, C.; Woo, V.; Wysham, C.; Capuano, G.; Desai, M.; Shaw, W.; Vercruysse, F.; Meininger, G.; Neal, B.

    Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) who were on an incretin mimetic [dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor or

  10. L-Eye to Me: The Combined Role of Need for Cognition and Facial Trustworthiness in Mimetic Desires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinen, Evelyne; Corneille, Olivier; Luypaert, Gaylord

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies showed that stimuli are evaluated more favourably when they are perceived to capture others' attention, an effect coined "mimetic desire". The aim of the present research was to examine the combined role of Need for Cognition and target's facial trustworthiness in this effect. Participants saw movie excerpts of trustworthy and…

  11. Diabetes-impaired wound healing is improved by matrix therapy with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic OTR4120 in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tong (Miao); B. Tuk (Bastiaan); P. Shang (Peng); J.M. Hekking-Weijma (Ineke); E.M.G. Fijneman (Esther ); M. Guijt (Marnix); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); J.W. van Neck (Han)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWound healing in diabetes is frequently impaired, and its treatment remains a challenge. We tested a therapeutic strategy of potentiating intrinsic tissue regeneration by restoring the wound cellular environment using a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan mimetic, OTR4120. The effect of

  12. A mechanical model of a non-uniform ionomeric polymer metal composite actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Mart; Aabloo, Alvo; Punning, Andres; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a mechanical model of an IPMC (ionomeric polymer metal composite) actuator in a cantilever beam configuration. The main contribution of our model is that it gives the most detailed description reported so far of the quasistatic mechanical behaviour of the actuator with non-uniform bending at large deflections. We also investigate a case where part of an IPMC actuator is replaced with a rigid elongation and demonstrate that this configuration would make the actuator behave more linearly. The model is experimentally validated with MuscleSheet(TM) IPMCs, purchased from BioMimetics Inc

  13. Fibronectin- and collagen-mimetic ligands regulate bone marrow stromal cell chondrogenesis in three-dimensional hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Connelly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modification of tissue engineering scaffolds with bioactive molecules is a potential strategy for modulating cell behavior and guiding tissue regeneration. While adhesion to RGD peptides has been shown to inhibit in vitro chondrogenesis, the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM-mimetic ligands with complex secondary and tertiary structures are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether collagen- and fibronectin-mimetic ligands would retain biologic functionality in three-dimensional (3D hydrogels, whether different ECM-mimetic ligands differentially influence in vitro chondrogenesis, and if effects of ligands on differentiation depend on soluble biochemical stimuli. A linear RGD peptide, a recombinant fibronectin fragment containing the seven to ten Type III repeats (FnIII7-10 and a triple helical, collagen mimetic peptide with the GFOGER motif were covalently coupled to agarose gels using the sulfo-SANPAH crosslinker, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were cultured within the 3D hydrogels. The ligands retained biologic functionality within the agarose gels and promoted density-dependent BMSC spreading. Interactions with all adhesive ligands inhibited stimulation by chondrogenic factors of collagen Type II and aggrecan mRNA levels and deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. In medium containing fetal bovine serum, interactions with the GFOGER peptide enhanced mRNA expression of the osteogenic gene osteocalcin whereas FnIII7-10 inhibited osteocalcin expression. In conclusion, modification of agarose hydrogels with ECM-mimetic ligands can influence the differentiation of BMSCs in a manner that depends strongly on the presence and nature of soluble biochemical stimuli.

  14. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  15. Advances in the design and higher-order assembly of collagen mimetic peptides for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin; Chmielewski, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Regenerative medicine makes use of cell-supporting biomaterials to replace lost or damaged tissue. Collagen holds great potential in this regard caused by its biocompatibility and structural versatility. While natural collagen has shown promise for regenerative medicine, collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have emerged that allow far higher degrees of customization and ease of preparation. A wide range of two and three-dimensional assemblies have been generated from CMPs, many of which accommodate cellular adhesion and encapsulation, through careful sequence design and the exploitation of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. But the methodology that has generated the greatest plethora of viable biomaterials is metal-promoted assembly of CMP triple helices-a rapid process that occurs under physiological conditions. Architectures generated in this manner promote cell growth, enable directed attachment of bioactive cargo, and produce living tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic, structural mimetics of the β-hairpin flap of HIV-1 protease inhibit enzyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Jay; Chen, Shen-En; Fenstermacher, Katherine J; Naser-Tavakolian, Aurash; Reingewertz, Tali; Salmo, Rosene; Lee, Christian; Williams, Emori; Raje, Mithun; Sundberg, Eric; DeStefano, Jeffrey J; Freire, Ernesto; Fletcher, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Small-molecule mimetics of the β-hairpin flap of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) were designed based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffold as a strategy to interfere with the flap-flap protein-protein interaction, which functions as a gated mechanism to control access to the active site. Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggested our small-molecules are competitive inhibitors, which indicates the mode of inhibition is through binding the active site or sterically blocking access to the active site and preventing flap closure, as designed. More generally, a new bioactive scaffold for HIV-1PR inhibition has been discovered, with the most potent compound inhibiting the protease with a modest K(i) of 11 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Situ Enzymatically Generated Photoswitchable Oxidase Mimetics and Their Application for Colorimetric Detection of Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gen-Xia; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Wang, Guang-Li

    2016-07-09

    In this study, a simple and amplified colorimetric assay is developed for the detection of the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on in situ formation of a photoswitchable oxidase mimetic of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). GOx catalyzes the oxidation of 1-thio-β-d-glucose to give 1-thio-β-d-gluconic acid which spontaneously hydrolyzes to β-d-gluconic acid and H₂S; the generated H₂S instantly reacts with Cd(2+) in the presence of Na₃PO₄ to give PO₄(3-)-stabilized CdS QDs in situ. Under visible-light (λ ≥ 400 nm) stimulation, the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs are a new style of oxidase mimic derived by producing some active species, such as h⁺, (•)OH, O₂(•-) and a little H₂O₂, which can oxidize the typical substrate (3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzydine (TMB)) with a color change. Based on the GOx-triggered growth of the oxidase mimetics of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs in situ, we developed a simple and amplified colorimetric assay to probe the enzymatic activity of GOx. The proposed method allowed the detection of the enzymatic activity of GOx over the range from 25 μg/L to 50 mg/L with a low detection limit of 6.6 μg/L. We believe the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs generated in situ with photo-stimulated enzyme-mimicking activity may find wide potential applications in biosensors.

  18. The BH3 Mimetic Obatoclax Accumulates in Lysosomes and Causes Their Alkalinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelos, Vasileios A; Fisher, Natalie; Bamrah, Harnoor; Voisey, Carolyn; Price, Joshua C; Farrell, William E; Redman, Charles W; Richardson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Obatoclax belongs to a class of compounds known as BH3 mimetics which function as antagonists of Bcl-2 family apoptosis regulators. It has undergone extensive preclinical and clinical evaluation as a cancer therapeutic. Despite this, it is clear that obatoclax has additional pharmacological effects that contribute to its cytotoxic activity. It has been claimed that obatoclax, either alone or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapeutics, induces an autophagic form of cell death. In addition, obatoclax has been shown to inhibit lysosomal function, but the mechanism of this has not been elucidated. We have evaluated the mechanism of action of obatoclax in eight ovarian cancer cell lines. Consistent with its function as a BH3 mimetic, obatoclax induced apoptosis in three cell lines. However, in the remaining cell lines another form of cell death was evident because caspase activation and PARP cleavage were not observed. Obatoclax also failed to show synergy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, chemotherapeutic agents which we have previously shown to be synergistic with authentic Bcl-2 family antagonists. Obatoclax induced a profound accumulation of LC-3 but knockdown of Atg-5 or beclin had only minor effects on the activity of obatoclax in cell growth assays suggesting that the inhibition of lysosomal function rather than stimulation of autophagy may play a more prominent role in these cells. To evaluate how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function, confocal microscopy studies were conducted which demonstrated that obatoclax, which contains two basic pyrrole groups, accumulates in lysosomes. Studies using pH sensitive dyes demonstrated that obatoclax induced lysosomal alkalinization. Furthermore, obatoclax was synergistic in cell growth/survival assays with bafilomycin and chloroquine, two other drugs which cause lysosomal alkalinization. These studies explain, for the first time, how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function and suggest that lysosomal

  19. Metabolic effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Schnabel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine A Schnabel, Matthew Wintle, Orville KoltermanAmylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 9360 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 110, San Diego, CA 92121, USAAbstract: Interventional studies have demonstrated the impact of hyperglycemia on the development of vascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes, which underscores the importance of safely lowering glucose to as near-normal as possible. Among the current challenges to reducing the risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes is the management of body weight in a predominantly overweight patient population, and in which weight gain is likely with many current therapies. Exenatide is the first in a new class of agents termed incretin mimetics, which replicate several glucoregulatory effects of the endogenous incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. Currently approved in the US as an injectable adjunct to metformin and/or sulfonylurea therapy, exenatide improves glycemic control through multiple mechanisms of action including: glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion that potentially reduces the risk of hypoglycemia compared with insulin secretagogues; restoration of first-phase insulin secretion typically deficient in patients with type 2 diabetes; suppression of inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion to reduce postprandial hepatic output; and slowing the rate of gastric emptying to regulate glucose appearance into the circulation. Clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with subcutaneous exenatide twice daily demonstrated sustained improvements in glycemic control, evidenced by reductions in postprandial and fasting glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. Notably, improvements in glycemic control with exenatide were coupled with progressive reductions in body weight, which represents a distinct therapeutic benefit for patients with type 2 diabetes. Acute effects of exenatide on beta-cell responsiveness along with significant reductions

  20. Strain-dependent characterization of electrode and polymer network of electrically activated polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpper, Tino; Osmani, Bekim; Weiss, Florian M.; Winterhalter, Carla; Wohlfender, Fabian; Leung, Vanessa; Müller, Bert

    2015-04-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content and affects about 45 % of retirement home residents and overall more than 12 % of the adult population. Artificial sphincter implants for treating incontinence are currently based on mechanical systems with failure rates resulting in revision after three to five years. To overcome this drawback, artificial muscle sphincters based on bio-mimetic electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators are under development. Such implants require polymer films that are nanometer-thin, allowing actuation below 24 V, and electrodes that are stretchable, remaining conductive at strains of about 10 %. Strain-dependent resistivity measurements reveal an enhanced conductivity of 10 nm compared to 30 nm sputtered Au on silicone for strains higher than 5 %. Thus, strain-dependent morphology characterization with optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy could demonstrate these phenomena. Cantilever bending measurements are utilized to determine elastic/viscoelastic properties of the EAP films as well as their long-term actuation behavior. Controlling these properties enables the adjustment of growth parameters of nanometer-thin EAP actuators.

  1. Smac Mimetic Bypasses Apoptosis Resistance in FADD- or Caspase-8-Deficient Cells by Priming for Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Induced Necroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Laukens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Searching for new strategies to bypass apoptosis resistance, we investigated the potential of the Smac mimetic BV6 in Jurkat leukemia cells deficient in key molecules of the death receptor pathway. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Smac mimetic primes apoptosis-resistant, FADD- or caspase-8-deficient leukemia cells for TNFα-induced necroptosis in a synergistic manner. In contrast to TNFα, Smac mimetic significantly enhances CD95-induced apoptosis in wild-type but not in FADD-deficient cells. Interestingly, Smac mimetic- and TNFα-mediated cell death occurs without characteristic features of apoptosis (i.e., caspase activation, DNA fragmentation in FADD-deficient cells. By comparison, Smac mimetic and TNFα trigger activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and DNA fragmentation in wild-type cells. Consistently, the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk fails to block Smac mimetic- and TNFα-triggered cell death in FADD- or caspase-8-deficient cells, while it confers protection in wild-type cells. By comparison, necrostatin-1, an RIP1 kinase inhibitor, abolishes Smac mimetic- and TNFα-induced cell death in FADD- or caspase-8-deficient. Thus, Smac mimetic enhances TNFα-induced cell death in leukemia cells via two distinct pathways in a context-dependent manner: it primes apoptosis-resistant cells lacking FADD or caspase-8 to TNFα-induced, RIP1-dependent and caspase-independent necroptosis, whereas it sensitizes apoptosis-proficient cells to TNFα-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to overcome apoptosis resistance.

  2. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  3. Scaling mimesis: Morphometric and ecomorphological similarities in three sympatric plant-mimetic fish of the family Carangidae (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Alexya Cunha de; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sakai, Yoichi; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Barros, Breno

    2018-01-01

    The mimetic juveniles of a number of carangid fish species resemble plant parts floating near the water surface, such as leaves, seeds and other plant debris. The present study is the first to verify the morphological similarities and ecomorphological relationships between three carangids (Oligoplites saurus, Oligoplites palometa and Trachinotus falcatus) and their associated plant models. Behavioral observations were conducted in the estuary of Curuçá River, in northeastern Pará (Brazil) between August 2015 and July 2016. Individual fishes and associated floating objects (models) were sampled for comparative analysis using both geometric and morphometric approaches. While the mimetic fish and their models retain their own distinct, intrinsic morphological features, a high degree of morphological similarity was found between each fish species and its model. The morphometric analyses revealed a general tendency of isometric development in all three fish species, probably related to their pelagic habitats, during all ontogenetic stages.

  4. The arbitrary order mimetic finite difference method for a diffusion equation with a non-symmetric diffusion tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrya, V.; Lipnikov, K.

    2017-11-01

    We present the arbitrary order mimetic finite difference (MFD) discretization for the diffusion equation with non-symmetric tensorial diffusion coefficient in a mixed formulation on general polygonal meshes. The diffusion tensor is assumed to be positive definite. The asymmetry of the diffusion tensor requires changes to the standard MFD construction. We present new approach for the construction that guarantees positive definiteness of the non-symmetric mass matrix in the space of discrete velocities. The numerically observed convergence rate for the scalar quantity matches the predicted one in the case of the lowest order mimetic scheme. For higher orders schemes, we observed super-convergence by one order for the scalar variable which is consistent with the previously published result for a symmetric diffusion tensor. The new scheme was also tested on a time-dependent problem modeling the Hall effect in the resistive magnetohydrodynamics.

  5. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG1...

  6. Bioinspired Hydroxyapatite/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite with a Nacre-Mimetic Architecture by a Bidirectional Freezing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Walsh, Flynn; Gludovatz, Bernd; Delattre, Benjamin; Huang, Caili; Chen, Yuan; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-01-06

    Using a bidirectional freezing technique, combined with uniaxial pressing and in situ polymerization, "nacre-mimetic" hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are developed by processing large-scale aligned lamellar ceramic scaffolds. Structural and mechanical characterization shows "brick-and-mortar" structures, akin to nacre, with interesting combinations of strength, stiffness, and work of fracture, which provide a pathway to making strong and tough lightweight materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of the Nerve Growth Factor Mimetic GK-2 on Brain Structural and Functional State in the Early Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 used to improve the structural and functional state of the brain in the early postresuscitation period. Material and methods. Cardiac arrest was induced in mature male albino rats for 12 minutes, followed by resuscitation. The neurological state of the resuscitated animals was assessed by a scoring scale. On postresuscitation day 7, the density and composition of neuronal populations of Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar region and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector were determined by a differential morphometric analysis. The results were statistically processed using the ANOVA method. Results. The use of GK-2 was found to accelerate neurological recovery in the resuscitated animals. On day 7 after 12-minute cardiac arrest, the resuscitated animals showed neuronal dystrophic changes and death in the neuronal populations highly susceptible to ischemia. It was shown that the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 contributed to a reduction in the magnitude and depth of postresuscitation changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and prevented dystrophic changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector. The findings suggest that GK-2 has a neuroprotective effect in the recovery period after total body ischemia. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 in improving the brain structural and functional state in the early postresuscitation period. This determines perspectives for the use of GK-2 to prevent and correct posthypoxic encephalopathies. Key words: the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2, postresuscitation period, neuronal dystrophic changes and death, neurological status.

  8. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polymer dynamics; reptation; domain dynamics biomolecules. Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the ...

  9. Human Lactoferricin Is Partially Folded in Aqueous Solution and Is Better Stabilized in a Membrane Mimetic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard N.; Demcoe, A. Ross; Jenssen, Håvard; Gutteberg, Tore J.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferricins are highly basic bioactive peptides that are released in the stomach through proteolytic cleavage of various lactoferrin proteins. Here we have determined the solution structure of human lactoferricin (LfcinH) by conventional two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods in both aqueous solution and a membrane mimetic solvent. Unlike the 25-residue bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), which adopts a somewhat distorted antiparallel β sheet, the longer LfcinH peptide shows a helical content from Gln14 to Lys29 in the membrane mimetic solvent but a nonexistent β-sheet character in either the N- or C-terminal regions of the peptide. The helical characteristic of the LfcinH peptide resembles the conformation that this region adopts in the crystal structure of the intact protein. The LfcinH structure determined in aqueous solution displays a nascent helix in the form of a coiled conformation in the region from Gln14 to Lys29. Numerous hydrophobic interactions create the basis for the better-defined overall structure observed in the membrane mimetic solvent. The 49-residue LfcinH peptide isolated for these studies was found to be slightly longer than previously reported peptide preparations and was found to have an intact peptide bond between residues Ala11 and Val12. The distinct solution structures of LfcinH and LfcinB represent a novel difference in the physical properties of these two peptides, which contributes to their unique physiological activities. PMID:16048952

  10. Tetra(p-tolyl)borate-functionalized solvent polymeric membrane: a facile and sensitive sensing platform for peroxidase and peroxidase mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Qin, Wei

    2013-07-22

    The determination of peroxidase activities is the basis for enzyme-labeled bioaffinity assays, peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes- and nanoparticles-based assays, and characterization of the catalytic functions of peroxidase mimetics. Here, a facile, sensitive, and cost-effective solvent polymeric membrane-based peroxidase detection platform is described that utilizes reaction intermediates with different pKa values from those of substrates and final products. Several key but long-debated intermediates in the peroxidative oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) have been identified and their charge states have been estimated. By using a solvent polymeric membrane functionalized by an appropriate substituted tetraphenylborate as a receptor, those cationic intermediates could be transferred into the membrane from the aqueous phase to induce a large cationic potential response. Thus, the potentiometric indication of the o-PD oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase or its mimetics can be fulfilled. Horseradish peroxidase has been detected with a detection limit at least two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by spectrophotometric techniques and traditional membrane-based methods. As an example of peroxidase mimetics, G-quadruplex DNAzymes were probed by the intermediate-sensitive membrane and a label-free thrombin detection protocol was developed based on the catalytic activity of the thrombin-binding G-quadruplex aptamer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Using superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics to manipulate the redox environment of neural precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Giedzinski, E.; Baure, J.; Doctrow, S. R.; Rola, R.; Fike, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Past work has shown that neural precursor cells are predisposed to redox sensitive changes, and that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the acute and persistent changes that occur within the irradiated CNS. Irradiation leads to a marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that correlates with oxidative endpoints in vivo and reductions in neuro-genesis. To better understand the impact of oxidative stress on neural precursor cells, and to determine if radiation-induced oxidative damage and precursor cell loss after irradiation could be reduced, a series of antioxidant compounds (EUK-134, EUK-163, EUK-172, EUK-189) were tested, three of which possess both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and one (EUK-163) whose only significant activity is SOD. Our results show that these SOD/catalase mimetics apparently increase the oxidation of a ROS-sensitive fluorescent indicator dye, particularly after short (12 h) treatments, but that longer treatments (24 h) decrease oxidation attributable to radiation-induced ROS. Similarly, other studies found that cells incubated with CuZnSOD showed some increase in intracellular ROS levels. Subsequent data suggested that the dye-oxidising capabilities of the EUK compounds were linked to differences in their catalase activity and, most likely, their ability to catalyse per-oxidative pathways. In unirradiated mice, the EUK-134 analogue induced some decrease of proliferating precursor cells and immature neurons 48 h after radiation, an effect that may be attributable to cytotoxicity and/or inhibition of precursor proliferation. In irradiated mice, a single injection of EUK-134 was not found to be an effective radioprotector at acute times (48 h). The present results support continued development of our in vitro model as a tool for predicting certain in vivo responses, and suggest that in some biological systems the capability to scavenge superoxide but produce excess H 2 O 2 , as is known for CuZnSOD, may be

  12. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  13. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. Mimetic finite difference method for the stokes problem on polygonal meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beirao Da Veiga, L [DIPARTIMENTO DI MATE; Gyrya, V [PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV; Manzini, G [ISTIUTO DI MATEMATICA

    2009-01-01

    Various approaches to extend the finite element methods to non-traditional elements (pyramids, polyhedra, etc.) have been developed over the last decade. Building of basis functions for such elements is a challenging task and may require extensive geometry analysis. The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method has many similarities with low-order finite element methods. Both methods try to preserve fundamental properties of physical and mathematical models. The essential difference is that the MFD method uses only the surface representation of discrete unknowns to build stiffness and mass matrices. Since no extension inside the mesh element is required, practical implementation of the MFD method is simple for polygonal meshes that may include degenerate and non-convex elements. In this article, we develop a MFD method for the Stokes problem on arbitrary polygonal meshes. The method is constructed for tensor coefficients, which will allow to apply it to the linear elasticity problem. The numerical experiments show the second-order convergence for the velocity variable and the first-order for the pressure.

  15. In Vitro Mimetic Models for the Bone-Cartilage Interface Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Diana; Pina, Sandra; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L

    2018-01-01

    In embryonic development, pure cartilage structures are in the basis of bone-cartilage interfaces. Despite this fact, the mature bone and cartilage structures can vary greatly in composition and function. Nevertheless, they collaborate in the osteochondral region to create a smooth transition zone that supports the movements and forces resulting from the daily activities. In this sense, all the hierarchical organization is involved in the maintenance and reestablishment of the equilibrium in case of damage. Therefore, this interface has attracted a great deal of interest in order to understand the mechanisms of regeneration or disease progression in osteoarthritis. With that purpose, in vitro tissue models (either static or dynamic) have been studied. Static in vitro tissue models include monocultures, co-cultures, 3D cultures, and ex vivo cultures, mostly cultivated in flat surfaces, while dynamic models involve the use of bioreactors and microfluidic systems. The latter have emerged as alternatives to study the cellular interactions in a more authentic manner over some disadvantages of the static models. The current alternatives of in vitro mimetic models for bone-cartilage interface regeneration are overviewed and discussed herein.

  16. Synthetic mimetics of the endogenous gastrointestinal nanomineral: Silent constructs that trap macromolecules for intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pele, Laetitia C; Haas, Carolin T; Hewitt, Rachel E; Robertson, Jack; Skepper, Jeremy; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Faria, Nuno; Chappell, Helen; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-02-01

    Amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate (AMCP) nanoparticles (75-150nm) form constitutively in large numbers in the mammalian gut. Collective evidence indicates that they trap and deliver luminal macromolecules to mucosal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and facilitate gut immune homeostasis. Here, we report on a synthetic mimetic of the endogenous AMCP and show that it has marked capacity to trap macromolecules during formation. Macromolecular capture into AMCP involved incorporation as shown by STEM tomography of the synthetic AMCP particle with 5nm ultra-fine iron (III) oxohydroxide. In vitro, organic cargo-loaded synthetic AMCP was taken up by APCs and tracked to lysosomal compartments. The AMCP itself did not regulate any gene, or modify any gene regulation by its cargo, based upon whole genome transcriptomic analyses. We conclude that synthetic AMCP can efficiently trap macromolecules and deliver them to APCs in a silent fashion, and may thus represent a new platform for antigen delivery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of triple-helical, collagen-mimetic lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayati; Hanson, Andrea J; Muhonen, Wallace W; Shabb, John B; Mallik, Sanku

    2018-01-01

    Collagen-mimetic peptides and lipopeptides are widely used as substrates for matrix degrading enzymes, as new biomaterials for tissue engineering, as drug delivery systems and so on. However, the preparation and subsequent purification of these peptides and their fatty-acid conjugates are really challenging. Herein, we report a rapid microwave-assisted, solid-phase synthetic protocol to prepare the fatty-acid conjugated, triple-helical peptides containing the cleavage site for the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We employed a PEG-based resin as the solid support and the amino acids were protected with Fmoc- and tert-butyl groups. The amino acids were coupled at 50 °C (25 W of microwave power) for 5 min. The deprotection reactions were carried out at 75 °C (35 W of microwave power) for 3 min. Using this protocol, a peptide containing 23 amino acids was synthesized and then conjugated to stearic acid in 14 h. PMID:20057380

  18. Discrete conservation properties for shallow water flows using mixed mimetic spectral elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2018-03-01

    A mixed mimetic spectral element method is applied to solve the rotating shallow water equations. The mixed method uses the recently developed spectral element histopolation functions, which exactly satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus with respect to the standard Lagrange basis functions in one dimension. These are used to construct tensor product solution spaces which satisfy the generalized Stokes theorem, as well as the annihilation of the gradient operator by the curl and the curl by the divergence. This allows for the exact conservation of first order moments (mass, vorticity), as well as higher moments (energy, potential enstrophy), subject to the truncation error of the time stepping scheme. The continuity equation is solved in the strong form, such that mass conservation holds point wise, while the momentum equation is solved in the weak form such that vorticity is globally conserved. While mass, vorticity and energy conservation hold for any quadrature rule, potential enstrophy conservation is dependent on exact spatial integration. The method possesses a weak form statement of geostrophic balance due to the compatible nature of the solution spaces and arbitrarily high order spatial error convergence.

  19. Data assimilation method for fractured reservoirs using mimetic finite differences and ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ping, Jing

    2017-05-19

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. For fractured reservoirs, the location and orientation of fractures are crucial for predicting production characteristics. With the help of accurate and comprehensive knowledge of fracture distributions, early water/CO 2 breakthrough can be prevented and sweep efficiency can be improved. However, since the rock property fields are highly non-Gaussian in this case, it is a challenge to estimate fracture distributions by conventional history matching approaches. In this work, a method that combines vector-based level-set parameterization technique and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for estimating fracture distributions is presented. Performing the necessary forward modeling is particularly challenging. In addition to the large number of forward models needed, each model is used for sampling of randomly located fractures. Conventional mesh generation for such systems would be time consuming if possible at all. For these reasons, we rely on a novel polyhedral mesh method using the mimetic finite difference (MFD) method. A discrete fracture model is adopted that maintains the full geometry of the fracture network. By using a cut-cell paradigm, a computational mesh for the matrix can be generated quickly and reliably. In this research, we apply this workflow on 2D two-phase fractured reservoirs. The combination of MFD approach, level-set parameterization, and EnKF provides an effective solution to address the challenges in the history matching problem of highly non-Gaussian fractured reservoirs.

  20. M402, a novel heparan sulfate mimetic, targets multiple pathways implicated in tumor progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhou

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS mimetic, designed to inhibit multiple factors implicated in tumor-host cell interactions, including VEGF, FGF2, SDF-1α, P-selectin, and heparanase. A single s.c. dose of M402 effectively inhibited seeding of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the lung in an experimental metastasis model. Fluorescent-labeled M402 demonstrated selective accumulation in the primary tumor. Immunohistological analyses of the primary tumor revealed a decrease in microvessel density in M402 treated animals, suggesting anti-angiogenesis to be one of the mechanisms involved in-vivo. M402 treatment also normalized circulating levels of myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice. Chronic administration of M402, alone or in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel, inhibited spontaneous metastasis and prolonged survival in an orthotopic 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. These data demonstrate that modulating HSPG biology represents a novel approach to target multiple factors involved in tumor progression and metastasis.

  1. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  2. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  3. Wing scale ultrastructure underlying convergent and divergent iridescent colours in mimetic Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew J; Bradford, James E; Curran, Emma V; Washington, Adam L; Adams, Gracie; Brien, Melanie N; Burg, Stephanie L; Morochz, Carlos; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Vukusic, Pete; Martin, Simon J; Doak, Scott; Nadeau, Nicola J

    2018-04-01

    Iridescence is an optical phenomenon whereby colour changes with the illumination and viewing angle. It can be produced by thin film interference or diffraction. Iridescent optical structures are fairly common in nature, but relatively little is known about their production or evolution. Here we describe the structures responsible for producing blue-green iridescent colour in Heliconius butterflies. Overall the wing scale structures of iridescent and non-iridescent Heliconius species are very similar, both having longitudinal ridges joined by cross-ribs. However, iridescent scales have ridges composed of layered lamellae, which act as multilayer reflectors. Differences in brightness between species can be explained by the extent of overlap of the lamellae and their curvature as well as the density of ridges on the scale. Heliconius are well known for their Müllerian mimicry. We find that iridescent structural colour is not closely matched between co-mimetic species. Differences appear less pronounced in models of Heliconius vision than models of avian vision, suggesting that they are not driven by selection to avoid heterospecific courtship by co-mimics. Ridge profiles appear to evolve relatively slowly, being similar between closely related taxa, while ridge density evolves faster and is similar between distantly related co-mimics. © 2018 The Authors.

  4. Design and facile synthesis of neoglycolipids as lactosylceramide mimetics and their transformation into glycoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yoichiro; Murata, Takeomi; Totani, Kazuhide; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Masum, Shah Md; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Masahito; Usui, Taichi

    2005-01-01

    Neoglycolipids composed of disaccharide glycoside and phospholipid were designed and prepared as mimetics of lactosylceramide. The lactosyl- and N-acetyllactosaminyl-phospholipids (Lac-DPPA and LacNAc-DPPA) were enzymatically synthesized from lactose and LacNAc respectively by cellulase-mediated condensation with 1,6-hexanediol, followed by conjugation of the resulting glycosides and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) mediated by Streptomyces phospholipase D. Alternatively, allyl beta-lactoside was ozonolyzed to give an aldehyde, which was condensed with dipalmytoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine to afford a second type of glycolipid (Lac-DPPE). NMR spectroscopy indicated that the neoglycolipids behave differently in different solvent systems. X-ray diffraction clearly showed that multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of Lac-DPPE and Lac-DPPA-MLV are in the bilayer gel phase at 20 degrees C, whereas those of Lac-DPPE-MLV were in the lamellar liquid-crystalline phase at 50 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that Lac-DPPE-MLV had complex thermotropic behavior depending on the incubation conditions. After a long incubation at 10 degrees C, endothermic transitions are observed at 39.6, 42.3 degrees C, and 42.9 degrees C. These neoglycolipids have the ability to trap calcein, a chelating derivative of fluorescein, in MLVs and showed specific binding to lectin in plate assays using fluorescently labeled compounds.

  5. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving pancreatic islet in vitro functionality and transplantation efficiency by using heparin mimetic peptide nanofiber gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunalli, Gozde; Tumtas, Yasin; Delibasi, Tuncay; Yasa, Oncay; Mercan, Sercan; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, viability and functionality of the islets after transplantation are limited due to loss of integrity and destruction of blood vessel networks. Thus, it is important to provide a proper mechanically and biologically supportive environment for enhancing both in vitro islet culture and transplantation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that heparin mimetic peptide amphiphile (HM-PA) nanofibrous network is a promising platform for these purposes. The islets cultured with peptide nanofiber gel containing growth factors exhibited a similar glucose stimulation index as that of the freshly isolated islets even after 7 days. After transplantation of islets to STZ-induced diabetic rats, 28 day-long monitoring displayed that islets that were transplanted in HM-PA nanofiber gels maintained better blood glucose levels at normal levels compared to the only islet transplantation group. In addition, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test revealed that animals that were transplanted with islets within peptide gels showed a similar pattern with the healthy control group. Histological assessment showed that islets transplanted within peptide nanofiber gels demonstrated better islet integrity due to increased blood vessel density. This work demonstrates that using the HM-PA nanofiber gel platform enhances the islets function and islet transplantation efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extreme Mechanical Behavior of Nacre-Mimetic Graphene-Oxide and Silk Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanting; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Park, Sang Hyun; Kazemi-Moridani, Amir; Jiang, Qisheng; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2018-02-14

    Biological materials have the ability to withstand extreme mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a microscale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 μm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s. The volume fraction of graphene oxide in these composites is systematically varied from 0 to 32 vol % to quantify the dynamic effects correlating with the structural morphologies of the graphene oxide flakes. Specific penetration energy of the films rapidly increases as the distribution of graphene oxide flakes evolves from noninteracting, isolated sheets to a partially overlapping continuous sheet. The specific penetration energy of the nanocomposite at the highest graphene oxide content tested here is found to be significantly higher than that of Kevlar fabrics and close to that of pure multilayer graphene. This study evidently demonstrates that the morphologies of nanoscale constituents and their interactions are critical to realize scalable high-performance nanocomposites using typical nanomaterial constituents having finite dimensions.

  8. Impact of peptide clustering on unbinding forces in the context of fusion mimetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pähler, Gesa; Lorenz, Bärbel; Janshoff, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coiled-coil peptides as SNARE mimetics for membrane fusion. ► Interaction forces assessed by colloidal probe microscopy. ► Lateral organization of lipopeptides visualized by atomic force microscopy. -- Abstract: Coiled-coil zipping and unzipping is a pivotal process in SNARE-regulated membrane fusion. In this study we examine this process mediated by a minimal model for coiled-coil formation employing force spectroscopy in the context of membrane-coated surfaces and probes. The interaction forces of several hundred pN are surprisingly low considering the proposed amount of molecular bonds in the contact zone. However, by means of high-resolution imaging employing atomic force microscopy and studying the lateral mobility of lipids and peptides as a function of coiled-coil formation, we are able to supply a detailed view on processes occurring on the membrane surfaces during force measurements. The interaction forces determined here are not only dependent on the peptide concentration on the surface, but also on the regional organization of lateral peptide clusters found prior to coiled-coil formation

  9. Effects of the potential lithium-mimetic, ebselen, on impulsivity and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Charles; Sharpley, Ann L; Cooper, Charlotte M; Godlewska, Beata R; Singh, Nisha; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Harmer, Catherine J; Churchill, Grant C; Sharp, Trevor; Rogers, Robert D; Cowen, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    Lithium remains the most effective treatment for bipolar disorder and also has important effects to lower suicidal behaviour, a property that may be linked to its ability to diminish impulsive, aggressive behaviour. The antioxidant drug, ebselen, has been proposed as a possible lithium-mimetic based on its ability in animals to inhibit inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an action which it shares with lithium. The aim of the study was to determine whether treatment with ebselen altered emotional processing and diminished measures of risk-taking behaviour. We studied 20 healthy participants who were tested on two occasions receiving either ebselen (3600 mg over 24 h) or identical placebo in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Three hours after the final dose of ebselen/placebo, participants completed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) and a task that required the detection of emotional facial expressions (facial emotion recognition task (FERT)). On the CGT, relative to placebo, ebselen reduced delay aversion while on the FERT, it increased the recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. The study suggests that at the dosage used, ebselen can decrease impulsivity and produce a positive bias in emotional processing. These findings have implications for the possible use of ebselen in the disorders characterized by impulsive behaviour and dysphoric mood.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. An investigation of the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional Pd-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingping; Chen, Xiaolan; Shi, Saige; Mo, Shiguang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional (2D) Pd-based nanostructures (e.g. Pd nanosheets, Pd@Au and Pd@Pt nanoplates) and found that they possess intrinsic peroxidase-, oxidase- and catalase-like activities. These nanostructures were able to activate hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen for catalyzing the oxidation of organic substrates, and decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen. More systematic investigations revealed that the peroxidase-like activities of these Pd-based nanomaterials were highly structure- and composition-dependent. Among them, Pd@Pt nanoplates displayed the highest peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings, Pd-based nanostructures were applied for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose, and also the electro-catalytic reduction of H2O2. This work offers a promising prospect for the application of 2D noble metal nanostructures in biocatalysis.In this work, we investigated the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional (2D) Pd-based nanostructures (e.g. Pd nanosheets, Pd@Au and Pd@Pt nanoplates) and found that they possess intrinsic peroxidase-, oxidase- and catalase-like activities. These nanostructures were able to activate hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen for catalyzing the oxidation of organic substrates, and decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen. More systematic investigations revealed that the peroxidase-like activities of these Pd-based nanomaterials were highly structure- and composition-dependent. Among them, Pd@Pt nanoplates displayed the highest peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings, Pd-based nanostructures were applied for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose, and also the electro-catalytic reduction of H2O2. This work offers a promising prospect for the application of 2D noble metal nanostructures in biocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, EDX and dispersion stability of Pd-based nanomaterials

  12. A model for population dynamics of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimura, Toshio; Fujihashi, Yuta; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-21

    We present a mathematical model for population dynamics of the mimetic swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan. The model includes four major variables, that is, population densities of three kinds of butterflies (two female forms f. cyrus, f. polytes and the unpalatable butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae) and their predator. It is well-known that the non-mimic f. cyrus resembles and attracts the male most, and the mimic f. polytes mimics the model butterfly P. aristolochiae. Based on experimental evidence, we assume that two forms f. cyrus and f. polytes interact under intraspecific competition for resources including the male, and the growth rate of f. cyrus is higher than that of f. polytes. We further assume that both the benefit of mimicry for the mimic f. polytes and the cost for the model are dependent on their relative frequencies, i.e. the motality of the mimic by predation decreases with increase in frequency of the model, while the motality of the model increases as the frequency of the mimic increases. Taking the density-dependent effect through carrying capacity into account, we set up a model system consisting of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs), analyze it mathematically and provide computer simulations that confirm the analytical results. Our results reproduce field records on population dynamics of P. polytes in the Miyako-jima Island. They also explain the positive dependence of the relative abundance (RA) of the mimic on the advantage index (AI) of the mimicry in the Sakishima Islands defined in Section 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from lignocellulosic biomass by a novel rumen-mimetic bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematu, Hitosi; Takahashi, Takehiko; Hamano, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of biofuels and biochemicals, being abundant in various plant sources. However, processing this type of biomass requires hydrolysis of cellulose. The proposed rumen-mimetic bioprocess consists of dry-pulverization of lignocellulosic biomass and pH-controlled continuous cultivation of ruminal bacteria using ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this study, ruminal bacteria were continuously cultivated for over 60 days and used to digest microcrystalline cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The ruminal bacteria grew well in the chemically defined medium. The amounts of VFAs produced from 20 g of cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar were 183 ± 29.7, 69.6 ± 12.2, and 21.8 ± 12.9 mmol, respectively. Each digestion completed within 24 h. The carbon yield was 60.6% when 180 mmol of VFAs was produced from 20 g of cellulose. During the cultivation, the bacteria were observed to form flocs that enfolded the feed particles. These flocs likely contain all of the bacterial species necessary to convert lignocellulosic biomass to VFAs and microbial protein symbiotically. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the bacterial community was relatively stable after 1 week in cultivation, though it was different from the original community structure. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicates that the microbial community includes a cellulolytic bacterium, a bacterium acting synergistically with cellulolytic bacteria, and a propionate-producing bacterium, as well as other anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mimetics of Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3: novel potential therapeutics in triple breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Manna, Sara; Lee, Eunmi; Ouzounova, Maria; Di Natale, Concetta; Novellino, Ettore; Merlino, Antonello; Korkaya, Hasan; Marasco, Daniela

    2018-05-11

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins plays critical role in the regulation of immune responses controlling JAK/STAT mediated inflammatory cytokines. Among the members, SOCS1 and SOCS3 contain a kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and SOCS3 binds to JAK/STAT/gp130 complex by inhibiting the downstream signaling and suppressing inflammatory cytokines. Loss or reduced levels of SOCS3 have been linked to cancer-associated inflammation and suppressive immunity leading to enhanced tumour growth and metastasis. In line with these reports, we previously demonstrated that proteolytic degradation of SOCS3 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype drives the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we postulated that SOCS3 mimetics might suppress the inflammatory cytokine production in TNBC subtype and inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Here we designed and characterized five linear peptides derived from the N-terminal region of SOCS3 encompassing regions that interface with the JAK2/gp130 complex by using the Circular Dichroism and Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopies. The KIRESS peptide resulted the sequence containing the most part of the hot-spots required for binding to JAK2 and was further investigated in vivo in mouse xenografts of MDA-MB-231-luci tumours as models of human TNBC subtype. Expectedly, this peptide showed a significant inhibition of primary tumour growth and pulmonary metastasis. Our studies suggest that SOCS3 peptidomimetics may possess a therapeutic potential in aggressive cancers, such as TNBC subtype, with activated inflammatory cytokines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  15. Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalilov, Almaz S.; Nilewski, Lizanne G.; Berka, Vladimir [Hematology,; Zhang, Chenhao; Yakovenko, Andrey A. [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division,; Wu, Gang [Hematology,; Kent, Thomas A. [Department; Center for Translational Research in Inflammatory Diseases, Michel E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030, United States; Tsai, Ah-Lim [Hematology,; Tour, James M.

    2017-01-31

    Here we show that the active portion of a graphitic nanoparticle can be mimicked by a perylene diimide (PDI) to explain the otherwise elusive biological and electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticle construct. Development of molecular analogues that mimic the antioxidant properties of oxidized graphenes, in this case the poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG–HCCs), will afford important insights into the highly efficient activity of PEG–HCCs and their graphitic analogues. PEGylated perylene diimides (PEGn–PDI) serve as well-defined molecular analogues of PEG–HCCs and oxidized graphenes in general, and their antioxidant and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) properties were studied. PEGn–PDIs have two reversible reduction peaks, which are more positive than the oxidation peak of superoxide (O2•–). This is similar to the reduction peak of the HCCs. Thus, as with PEG–HCCs, PEGn–PDIs are also strong single-electron oxidants of O2•–. Furthermore, reduced PEGn–PDI, PEGn–PDI•–, in the presence of protons, was shown to reduce O2•– to H2O2 to complete the catalytic cycle in this SOD analogue. The kinetics of the conversion of O2•– to O2 and H2O2 by PEG8–PDI was measured using freeze-trap EPR experiments to provide a turnover number of 133 s–1; the similarity in kinetics further supports that PEG8–PDI is a true SOD mimetic. Finally, PDIs can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction in water, which proceeds by a two-electron process with the production of H2O2, mimicking graphene oxide nanoparticles that are otherwise difficult to study spectroscopically.

  16. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  17. Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation-Learning Experience and Key-Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2013-03-19

    Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is

  18. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P; Shields, Christopher B

    2013-04-01

    Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and associated functional recovery in animal model

  20. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, J; Scott, R.W.; Diamond, G

    2011-01-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 µg ml−1 mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues. PMID:21040516

  1. Peptide mimetic of the S100A4 protein modulates peripheral nerve regeneration and attenuates the progression of neuropathy in myelin protein P0 null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Dmytriyeva, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    and mimicked the S100A4-induced neuroprotection in brain trauma. Here, we investigated a possible function of S100A4 and its mimetics in the pathologies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We found that S100A4 was expressed in the injured PNS and that its peptide mimetic (H3) affected the regeneration......, these effects were attributed to the modulatory effect of H3 on initial axonal sprouting. In contrast to the modest effect of H3 on the time course of regeneration, H3 had a long-term neuroprotective effect in the myelin protein P0 null mice, a model of dysmyelinating neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1...... disease), where the peptide attenuated the deterioration of nerve conduction, demyelination and axonal loss. From these results, S100A4 mimetics emerge as a possible means to enhance axonal sprouting and survival, especially in the context of demyelinating neuropathies with secondary axonal loss...

  2. C. pneumoniae CdsL regulates CdsN ATPase activity, and disruption with a peptide mimetic prevents bacterial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blair Stone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that likely require type III secretion (T3S to invade cells and replicate intracellulary within a cytoplasmic vacuole called an inclusion body. C. pneumoniae possess a YscL ortholog, CdsL, that has been shown to interact with the T3S ATPase (CdsN. In this report we demonstrate that CdsL down-regulates CdsN enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Using PepScan epitope mapping we identified two separate binding domains to which CdsL binds viz. CdsN 221-229 and CdsN265-270. We confirmed the binding domains using a pull-down assay and showed that GST-CdsN221-270, which encompasses these peptides, co-purified with His-CdsL. Next, we used orthology modeling based on the crystal structure of a T3S ATPase ortholog from E. coli, EscN, to map the binding domains on the predicted three dimensional structure of CdsN. The CdsL binding domains mapped to the catalytic domain of the ATPase, one in the central channel of the ATPase hexamer and one on the outer face. Since peptide mimetics have been used to disrupt essential protein interactions of the chlamydial T3S system and inhibit T3S-mediated invasion of HeLa cells, we hypothesized that if CdsL – CdsN binding is essential for regulating T3S then a CdsN peptide mimetic could be used to potentially block T3S and Chlamydial invasion. Treatment of EBs with a CdsN peptide mimetic inhibited C. pneumoniae invasion into HeLa cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This report represents the first use of Pepscan technology to identify binding domains for specific T3S proteins viz. CdsL on the ATPase, CdsN, and demonstrates that peptide mimetics can be used as anti-virulence factors to block bacterial invasion.

  3. Additional records and descriptions of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2014-05-09

    Eleven species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn from Thailand are documented, with photographic images of live individuals. Four new species with conventional, moderate antlike shape, Pilophorus meteorus, P. saovapruki, P. subparallelus and P. suwimonae, are described. Two known Thai species, P. alstoni Schuh and P. typicus (Distant), are further reported and diagnosed. Biological information including host association is provided for P. alstoni, P. meteorus, P. saovapruki and P. typicus. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Thailand and a key to known Thai species are included. Pilophorus typicus is reported from Singapore for the first time.

  4. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  5. Thermosetting Phthalocyanine Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, G.; Parker, J.; Achar, B.

    1985-01-01

    Group of phthalocyanine polymers resist thermal degradation. Polymers expected semiconducting. Principal applications probably in molded or laminated parts that have to withstand high temperatures. Polymers made from either of two classes of monomer: Bisphthalonitriles with imide linkages or Bisphthalonitriles with ester-imide linkages.

  6. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  7. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  8. Electroluminescence of Multicomponent Conjugated Polymers. 1. Roles of Polymer/Polymer Interfaces in Emission Enhancement and Voltage-Tunable Multicolor Emission in Semiconducting Polymer/Polymer Heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xuejun, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the electronic structure of polymer/polymer interfaces on the electroluminescence efficiency and tunable multicolor emission of polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes were explored...

  9. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  10. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  11. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  12. Fluorination of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene were reacted with elemental fluorine under carefully controlled conditions to produce fluorocarbon polymers. Fluorination of polymer films resulted in fluorination of only the outer surfaces of the films, while the reaction of elemental fluorine with powdered hydrocarbon polymers produced perfluorocarbon polymers. Existing and newly developed techniques were used to characterize the fluorinated polymers. It was shown that the degree of fluorination was influenced by the surface area of the hydrocarbon material, the concentration, of the fluorine gas, and the time and temperature of fluorination. A fluidized-bed reactor used for the fluorination of polymer powders effectively increased the reaction rate. The surface tension and the oxygen permeability of the fluorinated polymers were studied. The surface tension of hydrocarbon polymers was not influenced by different solvents, but the surface tension of fluorinated polymers was affected by the type of solvent that was used. There were indications that the surface tension was affected by oxygen introduced into the polymer surface during fluorination. Fluorination lowered the permeability of oxygen through hydrocarbon polymers. 55 refs., 51 figs., 26 tabs

  13. Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation—Learning Experience and Key-Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Starting from 1700 B.C. in the old world and up to recent times in China there is evidence of earthquake prediction based on unusual metrological phenomena and animal behavior. The review tries to explore the credibility and to pin down the nature of geophysical phenomena involved. It appears that the concept of ancient Greek philosophers in that a dry gas, pneuma is correlated with earthquakes, is relevant. It is not the cause of earthquakes, as originally thought, but may be an accompanying phenomenon and occasional precursor. This would explain unusual animal behavior as well as thermal anomalies detected from satellites. Abstract Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake

  14. Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation—Learning Experience and Key-Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback

  15. Advanced polymers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.

  16. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    polymerized in a controlled manner with carrier monomers of historically proven biocompatible polymers. The carrier polymers, the loading of ribavirin as well as the size of the polymer were varied systematically with the aid of an automated synthesis platform. These polymers were tested in a cellular assay...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein...... is mediated through specific transporters, it is thought that the accumulation can be alleviated through the attachment of ribavirin to a macromolecule. To this end, ribavirin was enzymatically modified into a monomer compatible with controlled polymerization techniques. The ribavirin monomers were...

  17. Polymer reaction engineering, an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Polymer Materials A Short History of Polymer Reaction Engineering The Position of Polymer Reaction Engineering Toward Integrated Polymer Reaction Engineering The Disciplines in Polymer Reaction Engineering The Future: Product-inspired Polymer Reaction

  18. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  19. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion – the Rouse model – .... reptation and the escape processes (creep motion) from the tube. .... scattering curves from an arrangement of small mesoscopic spheres also allows a.

  20. Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation as HDAC inhibitors of cyclopeptide mimetics by a tandem three-component reaction and intramolecular [3+2] cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, Tracey; Faccio, Valeria; Mossetti, Riccardo; Grolla, Ambra A; Di Micco, Simone; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Genazzani, Armando A; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2010-02-01

    Novel macrocyclic peptide mimetics have been synthesized by exploiting a three-component reaction and an azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. The prepared compounds were screened as HDAC inhibitors allowing us to identify a new compound with promising biological activity. In order to rationalize the biological results, computational studies have also been performed.

  1. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  2. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  3. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  4. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  5. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  6. Synthesis of multivalent carbohydrate mimetics with aminopolyol end groups and their evaluation as L-selectin inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Salta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article a series of divalent and trivalent carbohydrate mimetics on the basis of an enantiopure aminopyran and of serinol is described. These aminopolyols are connected by amide bonds to carboxylic acid derived spacer units either by Schotten–Baumann acylation or by coupling employing HATU as reagent. The O-sulfation employing the SO3·DMF complex was optimized. It was crucial to follow this process by 700 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy to ensure full conversion and to use a refined neutralization and purification protocol. Many of the compounds could not be tested as L-selectin inhibitor by SPR due to their insolubility in water, nevertheless, a divalent and a trivalent amide showed surprisingly good activities with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  7. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  8. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Mei [Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: mhong@iastate.edu; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P. [Emory University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2002-02-15

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve {sup 13}CO{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 15}N{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 13}C{alpha}{sub i} transfer between two residues. A {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG){sub n} is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 C{alpha} signal while suppressing the Gly5 C{alpha} signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 C{alpha} chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues.

  9. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mei; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve 13 CO i → 15 N i → 13 Cα i transfer between two residues. A 13 C, 15 N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG) n is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 Cα signal while suppressing the Gly5 Cα signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 Cα chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues

  10. The CNTF-derived peptide mimetic Cintrofin attenuates spatial-learning deficits in a rat post-status epilepticus model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russmann, Vera; Seeger, Natalie; Zellinger, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic growth factor is considered a potential therapeutic agent for central nervous system diseases. We report first in vivo data of the ciliary neurotrophic growth factor peptide mimetic Cintrofin in a rat post-status epilepticus model. Cintrofin prevented long-term alterations...... in the number of doublecortin-positive neuronal progenitor cells and attenuated the persistence of basal dendrites. In contrast, Cintrofin did neither affect acute status epilepticus-associated alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis nor reveal any relevant effect on seizure activity....... Whereas status epilepticus caused a significant disturbance in spatial learning in reversed peptide-treated rats, the performance of Cintrofin-treated rats did not differ from controls. The study confirms that Cintrofin comprises an active sequence mimicking effects of its parent molecule. While the data...

  11. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  12. NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrid: A novel oxidase mimetic system for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing; He, Yu; Liu, Bingqian; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • We report a new oxidase mimetic system for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay. • NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrids were used as the nanocatalysts. • NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrids were used as the mimic oxidase. - Abstract: NiCoBP-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NiCoBP–MWCNT) was first synthesized by using induced electroless-plating method and functionalized with the biomolecules for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, used as a model analyte). We discovered that the as-synthesized NiCoBP–MWCNT had the ability to catalyze the glucose oxidization with a stable and well-defined redox peak. The catalytic current increased with the increment of the immobilized NiCoBP–MWCNT on the electrode. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were employed to characterize the as-prepared NiCoBP–MWCNT. Using the NiCoBP–MWCNT-conjugated anti-PSA antibody as the signal-transduction tag, a new enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay protocol could be designed for the detection of target PSA on the capture antibody-functionalized immunosensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay system could exhibit good electrochemical responses toward target PSA, and allowed the detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.035 ng mL{sup −1}. More importantly, the NiCoBP-MWCNT-based oxidase mimetic system could be further extended for the monitoring of other low-abundance proteins or disease-related biomarkers by tuning the target antibody.

  13. Dual stimuli-sensitive dendrimers: Photothermogenic gold nanoparticle-loaded thermo-responsive elastin-mimetic dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Daichi; Sk, Ugir Hossain; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Kojima, Chie

    2015-08-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with unique structures that can work as nanoplatforms for both photothermogenic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and thermosensitive elastin-like peptides (ELPs) with valine-proline-glycine-valine-glycine (VPGVG) repeats. In this study, photothermogenic AuNPs were loaded into thermo-responsive elastin-mimetic dendrimers (dendrimers conjugating ELPs at their periphery) to produce dual stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles. Polyamidoamine G4 dendrimers were modified with acetylated VPGVG and (VPGVG)2, and the resulting materials were named ELP1-den and ELP2-den, respectively. The AuNPs were prepared by the reduction of Au ions using a dendrimer-nanotemplated method. The AuNP-loaded elastin-mimetic dendrimers exhibited photothermal properties. ELP1-den and ELP2-den showed similar temperature-dependent changes in their conformations. Phase transitions were observed at around 55°C and 35°C for the AuNP-loaded ELP1-den and AuNP-loaded ELP2-den, respectively, but not for the corresponding PEGylated dendrimer. In contrast to the AuNP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer, AuNP-loaded ELP2-den readily associated with cells and induced efficient photocytotoxicity at 37°C. The cell association and the photocytotoxicity properties of AuNP-loaded ELP2-den could be controlled by temperature. These results therefore suggest that dual stimuli-sensitive dendrimer nanoparticles of this type could be used for photothermal therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovering the enzyme mimetic activity of metal-organic framework (MOF) for label-free and colorimetric sensing of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yingjing; Binyam, Atsebeha; Liu, Misha; Wu, Yinan; Li, Fengting

    2016-12-15

    A label-free sensing strategy based on the enzyme-mimicking activity of MOF was demonstrated for colorimetric detection of biomolecules. Firstly obvious blue color was observed due to the high efficiency of peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe-MIL-88A (an ion-based MOF material) toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Then in the presence of target biomolecule and corresponding aptamer, the mimetic activity of Fe-MIL-88A can be strongly inhibited and used directly to realize the colorimetric detection. On the basis of the interesting findings, we designed a straightforward, label-free and sensitive colorimetric method for biomolecule detection by using the enzyme mimetic property of MOF coupling with molecular recognition element. Compared with the existed publications, our work breaks the routine way by setting up an inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer hybrid platform for colorimetric determination of biomolecules, expanding the targets scope from H2O2 or glucose to biomolecules. As a proof of concept, thrombin and thrombin aptamer was used as a model analyte. The limit of detection of 10nM can be achieved with naked eyes and ultrahigh selectivity of thrombin toward numerous interfering substances with 10-fold concentration was demonstrated significantly. Of note, the method was further applied for the detection of thrombin in human serum samples, showing the results in agreement with those values obtained in an immobilization buffer by the colorimetric method. This inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer sensing strategy may in principle be universally applicable for the detection of a range of environmental or biomedical molecules of interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Knockdown of BAG3 sensitizes bladder cancer cells to treatment with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Antonietti, Patrick; Rakel, Stefanie; Blaheta, Roman; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Kögel, Donat

    2016-02-01

    BAG3 is overexpressed in several malignancies and mediates a non-canonical, selective form of (macro)autophagy. By stabilizing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in complex with HSP70, BAG3 can also exert an apoptosis-antagonizing function. ABT-737 is a high affinity Bcl-2 inhibitor that fails to target Mcl-1. This failure may confer resistance in various cancers. Urothelial cancer cells were treated with the BH3 mimetics ABT-737 and (-)-gossypol, a pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor which inhibits also Mcl-1. To clarify the importance of the core autophagy regulator ATG5 and BAG3 in ABT-737 treatment, cell lines carrying a stable lentiviral knockdown of ATG5 and BAG3 were created. The synergistic effect of ABT-737 and pharmaceutical inhibition of BAG3 with the HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 or sorafenib was also evaluated. Total cell death and apoptosis were quantified by FACS analysis of propidium iodide, annexin. Target protein analysis was conducted by Western blotting. Knockdown of BAG3 significantly downregulated Mcl-1 protein levels and sensitized urothelial cancer cells to apoptotic cell death induced by ABT-737, while inhibition of bulk autophagy through depletion of ATG5 had no discernible effect on cell death. Similar to knockdown of BAG3, pharmacological targeting of the BAG3/Mcl-1 pathway with KRIBB11 was capable to sensitize both cell lines to treatment with ABT-737. Our results show that BAG3, but not bulk autophagy has a major role in the response of bladder cancer cells to BH3 mimetics. They also suggest that BAG3 is a suitable target for combined therapies aimed at synergistically inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer.

  16. Polymer gels and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osada, Yoshihito; Khokhlov, A. R

    2002-01-01

    ... or magnetic field, etc.). It was realized that not only can polymer gels absorb and hold a considerable volume of liquids, but they can also be forced to expel the absorbed liquid in a controlled manner. Of particular interest are hydrogels, i.e., polymer gels, which swell extensively in water. The most common hydrogels are polyelectrolyte gels: ...

  17. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Some information provided by the application of small-angle neutron scattering concerning polymer structure is reviewed herein. Information about the polymer structure as examined in H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures is also provided. Examples of results of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research are included

  18. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  19. Polymers for Combating Biocorrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing of great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anticorrosion and antimicrobial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to prevent biocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbial corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: (i traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, (ii antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and (iii conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting antibacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization, and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  20. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  1. Polymers targeting habitual diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly for the treatment for cancer therapy has been addressed, but these polymers also find their way in treatment of various lifestyle disorders like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. The focus is being laid to develop biodegradable polymer ...

  2. Stiff quantum polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, H.

    2009-01-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  3. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  4. Theory of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

  5. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  6. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system...... in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing PEDOT. First a method was developed, where the conducting polymer PEDOT can be integrated into non...... of the substrate, the PEDOT is integrated into the non-conductive polymer. The result is a material that retains the good conductivity of PEDOT, but gains the mechanical stability of the substrate. The best results were obtained for PEDOTjPMMA. The new mechanically stable PEDOTjPMMA was micro-patterned using clean...

  7. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby...... the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  8. EXTRACELLULAR MIMETICS: A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CELL ENCAPSULATION UTILIZING HYDROGELS AND SCAFFOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Grinet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro encapsulation platform utilizing hydrogels and bone matrix (BM scaffolds to investigate the effects of microenvironmental parameters on encapsulated goat mesenchymal stem cells (gMSC was presented. The base encapsulation matrix was composed of a biocompatible hydrogel formed through a photoinitiated polymerization process. Different polymer concentrations were used to compare the effects of hydrogel crosslinking density on physical properties, as well as on cell viability. The potential of BM to support the growth and differentiation of gMSC was also analyzed. Both methods were compared in order to analyze viability. Structures that better allow flow of oxygen showed more promising results, whereas BM structures require a better evaluation method for concrete results.

  9. Photoluminescence in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, J.E.; Laugesen, R.; Dastoor, P.; McNeill, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conjugated polymers combine the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors with the processability of polymers. They contain a sequence of alternate single and double carbon bonds so that the overlap of unhybridised p z orbitals creates a delocalised ρ system which gives semiconducting properties with p-bonding (valence) and p* -antibonding (conduction) bands. Photoluminesence (PL) in conjugated polymers results from the radiative decay of singlet excitons confined to a single chain. The present work is the first in a series of studies in our laboratory that will characterize the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The experiment involves the illumination of thin films of conjugated polymer with UV light (I=360 nm) and observing the subsequent fluorescence using a custom-built, fluorescence spectrometer. Photoluminesence spectra provide basic information about the structure of the polymer film. A typical spectrum is shown in the accompanying figure. The position of the first peak is related to the polymer chain length and resolved multiple vibronic peaks are an indication of film structure and morphology. We will also present results related to the optical degradation of these materials when exposed to air and UV light

  10. Bcl-2 family of proteins as drug targets for cancer chemotherapy: the long way of BH3 mimetics from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Laura; Marzo, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Bcl-2 proteins are key determinants in the life-death balance. In recent years, proteins in this family have been identified as drug targets in the design of new anti-tumor therapies. Advances in the knowledge of the mechanism of action of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have enabled the development of the so-called 'BH3 mimetics'. These compounds act by inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins of the family, imitating the function of the BH3-only subset of pro-apoptotic members. Combinations of BH3-mimetics with anti-tumor drugs are being evaluated in both preclinical models and clinical trials. Recent advances in these approaches will be reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  12. SANS studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.

    1984-10-01

    Before small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), chain conformation studies were limited to light and small angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually in dilute solution. SANS from blends of normal and labeled molecules could give direct information on chain conformation in bulk polymers. Water-soluble polymers may be examined in H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures using contrast variation methods to provide further information on polymer structure. This paper reviews some of the information provided by this technique using examples of experiments performed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (NCSASR)

  13. Development of Silicate Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob

      The development of inorganic polymers is a new promising technology that may be used in many applications. The syntheses of inorganic polymers are normally carried out either by mixing an amorphous material for example silicium dioxide with a mineral base or dissolving metal oxids or metal...... hydroxide in acid and increase pH to saturation of the metal hydroxide. It is assumed that the syntheses of the inorganic polymer are carried out through polymerisation of oligomers (dimer, trimer) which provide the actual unit structures of the three dimensional macromolecular structure. In this work...

  14. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  15. Statistical properties of curved polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    respective ground states decide the conformational statistics of the polymer. For semiflexible polymers, the relevant non-dimensional quantity is lp/L, where lp is the persistence length (which is proportional to the bending modulus k) and L is the contour length of the polymer. In the limit, lp/L ≪ 1, the polymer behaves as.

  16. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. → N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. → These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  17. Age-related decrease in the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase Sirt3 expression associated with ROS accumulation in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingling; Yang, Yang; Hu, Yujuan; Sun, Yu; Du, Zhengde; Xie, Zhen; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Weijia

    2014-01-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, also known as central presbycusis, can affect speech perception and sound localization. Understanding the pathogenesis of central presbycusis will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, the mechanisms of central presbycusis were investigated using a mimetic aging rat model induced by chronic injection of D-galactose (D-Gal). We showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) activity was reduced in the auditory cortex in natural aging and D-Gal-induced mimetic aging rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 4834 bp deletion, abnormal ultrastructure and cell apoptosis in the auditory cortex were also found in natural aging and D-Gal mimetic aging rats. Sirt3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. However, the role of Sirt3 in the pathogenesis of age-related central auditory cortex deterioration is still unclear. Here, we showed that decreased Sirt3 expression might be associated with increased SOD2 acetylation, which negatively regulates SOD2 activity. Oxidative stress accumulation was likely the result of low SOD2 activity and a decline in ROS clearance. Our findings indicate that Sirt3 might play an essential role, via the mediation of SOD2, in central presbycusis and that manipulation of Sirt3 expression might provide a new approach to combat aging and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. EPOR-Based Purification and Analysis of Erythropoietin Mimetic Peptides from Human Urine by Cys-Specific Cleavage and LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Matthias; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-09-01

    The development of a new class of erythropoietin mimetic agents (EMA) for treating anemic conditions has been initiated with the discovery of oligopeptides capable of dimerizing the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and thus stimulating erythropoiesis. The most promising amino acid sequences have been mounted on various different polymeric structures or carrier molecules to obtain highly active EPO-like drugs exhibiting beneficial and desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. Concomitant with creating new therapeutic options, erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP)-based drug candidates represent means to artificially enhance endurance performance and necessitate coverage by sports drug testing methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a strategy for the comprehensive detection of EMPs in doping controls, which can be used complementary to existing protocols. Three model EMPs were used to provide proof-of-concept data. Following EPO receptor-facilitated purification of target analytes from human urine, the common presence of the cysteine-flanked core structure of EMPs was exploited to generate diagnostic peptides with the aid of a nonenzymatic cleavage procedure. Sensitive detection was accomplished by targeted-SIM/data-dependent MS2 analysis. Method characterization was conducted for the EMP-based drug peginesatide concerning specificity, linearity, precision, recovery, stability, ion suppression/enhancement, and limit of detection (LOD, 0.25 ng/mL). Additionally, first data for the identification of the erythropoietin mimetic peptides EMP1 and BB68 were generated, demonstrating the multi-analyte testing capability of the presented approach.

  19. Phylogeny and evolution of Müllerian mimicry in aposematic Dilophotes: evidence for advergence and size-constraints in evolution of mimetic sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Michal; Kampova, Lucie; Bocak, Ladislav

    2018-02-27

    Multiple patterns and intraspecific polymorphism should not persist in mutualistic Müllerian systems due to purifying and frequency-dependent selection, but they are commonly identified in nature. We analysed molecular phylogeny and reconstructed dispersal history of 58 species of Dilophotes (Coleoptera: Lycidae) in Asia. Dilophotes colonized the Great Sundas and Malay Peninsula where they joined extensive mimetic communities of net-winged beetles. We identified the brightly bi-coloured males and females which adverged on five occasions to different autochthonous models. This is the first described case of Müllerian sexual dimorphism based on sex-specific body size. We propose that the constraint, i.e. the conservative sexual size dimorphism, forced the unprofitable prey to such complex adaptation in a multi-pattern environment. Although mimetic sexual dimorphism has frequently evolved in Dilophotes, a single pattern has been maintained by both sexes in multiple closely related, sympatrically occurring species. Some patterns may be suboptimal because they are rare, crudely resemble co-mimics, or are newly evolved, but they persist in Müllerian communities for a long time. We assume that failure to closely resemble the most common model can increase the diversity of large Müllerian communities and produce mimetic dimorphism.

  20. Electroactive polymers for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer–metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  1. Superabsorbent polymer; Kokyushusei porima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M. [Sanyo Kasei Kogyo K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-20

    Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) which has the absorbing ability from several hundreds to thousand times of the dead weight possesses many other functions in addition to the absorbing function, and studies on its application to various fields have been carried on very actively. Particularly, about 90% of the demand is for the application to body fluid absorber in the fields of sanitary materials. Basic water absorption mechanism, kinds, production methods, special features and applied cases of superabsorbent polymer are introduced. SAP is structured by loosely bridged water soluble polymer, particularly polymer electrolyte, to provide water unsoluble and water swelling properties. The kinds and production methods of SAP are described. SAP has respiration property in addition to the high water absorbing power and water holding ability. It has carboxyl ions, and has ammonia absorption ability and polyvalent metal ion adsorption ability. Paper diapers, water holding materials for soil, and cold reserving materials are discussed as examples of SAP application. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    Supramolecular polymers are a broad class of materials that include all polymerscapable of associating via secondary interactions. These materials represent an emerging class of systems with superior versatility compared to classical polymers with applications in food stuff, coatings, cost...... efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand...... the dynamics under equilibrium conditions, extensional rheology is relevant during the processing or in the usage of polymers utilizing supramolecular associations for example, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives are subjected to extensional deformations during the peeling where strain hardening...

  3. Piezoelectricity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, R.G.; Anderson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and related properties of polymers are reviewed. After presenting a historical overview of the field, the mathematical basis of piezo- and pyroelectricity is summarized. We show how the experimentally measured quantities are related to the changes in polarization and point out the serious inequlity between direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients in polymers. Theoretical models of the various origins of piezo- and pyroelectricity, which include piezoelectricity due to inhomogeneous material properties and strains, are reviewed. Relaxational effects are also considered. Experimental techniques are examined and the results for different materials are presented. Because of the considerable work in recent years polyimylidene fluoride, this polymer receives the majority of the attention. The numerous applications of piezo-and pyroelectric polymers are mentioned. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible role of piezo- and pyroelectricity in biological system

  4. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  5. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  6. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  7. Radiation treated propylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.A. III; Baum, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for imparting improved strength and discoloration resistance to a stabilized propylene polymer that is to be exposed to a sterilizing dose of radiation. From 200 to 400 ppm of a phenolic antioxidant containing an isocyanurate group in its molecular structure, and a thiosynergist in an amount at least 6 times the weight of the antioxidant, are incorporated into the polymer before irradiation

  8. Interfaced conducting polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 224, February (2017), s. 109-115 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline * polypyrrole * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  9. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  10. Radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1987-01-01

    There are several and quite distinct major fields of interest discussed in this paper. The first deals with the modification of existing polymers either by main-chain scission or by cross-linking; the theories of these patterns of behavior are summarized here, and typical examples of polymers that show these alternative reactions are given. These are not comprehensive to avoid this presentation becoming a catalog of similar patterns of behavior

  11. Advanced gecko-foot-mimetic dry adhesives based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2013-01-21

    Geckos can run freely on vertical walls and even ceilings. Recent studies have discovered that gecko's extraordinary climbing ability comes from a remarkable design of nature with nanoscale beta-keratin elastic hairs on their feet and toes, which collectively generate sufficiently strong van der Waals force to hold the animal onto an opposing surface while at the same time disengaging at will. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays, resembling gecko's adhesive foot hairs with additional superior mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, have been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for advanced fibrillar dry adhesives. The VA-CNT arrays with tailor-made hierarchical structures can be patterned and/or transferred onto various flexible substrates, including responsive polymers. This, together with recent advances in nanofabrication techniques, could offer 'smart' dry adhesives for various potential applications, even where traditional adhesives cannot be used. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing the material properties and adhesion performances is critical to the design and fabrication of gecko inspired CNT dry adhesives of practical significance. In this feature article, we present an overview of recent progress in both fundamental and applied frontiers for the development of CNT-based adhesives by summarizing important studies in this exciting field, including our own work.

  12. Advanced gecko-foot-mimetic dry adhesives based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2012-12-01

    Geckos can run freely on vertical walls and even ceilings. Recent studies have discovered that gecko's extraordinary climbing ability comes from a remarkable design of nature with nanoscale beta-keratin elastic hairs on their feet and toes, which collectively generate sufficiently strong van der Waals force to hold the animal onto an opposing surface while at the same time disengaging at will. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays, resembling gecko's adhesive foot hairs with additional superior mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, have been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for advanced fibrillar dry adhesives. The VA-CNT arrays with tailor-made hierarchical structures can be patterned and/or transferred onto various flexible substrates, including responsive polymers. This, together with recent advances in nanofabrication techniques, could offer `smart' dry adhesives for various potential applications, even where traditional adhesives cannot be used. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing the material properties and adhesion performances is critical to the design and fabrication of gecko inspired CNT dry adhesives of practical significance. In this feature article, we present an overview of recent progress in both fundamental and applied frontiers for the development of CNT-based adhesives by summarizing important studies in this exciting field, including our own work.

  13. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  14. BH3-mimetics- and cisplatin-induced cell death proceeds through different pathways depending on the availability of death-related cellular components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Andreu-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Owing to their important function in regulating cell death, pharmacological inhibition of Bcl-2 proteins by dubbed BH3-mimetics is a promising strategy for apoptosis induction or sensitization to chemotherapy. However, the role of Apaf-1, the main protein constituent of the apoptosome, in the process has yet not been analyzed. Furthermore as new chemotherapeutics develop, the possible chemotherapy-induced toxicity to rapidly dividing normal cells, especially sensitive differentiated cells, has to be considered. Such undesirable effects would probably be ameliorated by selectively and locally inhibiting apoptosis in defined sensitive cells. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFS from Apaf-1 knock out mouse (MEFS KO Apaf-1 and Bax/Bak double KO (MEFS KO Bax/Bak, MEFS from wild-type mouse (MEFS wt and human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells were used to comparatively investigate the signaling cell death-induced pathways of BH3-mimetics, like ABT737 and GX15-070, with DNA damage-inducing agent cisplatin (cis-diammineplatinum(II dichloride, CDDP. The study was performed in the absence or presence of apoptosis inhibitors namely, caspase inhibitors or apoptosome inhibitors. BH3-mimetic ABT737 required of Apaf-1 to exert its apoptosis-inducing effect. In contrast, BH3-mimetic GX15-070 and DNA damage-inducing CDDP induced cell death in the absence of both Bax/Bak and Apaf-1. GX15-070 induced autophagy-based cell death in all the cell lines analyzed. MEFS wt cells were protected from the cytotoxic effects of ABT737 and CDDP by chemical inhibition of the apoptosome through QM31, but not by using general caspase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: BH3-mimetic ABT737 not only requires Bax/Bak to exert its apoptosis-inducing effect, but also Apaf-1, while GX15-070 and CDDP induce different modalities of cell death in the absence of Bax/Bak or Apaf-1. Inclusion of specific Apaf-1 inhibitors in topical and well

  15. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  16. Mechanism of the G-protein mimetic nanobody binding to a muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2018-03-20

    Protein-protein binding is key in cellular signaling processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of protein-protein binding, however, are challenging due to limited timescales. In particular, binding of the medically important G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with intracellular signaling proteins has not been simulated with MD to date. Here, we report a successful simulation of the binding of a G-protein mimetic nanobody to the M 2 muscarinic GPCR using the robust Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD) method. Through long-timescale GaMD simulations over 4,500 ns, the nanobody was observed to bind the receptor intracellular G-protein-coupling site, with a minimum rmsd of 2.48 Å in the nanobody core domain compared with the X-ray structure. Binding of the nanobody allosterically closed the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket, being consistent with the recent experimental finding. In the absence of nanobody binding, the receptor orthosteric pocket sampled open and fully open conformations. The GaMD simulations revealed two low-energy intermediate states during nanobody binding to the M 2 receptor. The flexible receptor intracellular loops contribute remarkable electrostatic, polar, and hydrophobic residue interactions in recognition and binding of the nanobody. These simulations provided important insights into the mechanism of GPCR-nanobody binding and demonstrated the applicability of GaMD in modeling dynamic protein-protein interactions.

  17. Fabrics produced mimetically during static metamorphism in retrogressed eclogites from the Zermatt-Saas zone, Western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. D.; Wheeler, J.; Pearce, M.; Prior, D. J.

    2012-11-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) are commonly interpreted to form by dislocation creep. Consequently they are used to infer deformation at the metamorphic grade at which the minerals were stable, especially if those minerals show a shape fabric. Here we show that LPOs can occur through mimicry of a pre-existing LPO, so they formed statically, not during deformation. Omphacite and glaucophane LPOs occur in eclogite facies rocks from the Zermatt-Saas Unit of the Northwest Italian Alps. Barroisite grew during greenschist facies retrogression and has an LPO controlled significantly by the eclogite facies omphacite and glaucophane LPOs, rather than directly by deformation. Using spatially resolved lattice orientation data from the three key minerals, collected using electron backscatter diffraction, we deploy a new technique of interphase misorientation distribution analysis to prove this. Barroisite LPO develops by mimicry of omphacite (via a particular lattice orientation relationship) and by direct topotactic and epitactic replacement of glaucophane. LPO in turn influenced anisotropic grain growth, resulting in a barroisite grain shape fabric. Thus regional retrogression during exhumation of the Zermatt-Saas high-pressure rocks was, in large part, static, rather than dynamic as previously interpreted. In general the possibility of mimetic fabrics forming during metamorphic reactions must be borne in mind when interpreting direct structural observations and seismic anisotropy data in terms of deformation, in both crust and mantle.

  18. Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Tan, Yaqian; Cavenee, Webster K; Yan, Guangmei

    2017-06-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic compounds (SMCs), which antagonize the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and induce apoptosis, sensitize tumor cells to multiple cytokines. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SMCs sensitize tumor cells to cytokines induced by the oncolytic M1 virus, thus enhancing a bystander killing effect. Here, we report that SMCs potentiate the oncolytic effect of M1 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This strengthened oncolytic efficacy resulted from the enhanced bystander killing effect caused by the M1 virus via cytokine induction. Through a microarray analysis and subsequent validation using recombinant cytokines, we identified IL-8, IL-1A, and TRAIL as the key cytokines in the bystander killing effect. Furthermore, SMCs increased the replication of M1, and the accumulation of virus protein induced irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, the combined treatment with M1 and SMCs had little effect on normal and human primary cells. Because SMCs selectively and significantly enhance the bystander killing effect and the replication of oncolytic virus M1 specifically in cancer cells, this combined treatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

  19. CXCR4 Protein Epitope Mimetic Antagonist POL5551 Disrupts Metastasis and Enhances Chemotherapy Effect in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jingyu; Hurchla, Michelle A; Fontana, Francesca; Su, Xinming; Amend, Sarah R; Esser, Alison K; Douglas, Garry J; Mudalagiriyappa, Chidananda; Luker, Kathryn E; Pluard, Timothy; Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Romagnoli, Barbara; Tuffin, Gérald; Chevalier, Eric; Luker, Gary D; Bauer, Michael; Zimmermann, Johann; Aft, Rebecca L; Dembowsky, Klaus; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2015-11-01

    The SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 has been associated with early metastasis and poorer prognosis in breast cancers, especially the most aggressive triple-negative subtype. In line with previous reports, we found that tumoral CXCR4 expression in patients with locally advanced breast cancer was associated with increased metastases and rapid tumor progression. Moreover, high CXCR4 expression identified a group of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells (DTC)-negative patients at high risk for metastasis and death. The protein epitope mimetic (PEM) POL5551, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, inhibited binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4, had no direct effects on tumor cell viability, but reduced migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. In two orthotopic models of triple-negative breast cancer, POL5551 had little inhibitory effect on primary tumor growth, but significantly reduced distant metastasis. When combined with eribulin, a chemotherapeutic microtubule inhibitor, POL5551 additively reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in mice after resection of the primary tumor compared with single-agent eribulin. Hypothesizing that POL5551 may mobilize tumor cells from their microenvironment and sensitize them to chemotherapy, we used a "chemotherapy framing" dosing strategy. When administered shortly before and after eribulin treatment, three doses of POL5551 with eribulin reduced bone and liver tumor burden more effectively than chemotherapy alone. These data suggest that sequenced administration of CXCR4 antagonists with cytotoxic chemotherapy synergize to reduce distant metastases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  1. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  2. Synthesis of natural urolithin M6, a galloflavin mimetic, as a potential inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupiani, Sebastiano; Guidotti, Laura; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Giacomini, Elisa; Falchi, Federico; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio

    2016-11-22

    Glycolysis is the main route for energy production in tumors. LDH-A is a key enzyme of this process and its inhibition represents an attractive strategy to hamper cancer cell metabolism. Galloflavin is a reliable LDH-A inhibitor as previously identified by us; however, its poor physicochemical properties and chemical tractability render it unsuitable for further development. Therefore, a rational design was undertaken with the aim to reproduce the pharmacophore of galloflavin on simpler, potentially more soluble and synthetic accessible scaffolds. Following a process of structural simplification, natural urolithin M6 (UM6), which is an ellagitannin metabolite produced by gut microbiota, was identified as a putative galloflavin mimetic. In the present study, the synthesis of UM6 is described for the first time. An efficient synthetic pathway has been developed, which involved five steps from readily accessible starting materials. The key reaction steps, a Suzuki coupling and an intramolecular C-H oxygenation, have been optimized to improve the synthetic feasibility and provide the best conditions in terms of reaction time and yield. Moreover, this route would be suitable to obtain other analogs for SAR studies. Preliminary biological tests revealed that UM6 was able to smoothly reproduce the behavior of galloflavin, confirming that our approach was successful in providing a new and accessible structure in the search for new LDH-A inhibitors.

  3. Egg white hydrolysate shows insulin mimetic and sensitizing effects in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Jahandideh

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and inflammation in adipose tissue is a key mechanism underlying metabolic syndrome, a growing health problem characterized by diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Previous work from our research group has demonstrated the potential of egg white ovotransferrin derived bioactive peptides against hypertension, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Egg white hydrolysate (EWH has also shown anti-hypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Given the interplay among hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome, the objective of the study was to test the EWH on differentiation, insulin signaling and inflammatory responses in 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes. Our study suggested that EWH could promote adipocyte differentiation as shown by increased lipid accumulation, increased release of adiponectin and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator associated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α. In addition to enhanced insulin effects on the upregulation of protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation, EWH treatment increased extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation to a level similar to that of insulin, indicating insulin sensitizing and mimetic properties of the EWH. EWH further attenuated cytokine induced inflammatory marker; cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2 by 48.78%, possibly through the AP-1 pathway by down regulating c-Jun phosphorylation in adipocytes. Given the critical role of adipose in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, EWH may have potential applications in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  4. High-level expression of human stem cell factor fused with erythropoietin mimetic peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Chen, Song-Sen; Yang, Ke-Gong; Liu, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Yan-Li; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2006-06-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are essential for normal erythropoiesis and induce proliferation and differentiation synergistically for erythroid progenitor cells. Here, we report our work on construction of SCF/erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP) fusion protein gene, in which human SCF cDNA (1-165aa) and EMP sequence (20aa) were connected using a short (GGGGS) or long (GGGGSGGGGGS) linker sequence. The SCF/EMP gene was cloned into the pBV220 vector and expressed in the Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain. The expression level of the fusion protein was about 30% of total cell protein. The resulting inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 M urea, followed by dilution refolding. The renatured protein was subsequently purified by Q-Sepharose FF column. The final product was >95% pure by SDS-PAGE and the yield of fusion protein was about 40 mg/L of culture. UT-7 cell proliferation and human cord blood cell colony-forming assays showed that the fusion proteins exhibited more potent activity than recombinant human SCF, suggesting a new strategy to enhance biological activities of growth factors.

  5. A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 mitigates radiation dermatitis and promotes wound healing in irradiated rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctrow, Susan R; Lopez, Argelia; Schock, Ashley M; Duncan, Nathan E; Jourdan, Megan M; Olasz, Edit B; Moulder, John E; Fish, Brian L; Mäder, Marylou; Lazar, Jozef; Lazarova, Zelmira

    2013-04-01

    In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to skin and other organs. To examine the causative role of oxidative stress in delayed radiation-induced skin injury, including impaired wound healing, we tested a synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207, in a rat model of combined skin irradiation and wound injury. Administered systemically, beginning 48 hours after irradiation, EUK-207 mitigated radiation dermatitis, suppressed indicators of tissue oxidative stress, and enhanced wound healing. Evaluation of gene expression in irradiated skin at 30 days after exposure revealed a significant upregulation of several key genes involved in detoxication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This gene expression pattern was primarily reversed by EUK-207 therapy. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress has a critical role in the progression of radiation-induced skin injury, and that the injury can be mitigated by appropriate antioxidant compounds administered 48 hours after exposure.

  6. Hypoxia-mimetic agents inhibit proliferation and alter the morphology of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Hui-Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic diseases is closely related to level of hypoxia in the damaged tissues. To elucidate the potential therapeutic applications and limitations of hMSCs derived from human umbilical cords, the effects of hypoxia on the morphology and proliferation of hMSCs were analyzed. Results After treatment with DFO and CoCl2, hMSCs were elongated, and adjacent cells were no longer in close contact. In addition, vacuole-like structures were observed within the cytoplasm; the rough endoplasmic reticulum expanded, and expanded ridges were observed in mitochondria. In addition, DFO and CoCl2 treatments for 48 h significantly inhibited hMSCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (P Conclusions The hypoxia-mimetic agents, DFO and CoCl2, alter umbilical cord-derived hMSCs morphology and inhibit their proliferation through influencing the cell cycle.

  7. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  8. Caloric restriction mimetic 2-deoxyglucose maintains cytoarchitecture and reduces tau phosphorylation in primary culture of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, M S; Gajare, K A; Deshmukh, A A

    2015-06-01

    Typical form of neurons is crucially important for their functions. This is maintained by microtubules and associated proteins like tau. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is a major concern in neurodegenerative diseases. Glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are the enzymes that govern tau phosphorylation. Currently, efforts are being made to target GSK3β and Cdk5 as possible therapeutic avenues to control tau phosphorylation and treat neurodegenerative diseases related to taupathies. In a number of studies, caloric restriction mimetic 2-deoxyglucose (C6H12O5) was found to be beneficial in improving the brain functions. However, no reports are available on the effect of 2-deoxyglucose 2-DG on tau phosphorylation. In the present study, hippocampal pyramidal neurons from E17 mouse embryos were isolated and cultured on poly-L-lysine-coated coverslips. Neurons from the experimental group were treated with 10 mM 2-deoxyglucose. The treatment of 2-DG resulted in healthier neuronal morphology in terms of significantly lower number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, little or no membrane blebbings, maintained axon hillock and intact neurites. There were decreased immunofluorescence signals for GSK3β, pTau at Ser262, Cdk5 and pTau at Ser235 suggesting decreased tau phosphorylation, which was further confirmed by Western blotting. The results indicate the beneficial effects of 2-DG in controlling the tau phosphorylation and maintaining the healthy neuronal cytoarchitecture.

  9. Scope and limitations of carbohydrate hydrolysis for de novo glycan sequencing using a hydrogen peroxide/metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianyuan; Wooke, Zachary; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2018-03-22

    Acidic hydrolysis is commonly used as a first step to break down oligo- and polysaccharides into monosaccharide units for structural analysis. While easy to set up and amenable to mass spectrometry detection, acid hydrolysis is not without its drawbacks. For example, ring-destruction side reactions and degradation products, along with difficulties in optimizing conditions from analyte to analyte, greatly limits its broad utility. Herein we report studies on a hydrogen peroxide/CuGGH metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic design for a more efficient and controllable carbohydrate hydrolysis. A library of methyl glycosides consisting of ten common monosaccharide substrates, along with oligosaccharide substrates, was screened with the artificial glycosidase for hydrolytic activity in a high-throughput format with a robotic liquid handling system. The artificial glycosidase was found to be active towards most screened linkages, including alpha- and beta-anomers, thus serving as a potential alternative method for traditional acidic hydrolysis approaches of oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  11. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  12. Supercritical transitiometry of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randzio, S L; Grolier, J P

    1998-06-01

    Employing supercritical fluids (SCFs) during polymers processing allows the unusual properties of SCFs to be exploited for making polymer products that cannot be obtained by other means. A new supercritical transitiometer has been constructed to permit study of the interactions of SCFs with polymers during processing under well-defined conditions of temperature and pressure. The supercritical transitiometer allows pressure to be exerted by either a supercritical fluid or a neutral medium and enables simultaneous determination of four basic parameters of a transition, i.e., p, T, Δ(tr)H and Δ(tr)V. This permits determination of the SCF effect on modification of the polymer structure at a given pressure and temperature and defines conditions to allow reproducible preparation of new polymer structures. Study of a semicrystalline polyethylene by this method has defined conditions for preparation of new microfoamed phases with good mechanical properties. The low densities and microporous structures of the new materials may make them useful for applications in medicine, pharmacy, or the food industry, for example.

  13. Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaska, Alexandra Maria; Song, Haixiang; Guo, Zhanhu

    With more awareness of energy conversion/storage and saving, different strategies have been developed to utilize the sustainable and renewable energy. Introducing nanoscale fillers can make inert polymer matrix possess unique properties to satisfy certain functions. For example, alumina nanoparticles have strengthened the weak thermosetting polymers. A combined mixture of carbon nanofibers and magnetite nanoparticles have made the inert epoxy sensitive for magnetic field for sensing applications. Introducing silica nanoparticles into conductive polymers such as polyaniline has enhanced the giant magnetoresistance behaviors. The introduced nanoparticles have made the transparent polymer have the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function while reduce the density significantly. With the desired miniaturization, the materials combining different functionalities have become importantly interesting. In this talk, methodologies to prepare nanocomposites and their effects on the produced nanocomposites will be discussed. A variety of advanced polymer nanocomposites will be introduced. Unique properties including mechanical, electrical, magnetoresistance etc. and the applications for environmental remediation, energy storage/saving, fire retardancy, electromagnetic interference shielding, and electronic devices will be presented.

  14. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  15. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  16. Semi-metallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report...... that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being...... a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics....

  17. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Electric field induced dewetting at polymer/polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Kerle, T.; Russell, T.P.; Schäffer, E.; Steiner, U

    2002-01-01

    External electric fields were used to amplify interfacial fluctuations in the air/polymer/polymer system where one polymer dewets the other. Two different hydrodynamic regimes were found as a function of electric field strength. If heterogeneous nucleation leads to the formation of holes before the

  19. Polymer containing functional end groups is base for new polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Butadiene is polymerized with lithium-p-lithiophenoxide to produce linear polymer containing oxy-lithium group at one end and active carbon-lithium group at other end. Living polymers represent new approach to preparation of difunctional polymers in which structural features, molecular weight, type and number of end groups are controlled.

  20. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  1. Delocalization in polymer models

    CERN Document Server

    Jitomirskaya, S Yu; Stolz, G

    2003-01-01

    A polymer model is a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator composed of two finite building blocks. If the two associated transfer matrices commute, the corresponding energy is called critical. Such critical energies appear in physical models, an example being the widely studied random dimer model. Although the random models are known to have pure-point spectrum with exponentially localized eigenstates for almost every configuration of the polymers, the spreading of an initially localized wave packet is here proven to be at least diffusive for every configuration.

  2. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  3. Polymers at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Shao-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Kalia and Fu's novel monograph covers cryogenic treatment, properties and applications of cryo-treated polymer materials. Written by numerous international experts, the twelve chapters in this book offer the reader a comprehensive picture of the latest findings and developments, as well as an outlook on the field. Cryogenic technology has seen remarkable progress in the past few years and especially cryogenic properties of polymers are attracting attention through new breakthroughs in space, superconducting, magnetic and electronic techniques. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, educators, engineers and graduate students in the field and at technical institutions.

  4. Polymers and colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtenberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs

  5. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  6. Ballistic nanoindentation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsmann, B.; Rothuizen, H.; Duerig, U.

    2008-09-01

    Indentation of a sharp (20 nm) cantilevered silicon tip into a polymer (SU8) surface is analyzed experimentally and through finite-element simulations. A rate effect on the microsecond scale that eases indentation is found, in contrast to the commonly observed hardening at high strain rates. The observed rate effect is discussed in terms of adiabatic heating and inertial force overshoot. The estimated magnitude of adiabatic heating is marginal, but the force overshoot itself is large enough to explain the data. The data imply that topographic patterning of a polymer at megahertz rates is feasible.

  7. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  8. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  9. Polymer architecture and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Bae, You Han

    2006-01-01

    Polymers occupy a major portion of materials used for controlled release formulations and drug-targeting systems because this class of materials presents seemingly endless diversity in topology and chemistry. This is a crucial advantage over other classes of materials to meet the ever-increasing requirements of new designs of drug delivery formulations. The polymer architecture (topology) describes the shape of a single polymer molecule. Every natural, seminatural, and synthetic polymer falls into one of categorized architectures: linear, graft, branched, cross-linked, block, star-shaped, and dendron/dendrimer topology. Although this topic spans a truly broad area in polymer science, this review introduces polymer architectures along with brief synthetic approaches for pharmaceutical scientists who are not familiar with polymer science, summarizes the characteristic properties of each architecture useful for drug delivery applications, and covers recent advances in drug delivery relevant to polymer architecture.

  10. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  11. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  12. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively i...

  13. New polymers for phase partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesizing of several polyethylene glycols having crown ethers attached is reported. This work led to the identification of three new polymer types which promise to be more effective at selectively binding specific cell types. Work was completed on identification of chemical properties of the new polymer crowns and on development of new techniques for determination of polymer-phase composition.

  14. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  15. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  16. White polymer light-emitting diode based on polymer blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Kwon, Soon Kab; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Tae Jin; Song, Dae Ho; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Choo, Dong Jun; Jang, Jin; Jin, Jae Kyu; You, Hong

    2006-01-01

    A series of white polymer light emitting devices have been fabricated by using a polymer blending system of polyfluorene-based blue and MEH-PPV red polymers. A device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/LiF/Al was employed. The white polymer device exhibited a current efficiency of 4.33 cd/A (4,816 cd/m 2 , Q.E. = 1.9 %) and a maximum luminance of 21,430 cd/m 2 at 9.2 V. The CIE coordinates were (0.35, 0.37) at 5 V and (0.29, 0.30) at 9 V.

  17. Allosteric Inhibition of Factor XIIIa. Non-Saccharide Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics, but Not Glycosaminoglycans, Exhibit Promising Inhibition Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A Al-Horani

    Full Text Available Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the last step in the coagulation process. Orthostery is the only approach that has been exploited to design FXIIIa inhibitors. Yet, allosteric inhibition of FXIIIa is a paradigm that may offer a key advantage of controlled inhibition over orthosteric inhibition. Such an approach is likely to lead to novel FXIIIa inhibitors that do not carry bleeding risks. We reasoned that targeting a collection of basic amino acid residues distant from FXIIIa's active site by using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs or non-saccharide GAG mimetics (NSGMs would lead to the discovery of the first allosteric FXIIIa inhibitors. We tested a library of 22 variably sulfated GAGs and NSGMs against human FXIIIa to discover promising hits. Interestingly, although some GAGs bound to FXIIIa better than NSGMs, no GAG displayed any inhibition. An undecasulfated quercetin analog was found to inhibit FXIIIa with reasonable potency (efficacy of 98%. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Fluorescence studies confirmed close correspondence between binding affinity and inhibition potency, as expected for an allosteric process. The inhibitor was reversible and at least 9-fold- and 26-fold selective over two GAG-binding proteins factor Xa (efficacy of 71% and thrombin, respectively, and at least 27-fold selective over a cysteine protease papain. The inhibitor also inhibited the FXIIIa-mediated polymerization of fibrin in vitro. Overall, our work presents the proof-of-principle that FXIIIa can be allosterically modulated by sulfated non-saccharide agents much smaller than GAGs, which should enable the design of selective and safe anticoagulants.

  18. Fisetin as a caloric restriction mimetic protects rat brain against aging induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Garg, Geetika; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2018-01-15

    In the present study, attempts have been made to evaluate the potential role of fisetin, a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM), for neuroprotection in D-galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated and natural aging models of rat. Fisetin was supplemented (15mg/kg b.w., orally) to young, D-gal induced aged (D-gal 500mg/kg b.w subcutaneously) and naturally aged rats for 6weeks. Standard protocols were employed to measure pro-oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential in brain tissues. Gene expression analysis with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of autophagy, neuronal, aging as well as inflammatory marker genes. We have also evaluated apoptotic cell death and synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporter activities in brain tissues. Our data demonstrated that fisetin significantly decreased the level of pro-oxidants and increased the level of antioxidants. Furthermore, fisetin also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptotic cell death and impairments in the activities of synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporters in aging rat brain. RT-PCR data revealed that fisetin up-regulated the expression of autophagy genes (Atg-3 and Beclin-1), sirtuin-1 and neuronal markers (NSE and Ngb), and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α) and Sirt-2 genes respectively in aging brain. The present study suggests that fisetin supplementation may provide neuroprotection against aging-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, neuro-inflammation, and neurodegeneration in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-tumor activity of a novel HS-mimetic-vascular endothelial growth factor binding small molecule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Sugahara

    Full Text Available The angiogenic process is controlled by variety of factors of which the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway plays a major role. A series of heparan sulfate mimetic small molecules targeting VEGF/VEGFR pathway has been synthesized. Among them, compound 8 (2-butyl-5-chloro-3-(4-nitro-benzyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde was identified as a significant binding molecule for the heparin-binding domain of VEGF, determined by high-throughput-surface plasmon resonance assay. The data predicted strong binding of compound 8 with VEGF which may prevent the binding of VEGF to its receptor. We compared the structure of compound 8 with heparan sulfate (HS, which have in common the functional ionic groups such as sulfate, nitro and carbaldehyde that can be located in similar positions of the disaccharide structure of HS. Molecular docking studies predicted that compound 8 binds at the heparin binding domain of VEGF through strong hydrogen bonding with Lys-30 and Gln-20 amino acid residues, and consistent with the prediction, compound 8 inhibited binding of VEGF to immobilized heparin. In vitro studies showed that compound 8 inhibits the VEGF-induced proliferation migration and tube formation of mouse vascular endothelial cells, and finally the invasion of a murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8G7 which secrets high levels of VEGF. In vivo, these effects produce significant decrease of tumor burden in an experimental model of liver metastasis. Collectively, these data indicate that compound 8 may prevent tumor growth through a direct effect on tumor cell proliferation and by inhibition of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis mediated by VEGF. In conclusion, compound 8 may normalize the tumor vasculature and microenvironment in tumors probably by inhibiting the binding of VEGF to its receptor.

  20. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Agent, Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Alleviation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; Shehata, Nagwa I.; Abdelkader, Noha F.; Khattab, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods and Findings Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day). Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I–IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS) protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Conclusion This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

  1. Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa A Ahmed

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice.Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day. Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I-IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma.This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Effects of the potential lithium-mimetic, ebselen, on brain neurochemistry: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Charles; Sharpley, Ann L; Godlewska, Beata R; Berrington, Adam; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Singh, Nisha; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Emir, Uzay E; Churchill, Grant C; Cowen, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Lithium is an effective treatment for bipolar disorder, but safety issues complicate its clinical use. The antioxidant drug, ebselen, may be a possible lithium-mimetic based on its ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an action which it shares with lithium. Our primary aim was to determine whether ebselen lowered levels of inositol in the human brain. We also assessed the effect of ebselen on other brain neurometabolites, including glutathione, glutamate, glutamine, and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) Twenty healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions receiving either ebselen (3600 mg over 24 h) or identical placebo in a double-blind, random-order, crossover design. Two hours after the final dose of ebselen/placebo, participants underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 7 tesla (T) with voxels placed in the anterior cingulate and occipital cortex. Neurometabolite levels were calculated using an unsuppressed water signal as a reference and corrected for individual cerebrospinal fluid content in the voxel. Ebselen produced no effect on neurometabolite levels in the occipital cortex. In the anterior cingulate cortex, ebselen lowered concentrations of inositol (p = 0.028, Cohen's d = 0.60) as well as those of glutathione (p = 0.033, d = 0.58), glutamine (p = 0.024, d = 0.62), glutamate (p = 0.01, d = 0.73), and Glx (p = 0.001, d = 1.0). The study suggests that ebselen produces a functional inhibition of IMPase in the human brain. The effect of ebselen to lower glutamate is consistent with its reported ability to inhibit the enzyme, glutaminase. Ebselen may have potential as a repurposed treatment for bipolar disorder.

  3. Polymers of phenylenediamines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, February (2015), s. 1-31 ISSN 0079-6700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyphenylenediamine * phenylenediamine * conducting polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 27.184, year: 2015

  4. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijay I; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2005-02-15

    Potential applications of nanoporous thermosetting polymers include polyelectrolytes in fuel cells, separation membranes, adsorption media, and sensors. Design of nanoporous polymers for such applications entails controlling permeability by tailoring pore size, structure, and interface chemistry. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers are often synthesized via free radical mechanisms using solvents that phase separate during polymerization. In this work, a novel technique for the synthesis of nanoporous thermosets is presented that is based on the reactive encapsulation of an inert solvent using step-growth cross-linking polymerization without micro/macroscopic phase separation. The criteria for selecting such a monomer-polymer-solvent system are discussed based on FTIR analysis, observed micro/macroscopic phase separation, and thermodynamics of swelling. Investigation of resulting network pore structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering following extraction and supercritical drying using carbon dioxide showed that nanoporous polymeric materials with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 50 nm can be synthesized by varying the solvent content. The differences in the porous morphology of these materials compared to more common free radically polymerized analogues that exhibit phase separation were evident from SEM imaging. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemical activity of the nanoporous materials obtained by our method could be tailored by grafting appropriate functional groups at the pore interface.

  5. Characterization of healable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C.; Weizman, Or; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-04-01

    Materials with an internal mechanism for damage repair would be valuable in isolated environments where access is difficult or impossible. Current work is focused on characterizing neat polymers with reformable cross-linking bonds. These bonds are thermally reversible, the result of a Diels-Alder cycloaddition between furan and maleimide monomers. Candidate polymers are examined using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to confirm the presence of reversible bonding. One polymer, 2MEP3FT, was expected to have these bonds, but none were observed. A second polymer, 2MEP4FS, with a modified furan monomer does exhibit reversible bonding. Further DSC testing and dynamic mechanical thermal analyses (DMA) are conducted to determine material properties such as glass transition temperature, storage modulus and quality of the polymerization. Healing efficiency is established using the double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) fracture test. A column of material with a central hole is subjected to axial compression, driving cracks up and down the sample. After unloading, the cracks are healed, and the sample is retested. Comparing the results gives a quantitative evaluation of healing.

  6. Knots in polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy ...

  7. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  8. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  9. Structure and Orientation of Bovine Lactoferrampin in the Mimetic Bacterial Membrane as Revealed by Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Javkhlantugs, Namsrai; Kira, Atsushi; Umeyama, Masako; Kawamura, Izuru; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Ueda, Kazuyoshi; Naito, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrampin (LFampinB) is a newly discovered antimicrobial peptide found in the N1-domain of bovine lactoferrin (268–284), and consists of 17 amino-acid residues. It is important to determine the orientation and structure of LFampinB in bacterial membranes to reveal the antimicrobial mechanism. We therefore performed 13C and 31P NMR, 13C-31P rotational echo double resonance (REDOR), potassium ion-selective electrode, and quartz-crystal microbalance measurements for LFampinB with mimetic bacterial membrane and molecular-dynamics simulation in acidic membrane. 31P NMR results indicated that LFampinB caused a defect in mimetic bacterial membranes. Ion-selective electrode measurements showed that ion leakage occurred for the mimetic bacterial membrane containing cardiolipin. Quartz-crystal microbalance measurements revealed that LFampinB had greater affinity to acidic phospholipids than that to neutral phospholipids. 13C DD-MAS and static NMR spectra showed that LFampinB formed an α-helix in the N-terminus region and tilted 45° to the bilayer normal. REDOR dephasing patterns between carbonyl carbon nucleus in LFampinB and phosphorus nuclei in lipid phosphate groups were measured by 13C-31P REDOR and the results revealed that LFampinB is located in the interfacial region of the membrane. Molecular-dynamics simulation showed the tilt angle to be 42° and the rotation angle to be 92.5° for Leu3, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. PMID:23083717

  10. Chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing for exploring chemical mechanisms in traditional processing of herbal medicines, a continuous study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-12-29

    Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The

  11. Age-related decrease in the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase Sirt3 expression associated with ROS accumulation in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zeng

    Full Text Available Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, also known as central presbycusis, can affect speech perception and sound localization. Understanding the pathogenesis of central presbycusis will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, the mechanisms of central presbycusis were investigated using a mimetic aging rat model induced by chronic injection of D-galactose (D-Gal. We showed that malondialdehyde (MDA levels were increased and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 activity was reduced in the auditory cortex in natural aging and D-Gal-induced mimetic aging rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA 4834 bp deletion, abnormal ultrastructure and cell apoptosis in the auditory cortex were also found in natural aging and D-Gal mimetic aging rats. Sirt3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis. However, the role of Sirt3 in the pathogenesis of age-related central auditory cortex deterioration is still unclear. Here, we showed that decreased Sirt3 expression might be associated with increased SOD2 acetylation, which negatively regulates SOD2 activity. Oxidative stress accumulation was likely the result of low SOD2 activity and a decline in ROS clearance. Our findings indicate that Sirt3 might play an essential role, via the mediation of SOD2, in central presbycusis and that manipulation of Sirt3 expression might provide a new approach to combat aging and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  12. BEAM applications to polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1994-01-01

    Recently papers about beam applications to polymers have been increasing rapidly both in the fundamental and applied fields. Fairly large number of papers have been published in the fundamental aspects of radiation effects of beam applications to polymers such as pulse radiolysis and high density electronic excitation effects. A number of papers have been published in the more applied aspects of beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing. The present paper describes recent beam applications to polymers. 1. Radiation Effects on Polymers; Radiation effects on polymers have been studied for more than 40 years. Most of work on radiation effects on polymers has been carried out by using high energy photon (gamma-ray) and electron beams, since polymers are sensitive to any kinds of ionizing radiation. Even non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet and visible light excites electronic excited states of polymers and then photo-chemical reactions of polymers are induced from the electronic excited states. Studies on radiation effects of other ionizing radiation on polymers have not been so popular for a long time. Recently application of new radiation such as ion beams to polymers have been worthy of remark in fields of advanced science and technology, since new radiation beams induce different radiation effects from those induced by high energy gamma-rays and electrons. 2. Beam Applications of Polymers; Recent progress in beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing, x-ray and electron beam microlithography, and applications of new beams such as ion beams to polymers has been reviewed. (author)

  13. Age-related decline of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model associated with the common deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Hu, Yujuan; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yu; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xueyan; Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Honglian; Kong, Weijia

    2012-12-01

    The age-related deterioration in the central auditory system is well known to impair the abilities of sound localization and speech perception. However, the mechanisms involved in the age-related central auditory deficiency remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions accumulated with age in the auditory system. Also, a cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) deficiency has been proposed to be a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study was designed to explore the changes of CcO activity and to investigate the possible relationship between the mtDNA common deletion (CD) and CcO activity as well as the mRNA expression of CcO subunits in the auditory cortex of D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mimetic aging rats at different ages. Moreover, we explored whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were involved in the changes of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded CcO subunits in the auditory cortex during aging. Our data demonstrated that d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats exhibited an accelerated accumulation of the CD and a gradual decline in the CcO activity in the auditory cortex during the aging process. The reduction in the CcO activity was correlated with the level of CD load in the auditory cortex. The mRNA expression of CcO subunit III was reduced significantly with age in the d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats. In contrast, the decline in the mRNA expression of subunits I and IV was relatively minor. Additionally, significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and TFAM were observed in the auditory cortex of D-gal-induced mimetic aging rats with aging. These findings suggested that the accelerated accumulation of the CD in the auditory cortex may induce a substantial decline in CcO subunit III and lead to a significant decline in the Cc

  14. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized

    OpenAIRE

    van Delft, Mark F.; Wei, Andrew H.; Mason, Kylie D.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E.; Willis, Simon N.; Scott, Clare L.; Day, Catherine L.; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Huang, David C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since apoptosis is impaired in malignant cells overexpressing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, drugs mimicking their natural antagonists, BH3-only proteins, might overcome chemoresistance. Of seven putative BH3 mimetics tested, only ABT-737 triggered Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis. Despite its high affinity for Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, many cell types proved refractory to ABT-737. We show that this resistance reflects its inability to target another pro-survival relative, Mcl-1. Down-regulation of Mc...

  15. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare Kimblin; Kirk Miller; Bob Vogel; Bill Quam; Harry McHugh; Glen Anthony; Steve Jones; Mike Grover

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number

  16. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  17. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  18. Adsorption and flocculation by polymers and polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Barany, Sandor

    2011-11-14

    Polymers of various types are in widespread use as flocculants in several industries. In most cases, polymer adsorption is an essential prerequisite for flocculation and kinetic aspects are very important. The rates of polymer adsorption and of re-conformation (relaxation) of adsorbed chains are key factors that influence the performance of flocculants and their mode of action. Polyelectrolytes often tend to adopt a rather flat adsorbed configuration and in this state their action is mainly through charge effects, including 'electrostatic patch' attraction. When the relaxation rate is quite low, particle collisions may occur while the adsorbed chains are still in an extended state and flocculation by polymer bridging may occur. These effects are now well understood and supported by much experimental evidence. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of multi-component flocculants, especially dual-polymer systems. In the latter case, there can be significant advantages over the use of single polymers. Despite some complications, there is a broad understanding of the action of dual polymer systems. In many cases the sequence of addition of the polymers is important and the pre-adsorbed polymer can have two important effects: providing adsorption sites for the second polymer or causing a more extended adsorbed conformation as a result of 'site blocking'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden

    Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.

  20. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  1. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  2. Polymer Physics Prize Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    Polymer electrolytes have been particularly difficult to describe theoretically given the large number of disparate length scales involved in determining their physical properties. The Debye length, the Bjerrum length, the ion size, the chain length, and the distance between the charges along their backbones determine their structure and their response to external fields. We have developed an approach that uses multi-scale calculations with the capability of demonstrating the phase behavior of polymer electrolytes and of providing a conceptual understanding of how charge dictates nano-scale structure formation. Moreover, our molecular dynamics simulations have provided an understanding of the coupling of their conformation to their dynamics, which is crucial to design self-assembling materials, as well as to explore the dynamics of complex electrolytes for energy storage and conversion applications.

  3. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  4. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  5. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed investigations have made it possible to ascertain that a morphological structure of starch granules mainly determine technological peculiarities of starch isolation from raw material, its modification and its later use. Morphological structure of starch granules primarily depends on type of plant starch-containing raw material which has been used for its isolation. Class of raw material exerts a strong impact on the shape and size of the granules. Linear “light” amylose chains and “heavy” amylopectin branch chains form a starch granule ultrastructure. X-ray research has proved that starch granules are characterized by presence of interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. In this case polymer orientation using stretching of the obtained end product influences on its physical and mechanical  indices which are increasing due to polymer orientation. For the purpose of packaging orientation of polymer films can solve such important problems as significant improvement of operational properties, creation of  thermosetting film materials, improvement of qualitative indices of the recycled film.Results of the conducted research have proved the fact that it is necessary to make changes in technology in order to increase biological degradability of the recycled packaging made from polymers and improve physical and mechanical indices. In this regard film production technology presupposes usage of such substances as stark and others which are characterized by rather large presence of branch chains of molecules and interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. Such approach makes it possible to obtain after-use package which is strong and quickly degradable by micro-organisms.

  7. Dynamics of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, U [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    1996-11-01

    Neutron scattering from amorphous polymers allows to switch from incoherent to coherent scattering in the same substance. The power of the tool for the study of the picosecond dynamics of disordered matter is illustrated for polybutadiene, polycarbonate and polystyrene. The results suggest a mixture of sound waves and localized modes, strongly interacting with each other, in the picosecond range. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 39 refs.

  8. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA)............... 12 2.6 Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy... gravimetry analysis (TGA) Thermal analysis of polymer films has been accomplished by TGA and DSC methods with the aid of Perkin-Elmer Series 7 Analysers...The MEH-PPV/acceptor films were prepared by spin-casting of the resulting mixture (with or without precipitate ) on glass substrates of diameter 23 mm

  9. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  10. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  11. Mechanoresponsive Healing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Methods are provided to produce new mechanoresponsive healing systems. Additionally, various embodiments provide a two tier self-healing material system concept that provides a non-intrusive method to mitigate impact damage in a structure ranging from low velocity impact damage (e.g., crack damage) to high velocity impact damage (e.g., ballistic damage.) The various embodiments provide the mechanophore linked polymer PBG-BCB-PBG. The various embodiments provide methods for synthesizing PBG-BCB-PBG.

  12. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  13. Coating of Bio-mimetic Minerals-Substituted Hydroxyapatite on Surgical Grade Stainless Steel 316L by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hard tissue Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan

    2018-02-01

    Third-era bio-implant materials intend to empower particular live cell reactions at the atomic level, these materials represented with a resorbable and biocompatibility that bodies recuperate once they have been embedded. Necessitate to decrease expenses in public health services has required the utilization of surgical grade stainless steel (SS 316L) as the most inexpensive choice for orthodontic and orthopaedic implants. 316L SS is one of the broadly used implant biomaterials in orthodontic and orthopaedic surgeries. Yet, frequently those discharge for toxic metal ions is confirm from the implants and hence a second surgery is required will remove those implant material. One approach to managing the discharge of toxic metal ions is to coat the implant substance with bio-mimetic minerals in hydroxyapatite (HA). Bio-mimetic minerals such as magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), also zinc (Zn) were revealed with animate bone growth furthermore restrain bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The present work deals with the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for multi minerals substituted hydroxyapatite (M-HA) on the surface treated 316L SS under distinctive temperatures (27°C, (room temperature), 60 and 80°C). The resultant coatings were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, adhesion strength and leach out analysis.

  14. A mimetic, semi-implicit, forward-in-time, finite volume shallow water model: comparison of hexagonal–icosahedral and cubed-sphere grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thuburn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm is presented for the solution of the shallow water equations on quasi-uniform spherical grids. It combines a mimetic finite volume spatial discretization with a Crank–Nicolson time discretization of fast waves and an accurate and conservative forward-in-time advection scheme for mass and potential vorticity (PV. The algorithm is implemented and tested on two families of grids: hexagonal–icosahedral Voronoi grids, and modified equiangular cubed-sphere grids. Results of a variety of tests are presented, including convergence of the discrete scalar Laplacian and Coriolis operators, advection, solid body rotation, flow over an isolated mountain, and a barotropically unstable jet. The results confirm a number of desirable properties for which the scheme was designed: exact mass conservation, very good available energy and potential enstrophy conservation, consistent mass, PV and tracer transport, and good preservation of balance including vanishing ∇ × ∇, steady geostrophic modes, and accurate PV advection. The scheme is stable for large wave Courant numbers and advective Courant numbers up to about 1. In the most idealized tests the overall accuracy of the scheme appears to be limited by the accuracy of the Coriolis and other mimetic spatial operators, particularly on the cubed-sphere grid. On the hexagonal grid there is no evidence for damaging effects of computational Rossby modes, despite attempts to force them explicitly.

  15. Significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Pytren4Q-Mn a superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 mimetic scorpiand-like Mn (II complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Serena

    Full Text Available The clinical use of purified SOD enzymes has strong limitations due to their large molecular size, high production cost and immunogenicity. These limitations could be compensated by using instead synthetic SOD mimetic compounds of low molecular weight.We have recently reported that two SOD mimetic compounds, the Mn(II complexes of the polyamines Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q, displayed high antioxidant activity in bacteria and yeast. Since frequently molecules with antioxidant properties or free-radical scavengers also have anti-inflammatory properties we have assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q Mn(II complexes, in cultured macrophages and in a murine model of inflammation, by measuring the degree of protection they could provide against the cellular injury produced by lipopolisacharide, a bacterial endotoxin.In this report we show that the Mn(II complex of Pytren4Q but not that of Pytren2Q effectively protected human cultured THP-1 macrophages and whole mice from the inflammatory effects produced by LPS. These results obtained with two molecules that are isomers highlight the importance of gathering experimental data from animal models of disease in assessing the potential of candidate molecules.The effective anti-inflammatory activity of the Mn(II complex of Pytren4Q in addition to its low toxicity, water solubility and ease of production would suggest it is worth taking into consideration for future pharmacological studies.

  16. Inhibition of bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins) in membranes and in vivo by peptidoglycan-mimetic boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhekieva, Liudmila; Kumar, Ish; Pratt, R F

    2012-04-03

    The DD-peptidases or penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) catalyze the final steps of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis and are inhibited by the β-lactam antibiotics. There is at present a question of whether the active site structure and activity of these enzymes is the same in the solubilized (truncated) DD-peptidase constructs employed in crystallographic and kinetics studies as in membrane-bound holoenzymes. Recent experiments with peptidoglycan-mimetic boronic acids have suggested that these transition state analogue-generating inhibitors may be able to induce reactive conformations of these enzymes and thus inhibit strongly. We have now, therefore, measured the dissociation constants of peptidoglycan-mimetic boronic acids from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PBPs in membrane preparations and, in the former case, in vivo, by means of competition experiments with the fluorescent penicillin Bocillin Fl. The experiments showed that the boronic acids bound measurably (K(i) DD-peptidase inhibitors are more or less effective in vivo than in homogeneous solution.

  17. Modeling of arylamide helix mimetics in the p53 peptide binding site of hDM2 suggests parallel and anti-parallel conformations are both stable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Fuller

    Full Text Available The design of novel α-helix mimetic inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is of interest to pharmaceuticals and chemical genetics researchers as these inhibitors provide a chemical scaffold presenting side chains in the same geometry as an α-helix. This conformational arrangement allows the design of high affinity inhibitors mimicking known peptide sequences binding specific protein substrates. We show that GAFF and AutoDock potentials do not properly capture the conformational preferences of α-helix mimetics based on arylamide oligomers and identify alternate parameters matching solution NMR data and suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of arylamide compounds. Results from both docking and molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with the arylamides binding in the p53 peptide binding pocket. Simulations of arylamides in the p53 binding pocket of hDM2 are consistent with binding, exhibiting similar structural dynamics in the pocket as simulations of known hDM2 binders Nutlin-2 and a benzodiazepinedione compound. Arylamide conformations converge towards the same region of the binding pocket on the 20 ns time scale, and most, though not all dihedrals in the binding pocket are well sampled on this timescale. We show that there are two putative classes of binding modes for arylamide compounds supported equally by the modeling evidence. In the first, the arylamide compound lies parallel to the observed p53 helix. In the second class, not previously identified or proposed, the arylamide compound lies anti-parallel to the p53 helix.

  18. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  19. Targeted recombinant fusion proteins of IFNγ and mimetic IFNγ with PDGFβR bicyclic peptide inhibits liver fibrogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Bansal

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, following transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts plays a key role in liver fibrosis. Therefore, attempts to attenuate this myofibroblastic phenotype would be a promising therapeutic approach. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is a potent anti-fibrotic cytokine, but its pleiotropic receptor expression leading to severe adverse effects has limited its clinical application. Since, activated HSC express high-level of platelet derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGFβR, we investigated the potential of PDGFβR-specific targeting of IFNγ and its signaling peptide that lacks IFNγR binding site (mimetic IFNγ or mimIFNγ in liver fibrosis. We prepared DNA constructs expressing IFNγ, mimIFNγ or BiPPB (PDGFβR-specific bicyclic peptide-IFNγ, BiPPB-mimIFNγ fusion proteins. Both chimeric proteins alongwith IFNγ and mimIFNγ were produced in E.coli. The expressed proteins were purified and analyzed for PDGFβR-specific binding and in vitro effects. Subsequently, these recombinant proteins were investigated for the liver uptake (pSTAT1α signaling pathway, for anti-fibrotic effects and adverse effects (platelet counts in CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis in mice. The purified HSC-targeted IFNγ and mimIFNγ fusion proteins showed PDGFβR-specific binding and significantly reduced TGFβ-induced collagen-I expression in human HSC (LX2 cells, while mouse IFNγ and mimIFNγ did not show any effect. Conversely, mouse IFNγ and BiPPB-IFNγ induced activation and dose-dependent nitric oxide release in mouse macrophages (express IFNγR while lack PDGFβR, which was not observed with mimIFNγ and BiPPB-mimIFNγ, due to the lack of IFNγR binding sites. In vivo, targeted BiPPB-IFNγ and BiPPB-mimIFNγ significantly activated intrahepatic IFNγ-signaling pathway compared to IFNγ and mimIFNγ suggesting increased liver accumulation. Furthermore, the targeted fusion proteins ameliorated liver fibrogenesis in mice by significantly reducing

  20. Design, synthesis, and validation of a β-turn mimetic library targeting protein-protein and peptide-receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Landon R; Ando, Yoshio; Setola, Vincent; Vogt, Peter K; Roth, Bryan L; Boger, Dale L

    2011-07-06

    The design and synthesis of a β-turn mimetic library as a key component of a small-molecule library targeting the major recognition motifs involved in protein-protein interactions is described. Analysis of a geometric characterization of 10,245 β-turns in the protein data bank (PDB) suggested that trans-pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxamide could serve as an effective and synthetically accessible library template. This was confirmed by initially screening select compounds against a series of peptide-activated GPCRs that recognize a β-turn structure in their endogenous ligands. This validation study was highlighted by identification of both nonbasic and basic small molecules with high affinities (K(i) = 390 and 23 nM, respectively) for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Consistent with the screening capabilities of collaborators and following the design validation, the complete library was assembled as 210 mixtures of 20 compounds, providing a total of 4200 compounds designed to mimic all possible permutations of 3 of the 4 residues in a naturally occurring β-turn. Unique to the design and because of the C(2) symmetry of the template, a typical 20 × 20 × 20-mix (8000 compounds prepared as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds) needed to represent 20 variations in the side chains of three amino acid residues reduces to a 210 × 20-mix, thereby simplifying the library synthesis and subsequent screening. The library was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol with liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions for purification and conducted on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening the library against the human opioid receptors (KOR, MOR, and DOR) identified not only the activity of library members expected to mimic the opioid receptor peptide ligands but also additional side-chain combinations that provided enhanced receptor binding selectivities (>100-fold) and affinities (as low as K(i) = 80 nM for KOR). A key insight to emerge from

  1. Characterization of a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor in guinea pig lung membranes using a radioiodinated thromboxane mimetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.; Mais, D.E.; Dube, G.P.; Magee, D.E.; Brune, K.A.; Kurtz, W.L.; Williams, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) are potent constrictors of airway smooth muscle and may mediate some of the pulmonary effects of leukotrienes. To date, the TXA2/PGH2 receptor in lung has not been well characterized. In this report, we describe the evaluation of the TXA2/PGH2 receptor in guinea pig lung membranes using the new radiolabeled TXA2 mimetic [1S(1 alpha,2 beta(5Z),3 alpha(1E,3S*),4 alpha)]-7-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-(4'- iodophenoxy)-1-butenyl)-7-oxabicyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-5-h eptenoic acid (IBOP). IBOP elicited a dose-dependent contraction of guinea pig lung parenchymal strips (EC50 = 3.03 +/- 0.97 nM, three experiments), which was blocked by the TXA2/PGH2 antagonists SQ29548 (pKB = 7.44 +/- 0.2, three experiments), BM13505 (pKB = 6.29 +/- 0.26, three experiments), and I-PTA-OH (pKB = 5.82 +/- 0.36, three experiments). In radioligand binding studies, the binding of [125I]IBOP to guinea pig lung membranes prepared from perfused lungs was saturable, displaceable, and dependent upon protein concentration. Binding was optimal at pH 6.5 and was enhanced by the addition of mono- and divalent cations. The standard assay buffer was 25 mM 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid, pH 6.5, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgCl2. Binding was inhibited by pretreatment with dithiothreitol, N-ethylmaleimide, or beta-mercaptoethanol. Binding was unaffected by the addition of guanine nucleotide analogs at concentrations up to 300 microM. Analysis of the time course of binding of [125]IBOP at 30 degrees yielded k-1 = 0.0447 min-1, k1 = 2.49 x 10(8) M-1 min-1, and Kd = k-1/k1 = 180 pM. Computer analysis of equilibrium binding studies using nonlinear methods (LUNDON-1) revealed a single class of noninteracting binding sites with a Kd of 86.9 +/- 11.9 pM and a Bmax of 81.8 +/- 7.7 fmol/mg of protein (three experiments)

  2. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R., E-mail: alan.denton@ndsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  3. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments

  4. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  5. Biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2013-04-21

    Functional polymer brushes have been utilized extensively for the immobilization of biomolecules, which is of crucial importance for the development of biosensors and biotechnology. Recent progress in polymerization methods, in particular surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has provided a unique means for the design and synthesis of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes. This current review summarizes such recent research activities. The different preparation strategies for biomolecule immobilization through polymer brush spacers are described in detail. The functional groups of the polymer brushes used for biomolecule immobilization include epoxide, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, aldehyde, and amine groups. The recent research activities indicate that functional polymer brushes become versatile and powerful spacers for immobilization of various biomolecules to maximize their functionalities. This review also demonstrates that surface-initiated ATRP is used more frequently than other polymerization methods in the designs of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

  6. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  7. Terminology of Polymers Containing Ionizable or Ionic Groups and of Polymers Containing Ions, VII.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of ionic polymers has widespread application in many areas of everyday life, in industrial production, and in the processes of living matter. The properties of ionic polymers depend on the polymer structure, and the nature, content, and location of the ionic groups. To clear differences among various ionic polymers, the IUPAC recommendations present 34 definitionsfor the ionomer, polyacid, polybase, polyampholytic polymer, ion-exchange polymer, polybetaine, polyelectrolyte, intrinsically conducting polymer, solid polymer electrolyte, etc

  8. The Electrical and Dynamical Properties of Biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Lars Dalskov

    of the coupling between the membrane and the electrical eld within a universal thermodynamic framework. Within this framework, known electrical phenomena associated with lipid membranes such as o set voltage, electrostriction, piezoelectricity and exoelectricity can be captured and viewed as special cases...... the functional behavior of membranes in biological systems. In order to do so we apply linear response theory and non-equilibrium thermodynamics to lipid membranes and propose a new approach: we investigate the relaxation behavior of lipid membranes in the vicinity of their lipid melting transition, taking...... into account the coupling between thermodynamical uctuations and the available heat reservoir. The next step is to combine the knowledge on lipid membranes subjected to an electrical eld with the knowledge on their relaxation behavior and use our understanding to attempt to re-evaluate the results of common...

  9. Electromechanical properties of biomembranes and nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburg, T; Blicher, A; Mosgaard, L D; Zecchi, K

    2014-01-01

    Lipid membranes are insulators and capacitors, which can be charged by an external electric field. This phenomenon plays an important role in the field of electrophysiology, for instance when describing nerve pulse conduction. Membranes are also made of polar molecules meaning that they contain molecules with permanent electrical dipole moments. Therefore, the properties of membranes are subject to changes in trans-membrane voltage. Vice versa, mechanical forces on membranes lead to changes in the membrane potential. Associated effects are flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity, and electrostriction. Lipid membranes can melt from an ordered to a disordered state. Due to the change of membrane dimensions associated with lipid membrane melting, electrical properties are linked to the melting transition. Melting of the membrane can induce changes in trans-membrane potential, and application of voltage can lead to a shift of the melting transition. Further, close to transitions membranes are very susceptible to piezoelectric phenomena. We discuss these phenomena in relation with the occurrence of lipid ion channels. Close to melting transitions, lipid membranes display step-wise ion conduction events, which are indistinguishable from protein ion channels. These channels display a voltage-dependent open probability. One finds asymmetric current-voltage relations of the pure membrane very similar to those found for various protein channels. This asymmetry falsely has been considered a criterion to distinguish lipid channels from protein channels. However, we show that the asymmetry can arise from the electromechanical properties of the lipid membrane itself. Finally, we discuss electromechanical behavior in connection with the electromechanical theory of nerve pulse transduction. It has been found experimentally that nerve pulses are related to changes in nerve thickness. Thus, during the nerve pulse a solitary mechanical pulse travels along the nerve. Due to electromechanical coupling it is unavoidable that this pulse generates a trans-membrane voltage. In the past, we have proposed that this electromechanical pulse is the origin of the action potential in nerves

  10. Electromechanical properties of biomembranes and nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburg, T.; Blicher, A.; Mosgaard, L. D.; Zecchi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid membranes are insulators and capacitors, which can be charged by an external electric field. This phenomenon plays an important role in the field of electrophysiology, for instance when describing nerve pulse conduction. Membranes are also made of polar molecules meaning that they contain molecules with permanent electrical dipole moments. Therefore, the properties of membranes are subject to changes in trans-membrane voltage. Vice versa, mechanical forces on membranes lead to changes in the membrane potential. Associated effects are flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity, and electrostriction. Lipid membranes can melt from an ordered to a disordered state. Due to the change of membrane dimensions associated with lipid membrane melting, electrical properties are linked to the melting transition. Melting of the membrane can induce changes in trans-membrane potential, and application of voltage can lead to a shift of the melting transition. Further, close to transitions membranes are very susceptible to piezoelectric phenomena. We discuss these phenomena in relation with the occurrence of lipid ion channels. Close to melting transitions, lipid membranes display step-wise ion conduction events, which are indistinguishable from protein ion channels. These channels display a voltage-dependent open probability. One finds asymmetric current-voltage relations of the pure membrane very similar to those found for various protein channels. This asymmetry falsely has been considered a criterion to distinguish lipid channels from protein channels. However, we show that the asymmetry can arise from the electromechanical properties of the lipid membrane itself. Finally, we discuss electromechanical behavior in connection with the electromechanical theory of nerve pulse transduction. It has been found experimentally that nerve pulses are related to changes in nerve thickness. Thus, during the nerve pulse a solitary mechanical pulse travels along the nerve. Due to electromechanical coupling it is unavoidable that this pulse generates a trans-membrane voltage. In the past, we have proposed that this electromechanical pulse is the origin of the action potential in nerves.

  11. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  12. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed method FMS to several model membrane systems as well as to living cells, we showed that we can reliably detect the differences in lipid phases and membrane domains upon changes of temperature or biochemical composition. A 1--3 nm spectral shift of probes NBD and Laurdan due to different local polarity was sufficient to clearly distinguish individual vesicles in gel, liquid ordered, or liquid disordered lipid phase that had been prepared from different lipid mixtures. The results were corroborated by observations of phase transition of individual liposomes from gel to liquid disordered phase upon controlled heating of the sample by a heating slide or by a focused infrared laser beam of optical tweezers. The spectral and spatial resolution of FMS were preserved also when observing more complex biological samples, such as mixtures of liposomes and cells, showing that our results were not affected by signals of autofluorescence and growth medium, which often obstruct other fluorescence measurements. The robustness of the method allowed us to identify the delivery mechanism of a cancerostatic drug into human breast cancer cells by lipid nanoparticles. Small spectral shifts of an environment-sensitive dye revealed that the membranes of drug-carrying liposomes fuse with the membranes of cancer cells, delivering the therapeutic substance into the target. Our findings pave the way towards new biomedical approaches for more efficient treatment of the gravest maladies of our time. Furthermore, we upgraded FMS by analyzing the polarization of emitted fluorescence, which is related to the orientational order of dyes' dipoles in the membrane and therefore also to molecular conformations of the probes. The combination of spectral and polarized detection enabled us to provide the first direct experimental evidence that some of the most widely used environment-sensitive membrane probes -- NBD-labelled phospholipids -- undertake various conformations that coexist at distances below optical spatial resolution. Developing a mathematical model, we additionally characterized these conformations and determined their relative portions. We found that they are greatly affected by high concentration of cholesterol, which forces the probes into a different conformation due to its rigid planar chemical structure that favors tight packing of neighboring molecules. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion

  15. Planar-Processed Polymer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sun, Huabin; Shin, Eul-Yong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-10-01

    Planar-processed polymer transistors are proposed where the effective charge injection and the split unipolar charge transport are all on the top surface of the polymer film, showing ideal device characteristics with unparalleled performance. This technique provides a great solution to the problem of fabrication limitations, the ambiguous operating principle, and the performance improvements in practical applications of conjugated-polymer transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Conjugated Polymers for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco

    This dissertation is aimed at developing materials for flexible, large area, ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fully printed under ambient conditions. A large screening of conjugated polymers, both novel and well-known materials, has been carried out in order to find suitable candidates...... polymerization method for industrial production of polymers. Several DArP protocols have been employed for the synthesis of PPDTBT leading to polymers with high structural regularity and photovoltaic performances comparable with the same materials synthesized via Stille cross-coupling polymerization...

  17. Multifunctional Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manias, E

    2003-01-01

    ... in multifunctional nanocomposite materials. Understanding the structure/property relations in polymer/clay nanocomposites is of great importance in designing materials with desired sets of properties...

  18. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  19. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  20. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  1. Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillies, George D. J

    2011-01-01

    ... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...

  2. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  3. Polymer Processing and Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to process and evaluate polymers for use in nonlinear optical, conductive and structural Air Force applications. Primary capabilities are extrusion of...

  4. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  5. Enhancement of Polymer Cytocompatibility by Nanostructuring of Polymer Surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Bačáková, Lucie; Kolská, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), ID527403 ISSN 1687-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polymer cytocompatibility * polymer surface * nanotechnology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2012

  6. Radiation Synthesis of Superabsorbent Polymers Based on Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of proposed research contract were first synthesize superabsorbent polymers based on natural polymers to be used as disposable diapers and soil conditioning materials in agriculture, horticulture and other super adsorbent using industries. We have planned to use the natural polymers; locust beam gum, tara gum, guar gum and sodium alginate on the preparation of natural superabsorbent polymers(SAP). The aqueous solution of natural polymers and their blends with trace amount of monomer and cross-linking agents will be irradiated in paste like conditions by gamma rays for the preparation of cross-linked superabsorbent systems. The water absorption and deswellling capacity of prepared super adsorbents and retention capacity, absorbency under load, suction power, swelling pressure and pet-rewet properties will be determined. Use of these materials instead of synthetic super absorbents will be examined by comparing the performance of finished products. The experimental studies achieved in the second year of project mainly on the effect of radiation on the chemistry of sodium alginate polymers in different irradiation conditions and structure-property relationship particularly with respect to radiation induced changes on the molecular weight of natural polymers and preliminary studies on the synthesis of natural-synthetic hydride super adsorbent polymers were given in details

  7. Polymer Crowding in Confined Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wyatt J.; Denton, Alan R.

    Crowding can influence the conformations and thus functionality of macromolecules in quasi-two-dimensional environments, such as DNA or proteins confined to a cell membrane. We explore such crowding within a model of polymers as penetrable ellipses, whose shapes are governed by the statistics of a 2D random walk. The principal radii of the polymers fluctuate according to probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Within this coarse-grained model, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of mixtures of polymers and hard nanodisks, including trial changes in polymer conformation (shape and orientation). Penetration of polymers by nanodisks is incorporated with a free energy cost predicted by polymer field theory. Over ranges of size ratio and nanodisk density, we analyze the influence of crowding on polymer shape by computing eigenvalue distributions, mean radius of gyration, and mean asphericity of the polymer. We compare results with predictions of free-volume theory and with corresponding results in three dimensions. Our approach may help to interpret recent (and motivate future) experimental studies of biopolymers interacting with cell membranes, with relevance for drug delivery and gene therapy. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  8. Polymer solidification national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1993-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several new and innovative polymer processes for the solidification of low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes streams. Polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification technologies have undergone steady, gradual development at BNL over the past nine years. During this time they have progressed through each of the stages necessary for logical technology maturation: from process conception, parameter optimization, waste form testing, evaluation of long-term durability, economic analysis, and scale-up feasibility. This technology development represents a significant investment which can potentially provide DOE with both short- and long-term savings

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of confined polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Johannes Henricus van

    1991-01-01

    This thesis considers confined polymer systems. These systems are of considerable interest, e.g., thin polymer films, chromotography of polymer solutions, drag reduction, enhanced oil recovery, stabilization of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biolubrication. The method used to study these

  10. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  11. B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetics demonstrate differential activities dependent upon the functional repertoire of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thibaud T; Elkholi, Rana; Bharti, Archana; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2014-09-19

    The B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family is the key mediator of cellular sensitivity to apoptosis during pharmacological interventions for numerous human pathologies, including cancer. There is tremendous interest to understand how the proapoptotic BCL-2 effector members (e.g. BCL-2-associated X protein, BAX) cooperate with the BCL-2 homology domain only (BH3-only) subclass (e.g. BCL-2 interacting mediator of death, BIM; BCL-2 interacting-domain death agonist, BID) to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and apoptosis and whether these mechanisms may be pharmacologically exploited to enhance the killing of cancer cells. Indeed, small molecule inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have been designed rationally. However, the success of these "BH3 mimetics" in the clinic has been limited, likely due to an incomplete understanding of how these drugs function in the presence of multiple BCL-2 family members. To increase our mechanistic understanding of how BH3 mimetics cooperate with multiple BCL-2 family members in vitro, we directly compared the activity of several BH3-mimetic compounds (i.e. ABT-263, ABT-737, GX15-070, HA14.1, TW-37) in biochemically defined large unilamellar vesicle model systems that faithfully recapitulate BAX-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Our investigations revealed that the presence of BAX, BID, and BIM differentially regulated the ability of BH3 mimetics to derepress proapoptotic molecules from anti-apoptotic proteins. Using mitochondria loaded with fluorescent BH3 peptides and cells treated with inducers of cell death, these differences were supported. Together, these data suggest that although the presence of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins primarily dictates cellular sensitivity to BH3 mimetics, additional specificity is conferred by proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A Smac-mimetic sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via modulating both IAPs and NF-kappaB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yao; Liu, Meilan; Tang, Wenhua; Li, Yongming; Lian, Jiqin; Lawrence, Theodore S; Xu, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for human cancer therapy, prostate cancer still remains resistant to TRAIL. Both X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and nuclear factor-kappaB function as key negative regulators of TRAIL signaling. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SH122, a small molecule mimetic of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The potential of Smac-mimetics to bind XIAP or cIAP-1 was examined by pull-down assay. Cytotoxicity of TRAIL and/or Smac-mimetics was determined by a standard cell growth assay. Silencing of XIAP or cIAP-1 was achieved by transient transfection of short hairpin RNA. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-PI staining followed by flow cytometry and by Western Blot analysis of caspases, PARP and Bid. NF-kappaB activation was determined by subcellular fractionation, real time RT-PCR and reporter assay. SH122, but not its inactive analog, binds to XIAP and cIAP-1. SH122 significantly sensitized prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Moreover, SH122 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis via both the death receptor and the mitochondrial pathway. Knockdown of both XIAP and cIAP-1 sensitized cellular response to TRAIL. XIAP-knockdown attenuated sensitivity of SH122 to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, confirming that XIAP is an important target for IAP-inhibitor-mediated TRAIL sensitization. SH122 also suppressed TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation by preventing cytosolic IkappaB-alpha degradation and RelA nuclear translocation, as well as by suppressing NF-kappaB target gene expression. These results demonstrate that SH122 sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mimicking Smac and blocking both IAPs and NF-kappaB. Modulating IAPs may represent a promising approach to overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human prostate cancer with constitutively active NF-kappaB signaling

  13. Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.

  14. Polymer article of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newlove, J.C.; McDougall, L.A.

    1987-12-15

    It is an object of this invention to provide an article and its use to enhance the production of hydrocarbons from geologial reservoirs, more particularly from fractured formations. It has been an additional object to devise a composition for providing controlled release of a reagent downhole, in a pipeline, in other oil-containing environments or fluids. It has been discovered that it is possible to provide for the introduction of an additive reagent into a liquid hydrocarbon by providing solid polymeric bodies each comprising a polymeric matrix containing a substantially water insoluble reagent such as a wax crystal modifier, demulsifier, scale inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor, biocide, ashless dispersant, antioxidant and mixtures thereof. These bodies are, in use, positioned at a location where it is desired to release the reagent into the substantially hydrocarbon fluid and, upon contact with fluid in this location, active reagent is released into the fluid. Thus in accordance with this invention there is provided a solid polymeric body comprising a polymer matrix containing a substantially water-insoluble reagent leachable into a substantially hydrocarbon liquid environment. The object of this invention has been realized in specific form by beads comprising a copolymeric matrix of methylmethacrylate and methacrylic acid containing the behenyl half ester of a C/sub 24/-C/sub 28/ alkenyl succinic anhydride polymer and having a diameter ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Such beads, when introduced downhole in a hydraulic fracturing operation, were found to inhibit paraffin wax deposition.

  15. Polymer dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    , elektronstrålelithografi og Röntgenstrålelithografi. Andre polymerer er også blevet formgivet via ”nanoimprint” lithografi for at skabe laserresonatorer. En række lasere, både baseret på et flydende forstærkningsmedium og et faststof forstærkningsrmedium er blevet udviklet. Laserne giver både lys i flere ”modes” og i een......Formålet med dette Ph.D. arbejde har været at udvikle miniaturiserede polymer farvestoflasere, egnet til at blive integreret i mikrochips som også indeholder andre polymerstrukturer – som for eksempel kan findes i ”Laboratorie-på-en-chip” kredsløb. Lasernes funktion skal være at levere lys til...... meget følsomme sensorformål, og at undgå at skulle opliniere eksterne lyskilder til sensorer på polymerchips. En enkelt type gennemsigtig ”resist” (SU-8) er blevet brugt til at udvikle en række laserresonatorer i polymer. ”Resisten” er blevet formgivet via en række lithografiske teknikker: UV lithografi...

  16. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P

    2017-11-15

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  17. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  18. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  19. All-Polymer Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert

    This thesis presents fabrication strategies to produce different types of all-polymer electrochemical sensors based on electrodes made of the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Three different systems are presented, fabricated either by using microdrilling or by hot...

  20. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  1. Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalya, E.

    2012-01-01

    The main reason for the rapid development of polymer composite materials is that the traditional "pure" polymers have largely played out its performance capabilities whereas technology requires materials with new properties and advances. There are a number of advantages polymeric composites have

  2. Contact mechanics in glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van L.C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Polymers, primarily semi-crystalline, are widely used in applications where low friction is required; examples are cups in artificial hip joints, bearings and gears. Until now there is no clear indication why some polymers display low friction and others don’t. In this thesis a systematic

  3. Radiation synthesis of polymer polyol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianmei; Zeng Xinmiao; Zhou Chengfei; Cao Wei; Zhai Tong; Wu Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    The polymer polyol was synthesized by γ irradiation. The properties of polymer polyol synthesized with different radiation dose were studied. The experiment result showed the radiation dose hadn't significant influence on the hydroxyl value of polymer polyol. The sample with different solid content had different hydroxyl value. When the radiation dose is between 1 to 12 kGy, the viscosity and hydroxyl value of polymer polyol were increased with the increment of radiation dose. When radiation dose is between 1 to 12 kGy, with the increment of radiation dose, viscosity of polymer polyol was rapidly increased, and the content solid of sample has few change. When radiation dose is higher than 20 kGy, the viscosity and hydroxyl value of polymer polyol have gradually increase with the increment of radiation dose. The size of polymer particles is 0.1-0.6 μm. The value of 150 mesh filter was 100%. The polymer polyol may be used as PU foam and elastomer. (authors)

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  5. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry,

  6. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  7. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  8. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  9. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  10. Polymer research by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer physics aims on an understanding of the macroscopic behavior of polymer systems on the basis of their molecular structure and dynamics. For this purpose neutrons serve as a unique probe, allowing a simultaneous investigation of polymer structure and dynamics on a molecular scale. Furthermore, hydrogen deuterium exchange facilitates molecular labeling and offers the possibility to observe selected chains or chain parts in dense systems. Neutron small angle scattering reveals information on the conformation and possible aggregation of polymer chains. Data on linear and star like molecules are shown as examples. High resolution neutron spin-echospectroscopy observes the molecular dynamics of long chain molecules. Results on the large scale motion of chins in polymer melts are presented. finally, experiments on chain relaxation close to the glass transition are displayed. Three distinctly different relaxation processes are revealed. (author)

  11. Polymer materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation-resistant polymer materials have recently drawn much attention from the viewpoint of components for fusion reactors. These are mainly applied to electrical insulators, thermal insulators and structural supports of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors. The polymer materials used for these purposes are required to withstand the synergetic effects of high mechanical loads, cryogenic temperatures and intense nuclear radiation. The objective of this review is to summarize the anticipated performance of candidate materials including polymer composites for fusion magnets. The cryogenic properties and the radiation effects of polymer materials are separately reviewed, because there is only limited investigation on the above-mentioned synergetic effects. Additional information on advanced polymer materials for fusion reactors is also introduced with emphasis on recent developments. (orig.)

  12. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  13. Insight into the mechanism revealing the peroxidase mimetic catalytic activity of quaternary CuZnFeS nanocrystals: colorimetric biosensing of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalui, Amit; Pradhan, Bapi; Thupakula, Umamahesh; Khan, Ali Hossain; Kumar, Gundam Sandeep; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Acharya, Somobrata

    2015-05-01

    Artificial enzyme mimetics have attracted immense interest recently because natural enzymes undergo easy denaturation under environmental conditions restricting practical usefulness. We report for the first time chalcopyrite CuZnFeS (CZIS) alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) as novel biomimetic catalysts with efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Novel peroxidase activities of CZIS NCs have been evaluated by catalytic oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). CZIS NCs demonstrate the synergistic effect of elemental composition and photoactivity towards peroxidase-like activity. The quaternary CZIS NCs show enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity compared to the binary NCs with the same constituent elements. Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity has been correlated with the energy band position of CZIS NCs extracted using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Kinetic analyses indicate Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model catalytic behavior describing the rate of the enzymatic reaction by correlating the reaction rate with substrate concentration. Typical color reactions arising from the catalytic oxidation of TMB over CZIS NCs with H2O2 have been utilized to establish a simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for detection of H2O2 and glucose. CZIS NCs are recyclable catalysts showing high efficiency in multiple uses. Our study may open up the possibility of designing new photoactive multi-component alloyed NCs as enzyme mimetics in biotechnology applications.Artificial enzyme mimetics have attracted immense interest recently because natural enzymes undergo easy denaturation under environmental conditions restricting practical usefulness. We report for the first time chalcopyrite CuZnFeS (CZIS) alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) as novel biomimetic catalysts with efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Novel peroxidase activities of CZIS NCs have been

  14. Development of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels for controlling drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aaron David

    The use of polymers as biomaterials has evolved over the past several decades, encompassing an expanding synthetic toolbox and many bio-mimetic approaches. Both synthetic and natural polymers have been used as components for biomaterials as their unique chemical structures can provide specific functions for desired applications. Of these materials, heparin, a highly sulfated naturally occurring polysaccharide, has been investigated extensively as a core component in drug delivery platforms and tissue engineering. The goal of this work was to further explore the use of heparin via conjugation with synthetic polymers for applications in drug delivery. We begin by investigating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a depolymerized heparin that is used medicinally in the prevention of thrombosis by subcutaneous injection or intravenous drip. Certain disease states or disorders require frequent administration with invasive delivery modalities leading to compliance issues for individuals on prolonged therapeutic courses. To address these issues, a long-term delivery method was developed for LMWH via subcutaneous injection of in situ hydrogelators. This therapy was accomplished by chemical modification of LMWH with maleimide functionality so that it may be crosslinked into continuous hydrogel networks with four-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). These hydrogels degrade via hydrolysis over a period of weeks and release bioactive LMWH with first-order kinetics as determined by in vitro and in vivo models, thus indicating the possibility of an alternative means of heparin delivery over current accepted methodologies. Evaluation of the maleimide-thiol chemistries applied in the LMWH hydrogels revealed reversibility for some conjugates under reducing conditions. Addition chemistries, such as maleimide-thiol reactions, are widely employed in biological conjugates and are generally accepted as stable. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by the

  15. Polymers – A New Open Access Scientific Journal on Polymer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymers is a new interdisciplinary, Open Access scientific journal on polymer science, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI. This journal welcomes manuscript submissions on polymer chemistry, macromolecular chemistry, polymer physics, polymer characterization and all related topics. Both synthetic polymers and natural polymers, including biopolymers, are considered. Manuscripts will be thoroughly peer-reviewed in a timely fashion, and papers will be published, if accepted, within 6 to 8 weeks after submission. [...

  16. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    Imitating nature's mechanisms offers enormous potential for the improvement of our lives and the tools we use. This field of the study and imitation of, and inspiration from, nature's methods, designs and processes is known as biomimetics. Artificial muscles, i.e. electroactive polymers (EAPs), are one of the emerging technologies enabling biomimetics. Polymers that can be stimulated to change shape or size have been known for many years. The activation mechanisms of such polymers include electrical, chemical, pneumatic, optical and magnetic. Electrical excitation is one of the most attractive stimulators able to produce elastic deformation in polymers. The convenience and practicality of electrical stimulation and the continual improvement in capabilities make EAP materials some of the most attractive among activatable polymers (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2004 Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles—Reality, Potential and Challenges 2nd edn, vol PM136 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press) pp 1-765). As polymers, EAP materials offer many appealing characteristics that include low weight, fracture tolerance and pliability. Furthermore, they can be configured into almost any conceivable shape and their properties can be tailored to suit a broad range of requirements. These capabilities and the significant change of shape or size under electrical stimulation while being able to endure many cycles of actuation are inspiring many potential possibilities for EAP materials among engineers and scientists in many different disciplines. Practitioners in biomimetics are particularly excited about these materials since they can be used to mimic the movements of animals and insects. Potentially, mechanisms actuated by EAPs will enable engineers to create devices previously imaginable only in science fiction. For many years EAP materials received relatively little attention due to their poor actuation capability and the small number of available materials. In the last fifteen

  17. A Novel Apolipoprotein C-II Mimetic Peptide That Activates Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreases Serum Triglycerides in Apolipoprotein E–Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25395590

  18. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Primo, Valeria C; Zhang, Qing-yin; Arnaout, M Amin; Serhan, Charles N; Nikolic, Boris

    2005-02-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA(4) are potent endogenous lipid mediators thought to define the inflammatory set-point. We used single prophylactic administrations of a synthetic aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) signal mimetic, ATLa, to probe dynamics of early host-donor interactions in a mouse model for the inflammation-associated multifactorial disease of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) -induced graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). We first demonstrated that both host and donor are responsive to the ATLa signals. The simple and restricted regimen of a single prophylactic administration of ATLa [100 ng/mL to donor cells or 1 microg (approximately 50 microg/kg) i.v. to host] was sufficient to delay death. Clinical indicators of weight, skin lesions, diarrhea and eye inflammation were monitored. Histological analyses on day 45 post-BMT showed that the degree of cellular trafficking, particularly neutrophil infiltrate, and protection of end-organ target pathology are different, depending on whether the host or donor was treated with ATLa. Taken together, these results chart some ATLa protective effects on GvHD cellular dynamics over time and identify a previously unrecognized effect of host neutrophils in the early phase post-BMT as important determinants in the dynamics of GvHD onset and progression.-Devchand, P. R., Schmidt, B. A., Primo, V. C., Zhang, Q.-y., Arnaout, M. A., Serhan, C. N., Nikolic, B. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

  19. Clinical profiling of BCL-2 family members in the setting of BRAF inhibition offers a rationale for targeting de novo resistance using BH3 mimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennie T Frederick

    Full Text Available While response rates to BRAF inhibitiors (BRAFi are high, disease progression emerges quickly. One strategy to delay the onset of resistance is to target anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, known to be associated with a poor prognosis. We analyzed BCL-2 family member expression levels of 34 samples from 17 patients collected before and 10 to 14 days after treatment initiation with either vemurafenib or dabrafenib/trametinib combination. The observed changes in mRNA and protein levels with BRAFi treatment led us to hypothesize that combining BRAFi with a BCL-2 inhibitor (the BH3-mimetic navitoclax would improve outcome. We tested this hypothesis in cell lines and in mice. Pretreatment mRNA levels of BCL-2 negatively correlated with maximal tumor regression. Early increases in mRNA levels were seen in BIM, BCL-XL, BID and BCL2-W, as were decreases in MCL-1 and BCL2A. No significant changes were observed with BCL-2. Using reverse phase protein array (RPPA, significant increases in protein levels were found in BIM and BID. No changes in mRNA or protein correlated with response. Concurrent BRAF (PLX4720 and BCL2 (navitoclax inhibition synergistically reduced viability in BRAF mutant cell lines and correlated with down-modulation of MCL-1 and BIM induction after PLX4720 treatment. In xenograft models, navitoclax enhanced the efficacy of PLX4720. The combination of a selective BRAF inhibitor with a BH3-mimetic promises to be an important therapeutic strategy capable of enhancing the clinical efficacy of BRAF inhibition in many patients that might otherwise succumb quickly to de novo resistance. Trial registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01006980; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01107418; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264380; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248936; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00949702; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01072175.

  20. Regression of coronary atherosclerosis with infusions of the high-density lipoprotein mimetic CER-001 in patients with more extensive plaque burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Andrews, Jordan; Duong, MyNgan; Nguyen, Tracy; Schwarz, Nisha; Fendler, Jessica; Puri, Rishi; Butters, Julie; Keyserling, Constance; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    CER-001 is an engineered pre-beta high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetic, which rapidly mobilizes cholesterol. Infusion of CER-001 3 mg/kg exhibited a potentially favorable effect on plaque burden in the CHI-SQUARE (Can HDL Infusions Significantly Quicken Atherosclerosis Regression) study. Since baseline atheroma burden has been shown as a determinant for the efficacy of HDL infusions, the degree of baseline atheroma burden might influence the effect of CER-001. CHI-SQUARE compared the effect of 6 weekly infusions of CER-001 (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) vs. placebo on coronary atherosclerosis in 369 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Baseline percent atheroma volume (B-PAV) cutoff associated with atheroma regression following CER-001 infusions was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. 369 subjects were stratified according to the cutoff. The effect of CER-001 at different doses was compared to placebo in each group. A B-PAV ≥30% was the optimal cutoff associated with PAV regression following CER-001 infusions. CER-001 induced PAV regression in patients with B-PAV ≥30% but not in those with B-PAV CER-001 3mg/kg in patients with B-PAV ≥30% (-0.96%±0.34% vs. -0.25%±0.31%, P=0.01), whereas there were no differences between placebo (+0.09%±0.36%) versus CER-001 in patients with B-PAV CER-001 3 mg/kg induced the greatest atheroma regression in ACS patients with higher B-PAV. These findings identify ACS patients with more extensive disease as most likely to benefit from HDL mimetic therapy.

  1. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  2. Physical Properties of Polymers (Ultrastructure Processing of Polymers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    vinyl benzene Network-Diluent Systems". 17. J . Appl. Polym. Sci. 28, 219-224 (1983) (with R. Vukovic and W.J. MacKnight) "Compatibility of Some...Temperature of Polymer Networks by Dil uents". 23. J . Appl. Polym. Sci. 28, 1379-1389 (1983) (with R. Vukovic , V. Kuresevic, N. Segudovic, and W.J...AFOSR 80-0101 IV. DATES: 1 January 1980 - 30 September 1982 V. SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL*: Dr. C. Crosby Dr. G. ten Brinke Dr. T. Ellis Dr. R. Vukovic

  3. Conjugated polymer zwitterions and solar cells comprising conjugated polymer zwitterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas; Page, Zachariah; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-05

    A conjugated polymer zwitterion includes repeating units having structure (I), (II), or a combination thereof ##STR00001## wherein Ar is independently at each occurrence a divalent substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 arylene or heteroarylene group; L is independently at each occurrence a divalent C1-16 alkylene group, C6-30arylene or heteroarylene group, or alkylene oxide group; and R1 is independently at each occurrence a zwitterion. A polymer solar cell including the conjugated polymer zwitterion is also disclosed.

  4. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  5. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  6. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  7. Photorefractivity of triphenylamine polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, S.; Kinashi, K.; Sakai, W.; Tsutsumi, N.

    2012-10-01

    We present here the enhanced photorefractive performance and dynamic holographic image of poly(4-diphenylamino)styrene (PDAS)-based photorefractive polymeric composites (PPCs). PDAS and FDCST were synthesized as a photoconductive polymer and a nonlinear optical (NLO) dye, respectively. PPC films including PDAS, TPA (or ECZ), FDCST, and PCBM were investigated. The photorefractive quantities of the PDAS-based PPCs were measured by a degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. Additionally, the dynamic holographic images were recorded through an appropriate PDAS-based PPC. Those dynamic holographic images clearly duplicate the original motion with high-speed quality. The present approach provides a promising candidate for the future application of dynamic holographic displays.

  8. Self-healing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at 190.degree. C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about 29.degree. C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  9. Electrochromic in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picado Valenzuela, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    This revision considered object the description of one of the materials with the greatest potential in the field of electrochromic (mainly in the visible region): the conjugated polymers (CP), area of enormous potential both now and in a short time ahead. The CP are insulating materials and organic semiconductors in a state not doped. They can be doped positively or negatively being observed a significant increase in the conductivity and being generated a color change in these materials. The understanding of how optical properties vary based on the chemical structure of the polymer or its mixtures and more precisely of the alternatives that can be entered into the conjugated system or π system to obtain a material that besides to be flexible, environmentally stable, presents the colored states. The revision was centred chiefly in the polypyrrole (Ppy), the polythiophene (PTh) and their derivatives such as poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The advantage of using monomers with variable structure, to adjust the composition of the copolymer, or to blend with the PC, allows to obtain a variety of colored states that can be modulated through the visible spectrum and even with applications to wavelengths outside of this region. Because the PC presented at least two different colored states can be varied continuously as a function of the voltage applied. In some cases, they may submit multicoloured statements, which offers a range of possibilities for their application in flexible electronic devices type screens and windows. Applications include smart windows, camouflage clothing and data screens. This type of material is emerging as one of the substitutes of the traditional inorganic semiconductor, with the advantage of its low cost, high flexibility and the possibility to generate multiple colors through the handling of the monomers in the structure and control of energy of his band gap. (author) [es

  10. Monitoring of polymer melt processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alig, Ingo; Steinhoff, Bernd; Lellinger, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art of in-line and on-line monitoring during polymer melt processing by compounding, extrusion and injection moulding. Different spectroscopic and scattering techniques as well as conductivity and viscosity measurements are reviewed and compared concerning their potential for different process applications. In addition to information on chemical composition and state of the process, the in situ detection of morphology, which is of specific interest for multiphase polymer systems such as polymer composites and polymer blends, is described in detail. For these systems, the product properties strongly depend on the phase or filler morphology created during processing. Examples for optical (UV/vis, NIR) and ultrasonic attenuation spectra recorded during extrusion are given, which were found to be sensitive to the chemical composition as well as to size and degree of dispersion of micro or nanofillers in the polymer matrix. By small-angle light scattering experiments, process-induced structures were detected in blends of incompatible polymers during compounding. Using conductivity measurements during extrusion, the influence of processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of polymer melts with conductive fillers (carbon black or carbon nanotubes) was monitored. (topical review)

  11. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  12. Physics of photorefraction in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    West, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Photorefractive polymer composites are an unusually sensitive class of photopolymers. Physics of Photorefraction in Polymers describes our current understanding of the physical processes that produce a photorefractive effect in key composite materials. Topics as diverse as charge generation, dispersive charge transport, charge compensation and trapping, molecular diffusion, organic composite structure, and nonlinear optical wave coupling are all developed from a physical perspective. Emphasis is placed on explaining how these physical processes lead to observable properties of the polymers, and the authors discuss various applications, including holographic archiving.

  13. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  14. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  15. Bridging scales in polymer physics and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Kröger, M.; Öttinger, H.C.; Schweizer, T.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding both the flow behavior of polymers during processing and the end-use properties offinished plastic products from a molecular picture of the constituent polymers has been a long-standing dreamin polymer engineering and science. It is the goal of our work in the Polymer Physics Group to

  16. Statistical thermodynamics of equilibrium polymers at interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucht, van der J.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a solution of equilibrium polymers (or living polymers) at an interface is studied, using a Bethe-Guggenheim lattice model for molecules with orientation dependent interactions. The density profile of polymers and the chain length distribution are calculated. For equilibrium polymers

  17. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  18. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  19. Polymer and Polymer Gel of Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teppei Shimakawa; Naoki Yoshimoto; Jun-ichi Hanna

    2004-01-01

    It prepared a polymer and polymer gel of a liquid crystalline (LC) semiconductor having a 2-phenylnaphthalene moiety and studied their charge carrier transport properties by the time-of-flight technique. It is found that polyacrylate having the mesogenic core moiety of 2-phenylnaphtalene (PNP-acrylate) exhibited a comparable mobility of 10-4cm2/Vs in smectic A phase to those in smectic A (SmA) phase of small molecular liquid crystals with the same core moiety, e.g., 6-(4'-octylphenyl)- 2-dodecyloxynaphthalene (8-PNP-O12), and an enhanced mobility up to 10-3cm2/Vs in the LC-glassy phase at room temperature, when mixed with a small amount of 8-PNP-O12. On the other hand, the polymer gel consisting of 20 wt %-hexamethylenediacrylate (HDA)-based cross-linked polymer and 8-PNP-O12 exhibited no degraded mobility when cross-linked at the mesophase. These results indicate that the polymer and polymer composite of liquid crystalline semiconductors provide us with an easy way to realize a quality organic semiconductor thin film for the immediate device applications.

  20. New developments in thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-temperature polymers since 1985 are discussed with the emphasis on the chemistry. High-temperature polymers refer to materials that exhibit glass-transition temperatures greater than 200 C and have the chemical structure expected to provide high thermooxidative stability. Specific polymers or series of polymers were selected to show how the chemical structure influences certain properties. Poly(arylene ethers) and polyimides are the two principal families of polymers discussed. Recent work on poly(arylene ethers) has concentrated on incorporating heterocyclic units within the polymer backbone. Recent polyimide work has centered on the synthesis of new polymers from novel monomers, several containing the trifluoromethyl group strategically located on the molecule. Various members in each of these polymer families display a unique combination of properties, heretofore unattainable. Other families of polymers are also briefly discussed with a polymer from an AB maleimidobenzocyclobutene exhibiting an especially attractive combination of properties.