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Sample records for biomedical tracer facility

  1. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H-, H+, and D+). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H- cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes

  2. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  3. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  4. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  5. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  6. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  7. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  8. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. (ed.); Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  9. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. [ed.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  10. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps

  11. Bevalac biomedical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the physical layout of the Bevalac Facility and the research programs carried out at the facility. Beam time on the Bevalac is divided between two disciplines: one-third for biomedical research and two-thirds for nuclear science studies. The remainder of the paper discusses the beam delivery system including dosimetry, beam sharing and beam scanning

  12. Use of dual isotope tracers in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical stable isotope studies involve administration of tracer and measurement of isotope enrichment in blood, urine, feces or breath. The aim of the studies is to gather quantitative information about a specific metabolic function. However, the measured isotope enrichment may be affected by oth

  13. A new PET tracer producing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recent clinical results for new treatments and diagnostic agents in nuclear medicine, the future demand for radiopharmaceuticals is very likely to change both in quantity and type. Therefore, we must examine the capabilities of existing facilities and determine the need for new production capacity. Our radiopharmaceutical production is focused on the near term market demand and has been a reliable supplier for health care community. Many studies have been conducted attempting to predict the potential market for promising new medical isotopes. Reviewing some reports the conclusion is that we must develop and/or enhance the capability to produce a special set of radioisotopes, sufficient to support clinical activities. Such a capability would prevent shortages of isotopes, reduce the dependence on foreign sources, stimulate biomedical research, and provide a social benefit. In 2000, our Institute planed to enhance its radioisotope production, specially the positron emitters, by establishing a new cyclotron-PET facility. In the following year, the scientific cooperation with public hospitals has leveraged the idea of establishing an integrated PET Center. The idea was to take advantage of our experience in the radioisotope production, in conjunction with the capability of the hospitals, in making available advanced nuclear techniques for medical diagnosis and therapy. One of the main supports to the idea is the capacity of immediate starting the production of the positron emitter 18F. Also, is considered the potential capacity to enhance the current production level. Our projected production is enough to supply 100% of the regional demand. Next is the labeling of some special molecules that will be applied to a variety of medical diagnoses, including tropical medicine. It is envisioned that this PET facility would play a central role in the introduction to the region of modern nuclear medicine, that is a strong tendency around the world. Presently we are

  14. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  15. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-12-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12.

  16. Optimization of water treatment facility by using radioisotope tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Jung, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to get the optimization of conventional water treatment facility, radioisotope tracer technique was applied. It is desirable to set the baffles inside of mixing basin for the enhancement of mixing effect. It was appeared that most of flocs were settled down within 60 - 70 % of total length of sedimentation basin even with high flow rate. (author). 2 tabs., 32 figs.

  17. Applications of isotopes. [Need and cost of stable iotopes for use as tracers in biomedical and environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O are discussed.

  18. Novel S-35 Intrinsic Tracer Method for Determining Groundwater Travel Time near Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urióstegui, S. H.; Bibby, R. K.; Esser, B. K.; Clark, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying groundwater travel times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for protecting public and environmental health. For MAR facilities in California that incorporate tertiary wastewater into their surface-spreading recharge practices, the target subsurface residence time is >9 months to allow for the natural inactivation and degradation of potential contaminants (less time is needed for full advanced treated water). Established intrinsic groundwater tracer techniques such as tritium/helium-3 dating are unable to resolve timescales of motivation for evaluating a novel groundwater tracer method using a naturally occurring radioisotope of sulfur, sulfur-35 (S-35). After its production in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interaction with argon, S-35 enters the hydrologic cycle as dissolved sulfate through precipitation The short half-life of S-35 (3 months) is ideal for investigating recharge and transport of MAR groundwater on the travel times have previously been characterized using deliberate tracers: 1) Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, and 2) Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County. Reasonable S-35 travel times of travel times, which may not be revealed by a deliberate tracer study that is dependent on the hydrologic conditions during the tracer injection period.

  19. Atmospheric tracer study of the emissions from the University of Michigan Cyclotron/PET Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Michigan (U of M) Cyclotron/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility consists of a cyclotron (Model CS-30, The Cyclotron Corporation), radiochemistry laboratory, and Pet scanner. Accelerator-produced radioactive materials, such as, carbon-11 and oxygen-15 are typically emitted from the Cyclotron/PET facility through short stacks located on the roof. This project studied the dispersion of emissions from the facility within the medical complex. To achieve this purpose, the research project had three phases: a physical modeling study; a preliminary field smoke release study; and, a field study using a tracer gas to simulate emission dispersion from the U of M Cyclotron/PET facility vault stack. The objective was to determine normalized concentrations, under selected wind directions and speeds, for use in establishing radionuclide concentrations at the air intakes of the Cyclotron/PET facility and surrounding buildings and at selected ground-level locations

  20. Naval biomedical research laboratory, programmed environment, aerosol facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L J

    1971-02-01

    Mathematical considerations of the behavior of aerosolized particles in a rotating drum are presented, and the rotating drum as an aerosol-holding device is compared with a stirred settling chamber. The basic overall design elements of a facility employing eight rotating drums are presented. This facility provides an environment in which temperature can be maintained within 0.5 F (0.25 C) of any set point over a range of 50 to 120 F (10 to 49 C); concomitantly the relative humidity within any selected drum may be controlled in a nominal range of 0 to 90%. Some of the major technical aspects of operating this facility are also presented, including handling of air support systems, aerosol production, animal exposure, aerosol monitoring, and sampling. PMID:5549701

  1. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  2. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences 3 biomedical research using the Rhesus Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. W.; Searby, N. D.; Stone, L. S.; Hogan, R. P.; Viso, M.; Venet, M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a letter of agreement was signed between the French space agency, CNES, and NASA, formally initiating a joint venture called the RHESUS Project. The goal of this project is to provide a facility to fly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to support spaceflight experiments which are applicable but not practical to carry out on human subjects. Biomedical investigations in behavior/performance, immunology/microbiology, muscle physiology, cardiopulmonary physiology, bone/calcium physiology, regulatory physiology, and neurophysiology disciplines will be performed. The Rhesus Research Facility, hardware capable of supporting two adult rhesus monkeys in a microgravity environment, is being developed for a first flight on Spacelab Life Sciences in early 1996.

  4. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact 252Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with 252Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of 252Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded 252Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy

  5. Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Byrne, T.E. [Roane State Community College, Harriman, TN (United States); Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.

  6. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments. (author)

  7. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-07-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments.

  8. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, Daniel; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN’s competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR an...

  9. Progress during the first year of operation of the Batho Biomedical Facility at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Batho Biomedical Facility is dedicated to an investigation of the efficacy of pion radiation for the treatment of malignant disease. During the period 1974-1976 it progressed from a completely 'paper' project to an operational beam with support systems, and many of the necessary physical characterizations of the beam were completed. Development of much of the equipment and procedures for the residual beam measurements were completed, particularly for dosimetric measurements of the beam. Studies of ways to control the beam characteristics in order to deliver specified dose distributions to tumour volumes were at an early stage. Initial in vitro biological measurements of cell survival as a function of depth were made. (LL)

  10. A beam optics study of the biomedical beam line at a proton therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chong Cheoul [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Sillim-dong, Gwanak, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Won [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Koyang, Kyonggi 410 769 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkim@ncc.re.kr

    2007-10-15

    A biomedical beam line has been designed for the experimental area of a proton therapy facility to deliver mm to sub-mm size beams in the energy range of 20-50 MeV using the TRANSPORT/TURTLE beam optics codes and a newly-written program. The proton therapy facility is equipped with a 230 MeV fixed-energy cyclotron and an energy selection system based on a degrader and slits, so that beam currents available for therapy decrease at lower energies in the therapeutic beam energy range of 70-230 MeV. The new beam line system is composed of an energy-degrader, two slits, and three quadrupole magnets. The minimum beam sizes achievable at the focal point are estimated for the two energies of 50 and 20 MeV. The focused FWHM beam size is approximately 0.3 mm with an expected beam current of 20 pA when the beam energy is reduced to 50 MeV from 100 MeV, and roughly 0.8 mm with a current of 10 pA for a 20 MeV beam.

  11. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  12. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  13. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  14. Facile preparation of multifunctional superparamagnetic PHBV microspheres containing SPIONs for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jan Zaloga; Ding, Yaping; Liu, Yufang; Janko, Christina; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Alexiou, Christoph; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-03-01

    The promising potential of magnetic polymer microspheres in various biomedical applications has been frequently reported. However, the surface hydrophilicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) usually leads to poor or even failed encapsulation of SPIONs in hydrophobic polymer microspheres using the emulsion method. In this study, the stability of SPIONs in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) solution was significantly increased after surface modification with lauric acid. As a result, magnetic PHBV microspheres with high encapsulation efficiencies (71.0–87.4%) were prepared using emulsion-solvent extraction/evaporation method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed significant contrast for the magnetic PHBV microspheres. The toxicity of these magnetic PHBV microspheres towards human T-lymphoma suspension cells and adherent colon carcinoma HT-29 cells was investigated using flow cytometry, and they were shown to be non-toxic in a broad concentration range. A model drug, tetracycline hydrochloride, was used to demonstrate the drug delivery capability and to investigate the drug release behavior of the magnetic PHBV microspheres. The drug was successfully loaded into the microspheres using lauric acid-coated SPIONs as drug carrier, and was released from the microspheres in a diffusion controlled manner. The developed magnetic PHBV microspheres are promising candidates for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and MRI.

  15. Study of beam transport lines for a biomedical research facility at CERN based on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, D; Garonna, A; Peach, K

    2014-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN has been proposed to provide ion beams with magnetic rigidities up to 6.7 T.m for biomedical research, in parallel to its continued operation for LHC and SPS fixed target physics experiments. In the context of this project, two beamlines are proposed for transporting the extracted beam to future experimental end-stations: a vertical beamline for specific low-energy radiobiological research, and a horizontal beamline for radiobiology and medical physics experimentation. This study presents a first linear-optics design for the delivery of 1–5mm FWHM pencil beams and 5 cm 5 cm homogeneous broad beams to both endstations. High field uniformity is achieved by selection of the central part of a strongly defocused Gaussian beam, resulting in low beam utilisation.

  16. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  17. New irradiation facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor thermal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Quintana, J; Ojeda, J; Langan, S; Thorp, S; Pozzi, E; Sztejnberg, M; Estryk, G; Nosal, R; Saire, E; Agrazar, H; Graiño, F

    2009-07-01

    A new irradiation facility has been developed in the RA-3 reactor in order to perform trials for the treatment of liver metastases using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). RA-3 is a production research reactor that works continuously five days a week. It had a thermal column with a small cross section access tunnel that was not accessible during operation. The objective of the work was to perform the necessary modifications to obtain a facility for irradiating a portion of the human liver. This irradiation facility must be operated without disrupting the normal reactor schedule and requires a highly thermalized neutron spectrum, a thermal flux of around 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1) that is as isotropic and uniform as possible, as well as on-line instrumentation. The main modifications consist of enlarging the access tunnel inside the thermal column to the suitable dimensions, reducing the gamma dose rate at the irradiation position, and constructing properly shielded entrance gates enabled by logical control to safely irradiate and withdraw samples with the reactor at full power. Activation foils and a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber were used for a preliminary in-air characterization of the irradiation site. The constructed facility is very practical and easy to use. Operational authorization was obtained from radioprotection personnel after confirming radiation levels did not significantly increase after the modification. A highly thermalized and homogenous irradiation field was obtained. Measurements in the empty cavity showed a thermal flux near 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1), a cadmium ratio of 4100 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate of approximately 5 Gy h(-1).

  18. Biomedical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fifth year of operation the mechanical performance of the cyclotron and accessory equipment was excellent. Major items put into operation were a small computer system interfaced with Ge-Li gamma spectrometer and a pneumatic-tube system for fast delivery of short-lived radionuclides. A table is presented listing the radionuclides produced

  19. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  20. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  1. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  2. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities: Results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129I, from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129I/127I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129I in freshwater. (author)

  3. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  4. Magnetic Particle Imaging with Tailored Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Khandhar, Amit P.; Kemp, Scott J.; Arami, Hamed; Saritas, Emine U.; Croft, Laura R.; Konkle, Justin; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Halkola, Aleksi; Rahmer, Jürgen; Borgert, Jörn; Steven M. Conolly; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) shows promise for medical imaging, particularly in angiography of patients with chronic kidney disease. As the first biomedical imaging technique that truly depends on nanoscale materials properties, MPI requires highly optimized magnetic nanoparticle tracers to generate quality images. Until now, researchers have relied on tracers optimized for MRI T2*-weighted imaging that are suboptimal for MPI. Here, we describe new tracers tailored to MPI's unique physics,...

  5. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  6. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  7. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  8. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticle tracers for in vivo magnetic particle imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khandhar, Amit P.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging modality that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle tracer distributions. In this study, we synthesized monodisperse tracers for enhanced MPI performance and investigated both, their blood clearance time using a 25 kHz magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS), and biodistribution using a combination of quantitative T2-weighted MRI and tissue histology. In vitro and in v...

  9. Tracer studies on an aerated lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Alistair; Shilton, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, has two aerated lagoons as its secondary treatment facility. Interest about treatment efficiency led to an investigation into the hydraulics in the second lagoon to determine if further optimisation was viable. A tracer study using rhodamine WT was undertaken to ascertain the stimulus response output. Samples were also taken at 24 points within the lagoon to determine the tracer concentration profile throughout the lagoon. The mean residence time was determined to be 39.9 h compared with a theoretical residence time of 55.4 h. Peak concentration of the tracer at the outlet occurred at 0.44 of the mean residence time. The results of the tracer study pointed to 28% of volume being dead space. A subsequent sludge survey indicated that 26% of the design volume of the lagoon was filled with sludge. While the curved geometry of the lagoon did not appear to impact the hydraulics the fact that the first aerator is confined in a relatively smaller area will have locally boosted the mixing energy input in this inlet zone. From interpretation of the tracer response and the tracer distribution profiles it appears that the aerators are mixing the influent into the bulk flow effectively in the front end of the lagoon and that there was no evidence of any substantive short-circuiting path of concentrated tracer around to the outlet. The tracer distribution profiles gave direct insight as to how the tracer was being transported within the pond and should be used more often when conducting tracer studies. Comparison with the literature indicated that the lagoon's hydraulic efficiency was on par with a baffled pond system and it would be expected that addition of several baffles to the lagoon would provide minimal further improvement. PMID:22277219

  10. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Saqlain A. Shah; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of ex...

  11. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities:results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129I from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129I/127I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129I in freshwater

  12. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  13. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Suitability of tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other

  15. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  16. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  17. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering is a comprehensive survey text for biomedical engineering courses. It is the most widely adopted text across the BME course spectrum, valued by instructors and students alike for its authority, clarity and encyclopedic coverage in a single volume. Biomedical engineers need to understand the wide range of topics that are covered in this text, including basic mathematical modeling; anatomy and physiology; electrical engineering, signal processing and instrumentation; biomechanics; biomaterials science and tissue engineering; and medical and engineering e

  18. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  19. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  20. Proceedings of the fifth PTCOG meeting and international workshop on biomedical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceeding and individual papers presented at the Fifth PTCOG meeting and International Workshop on Biomedical Accelerators. The meeting was divided into sessions on the biomedical aspects of therapy delivery, new biomedical accelerators, facilities, and beam localization and status report. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  1. Proceedings of the fifth PTCOG meeting and international workshop on biomedical accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    This volume contains the proceeding and individual papers presented at the Fifth PTCOG meeting and International Workshop on Biomedical Accelerators. The meeting was divided into sessions on the biomedical aspects of therapy delivery, new biomedical accelerators, facilities, and beam localization and status report. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  3. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  4. Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

  5. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  6. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century,medicine has come out of the "black bag" and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiology to informatics and signal processing. Reflecting the enormous growth and change in biomedical engineering during the infancy of the 21st century, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook enters its third edition as a set of three carefully focused and

  7. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  8. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  9. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  10. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  11. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  12. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  13. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  14. Comparison of three magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouw JJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joost J Pouw,1,* Muneer Ahmed,2,* Bauke Anninga,2 Kimberley Schuurman,1 Sarah E Pinder,2 Mieke Van Hemelrijck,3 Quentin A Pankhurst,4,5 Michael Douek,2 Bennie ten Haken1 1MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Research Oncology, Division of Cancer Studies, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London, UK; 3Cancer Epidemiology Group, Division of Cancer Studies, King’s College London, London, UK; 4Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, University College London, London, UK; 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of the used magnetic tracer differs substantially from the radioisotope tracer and could therefore benefit from optimization. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three different-sized magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy within an in vivo porcine model.Materials and methods: Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed within a validated porcine model using three magnetic nanoparticle tracers, approved for use in humans (ferumoxytol, with hydrodynamic diameter dH =32 nm; Sienna+®, dH =59 nm; and ferumoxide, dH =111 nm, and a handheld magnetometer. Magnetometer counts (transcutaneous and ex vivo, iron quantification (vibrating sample magnetometry, and histopathological assessments were performed on all ex vivo nodes.Results: Transcutaneous “hotspots” were present in 12/12 cases within 30 minutes of injection for the 59 nm tracer, compared to 7/12 for the 32 nm tracer and 8/12 for

  15. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  16. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A; Ferguson, R M; Krishnan, K M

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho ) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωH o) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories. PMID:25422528

  17. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  18. Matrix Analysis of Tracer Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We review matrix methods as applied to tracer transport. Because tracer transport is linear, matrix methods are an ideal fit for the problem. In particular, solutions of linear, first-order systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are reviewed as well as special properties of these solutions. Detailed derivations are included

  19. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  20. Radiation dose estimates for carbon-11-labelled PET tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers commonly used in biomedical research expose subjects to ionising radiation. Dosimetry is the measurement of radiation dose, but also commonly refers to the estimation of health risk associated with ionising radiation. This review describes radiation dosimetry of carbon-11-labelled molecules in the context of current PET research and the most widely used regulatory guidelines. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search returned 42 articles; 32 of these were based on human PET data dealing with radiation dosimetry of carbon-11 molecules. Radiation burden expressed as effective dose and maximum absorbed organ dose was compared between tracers. Results: All but one of the carbon-11-labelled PET tracers have an effective dose under 9 μSv/MBq, with a mean of 5.9 μSv/MBq. Data show that serial PET scans in a single subject are feasible for the majority of radiotracers. Conclusion: Although differing in approach, the two most widely used regulatory frameworks (those in the USA and the EU) do not differ substantially with regard to the maximum allowable injected activity per PET study. The predictive validity of animal dosimetry models is critically discussed in relation to human dosimetry. Finally, empirical PET data are related to human dose estimates based on homogenous distribution, generic models and maximum cumulated activities. Despite the contribution of these models to general risk estimation, human dosimetry studies are recommended where continued use of a new PET tracer is foreseen.

  1. Aluminum-26 as a biological tracer using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, Richard Edward

    1997-06-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided a practical method of detection for the only isotope of aluminum suitable as a tracer, 26Al. The use of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum has made possible the study of aluminum metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of aluminum-containing drugs at physiological levels. An overview of the various advantages of using 26Al as a tracer for aluminum and a general description of the AMS technique as applied to bio-medical applications is given. To illustrate the versatility of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum, 26Al studies of the past several years are discussed briefly. In addition, Two novel investigations dealing with 26Al-labeled drugs will be presented in more detail. In one of these studies, it was found that 26Al from aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvants appeared in the blood just one hour after intramuscular injection. This is a surprising result since the currently held theory of how adjuvants work assumes that adjuvants remain insoluble and hold the antigen at the injection site for a long period of time. In another project, 26Al-labeled antiperspirants are being characterized by combining AMS with traditional analytical and chromatographic techniques. Future directions for this and other possible studies are discussed.

  2. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  3. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  4. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  5. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  6. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.; Gedayloo, T. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/, helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop.

  7. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as 13C18O2, helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop

  8. Biomedical applications of photochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, BP

    2010-01-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities a...

  9. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  10. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  11. Biomedical applications in EELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Miguel; Hernández, Vicente; Mayo, Rafael; Blanquer, Ignacio; Perez-Griffo, Javier; Isea, Raul; Nuñez, Luis; Mora, Henry Ricardo; Fernández, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The current demand for Grid Infrastructures to bring collabarating groups between Latina America and Europe has created the EELA proyect. This e-infrastructure is used by Biomedical groups in Latina America and Europe for the studies of ocnological analisis, neglected diseases, sequence alignments and computation plygonetics. PMID:16823158

  12. Near source tracers at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tracer techniques are reviewed, with emphasis on the Hanford inert gas krypton-85 field technique. This technique is considerably more sophisticated than the visible and particulate tracer techniques. The krypton technique develops histories of concentration at up to 128 field locations; the particulate techniques generate only bulk time integrated samples. The krypton dispersal technique permits release of either a plume or a true puff; the particulate techniques permit continuous releases, but only approximations of puffs through short continuous releases. The Hanford krypton-85 inert gas system offers the advantages of an inert gas tracer, permits release of either puffs or plumes, and presents histories of concentration as opposed to only time-integrated concentrations. However, the approach used has the disadvantages of being usable at only short distances, is a relatively expensive system to deploy and maintain, and is restricted as to locations where it may be used due to the radioactive nature of the tracer

  13. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  14. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  15. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  16. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Vedanarayanan

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasised since in our country, at present, there are no regulations covering the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Finally the question of the general and subtle long term systemic toxicity of biomedical polymers have been brought to attention with the suggestion that this question needs to be resolved permanently by appropriate studies.

  17. Multilingual Biomedical Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical inform...

  18. Multilingual biomedical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical information from a domain-specific, multilingual corpus.

  19. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Vedanarayanan; A. C. Fernandez

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasi...

  20. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  2. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be 133Xe, and 198Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing

  3. Radioactive tracers in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans during the last four decades have proved invaluable tools for study of many processes in marine water columns and sediments. Both global and close-in fallout of radioactivity from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing have distributed these radionuclides widely, and in amounts sufficient to be useful as tracers. An additional source of considerable significance and tracer potential comes from coastal discharges of European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The nature of these sources, types and amounts of radionuclides introduced and the time histories of their introduction generate a variety of tracer distributions which illuminate a broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes active over a wide range of timescales. Depending on their respective chemistries, artificial radionuclides have been demonstrated to exhibit both conservative and non-conservative properties in the oceans. Some examples are given of the uses made of soluble, conservative tracers for the study of oceanic transport processes and of non-conservative tracers for studies of processes which move them to, and mix them within, marine sediments. Sampling and measurement techniques which have been used in these studies are described

  4. Radiochemical separation methods for preparation of biomedical cyclotron radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the radiochemical methods for preparation of widely used or promising cyclotron-produced radionuclides for nuclear medicine and biomedical or environmental studies is given. The presented data include the current status of the production of some gamma-emitters (97Ru, 111In, 123I, 201Tl), generator-pairs (68Ge/68Ga, 82 Sr/82Rb, 128Ba/128Cs, 178W/178Ta), radioisotopes for metabolism studies (26Al, 67Cu, 237Pu) and actinides tracers for environmental researches (235Np, 236Np, 236Pu). The conditions for preparation of high-purity isotopes have been investigated and procedures including target chemistry design were developed. (author)

  5. Environmental and biomedical applications of natural metal stable isotope variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, T.D.; Walczyk, T.

    2009-01-01

    etal stable isotopes are now being used to trace metal contaminants in the environment and as indicators of human systemic function where metals play a role. Stable isotope abundance variations provide information about metal sources and the processes affecting metals in complex natural systems, complementing information gained from surrogate tracers, such as metal abundance ratios or biochemical markers of metal metabolism. The science is still in its infancy, but the results of initial studies confirm that metal stable isotopes can provide a powerful tool for forensic and biomedical investigations.

  6. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Bandrowski; Ryan Brinkman; Mathias Brochhausen; Brush, Matthew H.; Bill Bug; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Kevin Clancy; Mélanie Courtot; Dirk Derom; Michel Dumontier; Liju Fan; Jennifer Fostel; Gilberto Fragoso; Frank Gibson; Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using i...

  8. Generating Explanations for Biomedical Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Esra; Oztok, Umut

    2013-01-01

    We introduce novel mathematical models and algorithms to generate (shortest or k different) explanations for biomedical queries, using answer set programming. We implement these algorithms and integrate them in BIOQUERY-ASP. We illustrate the usefulness of these methods with some complex biomedical queries related to drug discovery, over the biomedical knowledge resources PHARMGKB, DRUGBANK, BIOGRID, CTD, SIDER, DISEASE ONTOLOGY and ORPHADATA. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Program...

  9. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  10. Principles of Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2010-01-01

    Describing the role of engineering in medicine today, this comprehensive volume covers a wide range of the most important topics in this burgeoning field. Supported with over 145 illustrations, the book discusses bioelectrical systems, mechanical analysis of biological tissues and organs, biomaterial selection, compartmental modeling, and biomedical instrumentation. Moreover, you find a thorough treatment of the concept of using living cells in various therapeutics and diagnostics.Structured as a complete text for students with some engineering background, the book also makes a valuable refere

  11. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  12. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4, is a collection of papers that deals with gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and the analysis of minute samples, as well as the role of the government in regulating the production, usage, safety, and efficacy of medical devices. One paper reviews the use of mass spectrometry and computer technology in relation to gas-phase analytical methods based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instruments and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer analytical systems. Many health practitioners, government and private health agencies, the legal prof

  13. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  14. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, is a collection of papers that discusses circulatory system models, linguistics in computer usage, and clinical applications on patient monitoring. One paper describes the use of comparative models of overall circulatory mechanics that include models of the cardiac pump, of the vascular systems, and of the overall systems behavior. Another paper describes a model in processing medical language data that employs an explicit semantic structure, becoming the basis for the computer-based, artificial intelligence of the system. One paper cites studies b

  15. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  16. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  17. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  18. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications.

  19. Simultaneous Analyses and Applications of Multiple Fluorobenzoate and Halide Tracers in Hydrologic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E

    2004-01-22

    An analytical method that employs ion chromatography has been developed to more fully exploit the use of fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) and halides as hydrologic tracers. In a single run, this reliable, sensitive, and robust method can simultaneously separate and quantify halides (fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide) and up to seven FBAs from other common groundwater constituents (e.g., nitrate and sulfate). The usefulness of this ion chromatographic (IC) analytical method is demonstrated in both field and laboratory tracer experiments. Field experiments in unsaturated tuff featuring fractures or a fault show that this efficient and cost-effective method helps achieve the objectives of tracer studies that use multiple FBAs and/or diffusivity tracers (simultaneous use of one or more FBA and halide). The field study examines the hydrologic response of fractures and the matrix to different flow rates and the contribution of matrix diffusion in chemical transport. Laboratory tracer experiments with eight geologic media from across the United States--mostly from Department of Energy facilities where groundwater contamination is prevalent and where subsurface characterization employing tracers has been ongoing or is in need--reveal several insights about tracer transport behavior: (1) Bromide and FBAs are not always transported conservatively. (2) The delayed transport of these anionic tracers is likely related to geologic media characteristics, such as organic matter, pH, iron oxide content, and clay mineralogy. (3) Any use of iodine as a hydrologic tracer should take into account the different sorption behaviors of iodide and iodate and the possible conversion of iodine's initial chemical form. (4) The transport behavior of potential FBA and halide tracers under relevant geochemical conditions should be evaluated before beginning ambitious, large-scale field tracer experiments.

  20. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  1. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Krishnan, K. M., E-mail: kannanmk@uw.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Ferguson, R. M. [LodeSpin Labs, P.O. Box 95632, Seattle, Washington 98145 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ{sub 0} excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (H{sub o}) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ{sub 0}. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωH{sub o}) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  2. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  3. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  4. Checklists in biomedical publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardal-Refoyo JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: the authors, reviewers, editors and readers must have specific tools that help them in the process of drafting, review, or reading the articles. Objective: to offer a summary of the major checklists for different types of biomedical research articles. Material and method: review literature and resources of the EQUATOR Network and adaptations in Spanish published by Medicina Clínica and Evidencias en Pediatría journals. Results: are the checklists elaborated by various working groups. (CONSORT and TREND, experimental studies for observational studies (STROBE, accuracy (STARD diagnostic studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA and for studies to improve the quality (SQUIRE. Conclusions: the use of checklists help to improve the quality of articles and help to authors, reviewers, to the editor and readers in the development and understanding of the content.

  5. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications. PMID:26678028

  6. Tracer-tracer relations as a tool for research on polar ozone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rolf

    2010-07-01

    The report includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction: ozone in the atmosphere, anthropogenic influence on the ozone layer, polar stratospheric ozone loss; (2) Tracer-tracer relations in the stratosphere: tracer-tracer relations as a tool in atmospheric research; impact of cosmic-ray-induced heterogeneous chemistry on polar ozone; (3) quantifying polar ozone loss from ozone-tracer relations: principles of tracer-tracer correlation techniques; reference ozone-tracer relations in the early polar vortex; impact of mixing on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex; impact of mesospheric intrusions on ozone-tracer relations in the stratospheric polar vortex calculation of chemical ozone loss in the arctic in March 2003 based on ILAS-II measurements; (4) epilogue.

  7. Strategic fit analysis - RW tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Berea Bellon, Carlos Adolfo

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses, RW Tracers, a company dedicated to tracing lost individuals, to determine how to improve its performance since expected sales growth and profitability margin have yet to be met. The company's strategy is examined to determine if the company meets the criteria of strategic fit. To add context, an Industry Analysis is conducted to determine the Key Success Factors of the tracing industry. These Key Success Factors are then linked to the Industry Value Chain to build a model...

  8. Development of a facile and effective electrochemical strategy for preparation of iron oxides (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles from aqueous and ethanol mediums and in situ PVC coating of Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Isa; Dizaji, Hamid Rezagholipour; Aghazadeh, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    To attain reliable and high performance in biomedical applications, magnetic particles with regular spherical shape, narrow size distributions, high-saturation magnetization, and good dispersion in liquid media is very important. Therefore, the synthesis of monodispersed, water-dispersible, and regular spherical superparamagnetic iron oxides nanoparticles (SPIONs) with high saturation magnetization will be of great importance. Here we report a facile, fact and simple electrochemical tactic for preparation of SPIONs and their one step in situ surface engineering in both aqueous and ethanol mediums. In this platform, optimum and simple electrochemical conditions were first constructed for preparation of Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in both ethanol and aqueous mediums, and monodispersed nanoparticles with superparamagnetic properties were prepared. The field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy (FE-SEM and TEM) observations revealed that the electrodeposited nanoparticles have roughly spherical and homogeneous shape with narrow size distribution. Then, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated by polyvinyl chloride (PVC) during deposition process. The PVC coating on SPIONs surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) indicated that the prepared SPIONs exhibit superparamagnetic behavior including negligible remnant magnetization and negligible coercivity, and high saturation magnetization at room temperature. PVC coated SPIONs exhibited saturation magnetization value of 43.72 emu/g, and negligible remnant magnetization and coercivity (Mr~0.15 emu/g and Ce~0.5 Oe, respectively). Based on the obtained results, it was concluded this electrochemical strategy can be introduced as a novel and clean platform for preparation of variety polymer and drug coated/loaded SPIONs for

  9. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticle tracers for in vivo magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit P; Ferguson, R Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging modality that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle tracer distributions. In this study, we synthesized monodisperse tracers for enhanced MPI performance and investigated both, their blood clearance time using a 25 kHz magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS), and biodistribution using a combination of quantitative T2-weighted MRI and tissue histology. In vitro and in vivo MPI performance of our magnetic nanoparticle tracers (MNTs), subject to biological constraints, were compared to commercially available SPIOs (Resovist). Monodisperse MNTs showed a 2-fold greater signal per unit mass, and 20% better spatial resolution. In vitro evaluation of tracers showed that MPI performance of our MNTs is preserved in blood, serum-rich cell-culture medium and gel; thus independent of changes in hydrodynamic volume and fluid viscosity - a critical prerequisite for in vivo MPI. In a rodent model, our MNTs circulated for 15 min - 3× longer than Resovist - and supported our in vitro evaluation that MPI signal is preserved in the physiological environment. Furthermore, MRI and histology analysis showed that MNTs distribute in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in a manner similar to clinically approved SPIO agents. MNTs demonstrating long-circulation times and optimized MPI performance show potential as angiography tracers and blood-pool agents for the emerging MPI imaging modality. PMID:23434348

  10. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  11. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  12. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  13. Modified chitosans for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalınca, Zülal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the suitability of chitosan and some of its derivatives for some chosen biomedical applications. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chitosan-tripolyphosphate and ascorbyl chitosan were synthesized and characterized for specific biomedical applications in line with their chemical functionalities. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chi-graft-PNVI, was synthesized by two methods; via an N-protection route and without N-pr...

  14. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  15. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pérez, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This final year project presents the design principles and prototype implementation of BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System), a flexible software system which provides an infrastructure to manage all information required by biomedical research projects.The BIMS project was initiated with the motivation to solve several limitations in medical data acquisition of some research projects, in which Universitat Pompeu Fabra takes part. These limitations,based on the lack of control mechan...

  16. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  17. New roles & responsibilities of hospital biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; Stone, B; Booth, P; Lui, W

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the changing healthcare environment has required hospitals and specifically Biomedical Engineering to critically evaluate, optimize and adapt their operations. The focus is now on new technologies, changes to the environment of care, support requirements and financial constraints. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), an NIH-designated comprehensive cancer center, has been transitioning to an increasing outpatient care environment. This transition is driving an increase in-patient acuity coupled with the need for added urgency of support and response time. New technologies, regulatory requirements and financial constraints have impacted operating budgets and in some cases, resulted in a reduction in staffing. Specific initiatives, such as the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals, requirements for an electronic medical record, meaningful use and ICD10 have caused institutions to reevaluate their operations and processes including requiring Biomedical Engineering to manage new technologies, integrations and changes in the electromagnetic environment, while optimizing operational workflow and resource utilization. This paper addresses the new and expanding responsibilities and approach of Biomedical Engineering organizations, specifically at MSKCC. It is suggested that our experience may be a template for other organizations facing similar problems. Increasing support is necessary for Medical Software - Medical Device Data Systems in the evolving wireless environment, including RTLS and RFID. It will be necessary to evaluate the potential impact on the growing electromagnetic environment, on connectivity resulting in the need for dynamic and interactive testing and the growing demand to establish new and needed operational synergies with Information Technology operations and other operational groups within the institution, such as nursing, facilities management, central supply, and the user departments.

  18. Measuring Methane Emissions from Industrial and Waste Processing Sites Using the Dual Tracer Flux Ratio Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S.; Floerchinger, C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T.; Franklin, J. P.; Shorter, J. H.; Kolb, C. E.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Molina, L. T.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to directly quantify facility scale methane emissions during recent multi-state measurement campaigns we have deployed novel tracer release emission characterization approaches to investigate a wide variety of facility types. The development and application of a dual tracer flux ratio methodology will be discussed. Using known release rates of two (or more) inert tracer species, downwind methane plume measurements can be used to quantify and evaluate the uncertainty in known releases and unknown emissions of methane. Results from experiments designed to challenge the experimental methodology will be presented, which determined that for downwind sampling distances in excess of ~200 m, the dual tracer release method is quite robust (emission rate error) under many atmospheric conditions and landscape variations. At downwind distances less than ~200 m, the assumption of equivalent dispersion between spatially separated release points can break down. For some facilities, this can be used to distinguish and estimate the magnitude of methane emissions taking place at different spatial points within the facility. Measured emissions for selected facilities will be presented and, where possible, the accurate quantification of the episodic releases during specific activities, as well as continuous fugitive emissions are identified and will be discussed . Collaboration with on-site operators allows these measurements to inform the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies.

  19. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); De Vecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Giroletti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Guida, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Musitelli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nardo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Necchi, M.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Pagano, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ratti, S.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vicini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Viviani, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 {mu}m and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Tl{sub 2}O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4} 92.5%, SF{sub 6} 2.5%, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  20. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, G.; De Vecchi, C.; Giroletti, E.; Guida, R.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Sani, G.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2006-08-01

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 μm and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi 2O 3 and Tl 2O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C 2H 2F 4 92.5%, SF 6 2.5%, C 4H 10 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  1. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Harris, B.R. Jr. (USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States)); DeRose, W.E. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Ottaviani, W.L. (Chevron U.S.A., Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  2. Evaluation of a tracer release and measurement system for the detection and quantification of air emissions using the tracer ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecobian, A.; Clements, A. L.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Williams, C. M.; Wells, B. L.; MacDonald, L. P.; Pierce, J. R.; Ham, J. M.; Collett, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The number of oil and gas production operations is increasing as is their proximity to residential areas. These facilities have been known to emit methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere during the different phases of development and operation. To gain a better understanding of the types and magnitude of these emissions, accurate methods for identifying and measuring the plumes released from these sources are needed. One of the most common methods for characterization of emissions is the tracer ratio. In this method, a known amount of a tracer gas is released near the potential emission source, both the tracer and the compound(s) of interest are then measured at a location downwind of the potential emissions; and the emission rate is estimated based on the ratio of the compound of interest to the tracer at the location of the measurement. This work describes field tests conducted in an air field in Fort Collins, CO to evaluate a tracer release and detection system. Acetylene (tracer gas) and methane (emission from potential source) have been released from a custom made manifold system. A PICARRO G2203 analyzer (using cavity ring down spectroscopy) and a mobile kit A0941 have been deployed on a vehicle for the downwind measurements. The emissions are measured downwind of the source and the tracer ratio method is used to calculate the emissions of methane. The measured and calculated values have been compared. Additionally, silonite-coated canisters have been used for collection and analysis of acetylene to further validate the setup. This system has been evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy and response time through a series of controlled tracer and methane releases under various meteorological conditions. The results from these tests and error analysis for the system are presented and discussed.

  3. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson G.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinj...

  4. Use of artificial tracers in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has convened an Advisory Group Meeting with the following objectives: To define the role of artificial radioactive tracers for water tracing in comparison with other non-radioactive tracers. To evaluate the real needs of artificial radioactive tracers in hydrology. To identify the fields for which artificial radioactive tracers are useful as well as those in which they can be substituted by other tracers. To discuss the strategy to be adopted to overcome the difficulties derived from the restrictions on the use of radioactive tracers in hydrology. The meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters from 19 to 22 March 1990, and was attended by 30 participants from 15 Member States. The conclusions and recommendations are that the use of artificial radioactive tracers should be restricted to cases where other tracers cannot be used or do not provide the same quality of information. Tritium, iodine-131, bromine-82, chromium-51 in the form of Cr-EDTA, technetium-99m obtained from 99Mo-generators and gold-198 as an adsorbable tracer are, practically, the only radionuclides used for water tracing. The use of other radionuclides for this purpose does not appear to be necessary, possible and/or convenient. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Tracer a application in marine outfall studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of radioactive and fluorescent tracers for field studies to predict or investigate waste water transport and dispersion from marine outfalls is evaluated. The application of either instantaneous or continuous tracer release, 'in situ' detection of tracers and data processing are considered. The necessity of a combined use of tracer techniques and conventional hydrographic methods for a statistical prediction of transport and dillution of waste water are pointed out. A procedure to determine an outlet distance from the coast, which satisfy bathing water criteria is outlined. (M.A.)

  6. The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA

  7. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  9. Spintronic platforms for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P P; Cardoso, F A; Martins, V C; Martins, S A M; Loureiro, J; Amaral, J; Chaves, R C; Cardoso, S; Fonseca, L P; Sebastião, A M; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M; Fermon, C

    2012-02-01

    Since the fundamental discovery of the giant magnetoresistance many spintronic devices have been developed and implemented in our daily life (e.g. information storage and automotive industry). Lately, advances in the sensors technology (higher sensitivity, smaller size) have potentiated other applications, namely in the biological area, leading to the emergence of novel biomedical platforms. In particular the investigation of spintronics and its application to the development of magnetoresistive (MR) biomolecular and biomedical platforms are giving rise to a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices, suitable for bench top bioassays as well as point-of-care and point-of-use devices. Herein, integrated spintronic biochip platforms for diagnostic and cytometric applications, hybrid systems incorporating magnetoresistive sensors applied to neuroelectronic studies and biomedical imaging, namely magneto-encephalography and magneto-cardiography, are reviewed. Also lab-on-a-chip MR-based platforms to perform biological studies at the single molecule level are discussed. Overall the potential and main characteristics of such MR-based biomedical devices, comparing to the existing technologies while giving particular examples of targeted applications, are addressed. PMID:22146898

  10. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  11. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell-cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future.

  12. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  13. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  14. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  15. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  16. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  17. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes. PMID:26675174

  18. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes.

  19. Application of nuclear microlocalization techniques to biomedical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beams at the Brookhaven 3.5 MV Research Van de Graaff accelerator have been used for elemental analysis and distribution in biomedical samples. Results from several collaborations are presented. Both collimated and uncollimated charged particle beams are used for elemental analysis by measurement of characteristic x-rays (PIXE). A collimated proton beam, using a pinhole collimator (approx. 20 μm) has been used as a particle microprobe in the laboratory ambient. Thick, essentially unprepared, samples can be measured with general elemental sensitivities of 2H(3H,n)4He reaction initiated by the triton beam at the accelerator. Alpha particles from the reaction register the deuterium distribution in a plastic track detector. This technique suggests that 3H may be replaced by the stable isotope 2H in tracer studies. Studies have included the detection of nonexchangeable 2H in oocytes and the uptake of deuterated thymidine in blood cells

  20. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shahand

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists fr

  1. Analysis of colloid and tracer breakthrough curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Edwards, Mark S.; Higgo, Jenny J. W.; Williams, Geoffrey M.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the dispersion and elution of colloids and dissolved nonsorbing tracers within saturated heterogeneous porous media. Since flow path geometry in natural systems is often ill-characterized macroscopic (mean) flow rates and dispersion tensors are utilized in order to account for the sub-model scale microscopic fluctuations in media structure (and the consequent hydrodynamic profile). Even for tracer migration and dispersal this issue is far from settled. Here we consider how colloid and tracer migration phenomena can be treated consistently. Theoretical calculations for model flow geometries yield two quantitative predictions for the transport of free (not yet captured) colloids with reference to a non-sorbing dissolved tracer within the same medium: the average migration velocity of the free colloids is higher than that of the tracer; and that the ratio of the equivalent hydrodynamic dispersion rates of colloids and tracer is dependent only upon properties of the colloids and the porous medium, it is independent of pathlengths and fluid flux, once length scales are large enough. The first of these is well known, since even in simple flow paths free colloids must stay more centre stream. The second, if validated suggests how solute and colloid dispersion may be dealt with consistently in macroscopic migration models. This is crucial since dispersion is usually ill-characterized and unaddressed by the experimental literature. In this paper we present evidence based upon an existing Drigg field injection test for the validity of these predictions. We show that starting from experimental data the fitted dispersion rates of both colloids and non-sorbing tracers increase with the measured elution rates (obeying slightly different rules for tracers and colloids); and that the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer elution rates, and the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer dispersion rates may be dependent upon properties of the colloids and the medium (not

  2. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  3. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  4. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  5. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  6. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools.  It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.

  7. Biomedical applications of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bormann, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the emerging field of biomedical applications for magnesium-based materials, envisioning degradable implants that dissolve in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition. After outlining the background of this interest, some major aspects concerning degra

  8. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  9. A study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, 36Cl, 3H, and 2H/18O. Atmospheric levels of 36Cl and 3H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting ''bomb pulse'' or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, 129I, and 99Tc. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Six tracer techniques (total chloride, 36Cl, 3H, nitrate, 129I, and 99Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden silt loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers works best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial variability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other arid sites. 166 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs

  10. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  11. Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.

  12. [Biomedical waste management in five hospitals in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; El Metghari, L; Soumah, M M; Sow, M L

    2012-10-01

    wheelbarrows in 33.7% (N = 29). Biomedical waste was disposed of in old incinerators or in artisanal ovens with a great deal of smoke emanating from these. Working conditions were deemed poor by 81.3% (N = 61) of employees interviewed and personal protection equipment was available in 45.3% (N = 39) of services. Knowledge about biomedical waste management was deemed satisfactory by 62.6% (N = 47) of interviewees and 80% (N = 60) were aware of the health risks related to biomedical waste. The poor management of biomedical waste is a reality in hospital facilities in Dakar. This can be addressed by increasing the awareness of managers for an effective application of the legislation, implementing realistic management programmes and providing the appropriate on-the-job training to staff members. PMID:22763955

  13. Dual-tracer receptor concentration imaging using tracers with different tissue delivery kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hasan, Tayyaba; St. Lawrence, Keith; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous dynamic fluorescent imaging of a suitable untargeted tracer in conjunction with any molecular targeted fluorescent agent has been shown to be a powerful approach for quantifying cancer-specific cell surface receptors in vivo in the presence of non-specific uptake and tracer delivery variability. The identification of a "suitable" untargeted tracer (i.e., one having equivalent plasma and tissue delivery pharmacokinetics to the targeted tracer) for every targeted tracer, however, may not always be feasible or could require extensive testing. This work presents a "deconvolution" approach capable of correcting for plasma and tissue-delivery pharmacokinetic differences between tracers by quantifying dynamic differences in targeted and untargeted tracer uptake in a receptor-free tissue (one devoid of targeted molecular species) and correcting uptake in all other tissues accordingly. This deconvolution correction approach is evaluated in theoretical models and explored in an in vivo mouse xenograft model of human glioma. In the animal experiments, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR: a receptor known to be overexpressed in the investigated glioma cell line) was targeted using a fluorescent tracer with very different plasma pharmacokinetics than a second untargeted fluorescent tracer. Without correcting for these differences, the dual-tracer approach yielded substantially higher estimations of EGFR concentration in all tissues than expected; however, deconvolution correction was able to produce estimates that matched ex vivo validation.

  14. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  15. Compartmental modeling and tracer kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David H

    1983-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with mathematical aspects of compartmental an­ alysis. In particular, linear models are closely analyzed since they are fully justifiable as an investigative tool in tracer experiments. The objective of the monograph is to bring the reader up to date on some of the current mathematical prob­ lems of interest in compartmental analysis. This is accomplished by reviewing mathematical developments in the literature, especially over the last 10-15 years, and by presenting some new thoughts and directions for future mathematical research. These notes started as a series of lectures that I gave while visiting with the Division of Applied ~1athematics, Brown University, 1979, and have developed in­ to this collection of articles aimed at the reader with a beginning graduate level background in mathematics. The text can be used as a self-paced reading course. With this in mind, exercises have been appropriately placed throughout the notes. As an aid in reading the material, the e~d of a ...

  16. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  17. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  18. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  19. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research. PMID:24640781

  20. Terahertz biomedical science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Studies Using Terahertz WavesJoo-Hiuk SonSection I Terahertz TechnologyTerahertz Sources and DetectorsHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonTabletop High-Power Terahertz Pulse Generation TechniquesYun-Shik LeeTerahertz Imaging and Tomography TechniquesHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonCompact Solid-State Electronic Terahertz Devices and CircuitsJae-Sung Rieh, Daekeun Yoon, and Jongwon Yun<

  1. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  2. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  3. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  4. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  5. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  6. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bandrowski

    Full Text Available The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT. The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org providing details on the people, policies, and issues being

  7. Rules and management of biomedical waste at Vivekananda Polyclinic: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospitals and other healthcare establishments have a 'duty of care' for the environment and for public health, and have particular responsibilities in relation to the waste they produce (i.e., biomedical waste). Negligence, in terms of biomedical waste management, significantly contributes to polluting the environment, affects the health of human beings, and depletes natural and financial resources. In India, in view of the serious situation of biomedical waste management, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, within the Government of India, ratified the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, in July 1998. The present paper provides a brief description of the biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, and the current biomedical waste management practices in one of the premier healthcare establishments of Lucknow, the Vivekananda Polyclinic. The objective in undertaking this study was to analyse the biomedical waste management system, including policy, practice (i.e., storage, collection, transportation and disposal), and compliance with the standards prescribed under the regulatory framework. The analysis consisted of interviews with medical authorities, doctors, and paramedical staff involved in the management of the biomedical wastes in the Polyclinic. Other important stakeholders that were consulted and interviewed included environmental engineers (looking after the Biomedical Waste Cell) of the State Pollution Control Board, and randomly selected patients and visitors to the Polyclinic. A general survey of the facilities of the Polyclinic was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of the implemented measures. The waste was quantified based on random samples collected from each ward. It was found that, although the Polyclinic in general abides by the prescribed regulations for the treatment and disposal of biomedical waste, there is a need to further build the capacity of the Polyclinic and its staff in terms of providing state

  8. Tracer tests performed in the field for WIPP in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-well recirculating tracer test began in October, 1979, to define as accurately as possible the hydraulic character of a fractured carbonate aquifer, the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site in Eddy and Lee Counties, New Mexico. The Culebra dolomite overlies a zone planned for isolation of transuranic contaminated waste generated by the United States defense programs. The storage zone of the proposed facility is in nearly pure halite and about 1400 feet (427 meters) below the Culebra dolomite, the most likely pathway for the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere in the event the repository is breached by groundwater. Included in the definition of the hydraulic character of the Culebra aquifer are natural groundwater velocities, aquifer porosity and components of dispersivity. The proposed tracer test using sodium benzoate, a homologous series of chlorofluoromethanes and pentafluorobenzoic acid as tracers is described. Results of the test will be reported at a later date

  9. Proceedings of Tracer 3. International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer 3 conference is a continuation of former Tracer 1 (1998) and Tracer 2 (2001) conferences organized by CNRS - Nancy France. The objective of this 3rd conference is presentation of different aspects of tracer method applications and development of tracer methodology.The new field of activity presented at the Conference was application of stable isotopes as natural tracers for investigations of environmental processes. The conference gave the possibility for scientific information exchange between specialists from different fields of activity such as chemical engineering, chemistry, bioengineering, environmental engineering, hydrology, civil engineering, metallurgy, etc. The presentations were divided into groups covering the principal items of Conference. Section A. Fundamental development - RTD and tracer methodology, - RTD methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), - New tracers and detectors. Section B. Industrial applications - Environment, - Geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications, - Civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications, - Food engineering and bioengineering, - Material engineering, - Chemical engineering. During the Conference INIS promotion materials were exposed by INIS liaison officer for Poland

  10. Accurate blood flow measurements: are artificial tracers necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poelma

    Full Text Available Imaging-based blood flow measurement techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, have become an important tool in cardiovascular research. They provide quantitative information about blood flow, which benefits applications ranging from developmental biology to tumor perfusion studies. Studies using these methods can be classified based on whether they use artificial tracers or red blood cells to visualize the fluid motion. We here present the first direct comparison in vivo of both methods. For high magnification cases, the experiments using red blood cells strongly underestimate the flow (up to 50% in the present case, as compared to the tracer results. For medium magnification cases, the results from both methods are indistinguishable as they give the same underestimation of the real velocities (approximately 33%, based on in vitro reference measurements. These results suggest that flow characteristics reported in literature cannot be compared without a careful evaluation of the imaging characteristics. A method to predict the expected flow averaging behavior for a particular facility is presented.

  11. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  12. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  13. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  14. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. PMID:27179985

  15. Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, δ2H and δ18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a

  16. Biomedical laboratories: architecture and radioprotection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In institutions where biological research are made and some technologies make use of radioisotope, the radiation protection is an issue of biosecurity for conceptual reasons. In the process of architectural design of Biomedical Laboratories, engineering and architecture reveal interfaces with other areas of knowledge and specific concepts. Exploring the role of architectural design in favor of personal and environmental protection in biological containment laboratories that handle non-sealed sources in research, the work discusses the triad that compose the principle of containment in health environments: best practices, protective equipment, physical facilities, with greater emphasis on the latter component. The shortcomings of the design process are reflected in construction and in use-operation and maintenance of these buildings, with direct consequences on the occupational health and safety, environmental and credibility of work processes. In this context, the importance of adoption of alternatives to improve the design process is confirmed, taking into account the early consideration of several variables involved and providing subsidies to the related laboratories . The research, conducted at FIOCRUZ - a Brazilian health institution, developed from the analysis of the participants in the architectural project, aiming at the formulation of design guidelines which could contribute to the rationalisation of this kind of building construction

  17. Remote examination and disassembly of a biomedical target at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group CMB-14 at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory examines a failed water-cooled biomedical pion-production target used in the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The target had developed a water leak during service. During investigation of the failure, the target was pressurized in water first to locate the leak generally and second to pinpoint it after the target was partially disassembled. Samples from the target were examined by a metallograph, a scanning electron microscope, an electron and an ion microprobe, and an x-ray diffractometer

  18. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael A.; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an...

  19. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  20. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G. Owen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Wertheimer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support that important public good. Consequently, we all have a duty to ...

  1. Novel Hyperbranched Polyurethane Brushes for Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ton; Loontjens; Bart; Plum

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The objective was to make hyperbranched (HB) polyurethane brushes with reactive end groups, to coat biomedical devices and to enable the introduction of various functionalities that are needed to fulfill biomedical tasks.Biomedical materials should fulfill at least three requirements: (1) good mechanical properties, (2) good biocompatibility and (3) provided with functionalities to perform the required tasks. Since polyurethanes are able to fulfill the first 2 requirements we focused in this w...

  2. Searching Biomedical Text: Towards Maximum Relevant Results

    OpenAIRE

    Galde, Ola; Sevaldsen, John Harald

    2006-01-01

    The amount of biomedical information available to users today is large and increasing. The ability to precisely retrieve desired information is vital in order to utilize available knowledge. In this work we investigated how to improve the relevance of biomedical search results. Using the Lucene Java API we applied a series of information retrieval techniques to search in biomedical data. The techniques ranged from basic stemming and stop-word removal to more advanced methods like user relevan...

  3. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  4. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  5. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  6. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 1999, the second full year of existence of the NSBRI's research program, and is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI). The report consists of progress reports on projects related to the effects of microgravity and space on physiology. The research is broken up in nine areas: (1) Bone loss, (2) Cardiovascular alterations, (3) human performance, (3) immunology, infection and hematology, (4) muscle alterations and atrophy,(5) Neurovestibular adaptation, radiation effects, (6) technology development, and (7) synergy projects.

  7. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  8. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  9. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  10. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  12. Particle and tracer diffusion in complex liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynov, Kaloian; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    The diffusion of fluorescent tracers can be studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This powerful method offers the possibility to monitor very small tracers at low concentrations, down to single molecules. Furthermore it possesses a sub-femtoliter detection volume that can be precisely positioned in a heterogeneous environment to probe the local dynamics. Despite its great potential and high versatility in addressing the diffusion and transport properties in complex systems, FCS has been predominantly applied in molecular and cell biology. Here we present some applications that are more relevant for material and soft matter science. First, we study the diffusion of single tracers with molecular sizes in undiluted polymer systems. Next, the diffusion of small molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) in silica inverse opals is studied and correlated to the size and morphology of the inverse opals. Finally, we show how FCS can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles at water-oil interfaces.

  13. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-07-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential.

  14. Use of radioactive tracers in dynamic sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part, developments in the use of radioactive tracers in sedimentology are recalled together with the corresponding fields of application and the identities of the main users. The state-of-the-art in France is also discussed; The main characteristics of the method are then described and compared with those of more classical methods. The results that can be obtained with tracer methods are then outlined. The criteria employed to establish the granulometry characteristics of the tracer, the particular radioisotope to be used, and the masses and activities involved, are treated. A list is then given of the main isotopes available in France and their characteristics. The various different labelling techniques employed are studied together with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The special case of pelitic sediments is mentioned. The use of reduced model isotope generators, double labelling and applications to studies of the mud plug in the Gironde Estuary are also discussed. The methods and materials used for injecting and detecting tracers are described, emphasis being given to the economic factors associated with the use of radioactive tracers in sedimentology. The second part of the report contains two chapters: - studies of transport by driftage: presentation and analysis of results and the application of the Count Rate Balance method to obtain quantitative information on transport; - studies of in-suspension transport of fine sediments in the sea: the procedures adopted from the moment when the tracer is introduced up to the time when the results are analyzed and interpreted, enables the trajectories and mean velocities of the transported sediments to be determined together with their degree of dilution and their settling speeds and rates; it is also possible to investigate the evolution and horizontal dispersion of the sediments in this way. Results from recent experiments are presented in both parts of the report

  15. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications. PMID:27449946

  16. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  17. Transformationally decoupling clustering and tracer bias

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Gaussianizing transformations are used statistically in many non-cosmological fields, but in cosmology, we are only starting to apply them. Here I explain a strategy of analyzing the 1-point function (PDF) of a spatial field, together with the 'essential' clustering statistics of the Gaussianized field, which are invariant to a local transformation. In cosmology, if the tracer sampling is sufficient, this achieves two important goals. First, it can greatly multiply the Fisher information, which is negligible on nonlinear scales in the usual $\\delta$ statistics. Second, it decouples clustering statistics from a local bias description for tracers such as galaxies.

  18. Radiopharmaceutical Tracers for Neural Progenitor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Report summarizes the results of the synthesis and microPET animal scanning of several compounds labeled with positron-emitting isotopes in normal, neonatal and kainic acid treated (seizure induced) rats as potential PET tracers to image the process of neurogenesis using positron emission tomography (PET). The tracers tested were 3'-deoxy-3'-[F-18]fluorothymidine ([F-18]FLT) and 5'-benzoyl-FTL, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-B-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-bromouracil (FBAU) and 3',5'-dibenzoyl-FBAU, N-[F-18]fluoroacetyl-D-glucosamine (FLAG) and tetraacetyl-FLAG, and L-[1-C-11]leucine

  19. Selection of tracers for oil and gas evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of tracer tests in reservoir descriptions is increasingly acknowledged by reservoir engineers as a method to obtain valuable dynamic information from the reservoir. The report describes the ''state-of-the art'' on tracer technology for interwell investigations. Experiences gained from a number of reported field tracer tests are reviewed, and results from detailed laboratory investigations on the static and dynamic behavior of various tracer molecules are discussed. A critical evaluation of the applicability of the various identified tracers is provided. Present and future trends in the development of tracer technology for reservoir description are sketched. 64 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A 3-D hydrologic transport model of a water recharge system using carbamazepine and chloride as tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Michael; Gasser, Guy; Negev, Ido; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Lev, Ovadia; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2014-05-01

    Wastewater recharge facilities are often used as a final water treatment before the discharge to the sea or before water reclamation. These facilities are often located in active aquifers that supply drinking water. Thus, leakage from the water recharge facility and gradual expansion of the underground wastewater plume are of considerable health concern. Hydrological modeling of water recharge systems are widely used as operational and predictive tools. These models rely on distributed water head monitoring and at least one chemical or physical tracer to model solutes' transport. Refractory micropollutants have proven useful in qualitative identification of pollution leakages and for quantification of pollution to a specific site near water recharge facilities. However, their usefulness as tracers for hydrological modeling is still questionable. In this article, we describe a long term, 3-D hydraulic model of a large-scale wastewater effluents recharge system in which a combination of chloride and a refractory micropollutant, carbamazepine is used to trace the solute transport. The combination of the two tracers provides the model with the benefits of the high specificity of the carbamazepine and the extensive historic data base that is available for chloride. The model predicts westward expansion of the pollution plume, whereas a standing front is formed at the east. These trends can be confirmed by the time trace of the carbamazepine concentrations at specific locations. We show that the combination of two tracers accounts better (at least at some locations) for the evolution of the pollution plume than a model based on chloride or carbamazepine alone.

  1. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  3. Cross language information retrieval for biomedical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemie, M.; Trieschnigg, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop report discusses the collaborative work of UT, EMC and TNO on the TREC Genomics Track 2007. The biomedical information retrieval task is approached using cross language methods, in which biomedical concept detection is combined with effective IR based on unigram language models. Furthe

  4. A new educational program on biomedical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alste, van J.A.

    2000-01-01

    At the University of Twente together with the Free University of Amsterdam a new educational program on Biomedical Engineering will be developed. The academic program with a five-year duration will start in September 2001. After a general, broad education in Biomedical Engineering in the first three

  5. Biomedical Journals and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbaert, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the publication of biomedical journals on the Internet. Highlights include pros and cons of electronic publishing; the Global Health Network at the University of Pittsburgh; the availability of biomedical journals on the World Wide Web; current applications, including access to journal contents tables and electronic delivery of full-text…

  6. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement. PMID:27354246

  7. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement.

  8. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  9. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian

    2014-07-15

    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  10. Blood tracer kinetics in the arterial tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Kellner

    Full Text Available Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data.

  11. Blood tracer kinetics in the arterial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data.

  12. Planetary Nebulae as Mass Tracers in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary nebula are useful kinematic tracers of the stars in all galaxy types. I review recent observationally-driven developments in the study of galaxy mass profiles. These have yielded surprising results on spiral galaxy disk masses and elliptical galaxy halo masses. A key remaining question is the coupling between PNe and the underlying stellar populations.

  13. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  14. Fractal tracer distributions in turbulent field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Lundbek; Bohr, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    We study the motion of passive tracers in a two-dimensional turbulent velocity field generated by the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. By varying the direction of the velocity-vector with respect to the field-gradient we can continuously vary the two Lyapunov exponents for the particle motion and t...

  15. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  16. Forbidden calcium lines as disc tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Aret, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Forbidden emission lines are particularly valuable disc tracers, because their profiles reflect the kinematics within their formation region. Here we present a short excerpt from the results of a spectroscopic survey of evolved massive stars surrounded by high-density discs.

  17. Travel-time-based thermal tracer tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter; Brauchler, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    Active thermal tracer testing is a technique to get information about the flow and transport properties of an aquifer. In this paper we propose an innovative methodology using active thermal tracers in a tomographic setup to reconstruct cross-well hydraulic conductivity profiles. This is facilitated by assuming that the propagation of the injected thermal tracer is mainly controlled by advection. To reduce the effects of density and viscosity changes and thermal diffusion, early-time diagnostics are used and specific travel times of the tracer breakthrough curves are extracted. These travel times are inverted with an eikonal solver using the staggered grid method to reduce constraints from the pre-defined grid geometry and to improve the resolution. Finally, non-reliable pixels are removed from the derived hydraulic conductivity tomograms. The method is applied to successfully reconstruct cross-well profiles as well as a 3-D block of a high-resolution fluvio-aeolian aquifer analog data set. Sensitivity analysis reveals a negligible role of the injection temperature, but more attention has to be drawn to other technical parameters such as the injection rate. This is investigated in more detail through model-based testing using diverse hydraulic and thermal conditions in order to delineate the feasible range of applications for the new tomographic approach.

  18. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telesco...

  19. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  20. Utilization of pion production accelerators in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is presented of biomedical applications of pion-producing accelerators in a number of areas, but with emphasis on pion therapy for treatment of solid, non-metastasized malignancies. The problem of cancer management is described from the standpoint of the physicist, magnitude of the problem, and its social and economic impact. Barriers to successful treatment are identified, mainly with regard to radiation therapy. The properties and characteristics of π mesons, first postulated on purely theoretical grounds by H. Yukawa are described. It is shown how they can be used to treat human cancer and why they appear to have dramatic advantages over conventional forms of radiation by virtue of the fact that they permit localization of energy deposition, preferentially, in the tumor volume. The Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), and its operating characteristics, are briefly described, with emphasis on the biomedical channel. The design of a relatively inexpensive accelerator specifically for pion therapy is described as is also the status of clinical trials using the existing Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The advantages of proton over electron accelerator for the production of high quality, high intensity negative pion beams suitable for radiation therapy of malignancies is also addressed. Other current, medically related applications of LAMPF technology are also discussed

  1. Tracer Partitioning in Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, K.; Hesse, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The concentration distributions of geochemical tracers in a subsurface reservoir can be used as an indication of the reservoir flow paths and constituent fluid origin. In this case, we are motivated by the origin of marked geochemical gradients in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir in northeastern New Mexico. This reservoir contains 99% CO2 with various trace noble gas components and overlies the formation brine in a sloping aquifer. It is thought that magmatic CO2 entered the reservoir, and displaced the brine. This displacement created gradients in the concentrations of the noble gases. Two models to explain noble gas partitioning in two-phase flow are presented here. The first model assumes that the noble gases act as tracers and uses a first order non-linear partial differential equation to compute the volume fraction of each phase along the displament path. A one-way coupled partial differential equation determines the tracer concentration, which has no effect on the overall flow or phase saturations. The second model treats each noble gas as a regular component resulting in a three-component, two-phase system. As the noble gas injection concentration goes to zero, we see the three-component system behave like the one-way coupled system of the first model. Both the analytical and numerical solutions are presented for these models. For the process of a gas displacing a liquid, we see that a noble gas tracer with greater preference for the gas phase, such as Helium, will move more quickly along the flowpath than a heavier tracer that will more easily enter the liquid phase, such as Argon. When we include partial miscibility of both the major and trace components, these differences in speed are shown in a bank of the tracer at the saturation front. In the three component model, the noble gas bank has finite width and concentration. In the limit where the noble gas is treated as a tracer, the width of the bank is zero and the concentration increases linearly

  2. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  3. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  4. Biomedical Perspective of Electrochemical Nanobiosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priti Singh; Shailendra Kumar Pandey; Jyoti Singh; Sameer Srivastava; Sadhana Sachan; Sunil Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensor holds great promise in the biomedical area due to its enhanced specificity, sensi-tivity, label-free nature and cost effectiveness for rapid point-of-care detection of diseases at bedside. In this review, we are focusing on the working principle of electrochemical biosensor and how it can be employed in detecting biomarkers of fatal diseases like cancer, AIDS, hepatitis and cardiovascular diseases. Recent advances in the development of implantable biosensors and exploration of nanomaterials in fabrication of electrodes with increasing the sensitivity of biosensor for quick and easy detection of biomolecules have been elucidated in detail. Electrochemical-based detection of heavy metal ions which cause harmful effect on human health has been discussed. Key challenges associated with the electrochemical sensor and its future perspectives are also addressed.

  5. Biomedical Applications of Simulated Environments .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental physiology assumes great significance in our national context of the diverse climatic conditions prevailing in different regions. Troops have to operate in diverse environmental conditions guarding the frontiers. Hence, the research in this area has been focused on the usage of field studies in the natural environments or simulated environments in the laboratory. Besides, the application of the simulation chambers in the research on the physiological effects of diverse environments, these studies may have applications in the control and management of certain clinical disorders. Some simulation chambers and specilised set-ups have been designed and developed at the Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences to carry out simulation studies. This paper describes these developments and the potentials of these biomedical applications of simulated environments.

  6. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  7. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  8. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  9. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  10. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846352

  11. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  12. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  13. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  14. Resistance absorption of some groundwater tracers in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Fateme

    2010-05-01

    Absorption of tracer to the aquifer material is among the most important factors which should be considered when a tracing program is considered. In this study, the absorption of the tracer into the porous media is analyzed experimentally for some of the most important and applied tracers as uranine, rhodamine B, eosin, potassium permanganate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. For each tracer, effect of initial tracer concentration and percentage of fine grain sediments on tracer absorption in porous media is analyzed. According to the final results, rhodamine B and potassium permanganate have the less resistance against absorption to aquifer material, whilst eosin and uranine are the most resistant tracers among the examined ones. Key Words: Tracer, Absorption, Aquifer, Column Method

  15. Laplace transform in tracer kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete B., E-mail: eliete@pucrs.br [Instituto do Cerebro (InsCer/FAMAT/PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil). Faculdade de Matematica

    2013-07-01

    The main objective this paper is to quantify the pharmacokinetic processes: absorption, distribution and elimination of radiopharmaceutical(tracer), using Laplace transform method. When the drug is administered intravenously absorption is complete and is available in the bloodstream to be distributed throughout the whole body in all tissues and fluids, and to be eliminated. Mathematical modeling seeks to describe the processes of distribution and elimination through compartments, where distinct pools of tracer (spatial location or chemical state) are assigned to different compartments. A compartment model is described by a system of differential equations, where each equation represents the sum of all the transfer rates to and from a specific compartment. In this work a two-tissue irreversible compartment model is used for description of tracer, [{sup 18}F]2-fluor-2deoxy-D-glucose. In order to determine the parameters of the model, it is necessary to have information about the tracer delivery in the form of an input function representing the time-course of tracer concentration in arterial blood or plasma. We estimate the arterial input function in two stages and apply the Levenberg-Marquardt Method to solve nonlinear regressions. The transport of FDG across de arterial blood is very fast in the first ten minutes and then decreases slowly. We use de Heaviside function to represent this situation and this is the main contribution of this study. We apply the Laplace transform and the analytical solution for two-tissue irreversible compartment model is obtained. The only approach is to determinate de arterial input function. (author)

  16. An inexpensive field fluorometer for hydrogeological tracer tests with three tracers and turbidity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André

    2005-01-01

    The Geomagnetism Group of the University of Neuchâtel has recently designed a flow-through field fluorometer with added spectral capabilities for hydrological tracer tests. This instrument is equipped with four optical axes allowing water sample illumination with four independent light sources at different wavelenghs covering the full spectrum from UV to red. As many as three conveniently selected (dye) tracers can be simultaneously measured and separeted from a cocktail. Careful turbidity me...

  17. Tracer Interpretation Using Temporal Moments on a Spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Shook; J. Hope Forsmann

    2005-06-01

    This report presents a method for interpreting geothermal tracer tests. The method is based on the first temporal moment (mean residence time) of the tracer in the subsurface. The individual steps required to interpret a tracer test are reviewed and discussed. And an example tracer test directs the user through the interpretation method. An Excel spreadsheet application of the interpretation method is a companion document to this report.

  18. Thermal tracer tests for characterizing a shallow alluvial aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemeersch, Samuel; Klepikova, Maria; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Hermans, Thomas; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest [e.g. Vandenbohede et al.; 2008, Wagner et al., 2013; Read et al., 2013]. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of coupling heat and solute tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer i...

  19. Industrial tracer application in people's republic of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. And the tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given. (author)

  20. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  1. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, Martin, E-mail: mazurek@geo.unibe.ch [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Alt-Epping, Peter [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bath, Adrian [Intellisci, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough LE12 6SZ (United Kingdom); Gimmi, Thomas [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Niklaus Waber, H. [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Canniere, Pierre De; Craen, Mieke De [SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gautschi, Andreas [Nagra, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Savoye, Sebastien [IRSN, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Vinsot, Agnes [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Wemaere, Isabelle [SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wouters, Laurent [Ondraf/Niras, 1210 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Solute transport processes in clay and shale formations at nine sites are examined. > Conservative pore-water tracers (e.g. Cl{sup -}, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, He) show regular profiles. > These indicate the dominance of diffusive transport over times of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years. > The contribution of vertical advection to transport is limited or negligible. > Modelled evolution times are in line with independent palaeo-hydrogeological data. - Abstract: Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants, has brought argillaceous formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive and other waste. In several countries, programmes are under way to characterise the detailed transport properties of such formations at depth. In this context, the interpretation of profiles of natural tracers in pore waters across the formations can give valuable information about the large-scale and long-term transport behaviour of these formations. Here, tracer-profile data, obtained by various methods of pore-water extraction for nine sites in central Europe, are compiled. Data at each site comprise some or all of the conservative tracers: anions (Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}), water isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H) and noble gases (mainly He). Based on a careful evaluation of the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution at each site, model scenarios are derived for initial and boundary pore-water compositions and an attempt is made to numerically reproduce the observed tracer distributions in a consistent way for all tracers and sites, using transport parameters derived from laboratory or in situ tests. The comprehensive results from this project have been reported in . Here the results for three sites are presented in detail, but the conclusions are based on model interpretations of the

  2. A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Phillips, S. J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating

  3. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  4. Trends in biochemical and biomedical applications of mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, Emilio

    1992-09-01

    This review attempts an in-depth evaluation of progress and achievements made since the last 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference in the application of mass spectrometric techniques to biochemistry and biomedicine. For this purpose, scientific contributions in this field at major international meetings have been monitored, together with an extensive appraisal of literature data covering the period from 1988 to 1991. A bibliometric evaluation of the MEDLINE database for this period provides a total of almost 4000 entries for mass spectrometry. This allows a detailed study of literature and geographical sources of the most frequent applications, of disciplines where mass spectrometry is most active and of types of sample and instrumentation most commonly used. In this regard major efforts according to number of publications (over 100 literature reports) are concentrated in countries like Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, UK and the USA. Also, most of the work using mass spectrometry in biochemistry and biomedicine is centred on studies on biotransformation, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology, which have been carried out on samples of blood, urine, plasma and tissue, by order of frequency of use. Human and animal studies appear to be evenly distributed in terms of the number of reports published in the literature in which the authors make use of experimental animals or describe work on human samples. Along these lines, special attention is given to the real usefulness of mass spectrometry (MS) technology in routine medical practice. Thus the review concentrates on evaluating the progress made in disease diagnosis and overall patient care. As regards prevailing techniques, GCMS continues to be the mainstay of the state of the art methods for multicomponent analysis, stable isotope tracer studies and metabolic profiling, while HPLC--MS and tandem MS are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research. However

  5. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  6. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique ’intelligent’ characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  7. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  8. Veterans administration biomedical engineer training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D E

    1981-01-01

    The Veterans administration's Department of Medical and Surgery includes in its Graduate Engineer Training Program a special program for Biomedical Engineers. The program is intended for recent graduates in biomedical engineering and provides for the VA a means of recruiting and training biomedical engineers for employment in its medical centers nationwide. This paper discusses the structure and objectives of the program, the opportunities that exist for the trainee within the program and the results of the program since its inception in 1973, and provides an outlook on the future of the program.

  9. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  10. Comparing the performance of biomedical clustering methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiwie, Christian; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identifying groups of similar objects is a popular first step in biomedical data analysis, but it is error-prone and impossible to perform manually. Many computational methods have been developed to tackle this problem. Here we assessed 13 well-known methods using 24 data sets ranging from gene......-ranging comparison we were able to develop a short guideline for biomedical clustering tasks. ClustEval allows biomedical researchers to pick the appropriate tool for their data type and allows method developers to compare their tool to the state of the art....

  11. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO ChunSheng; TIAN HuaYu; ZHUANG XiuLi; CHEN XueSi; JING XiaBin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique 'intelligent' characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  12. Shape-Memory Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakacki, Christopher M.; Gall, Ken

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of mechanically functional "smart" materials that have generated substantial interest for biomedical applications. SMPs offer the ability to promote minimally invasive surgery, provide structural support, exert stabilizing forces, elute therapeutic agents, and biodegrade. This review focuses on several areas of biomedicine including vascular, orthopedic, and neuronal applications with respect to the progress and potential for SMPs to improve the standard of treatment in these areas. Fundamental studies on proposed biomedical SMP systems are discussed with regards to biodegradability, tailorability, sterilization, and biocompatibility. Lastly, a proposed research and development pathway for SMP-based biomedical devices is proposed based on trends in the recent literature.

  13. Improving "lab-on-a-chip" techniques using biomedical nanotechnology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjikhah, Fatemeh; Davaran, Soodabeh; Salehi, Roya; Bakhtiari, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Arash; Panahi, Yunes; Emamverdy, Masumeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-11-01

    Nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical sciences principally in molecular nanodiagnostics are known as nanomolecular diagnostics, which provides new options for clinical nanodiagnostic techniques. Molecular nanodiagnostics are a critical role in the development of personalized medicine, which features point-of care performance of diagnostic procedure. This can to check patients at point-of-care facilities or in remote or resource-poor locations, therefore reducing checking time from days to minutes. In this review, applications of nanotechnology suited to biomedicine are discussed in two main class: biomedical applications for use inside (such as drugs, diagnostic techniques, prostheses, and implants) and outside the body (such as "lab-on-a-chip" techniques). A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a tool that incorporates numerous laboratory tasks onto a small device, usually only millimeters or centimeters in size. Finally, are discussed the applications of biomedical nanotechnology in improving "lab-on-a-chip" techniques.

  14. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  15. Into the regolith: digging for hydrological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and trace element composition of regoliths is a source of potential tracers of water behaviour in catchment systems. We propose an assessment of the most suitable spatial tracers for water collection, mixing, storage and release processes by incorporating geochemical signatures derived from trace and major elements to the description of sources and pathways of water contributions in the stream. To date, stable isotopes are widely used to trace water sources and water transit times but they are still missing a complementary tool which allows for the identification of end-members and the understanding of mixing processes within the regolith. Trace elements are known to be powerful and precise geochemical tracers of environmental processes and, therefore, they can be useful indicators of the spatial origin and evolution of regolith materials and water chemistry. We studied a whole slate regolith profile for its mineralogical, major and trace element composition. The different regolith components were subjected to a leaching experiment in order to identify chemical zonations within and assess the potential elements mobility. Rain, soil, stream and ground waters were collected at the same location than the regolith system over 4 years, analysed for their trace and major elements composition and compared to regolith and regolith leachates data. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith. The geochemical scheme of a complete regolith and the waters it holds is here presented to prove the efficiency of trace and major elements as complementary hydrological and geochemical tracers of water migration throughout a regolith till the stream.

  16. The medical applications of radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1947-12-31

    This report provides a broad yet in depth overview of the use of radioactive materials as tracers in medicine and biology for the period of 1935--1947. Particular attention is paid to is of radio-sodium, radio-iodine, radio-iron, radio-phosphorus, radio-strontium, and fission products. The main thrust of this paper is human rather than animal work and focuses in work that has been published.

  17. BIOMEDICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MAJOR PUBLIC HOSPITALS OF SHIMLA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The actual biomedical waste management situation in the democratic developing country like India is grim. Even though there are Rules stipulating the method of safe disposal of Bio-medical Waste (BMW, hospital waste generated by Government Hospitals is still largely being dumped in the open, waiting to be collected along with general waste. OBJECTIVES: To assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste METHODOLOGY: A Cross sectional study was conducted in the major public hospitals of Shimla city. The study comprised of cross sectional survey of the personnel handling and monitoring the biomedical waste and observational survey of the hospitals using INCLEN (International Clinical Epidemiology Network data collection tools. RESULTS: The results were described under quantification of waste, segregation and collection, transport, storage, offsite transport, final treatment and disposal, occupational safety. The mean hazardous biomedical waste generated by the major public hospitals was found to be 191.5 g/bed/day (SD 93.83. In 91(86.1% of the patient care areas of the hospitals segregation of the wastes was not observed. None of the patient care areas had designated waste route inside the hospital. All the hospitals except one public hospital had central waste storage facility. Only two of the hospitals (public hospitals had a central storage cum treatment facility. None of the cleaning workers were using complete personal protective measures in any of the public hospitals. CONCLUSION: All major public hospitals of Shimla city in the study area practice poor management of biomedical wastes. The practices for segregation, transportation, storage and treatment and disposal of wastes generated at the major hospitals need change and major improvements

  18. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  19. Holographic lithography for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.

    2012-06-01

    Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels

  20. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  1. Tracer techniques in plant breeding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer techniques may be used as a tool in plant breeding programmes either to help in the choice of parental combinations with complementary advantages or in the selection of desirable plants within the segregating populations. The second application is, however, of little practical application as the techniques involved are mostly too tedious to be used on the large populations with which the plant breeder must deal, and frequently involve unacceptable destructive sampling of his material. The physiological analysis of potential parents is of considerable importance, particularly in the improvement of crops to be grown in more fully developed countries with advanced agricultural systems. Techniques using radioactive tracers and radiation-emitting sources such as the neutron probe have played a considerable part in this work. They have been used by cereal breeders to measure photosynthesis either of individual leaves, or of undisturbed crop canopies, and by breeders of many crops in the study of the translocation of the products of photosynthesis within the plant. They have also been used in studies of the effects of plant diseases on translocation patterns, thus identifying limiting factors for which the breeder should select. Radioactive tracers have also been used in estimating varietal differences in root growth and distribution, but the results obtained from such experiments have indicated that environmental differences are greater than those between genotypes. Differences in water uptake have, however, been demonstrated using the neutron probe, though these differences appear to be much influenced by differences in the water economy of the aerial parts. (author)

  2. Radon diagnostics and tracer gas measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is presented of the tracer gas technique, which is used for continuous measurements of air ventilation rate (generally time-varying) and for simultaneous estimation of air ventilation rate and radon entry rate, and some of its limitations are discussed. The performance of this technique in the calculation of the air ventilation rate is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. The potential for air ventilation rate estimation based on radon measurements only is discussed. A practical application is described of the tracer gas technique to a simultaneous estimation of the air ventilation rate and radon entry rate in a real house where the effectiveness of radon remedy was tested. The following main advantages of the CO tracer gas techniques are stressed: (i) The averaging method continuous determination of the ventilation rate with good accuracy (≤ 20 %). (ii) The newly presented and verified method based on simultaneous measurements of radon concentration and CO gas concentration enables separate continuous measurements of the radon entry rate and ventilation rate. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the inaccuracy in determination of radon entry rate showed acceptable and good agreement up to approximately 10 %. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the mutual commensuration of the method to the determination of the ventilation rate confirmed the expected unreliability the two parametric non-linear regression method, which is the most frequently used method in radon diagnostic in the Czech Republic

  3. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave

    2012-01-01

    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  4. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Dongsong; Garonne, Vincent; Barisits, Martin; Lassnig, Mario; Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Molfetas, Angelos; Beermann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The DDM Tracer monitoring framework is aimed to trace and monitor the ATLAS file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the framework was put in production in 2009. Now there are about 5 million trace messages every day and peaks can be near 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer monitoring framework. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve query performance and provided almost real time results. In this paper, the design principles, architecture and main characteristics of Tracer monitoring framework will be described and examples of its usage will be presented.

  5. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  6. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  7. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  8. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  9. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  10. Towards Nanoscale Biomedical Devices in Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parracino, A.; Gajula, G.P.; di Gennaro, A.K.;

    2011-01-01

    Medical interest in nanotechnology originates from a belief that nanoscale therapeutic devices can be constructed and directed towards its target inside the human body. Such nanodevices can be engineered by coupling superparamagnetic nanoparticle to biomedically active proteins. We hereby report...

  11. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  12. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    OpenAIRE

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    International audience Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is diffic...

  13. Biomedical photonics handbook therapeutics and advanced biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents recent fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers,

  14. The growth of biomedical terahertz research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in biomedical terahertz research is growing rapidly and there are now several terahertz groups in Asia, Europe and the US investigating potential applications such as pharmaceutical quality control, protein characterization and cancer detection. This review article outlines the technological bottlenecks that have been overcome which have made biomedical terahertz research possible. Key research findings will be presented, and the limitations that remain and the research initiatives that strive to address them will also be discussed. (paper)

  15. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  16. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, van, PJW; Olabarriaga, S.D.; Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists from different organizations. Data-driven or e-Science methods are defined as a combination of Information Technology (IT) and science that enables scientists to tackle the data deluge challenges. Th...

  17. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  18. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  19. An atom size effect in tracer diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published diffusion data permit an extensive comparison to be made between tracer diffusion coefficients, D, in Pb and in α-Zr, at 0.6 Tsub(m), where Tsub(m)(K) is the melting temperature of the host metal. For these metals, a striking correlation is found between D and the metallic radius, r, of the corresponding tracer element; except for the smallest r values, the correlation may be expressed in the general form: 1g D = A + exp(- br + c), where A, b and c are individual constants for each host metal. There is, for tracer diffusion in Pb, sufficient experimental data to permit the evaluation of an additional relationship between the pre-exponential factor Dsub(O), and the activation enthalpy, ΔH, in the usual expression D = D0 exp(- ΔH/RT), describing the temperature dependence of D. A combination of these relationships allows the evaluation of expressions for D0 and ΔH in which r is the only variable. Derived relations between D0 and ΔH, and ΔH and ΔH and r, are, respectively, D0 = 2.0 x 10-4 exp (0.345 ΔH)cm2s-1, and ΔH = 30.8 - exp (8.65 - 4.04 r), in which the units of ΔH and r are kcal mol-1 and A respectively. In order to compare tracer diffusion in these 'open' metals (i.e. metals with a relatively large metallic/ionic radius ratio) with tracer diffusion in a 'full' metal, values of D at 0.6 Tsub(m) have been calculated from published data for diffusion in Cu. Again it is found that 1g D tends to display an exponential dependence on r; in contrast to the results for the 'open' metals, however, 1g D is found to increase with r. Expressions derived for D0 and ΔH for diffusion in Cu, corresponding to those given above for Pb, are: D0 = 5.2 x 10-4 exp(0.152 ΔH)cm2s-1 and ΔH 43.1 + exp(17.40 - 11.94 r), in which the units of ΔH and r are as given for Pb. (author)

  20. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  1. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  2. A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed.

  3. Kennedy's Biomedical Laboratory Makes Multi-Tasking Look Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    If it is one thing that Florida has in abundance, it is sunshine and with that sunshine heat and humidity. For workers at the Kennedy Space Center that have to work outside in the heat and humidity, heat exhaustion/stroke is a real possibility. It might help people to know that Kennedy's Biomedical Laboratory has been testing some new Koolvests(Trademark) that can be worn underneath SCAPE suits. They have also been working on how to block out high noise levels; in fact, Don Doerr, chief of the Biomedical Lab, says, "The most enjoyable aspect is knowing that the Biomedical Lab and the skills of its employees have been used to support safe space flight, not only for the astronaut flight crew, but just as important for the ground processing personnel as well." The NASA Biomedical Laboratory has existed in the John F. Kennedy's Operations and Checkout Building since the Apollo Program. The primary mission of this laboratory has been the biomedical support to major, manned space programs that have included Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz, Skylab, and Shuttle. In this mission, the laboratory has been responsible in accomplishing much of the technical design, planning, provision, fabrication, and maintenance of flight and ground biomedical monitoring instrumentation. This includes the electronics in the launch flight suit and similar instrumentation systems in the spacecraft. (Note: The Lab checked out the system for STS-128 at Pad A using Firing room 4 and ground support equipment in the lab.) During Apollo, there were six engineers and ten technicians in the facility. This has evolved today to two NASA engineers and two NASA technicians, a Life Science Support contract physiologist and part-time support from an LSSC nurse and physician. Over the years, the lab has enjoyed collaboration with outside agencies and investigators. These have included on-site support to the Ames Research Center bed rest studies (seven years) and the European Space Agency studies in Toulouse, France (two

  4. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yver Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable for quantifying facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10 % of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant is representative of an average French WWTP.

  5. A Method of Evaluating Atmospheric Models Using Tracer Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korain, Darko; Frye, James; Isakov, Vlad

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed a method that uses tracer measurements as the basis for comparing and evaluating wind fields. An important advantage of the method is that the wind fields are evaluated from the tracer measurements without introducing dispersion calculations. The method can be applied to wind fields predicted by different atmospheric models or to wind fields obtained from interpolation and extrapolation of measured data. The method uses a cost function to quantify the success of wind fields in representing tracer transport. A cost function, `tracer potential,' is defined to account for the magnitude of the tracer concentration at the tracer receptors and the separation between each segment of a trajectory representing wind field transport and each of the tracer receptors. The tracer potential resembles a general expression for a physical potential because the success of a wind field trajectory is directly proportional to the magnitude of the tracer concentration and inversely proportional to its distance from this concentration. A reference tracer potential is required to evaluate the relative success of the wind fields and is defined by the initial location of any trajectory at the source. Then the method is used to calculate continuously the tracer potential along each trajectory as determined by the wind fields in time and space. Increased potential relative to the reference potential along the trajectory indicates good performance of the wind fields and vice versa. If there is sufficient spatial coverage of near and far receptors around the source, then the net tracer potential area can be used to infer the overall success of the wind fields. If there are mainly near-source receptors, then the positive tracer potential area should be used. If the vertical velocity of the wind fields is not available, then the success of the wind fields can be estimated from the vertically integrated area under the tracer potential curve. A trajectory with a maximum

  6. Diagnóstico de la enfermedad renal crónica como trazador de la capacidad técnica en la atención médica en 20 estados de México The diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease as a tracer of the technical capacity in care facilities of 20 Mexican states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Lizette Pacheco-Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Evaluar el conocimiento y la capacidad técnica de los médicos de primer nivel de atención en el manejo de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial y de pacientes en riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad renal crónica (ERC y utilizar la enfermedad terminal de esta última como trazador de la calidad de la atención primaria en el sistema de salud mexicano. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio transversal en los servicios de salud de las secretarías de salud en 20 estados de junio a diciembre de 2008. Se construyó un cuestionario con dos casos clínicos. RESULTADOS. El promedio de calificación de los 149 médicos evaluados fue de 53.7 Los médicos que trabajan en las unidades de mayor tamaño tienden a tener mayor antigüedad y obtuvieron las calificaciones más bajas. CONCLUSIÓN. La utilización del diagnóstico de la ERC como un trazador permite detectar la capacidad de los médicos en el primer nivel de atención y el potencial del uso de esta metodología para evaluar procesos críticos en el sistema de salud.OBJECTIVE. To assess knowledge and technical capacity of primary care physicians in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure as well as patients at risk of developing chronic kidney disease, and to use the latter condition as a tracer of the quality of primary care of the Mexican health system. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cross-sectional study included 149 primary health physicians in primary care units from state health care services in 20 states. An instrument with two clinical cases was applied. RESULTS. The average score of the physicians evaluated was 53.7 out of 100. Those physicians working in larger size units and graduated before the year 2000 tend to receive lower scores. CONCLUSIONS. The use of chronic kidney disease as a tracer of the technical capacity of the Mexican health care system is useful to understand the problems of primary care in the country

  7. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment. (paper)

  8. Designing an Internet-based collaboratory for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Rex E

    2002-01-01

    Several recent grants from the National Institutes of Health to the Universities of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana have created a unique opportunity for collaboration in biomedical research among the three schools, as well as the community colleges in the region. NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) programs at Wyoming have been established to study the biological effect of nitric oxide and to investigate stressors that can contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. Funding from these and related grants have significantly upgraded Wyoming bioimaging and microscopy facilities, as well as provided support for faculty and students in a variety of research disciplines. In order to enhance these research efforts, the Center for Rural Health Research and Education at the University of Wyoming is spearheading an effort to create an Internet-based system for sharing data and research resources among the involved sites. This paper describes how such a "collaboratory" could be designed, using techniques developed for distributed research and development in the computer industry. The system, as envisioned, will support remote data acquisition, management, and visualization, while providing security in the form of authorization and authentication of users and virtual private networking for data transmitted between nodes of the network.

  9. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  10. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  11. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  12. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalism function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertibrate development. Following these preliminary animal experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  13. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  14. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  15. Tracer Dispersion in a Multi-compartment Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Skvortsov, A; Gamble, G; Roberts, M; Ilaya, O; Pitaliadda, D

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of the tracer dispersion in a complex structure is presented. A point source of tracer (dyed salt) was placed inside a multi-compartment structure embedded in water tank. This experimental setting corresponds to a hazardous tracer release inside the engineering structure (building, ship, aircarft etc). A system of conductivity sensors was deployed to monitor the propagation of a tracer plume in the structure, including tracer trapping inside some compartments and its release to the outside environment through the external openings. The experimental data is processed by employing the ideas of scaling and self-similarity of underlying transport processes. The established and validated scaling laws provide a rigorous way to up-scale the results of laboratory modeling to real operational scenarios and can be used as an important step in the development of risk-assessment models for the first responders to hazardous releases. Keywords: hazardous plume, tracer dispersion, diffusion and advecti...

  16. Experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed an engineering feasibility study of a major modification of the HFIR facility and are now beginning a similar study of an entirely new facility. The design of the reactor itself is common to both options. In this paper, a general description of the modified HFIR is presented with some indications of the additional facilities that might be available in an entirely new facility

  17. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  18. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  19. Biomedical engineering education--status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magjarevic, Ratko; Zequera Diaz, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering programs are present at a large number of universities all over the world with an increasing trend. New generations of biomedical engineers have to face the challenges of health care systems round the world which need a large number of professionals not only to support the present technology in the health care system but to develop new devices and services. Health care stakeholders would like to have innovative solutions directed towards solving problems of the world growing incidence of chronic disease and ageing population. These new solutions have to meet the requirements for continuous monitoring, support or care outside clinical settlements. Presence of these needs can be tracked through data from the Labor Organization in the U.S. showing that biomedical engineering jobs have the largest growth at the engineering labor market with expected 72% growth rate in the period from 2008-2018. In European Union the number of patents (i.e. innovation) is the highest in the category of biomedical technology. Biomedical engineering curricula have to adopt to the new needs and for expectations of the future. In this paper we want to give an overview of engineering professions in related to engineering in medicine and biology and the current status of BME education in some regions, as a base for further discussions.

  20. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  1. Integrating systems biology models and biomedical ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bono Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology is an approach to biology that emphasizes the structure and dynamic behavior of biological systems and the interactions that occur within them. To succeed, systems biology crucially depends on the accessibility and integration of data across domains and levels of granularity. Biomedical ontologies were developed to facilitate such an integration of data and are often used to annotate biosimulation models in systems biology. Results We provide a framework to integrate representations of in silico systems biology with those of in vivo biology as described by biomedical ontologies and demonstrate this framework using the Systems Biology Markup Language. We developed the SBML Harvester software that automatically converts annotated SBML models into OWL and we apply our software to those biosimulation models that are contained in the BioModels Database. We utilize the resulting knowledge base for complex biological queries that can bridge levels of granularity, verify models based on the biological phenomenon they represent and provide a means to establish a basic qualitative layer on which to express the semantics of biosimulation models. Conclusions We establish an information flow between biomedical ontologies and biosimulation models and we demonstrate that the integration of annotated biosimulation models and biomedical ontologies enables the verification of models as well as expressive queries. Establishing a bi-directional information flow between systems biology and biomedical ontologies has the potential to enable large-scale analyses of biological systems that span levels of granularity from molecules to organisms.

  2. Industry careers for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzner, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    This year's conference theme is "linkages for innovation in biomedicine." Biomedical engineers, especially those transitioning their career from academic study into medical device industry, will play a critical role in converting the fruits of scientific research into the reality of modern medical devices. This special session is organized to help biomedical engineers to achieve their career goals more effectively. Participants will have opportunities to hear from and interact with leading industrial experts on many issues. These may include but not limited to 1) career paths for biomedical engineers (industrial, academic, or federal; technical vs. managerial track; small start-up or large established companies); 2) unique design challenges and regulatory requirements in medical device development; 3) aspects of a successful biomedical engineering job candidate (such as resume, interview, follow-up). Suggestions for other topics are welcome and should be directed to xkong@ieee.org The distinguished panelists include: Xuan Kong, Ph.D., VP of Research, NEUROMetrix Inc, Waltham, MA Robert F. Munzner, Ph.D., Medical Device Consultant, Doctor Device, Herndon, VA Glen McLaughlin, Ph.D., VP of Engineering and CTO, Zonare Medical System Inc., Mountain View, CA Grace Bartoo, Ph.D., RAC, General Manager, Decus Biomedical LLC San Carlos, CA.

  3. Atmospheric Gas Tracers in Groundwater: Theory, Sampling. Measurement and Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the atmospheric gasses posses features that are sought in an environmental tracer of hydrogeologic interest. Among these, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hegzafluoride, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, krypton-85 etc. have found increasing use in groundwater age dating studies during the last ten years. This paper explains the theory of their use as tracer and discusses the major concerns as related to their sampling and analyses. Factors affecting their applicability and the approach to interpret tracer gas data is briefly outlined

  4. Lidar Tracking of Multiple Fluorescent Tracers: Method and Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    Past research and applications have demonstrated the advantages and usefulness of lidar detection of a single fluorescent tracer to track air motions. Earlier researchers performed an analytical study that showed good potential for lidar discrimination and tracking of two or three different fluorescent tracers at the same time. The present paper summarizes the multiple fluorescent tracer method, discusses its expected advantages and problems, and describes our field test of this new technique.

  5. Tracer test feasibility assessment : Frongoch Mine tailings lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, L.; B. Palumbo-Roe; Williams, A. T.; Banks, V.J.; Lapworth, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of tracer testing at the Frongoch Mine site was investigated during a two day site visit. A walkover survey identified a potential tracer injection point where a surface stream sinks into tailings deposits. Water discharges through a culvert approximately 50 m from the sinking stream. The origin of the water in the culvert is unknown but it is thought to drain the tailings area. Tracer testing could be used to determine whether this is the case. A successful tra...

  6. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  7. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  8. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  9. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  10. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  11. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  12. Advanced Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This book focuses on standard probability distributions commonly encountered in biomedical engineering. The exponential, Poisson and Gaussian distributions are introduced, as well as important approximations to the Bernoulli PMF and Gaussian CDF. Many important properties of jointly Gaussian random variables are presented. The primary subjects of the final chapter are methods for determining the probability distribution of a function of a random variable. We first evaluate the prob

  13. Graphene based materials for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a single layer 2-dimensional structure nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties (e.g. high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, strong mechanical strength, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization, has received increasing attention in physical, chemical and biomedical fields. This article selectively reviews current advances of graphene based materials for biomedical applications. In particular, graphene based biosensors for small biomolecules (glucose, dopamine etc., proteins and DNA detection have been summarized; graphene based bioimaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy applications have been described in detail. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  14. Effective written communication in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, K S; Hahn, A W

    1996-01-01

    The written word is the biomedical scientist's most important and most enduring communication tool. Nevertheless, the development of writing skills receives little attention in most scientific disciplines and the ability to conduct research is often viewed as more important than the ability to communicate the results of that research. Consequently, many scientists lack the writing skills necessary to effectively convey essential aspects of their research. In this paper, we will discuss the importance of good writing skills, give examples of common mistakes that are made in biomedical science writing and offer suggestions on how to improve written communication. PMID:8672681

  15. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yueping; Liu, Yu; Fu, Weiling; Luo, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Terahertz (THz=10(12)Hz) radiation has attracted wide attention for its unprecedented sensing ability and its noninvasive and nonionizing properties. Tremendous strides in THz instrumentation have prompted impressive breakthroughs in THz biomedical research. Here, we review the current state of THz spectroscopy and imaging in various biomedical applications ranging from biomolecules, including DNA/RNA, amino acids/peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, to cells and tissues. We also address the potential biological effects of THz radiation during its biological applications and propose future prospects for this cutting-edge technology.

  16. Optimization and Data Analysis in Biomedical Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M; Xanthopoulos, Petros

    2012-01-01

    This volume covers some of the topics that are related to the rapidly growing field of biomedical informatics. In June 11-12, 2010 a workshop entitled 'Optimization and Data Analysis in Biomedical Informatics' was organized at The Fields Institute. Following this event invited contributions were gathered based on the talks presented at the workshop, and additional invited chapters were chosen from world's leading experts. In this publication, the authors share their expertise in the form of state-of-the-art research and review chapters, bringing together researchers from different disciplines

  17. Ontology-Oriented Programming for Biomedical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ontologies are now widely used in the biomedical domain. However, it is difficult to manipulate ontologies in a computer program and, consequently, it is not easy to integrate ontologies with databases or websites. Two main approaches have been proposed for accessing ontologies in a computer program: traditional API (Application Programming Interface) and ontology-oriented programming, either static or dynamic. In this paper, we will review these approaches and discuss their appropriateness for biomedical ontologies. We will also present an experience feedback about the integration of an ontology in a computer software during the VIIIP research project. Finally, we will present OwlReady, the solution we developed.

  18. Developing biomedical devices design, innovation and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades incredible progress has been achieved in the instruments and devices used in the biomedical field. This progress stems from continuous scientific research that has taken advantage of many findings and advances in technology made available by universities and industry. Innovation is the key word, and in this context legal protection and intellectual property rights (IPR) are of crucial importance. This book provides students and practitioners with the fundamentals for designing biomedical devices and explains basic design principles. Furthermore, as an aid to the dev

  19. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Hammond

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and nucleic acids, is examined. Specific advantages of the use of LbL assembly versus traditional polymeric blend encapsulation are discussed. Examples are provided to present potential new directions. Translational opportunities are discussed to examine the impact and potential for true biomedical translation using rapid assembly methods, and applications are discussed with high need and medical return.

  20. Radioisotope tracer technology for on-line evaluation of sludge digester in wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Sludge digester, one of the important facilities in wastewater treatment plant, can be deteriorated after long-term operation by dead volume that causes the low efficiency of mixing and the heat loss. It is essential to diagnose the existence of dead volume, its size and the location to maintain the optimal condition of digester system. Neither the conventional chemical analysis nor the physical measurement is capable of presenting the information about what is happening inside the digester after the chemical and the physical tracers are mixed with sludge and diluted. Only the radioisotope tracer is available to evaluate the process during its operation due to the high penetration power of gamma radiation and the high sensitivity of detection system. The residence time distribution studies using Sc-46 as the radioisotope tracer were carried out on two oval-type 2-stage digesters and one cylinder-type 2-stage digester. The experiment provided the real flow rate of sludge, the mean residence time of sludge inside digester, the mixing behavior of sludge and the existence and size of dead volume. The radioisotope, Sc-46, was prepared in the form of complex compound with EDTA to make it follow the sludge flow itself. It was found that all the information obtained from these studies is very helpful for the operation crews to make the plans for maintenance work. 10 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  1. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.

  2. Capsule review of the DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A description is given of the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Technology Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities, which are located in all regions of the US. Descriptions of DOE facilities are given for multiprogram laboratories (12); program-dedicated facilities (biomedical and environmental facilities-12, fossil energy facilities-7, fusion energy facility-1, nuclear development facilities-3, physical research facilities-4, safeguards facility-1, and solar facilities-2); and Production, Testing, and Fabrication Facilities (nuclear materials production facilities-5, weapon testing and fabrication complex-8). Three appendices list DOE field and project offices; DOE field facilities by state or territory, names, addresses, and telephone numbers; DOE R and D field facilities by type, contractor names, and names of directors. (MCW)

  3. Tracer Dispersion Within an Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.; Shallcross, D.; Price, C.; Nickless, G.; Simmonds, P.

    2003-12-01

    The transport and dispersion of pollutants has extremely important implications for the environment on urban, regional and global scales. At the urban level localised emissions of both biogenic and anthropogenic pollutants can directly impact the health of the inhabitants. The DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollutants and their Penetration into the Local Environment) project is a consortium of six universities, which involves a multidisciplinary approach to characterise relatively small-scale urban atmospheric dispersion including wind tunnel modelling, computer simulations, fieldwork and analysis. This work describes the tracer technology used to characterise atmospheric dispersion as well as preliminary results from the first tracer release experiment in Central London. A steady state finite duration release of both perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 ) was performed as part of the first DAPPLE campaign. These compounds were released over a fifteen-minute integrated time period with the SF6 release staggered one and a half minutes behind the PMCH. The low background concentrations of PMCH (~ 5 x 10-3 pptv) and SF6 (~5pptv) along with non-depositing and non-reactive characteristics allow for the implementation of near ideal fluid dynamic experiments. Sampling consists of a multiport ladder fitting with solenoid valves onto which a succession of sampling bags is attached. These are electrically actuated in sequential order with an integrated sampling time of three minutes. The samplers are placed at various receptor positions in the DAPPLE zone in predefined positions designed to best validate these model simulated meteorological dispersion processes. Analysis of PMCH is carried out using sample enrichment on carbon based adsorbents, separation by capillary Gas Chromatography and Negative Ion Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry detection (GC-MS-NICI). SF6 concentrations are determined using fixed volume loop injections with Gas

  4. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  5. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael;

    2007-01-01

    A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...

  6. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollina, Giorgia; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe can only be observed directly via luminous tracers of the underlying distribution of dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties of the tracers themselves, such as their host-halo mass and formation and assembly history. On very large scales, where density fluctuations are within the linear regime, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, which is known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centered on cosmic voids, depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the universe. We consider three different types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and AGNs, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation suite Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on the auto-correlation of tracers, we find that void-tra...

  7. Chemical tracers in Hybla Gold working room. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical tracers were placed in the working room for the Hybla Gold event to aid in diagnosing flow of high-energy gases down expanding pipes leading from the room. If post-shot reentry is made, the tracers could provide valuable knowledge concerning pipe closure, mixing of gases from various locations, and volume of gas flow into various sizes of pipes

  8. Dispersion of charged tracers in charged porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Rotenberg; I. Pagonabarraga; D. Frenkel

    2008-01-01

    We report a lattice-Boltzmann scheme to compute the dispersion of charged tracers in charged porous media under the combined effect of advection, diffusion and electro-migration. To this end, we extend the moment propagation approach, introduced to study the dispersion of neutral tracers (Lowe C. an

  9. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics. PMID:25833590

  10. New SPECT and PET dementia tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are techniques to study in vivo neurotransmitter systems, neuro inflammation and amyloid deposits in normal human brain and in dementia. These methods used to explore the integrity of dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic systems in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementias allowed to understand how the neurotransmission was modified in these disorders. Progress in the understanding of pathophysiological and clinical signs of dementia requires an evolution of the radioligands used to carry out an increasingly early and differential diagnosis in addition to monitoring the progression of disease and the effects of therapies. New emerging radiotracers for neuro inflammation or amyloid deposits are essential. In this article, new SPECT and PET tracers are presented. (authors)

  11. Elemental tracers for Chinese source dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小曳; 张光宇; 朱光华; 张德二; 安芷生; 陈拓; 黄湘萍

    1996-01-01

    The mass-particle size distributions of 10 dust-carrying elements in aerosol particles were determined tor 12 sites in desert regions of northern China. The desert dust is proved to he of origin of eolian loess deposited on the Loess Plateau. Their transport to the loess was mainly attributable to the non-dust storm processes under the interglacial climate condition. The impact ot" dust storm on the accumulation of the loess increased in the glacial stage. On the basis of the signatures of 4 dust elements (Al. Fe, Mg and Sc). Chinese dust is believed to have 3 major desert sources (northwestern deserts, northern high dust deserts and northern low dust deserts). With a chemical element balance model, an elemental tracer system is established to proportion the export of China-source dust.

  12. Prostate Cancer Imaging with Novel PET Tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Liza; Choyke, Peter; Dahut, William

    2016-03-01

    Molecular imaging of prostate cancer is in a dynamic phase of development. Currently approved techniques are limited and researchers have been working on novel agents to improve accuracy in targeting and detecting prostate tumors. In addition, the complexity of various prostate cancer states also contributes to the challenges in evaluating suitable radiotracer candidates. We have highlighted nuclear medicine tracers that focus on mechanisms involved in bone metastasis, prostate cancer cell membrane synthesis, amino acid analogs, androgen analogs, and the prostate specific membrane antigen. Encouraging results with many of these innovative radiotracer compounds will not only advance diagnostic capabilities for prostate cancer but open opportunities for theranostic applications to treat this worldwide malignancy. PMID:26874530

  13. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the determination of small quantities of nickel using radioactive tracers is presented. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetracloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences, trying to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals, is also investigated

  14. Positron emission tomography tracers for imaging angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubner, Roland [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wang, Hui [Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu (China); Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Position emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis may provide non-invasive insights into the corresponding molecular processes and may be applied for individualized treatment planning of antiangiogenic therapies. At the moment, most strategies are focusing on the development of radiolabelled proteins and antibody formats targeting VEGF and its receptor or the ED-B domain of a fibronectin isoform as well as radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin antagonists. Great efforts are being made to develop suitable tracers for different target structures. All of the major strategies focusing on the development of radiolabelled compounds for use with positron emission tomography are summarized in this review. However, because the most intensive work is concentrated on the development of radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression, which has successfully made its way from bench to bedside, these developments are especially emphasized. (orig.)

  15. Star clusters as tracers of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S

    2009-01-01

    Star clusters represent the most common 'mode' of star formation. They are found in all types of environments, cascading down from galaxy groups and merging pairs through starbursts to normal galaxies and dwarves and even isolated regions in extragalactic space. As they maintain a link to the overall star formation in a system, they can be used as tracers of the star formation history of environments located at distances prohibitive to the study of individual stars. This makes them ideally suited to the study of mergers and interactions in galaxy pairs and groups. In this work we present observations of the star cluster populations in the local starburst galaxy M82, post-interaction spiral NGC 6872, the "Antennae" merging pair and two compact groups, "Stephan's Quintet" and HCG 7. In each case, we extract information on the clusters and their hosts using mainly HST photometry and Gemini spectroscopy.

  16. International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Katashev, Alexei; Lancere, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics and is dedicated to the 150 anniversary of the Riga Technical University, Latvia. The content includes various hot topics in biomedical engineering and medical physics.

  17. Biomedical composites materials, manufacturing and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are engineered materials, made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Due to their special mechanical and physical properties they have the potential to replace conventional materials in various fields such as the biomedical industry.

  18. Biomedical Engineering Education: A Conservative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Eugene E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the demand for graduates from biomedical engineering programs as being not yet fully able to absorb the supply. Suggests small schools interested in entering the field consider offering their programs at the undergraduate level via a minor or an option. Examples of such options and student projects are included. (CC)

  19. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  20. Communication Patterns in a Biomedical Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, G. Anthony; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the communication patterns among scientists in a biomedical research center should help in the assessment of the center's impact on research processes. Such a study at the National Heart and Blood Vessel Research and Demonstration Center (NRDC) at Baylor College of Medicine is reported. (LBH)

  1. CONAN : Text Mining in the Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about Text Mining. Extracting important information from literature. In the last years, the number of biomedical articles and journals is growing exponentially. Scientists might not find the information they want because of the large number of publications. Therefore a system was cons

  2. Biomedical Visual Computing: Case Studies and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Johnson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computational geometric modeling, imaging, and simulation let researchers build and test models of increasing complexity, generating unprecedented amounts of data. As recent research in biomedical applications illustrates, visualization will be critical in making this vast amount of data usable; it\\'s also fundamental to understanding models of complex phenomena. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Chaos theory for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, R C

    1989-01-01

    A brief introduction to chaos theory is provided. Definitions of chaos and attributes of chaos and fractals are discussed. Several general examples are examined, and fractals are introduced with a brief look at the Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Biomedical examples of chaotic behaviour and fractals are presented.

  4. Peptides and metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogan, M.J.; Olmedo, I.; Hosta, L.; Guerrero, A.R.; Cruz Ricondo, L.J.; Albericio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we describe the contribution of peptides to the biomedical applications of metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss strategies for the preparation of peptide-nanoparticle conjugates and the synthesis of the peptides and metallic nanoparticles. An overview of the techniques used for th

  5. Electromembrane extraction for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    . The present paper discusses recent development of EME. The paper focuses on the principles of EME, and discusses how to optimize operational parameters. In addition, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of EME are reviewed, with emphasis on basic drugs, acidic drugs, amino acids, and peptides. Finally...

  6. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment.

  7. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  8. Thermoforming of Film-Based Biomedical Microdevices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmuller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Rivron, Nicolas; Gottwald, Eric; Saile, Volker; Berg, van den Albert; Wessling, Matthias; Blitterswijk, van Clemens

    2011-01-01

    For roughly ten years now, a new class of polymer micromoulding processes comes more and more into the focus both of the microtechnology and the biomedical engineering community. These processes can be subsumed under the term "microthermoforming". In microthermoforming, thin polymer films are heated

  9. Micro and Nano Manipulations for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yih, Tachung C

    2007-01-01

    Taking bio-device research and development to "the next level," this book covers the latest advances in biomedical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The book presents new developments in the synthesis and use of metallic nanoparticles in bio-sensing and drug delivery, including quantum dots semiconductors nanocrystals.

  10. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  11. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  12. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129I/127I was estimated to be ∼ 10-12 in the ocean and 10-11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10-10. However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129I make the accumulation of 129I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129I/127I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the Chernobyl

  13. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  14. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  15. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  16. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Aloisio; Maria Cristina Barba; Euro Blasi; Massimo Cafaro; Sandro Fiore; Maria Mirto

    2004-01-01

    Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc.), advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid), a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedic...

  17. Network fingerprint: a knowledge-based characterization of biomedical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuliang Cui; Haochen He; Fuchu He; Shengqi Wang; Fei Li; Xiaochen Bo

    2015-01-01

    It can be difficult for biomedical researchers to understand complex molecular networks due to their unfamiliarity with the mathematical concepts employed. To represent molecular networks with clear meanings and familiar forms for biomedical researchers, we introduce a knowledge-based computational framework to decipher biomedical networks by making systematic comparisons to well-studied “basic networks”. A biomedical network is characterized as a spectrum-like vector called “network fingerpr...

  18. Misconduct Policies in High-Impact Biomedical Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M.; Doti, Pamela; Marušić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were revie...

  19. BIOMedical search engine framework: lightweight and customized implementation of domain-specific biomedical search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome, Alberto G.; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    The Smart Drug Search is publicly accessible at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/sds/. The BIOMedical Search Engine Framework is freely available for non-commercial use at https://github.com/agjacome/biomsef Background and Objectives: Text mining and semantic analysis approaches can be applied to the construction of biomedical domain-specific search engines and provide an attractive alternative to create personalized and enhanced search experiences. Therefore, this work introduces the new open-sour...

  20. Novel tracer for radiation treatment planning; Welche neuen PET-Tracer braucht die Strahlentherapie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.; Krause, B.J. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Herrmann, K.; Gaertner, F.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klaesner, B. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2011-07-15

    PET and PET/CT with innovative tracers gain increasing importance in diagnosis and therapy management, and radiation treatment planning in radio-oncology besides the widely established FDG. The introduction of [{sup 18}F]Fluorothymidine ([{sup 18}F]FLT) as marker of proliferation, [{sup 18}F]Fluoromisonidazole ([{sup 18}F]FMISO) and [{sup 18}F]Fluoroazomycin-Arabinoside ([{sup 18}F]FAZA) as tracer of hypoxia, [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyltyrosine ([{sup 18}F]FET) and [{sup 11}C]Methionine for brain tumour imaging, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTATOC for somatostatin receptor imaging, [{sup 18}F]FDOPA for dopamine synthesis and radioactively labeled choline derivatives for imaging phospholipid metabolism have opened novel approaches to tumour imaging. Some of these tracers have already been implemented into radio-oncology: Amino acid PET and PET/CT have the potential to optimise radiation treatment planning of brain tumours through accurate delineation of tumour tissue from normal tissue, necrosis and edema. Hypoxia represents a major therapeutic problem in radiation therapy. Hypoxia imaging is very attractive as it may allow to increase the dose in hypoxic tumours potentially allowing for a better tumour control. Advances in hybrid imaging, i.e. the introduction of MR/PET, may also have an impact in radio-oncology through synergies related to the combination of molecular signals of PET and a high soft tissue contrast of MRI as well as functional MRI capabilities. (orig.)

  1. Biomedical graphite and CaF2 preparation and measurement at PRIME Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George S.; Einstein, Jane A.; Kubley, Tom; Martin, Berdine; Weaver, Connie M.; Caffee, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The biomedical program at PRIME Lab has prepared radiocarbon and 41Ca as tracers for a variety of applications. Over the last decade several hundred 14C samples and several thousand 41Ca samples have been measured per year. Biomedical samples pose challenges that are relatively rare in the AMS community. We will discuss how to prepare and compensate for samples that have isotope ratios above the dynamic range of AMS, high interference rates, and small samples sizes. In the case of 41Ca, the trade off in the chromatography between yield and sample cleanliness will be analyzed. Secondary standards that have isotope ratios commonly encountered in our applications are routinely prepared. We use material from the Joint Research Centre's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement: IRMM-3701/4, 3701/5, and 3701/6 and a standard produced by PRIME Lab for 41Ca. We use International Atomic Energy Agency's IAEA C-3, IAEA C-7, IAEA C-8, and a ∼12.5× modern oxalic acid secondary standard supplied by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for 14C. We will discuss our precision, reproducibility, and the relative agreement between our measured and the reported values for these materials.

  2. International symposium on Biomedical Data Infrastructure (BDI 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Sarinder; Advances in biomedical infrastructure 2013

    2013-01-01

    Current Biomedical Databases are independently administered in geographically distinct locations, lending them almost ideally to adoption of intelligent data management approaches. This book focuses on research issues, problems and opportunities in Biomedical Data Infrastructure identifying new issues and directions for future research in Biomedical Data and Information Retrieval, Semantics in Biomedicine, and Biomedical Data Modeling and Analysis. The book will be a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development in biomedical data management.

  3. Design of experiments in Biomedical Signal Processing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical Signal Processing is one of the most important major subjects in Biomedical Engineering. The contents of Biomedical Signal Processing include the theories of digital signal processing, the knowledge of different biomedical signals, physiology and the ability of computer programming. Based on our past five years teaching experiences, in order to let students master the signal processing algorithm well, we found that the design of experiments following algorithm was very important. In this paper we presented the ideas and aims in designing the experiments. The results showed that our methods facilitated the study of abstractive signal processing algorithms and made understanding of biomedical signals in a simple way.

  4. Methods of 15N tracer research in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the stable isotope 15N is of increasing importance in different scientific disciplines, especially in medicine, agriculture, and the biosciences. The close correlation between the growing interest and improvements of analytical procedures resulted in remarkable advances in the 15N tracer technique. On the basis of the latest results of 15N tracer research in life sciences and agriculture methods of 15N tracer research in biological systems are compiled. The 15N methodology is considered under three headings: Chemical analysis with a description of methods of sample preparation (including different separation and isolation methods for N-containing substances of biological and agricultural origin) and special procedures converting ammonia to molecular nitrogen. Isotopic analysis with a review on the most important methods of isotopic analysis of nitrogen: mass spectrometry (including the GC-MS technique), emission spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and other analytical procedures. 15N-tracer techniques with a consideration of the role of the isotope dilution analysis as well as different labelling techniques and the mathematical interpretation of tracer data (modelling, N turnover experiments). In these chapters also sources of errors in chemical and isotopic analysis, the accuracy of the different methods and its importance on tracer experiments are discussed. Procedures for micro scale 15N analysis and aspects of 15N analysis on the level of natural abundance are considered. Furthermore some remarks on isotope effects in 15N tracer experiments are made. (author)

  5. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed. PMID:24733749

  6. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  7. Tracer diffusivity and effective temperature in bacterial suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Purohit, Prashant K; Arratia, Paulo E

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of tracer particles in \\textit{E. coli} suspensions are experimentally investigated as a function of particle size and bacteria concentration. We find that tracer diffusivity is enhanced due to particle-bacteria interactions and varies non-monotonically with particle size, exhibiting a peak at sizes comparable to the bacterial length. The time scale characterizing the transition from ballistic to diffusive regime increases monotonically with \\textit{E. coli} concentration and particle size. Diffusivity measurements are then used to estimate suspension effective temperature, which varies nonlinearly with tracer size, suggesting that measures of activity are probe size dependent.

  8. Laboratory Testing of Magnetic Tracers for Soil Erosion Measurement*1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-Qing; DONG Yuan-Jie; WANG Hui; QIU Xian-Kui; WANG Yan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Soil erosion, which includes soil detachment, transport, and deposition, is one of the important dynamic land surface processes. The magnetic tracer method is a useful method for studying soil erosion processes. In this study, five types of magnetic tracers were made with fine soil, fly ash, cement, bentonite, and magnetic powder (reduced iron powder) using the method of disk granulation. The tracers were uniformly mixed with soil and tested in the laboratory using simulated rainfall and inflow experiments to simulate the interrill and rill components of soil erosion, in order to select one or more tracers which could be used to study detachment and deposition by the erosive forces of raindrops and surface flow of water on a slope. The results showed that the five types of magnetic tracers with high magnetic susceptibility and a wide range of sizes had a range of 0.99-1.29 gcm-s in bulk density. In the interrill and rill experiments, the tracers FC1 and FC2 which consisted of fly ash and cement at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, were transported in phase with soil particles since the magnetic susceptibility of sediment approximated that of the soil which was uneroded and the slopes of the regression equations between the detachment of sediment and magnetic tracers FC1 and FC2 were very close to the expected value of 20, which was the original soil/tracer ratio. The detachment and deposition on slopes could be accurately reflected by the magnetic susceptibility differences. The change in magnetic susceptibility depended on whether deposition or detachment occurred. However, the tracer FS which consisted of fine soil and the tracers FB1 and FB2 which consisted of fly ash and bentonite at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, were all unsuitable for soil erosion study since there was no consistent relationship between sediment and tracer detachment for increasing amounts of runoff. Therefore, the tracers FC1 and FC2 could be used to study soil erosion by water.

  9. Radionuclide Tracers for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Blood Flow Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deKemp, Robert A; Renaud, Jennifer M; Klein, Ran; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging is performed most commonly using Tc-99m-sestamibi or tetrofosmin SPECT as well as Rb-82-rubidium or N-13-ammonia PET. Diseased-to-normal tissue contrast is determined by the tracer retention fraction, which decreases nonlinearly with flow. Reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced tracer retention, but the severity of perfusion defects is typically underestimated by 20% to 40%. Compared to SPECT, retention of the PET tracers is more linearly related to flow, and therefore, the perfusion defects are measured more accurately using N-13-ammonia or Rb-82.

  10. Reservoir sizing using inert and chemically reacting tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.; Tester, J.W.; Brown, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-reactive tracer tests in prototype hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs indicate multiple fracture flow paths that show increases in volume due to energy extraction. Tracer modal volumes correlate roughly with estimated reservoir heat-transfer capacity. Chemically reactive tracers are proposed which will map the rate of advance of the cooled region of an HDR reservoir, providing advanced warning of thermal drawdown. Critical parameters are examined using a simplified reservoir model for screening purposes. Hydrolysis reactions are a promising class of reactions for this purpose.

  11. Reactive Tracer Techniques to Quantitatively Monitor Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Carson, C.; Stute, M.; Broecker, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    reaction of the injected CO2 with the ambient reservoir fluid and rocks. Mixing and in situ CO2-water-rock reactions are detected by changes in the different tracer ratios. The feasibility of 14C as a reactive tracer for geologic CO2 storage also depends on the analytical technique used to measure 14C activities. Currently, 14C is analyzed using Accelerator Mass Spectrometery (AMS), which is expensive and requires centralized facilities. To enable real time online monitoring and verification, we are developing an alternative detection method for radiocarbon. The IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy (ICOGS) system is using a CO2 laser to detect carbon isotope ratios at environmental levels. Results from our prototype of this bench-top technology demonstrate that an ICOGS system can be used in a continuous mode with analysis times of the order of minutes, and can deliver data of similar quality as AMS.

  12. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  13. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  14. Multifunctional Nanofibers towards Active Biomedical Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishri Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D nanostructures have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique physicochemical properties and wide application potential. These 1-D nanofibers are being increasingly applied to biomedical fields owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and the ease of tuning their structures, functionalities, and properties. Many biomedical nanofiber reviews have focused on tissue engineering and drug delivery applications but have very rarely discussed their use as wound dressings. However, nanofibers have enormous potential as wound dressings and other clinical applications that could have wide impacts on the treatment of wounds. Herein, the authors review the main fabrication methods of nanofibers as well as requirements, strategies, and recent applications of nanofibers, and provide perspectives of the challenges and opportunities that face multifunctional nanofibers for active therapeutic applications.

  15. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  16. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  17. Biomedical applications of dipeptides and tripeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Torcato, Inês; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2012-01-01

    Peptides regulate many physiological processes, acting at some sites as endocrine or paracrine signals and at others as neurotransmitters or growth factors, for instance. These molecules represent a major evolution in medical and industrial fields, as it is becoming mandatory to design and exploit molecules that do not necessarily fit the description of classical drug classes. The list of peptides with potential biomedical applications is huge and is growing each year. These biomedical applications range from uses as drugs to flavor-active peptides as ingredients in natural health products, nutraceuticals and functional foods. Among the peptide family, dipeptides and tripeptides are very appealing for drug discovery and development because of their cost-effectiveness, possibility of oral administration, and simplicity to perform molecular structural and quantitative structure-activity studies. Our objective is to review different actual and future uses of dipeptides and tripeptides as well as the major advances and obstacles in this growing area. PMID:23193593

  18. Sedimentary radioactive tracers and diffusive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J; Lerche, I

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the underlying assumptions and consequences of applying a steady-state equation to sediment profiles of radioactive tracers in order to deconvolute sedimentation from bioturbation processes modelled as a diffusive type process. Several factors follow immediately from this investigation: (i) if the observed radioactive concentration increases with depth over any finite depth range then the proposed steady-state, constant flux equation is not applicable. Any increase in radioactive concentration with depth implies a negative mixing coefficient which is a physical impossibility; (ii) when the radioactive concentration systematically decreases with increasing sedimentary depth then solutions to the steady-state conservation equation exist only when either the constant solid state flux to the sediment surface is small enough so that a positive mixing coefficient results or when the mixing coefficient is small enough so that a positive flux results. If the radioactive concentration, porosity and/or density of the solid phase are such that the proposed equation is inappropriate (because no physically acceptable solution exists) then one must abandon the proposed steady-state equation. Further: if the flux of solid sediment to the sediment surface varies with time then, of course, a steady-state conservation equation is also inappropriate. Simple examples illustrate that the assumption of steady-state restricts the applicability of this modelling approach to a relatively small sub-set of expected situations in the real world.

  19. PAHs as a tracer of star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Peeters, E; Tielens, A G G M

    2004-01-01

    IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 um are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from (mainly) FUV pumped PAHs. As such, they trace the FUV stellar flux and are a measure of star formation. We examined the IR spectral characteristics of Galactic star forming regions, normal and starburst galaxies, AGNs and ULIRGs. The goal is to analyze if PAH bands are a good qualitative and/or quantitative tracer of star formation and hence the application of PAH bands as a diagnostic in order to identify the dominant processes contributing to the IR emission from Seyfert's and ULIRGs. We develop a MIR/FIR diagnostic and compare it to known diagnostics, with these also applied to the Galactic sample. This diagnostic is based on the FIR normalized 6.2 um PAH flux and the FIR normalized 6.2 um continuum flux. The Galactic sources form a sequence spanning a range of 3 orders of magnitude, from embedded compact HII regions to exposed PDRs and the (D)ISM. The variation in the 6.2 um PAH/continuum ratio is relative...

  20. Positron emitting tracers for studies of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of PET to study the behavior and mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse can be approached from a number of perspectives. The most common approach is to measure the effect of a drug on some aspect of metabolism and requires well characterized radiotracers whose behavior in vivo can be related to a discrete biochemical transformation. A second approach is to study the labeled drug itself. This provides information on the drug's regional distribution and kinetics as well as its pharmacological profile and metabolism. Cocaine has been labeled in different positions with carbon-11 and with fluorine-18 and the stereoisomers of cocaine have also been labeled to characterize its binding and metabolism in human and baboon brain. Regional cocaine binding as measured by PET is consistent with reversible binding to striatal dopamine reuptake sites and its time course parallels the behavioral activation of cocaine. The behaviorally inactive enantiomer (+)-cocaine is rapidly metabolized in serum preventing its entry into the brain. These PET tracers are useful in understanding the neurochemical basis of cocaine's action

  1. TRACER STUDY OF RTU GRADUATES: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to determine if the field of specialization in the different colleges of RTU graduates and their academic-acquired skills and competencies are related to their present occupations. A modified Graduate Tracer Study (GTS instrument was utilized to gather the quantitative data. Out of 500 questionnaires administered, there were 250 graduates returned answered questionnaires representing the three Colleges: Education, Arts and Sciences, Business and Entrepreneurial Technology. A face to face interview was also conducted in order to support the gathered data. The SPSS was used to generate results from the acquired quantitative data using the frequency counts, percentage and the Chi-square goodness of fit test. The findings revealed that the graduates claimed that their knowledge, academic-acquired skills and competencies contributed greatly in their job performance. The Chi-square goodness of fit proved that there is a significant relationship between the graduates’ fields of specialization and their occupations after graduation. Likewise, the academic-acquired skills and competencies of the graduates are relevant to their chosen occupations. The results further proved that RTU produces marketable and appropriately trained graduates with the majority landing in course-related jobs within a short period after graduation. The study also indicates that the RTU graduates possess the skills and competencies necessary to succeed in this competitive world. However eexpansion of tie-ups with private business entities is made to at least maintain the high employability level of the graduates.

  2. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  3. TPX: Biomedical literature search made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Thomas; Saipradeep, Vangala G; Raghavan, Ganesh Sekar Venkat; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Rao, Aditya; Kotte, Sujatha; Sivadasan, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    TPX is a web-based PubMed search enhancement tool that enables faster article searching using analysis and exploration features. These features include identification of relevant biomedical concepts from search results with linkouts to source databases, concept based article categorization, concept assisted search and filtering, query refinement. A distinguishing feature here is the ability to add user-defined concept names and/or concept types for named entity recognition. The tool allows co...

  4. Diversifying Biomedical Training: A Synergistic Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Foertsch, Julie; Blum, Janice; Brutkiewicz, Randy; Queener, Sherry; Roman, Ann; Rhodes, Simon; Sturek, Michael; Wilkes, David; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, the scientific community has expressed concern over the paucity of African American, Latino and Native American researchers in the biomedical training pipeline. Concern has been expressed regarding what is forecasted as a shortage of these underrepresented minority (URM) scientists given the demographic shifts occurring worldwide and particularly in the United States. Increased access to graduate education has made a positive contribution in addressing this disparity. ...

  5. Services for annotation of biomedical text

    OpenAIRE

    Hakenberg, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Text mining in the biomedical domain in recent years has focused on the development of tools for recognizing named entities and extracting relations. Such research resulted from the need for such tools as basic components for more advanced solutions. Named entity recognition, entity mention normalization, and relationship extraction now have reached a stage where they perform comparably to human annotators (considering inter--annotator agreement, measured in many studies to be aro...

  6. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  7. Magnetic Fluids: Biomedical Applications and Magnetic Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinländer, Thomas; Kötitz, Róman; Weitschies, Werner; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2000-01-01

    In addition to engineering applications, magnetic fluids containing magnetic nanoparticles are being increasingly applied to biomedical purposes. Besides the well established use of magnetic particles for biological separation or as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic particles are also being tested for the inductive heat treatment of tumors or as markers for the quantification of biologically active substances. The properties of magnetic nanoparticles usually exhibit a b...

  8. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lunney, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, deta...

  9. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  10. Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolytes design and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes presents a comprehensive review of these polyelectrolytes and their biomedical applications. Basic aspects like molecular design and optoelectronic properties are covered in the first chapter. Emphasis is placed on the various applications including sensing (chemical and biological), disease diagnosis, cell imaging, drug/gene delivery and disease treatment. This book explores a multi-disciplinary topic of interest to researchers working in the fields of chemistry, materials, biology and medicine. It also offers an integrated perspective on both basic

  11. The Need for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Moore, Rustin M.; Saville, William J. A.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rush, Laura J; Mathes, Lawrence E.; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    The number of veterinarians in the United States is inadequate to meet societal needs in biomedical research and public health. Areas of greatest need include translational medical research, veterinary pathology, laboratory-animal medicine, emerging infectious diseases, public health, academic medicine, and production-animal medicine. Veterinarians have unique skill sets that enable them to serve as leaders or members of interdisciplinary research teams involved in basic science and biomedica...

  12. Trends in modeling Biomedical Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Remondini Daniel; Castellani Gastone; Romano Paolo; Milanesi Luciano; Liò Petro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we provide an introduction to the techniques for multi-scale complex biological systems, from the single bio-molecule to the cell, combining theoretical modeling, experiments, informatics tools and technologies suitable for biological and biomedical research, which are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, multidimensional and information-driven. The most important concepts on mathematical modeling methodologies and statistical inference, bioinformatics and standards...

  13. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chul; Kim, Young-Kwan; Shin, Dolly; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-10-15

    Graphene has unique mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have used to develop novel electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Recently, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has facilitated its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. In this Account, we review recent efforts to apply graphene and graphene oxides (GO) to biomedical research and a few different approaches to prepare graphene materials designed for biomedical applications. Because of its excellent aqueous processability, amphiphilicity, surface functionalizability, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and fluorescence quenching ability, GO chemically exfoliated from oxidized graphite is considered a promising material for biological applications. In addition, the hydrophobicity and flexibility of large-area graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allow this material to play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. The lack of acceptable classification standards of graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties. For the development graphene-based therapeutics, researchers will need to build on the standardization of graphene derivatives and study the biofunctionalization of graphene to clearly understand how cells respond to exposure to graphene derivatives. Although several

  14. Biomedical Applications of NASA Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James N., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    During the period 15 September 1968 to 14 December 1968, the NASA supported Biomedical Application Team at the Research Triangle Institute has identified 6 new problems, performed significant activities on 15 of the active problems identified previously, performed 5 computer searches of the NASA aerospace literature, and maintained one current awareness search. As a partial result of these activities, one technology transfer was accomplished. As a part of continuing problem review, 13 problems were classified inactive. Activities during the quarter involved all phases of team activity with respect to biomedical problems. As has been observed in preceding years, it has been exceedingly difficult to arrange meetings with medical investigators during the fourth quarter of the calendar year. This is a result of a combination of factors. Teaching requirements, submission of grant applications and holidays are the most significant factors involved. As a result, the numbers of new problems identified and of transfers and potential transfers are relatively low during this quarter. Most of our activities have thus been directed toward obtaining information related to problems already identified. Consequently, during the next quarter we will follow up on these activities with the expectation that transfers will be accomplished on a number of them. In addition, the normal availability of researchers to the team is expected to be restored during this quarter, permitting an increase in new problem identification activities as well as follow-up with other researchers on old problems. Another activity scheduled for the next quarter is consultation with several interested biomedical equipment manufacturers to explore means of effective interaction between the Biomedical Application Team and these companies.

  15. Amphiphilic Fullerenes for Biomedical and Optoelectronical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Fullerenes have an enormous potential in applications to physics and biology. Specifically [60]fullerene with its unique electronic, optical and structural properties has attracted considerable attention for its application in biomedical materials and optoelectronic devices. In this context the selective functionalization of C60, which allows to combine the parent properties with new attributes like water-solubility or amphiphilicity is still a challenging topic for the synthetic chemist. In ...

  16. Thermoresponsive hydrogels in biomedical applications - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Klouda, Leda; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmentally responsive hydrogels have the ability to turn from solution to gel when a specific stimulus is applied. Thermoresponsive hydrogels utilize temperature change as the trigger that determines their gelling behavior without any additional external factor. These hydrogels have been interesting for biomedical uses as they can swell in situ under physiological conditions and provide the advantage of convenient administration. The scope of this paper is to review the aqueous polymer s...

  17. Median topographic maps for biomedical data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Barbara; Rossi, Fabrice; 10.1007/978-3-642-01805-3_6

    2009-01-01

    Median clustering extends popular neural data analysis methods such as the self-organizing map or neural gas to general data structures given by a dissimilarity matrix only. This offers flexible and robust global data inspection methods which are particularly suited for a variety of data as occurs in biomedical domains. In this chapter, we give an overview about median clustering and its properties and extensions, with a particular focus on efficient implementations adapted to large scale data analysis.

  18. Integrated nanobiosensor technology for biomedical application

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chulhee

    2012-01-01

    Chulhee Choi1,21Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, 2Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, 3KI for the BioCentury 4Optical Bioimaging Center, KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nanoscale biosensors that have exquisite sensitivity and versatility. The biomedical application of nanobiosensors is wide; moreover, the future impact of nanobiosensor systems for point-of-care diagnostics will be unmatched. The ultim...

  19. Genetically engineered livestock for biomedical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    To commemorate Transgenic Animal Research Conference X, this review summarizes the recent progress in developing genetically engineered livestock species as biomedical models. The first of these conferences was held in 1997, which turned out to be a watershed year for the field, with two significant events occurring. One was the publication of the first transgenic livestock animal disease model, a pig with retinitis pigmentosa. Before that, the use of livestock species in biomedical research had been limited to wild-type animals or disease models that had been induced or were naturally occurring. The second event was the report of Dolly, a cloned sheep produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning subsequently became an essential part of the process for most of the models developed in the last 18 years and is stilled used prominently today. This review is intended to highlight the biomedical modeling achievements that followed those key events, many of which were first reported at one of the previous nine Transgenic Animal Research Conferences. Also discussed are the practical challenges of utilizing livestock disease models now that the technical hurdles of model development have been largely overcome. PMID:26820410

  20. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  1. Design of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiang; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogels are considered key tools for the design of biomaterials, such as wound dressings, drug reservoirs, and temporary scaffolds for cells. Despite their potential, conventional hydrogels have limited applicability under wet physiological conditions because they suffer from the uncontrollable temporal change in shape: swelling takes place immediately after the installation. Swollen hydrogels easily fail under mechanical stress. The morphological change may cause not only the slippage from the installation site but also local nerve compression. The design of hydrogels that can retain their original shape and mechanical properties in an aqueous environment is, therefore, of great importance. On the one hand, the controlled degradation of used hydrogels has to be realized in some biomedical applications. This Progress Report provides a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Practical approaches to control the swelling properties of hydrogels are discussed. The designs of hydrogels with controlled degradation properties as well as the theoretical models to predict the degradation behavior are also introduced. Moreover, current challenges and limitation toward biomedical applications are discussed, and future directions are offered.

  2. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  3. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  4. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  5. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated. PMID:11196221

  6. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated.

  7. A Systematic Method For Tracer Test Analysis: An Example Using Beowawe Tracer Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Shook

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tracer data using moment analysis requires a strict adherence to a set of rules which include data normalization, correction for thermal decay, deconvolution, extrapolation, and integration. If done correctly, the method yields specific information on swept pore volume, flow geometry and fluid velocity, and an understanding of the nature of reservoir boundaries. All calculations required for the interpretation can be done in a spreadsheet. The steps required for moment analysis are reviewed in this paper. Data taken from the literature is used in an example calculation.

  8. Applications of isotopic tracer in analysis of residual sulfonylurea herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis technique of the agrochemical residue by isotopic tracer is significantly increased, and obtained substantial development. The progress of the isotopic analysis in four kinds of sulfonylurea herbicide residues was reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  9. Application of fluorescent-and radioactive tracers in Sedimentalogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of techniques of sediment labelling, creating the possibility of using fluorescent and radioactive tracers not yet applied in Brazil, in the area of sedimentology, is studied. (A.R.H.)

  10. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  11. Our experience of blood flow measurements using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical study of blood flow measuring methods is proposed. After a review of the various diffusible and non-diffusible radioactive tracers and the corresponding detector systems, the principles which allow to measure blood flow from the data so obtained, are studied. There is a different principle of flow measurement for each type of tracer. The theory of flow measurement using non-diffusible tracers (human serum albumin labelled with 131I or sup(99m)Tc, 113In-labelled siderophiline) and its application to cardiac flow measurement are described first. Then the theory of flow measurement using diffusible tracers (133Xe, 85Kr) and its application to measurement of blood flow through tissues (muscles and kidney particularly) are described. A personal experience of this various flow measurements is reported. The results obtained, the difficulties encountered and the improvments proposed are developed

  12. Systems approach to tracer data in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of current mathematical methods for the analysis of tracer data in groundwater hydrology has been given. The description of the hydrological cycle as a whole or in part, by a system (compartment) or sub-system under linear and stationary conditions is discussed. Basic concepts of transit time, residence time, their distributions in time and response characteristics of a system are outlined. From the knowledge of tracer input, output and systems response function for a generalised system, reservoir capacity and storage for given period can be estimated. Use of a time series model for environmental tracer data in discreet time scale aimed at the solution of hydrological problems e.g. mean transit time and reservoir capacity is also explored. It is concluded that the combination of tracer data with systems approach can go a long way in the study of some complex hydrological problems. (author)

  13. A theoretical framework of tracer methods for marine sediment dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical framework of tracer methods is proposed in the present contribution, on the basis of mass conservation. This model is applicable for both artificial and natural tracers. It can be used to calculate the spatial distribution patterns of sediment transport rate, thus providing independent information and verification for the results derived from empirical formulae. For the procedures of the calculation, first, the tracer concentration and topographic maps of two times are obtained. Then, the spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and seabed elevation are calculated, and the boundary conditions required are determined by field observations (such as flow and bedform migration measurements). Finally, based upon eqs. (1) and (13), the transport rate is calculated and expressed as a function of the position over the study area. Further, appropriate modifications to the model may allow the tracer to have different densities and grain size distributions from the bulk sediment.

  14. Self-diffusion of ion-implanted tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer self-diffusion studies with ion-implanted stable isotopes require a high fluence of implanted ions (>1015 ions/cm2) due to the natural tracer background concentration present in a sample. Such a high fluence leads to considerable implantation damage, where a large part of the tracer is immobilized and does not take place in the diffusion process. As a consequence, diffusion profiles are observed which cannot be described with Fick's second law. In this study, a set of differential equations is presented, describing the diffusion of implanted isotopes as a trap-limited process with a sink and a source term, where the tracer atoms form immobile complexes with implantation damage-induced defects. These equations are solved numerically for the example of nitrogen diffusion in amorphous Si-B-C-N ceramics in order to illustrate diffusivity determination. The results are compared to the analytical solution of Fick's second law

  15. Tracer dispersion in a percolation network with spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makse; Andrade; Eugene Stanley H

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the transport properties of a neutral tracer in a carrier fluid flowing through percolationlike porous media with spatial correlations. We model convection in the mass transport process using the velocity field obtained by the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations in the pore space. We find that the resulting statistical properties of the tracer show a transition from a subdiffusion regime at low Peclet number to an enhanced diffusion regime at high Peclet number.

  16. Clustering of dark matter tracers: renormalizing the bias parameters

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A commonly used perturbative method for computing large-scale clustering of tracers of mass density, like galaxies, is to model the tracer density field as a Taylor series in the local smoothed mass density fluctuations, possibly adding a stochastic component. I suggest a set of parameter redefinitions, eliminating problematic perturbative correction terms, that should represent a modest improvement, at least, to this method. As presented here, my method can be used to compute the power spect...

  17. Key aspects of stratospheric tracer modeling using assimilated winds

    OpenAIRE

    Bregman, B.; E. Meijer; R. Scheele

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This study describes key aspects of global chemistry-transport models and their impact on stratospheric tracer transport. We concentrate on global models that use assimilated winds from numerical weather predictions, but the results also apply to tracer transport in general circulation models. We examined grid resolution, numerical diffusion, air parcel dispersion, the wind or mass flux update frequency, and time interpolation. The evaluation is performed with assimila...

  18. Progress at LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility): Progress report, January-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.; Talley, B. (eds.)

    1987-05-01

    Activities at LAMPF during the year of 1986 are summarized, including brief summaries of experiments in nuclear and particle physics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science, radiation-effects studies, biomedical research and instrumentation, nuclear chemistry, radioisotope production, and theory. The status of an advanced hadron facility currently under study is reported, as well as facility development and accelerator operations. (LEW)

  19. Progress at LAMPF [Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility]: Progress report, January-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities at LAMPF during the year of 1986 are summarized, including brief summaries of experiments in nuclear and particle physics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science, radiation-effects studies, biomedical research and instrumentation, nuclear chemistry, radioisotope production, and theory. The status of an advanced hadron facility currently under study is reported, as well as facility development and accelerator operations

  20. Tracer populations in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura L.

    2011-04-01

    So often in astronomy, an object is not considered for its individual merits, but for what we may learn from its properties regarding some larger population. The existence of dark matter is a prime example of this; we cannot see it directly but we can infer its presence by noting its effects on the stars orbiting within its potential. This thesis describes how various sets of tracer populations can be used to probe the properties of a variety of galaxies in the Local Group. I begin by describing the extraction of a variable catalogue from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 dataset and then use the catalogue to select a high-quality set of RR Lyrae stars. Analysing the distribution of the RR Lyraes reveals three significant substructures in the Milky Way halo: the Hercules-Aquila Cloud and the Sagittarius Stream, which were already known to exist, and the Pisces Overdensity, which was previously undetected. It is a faint, extended structure found at ~80 kpc and is of unknown origin. Altogether, I find that nearly 80% of the RR Lyraes are associated with substructures, consistent with the theory that galaxy halos are predominantly, or even entirely, made up from disrupted satellites. I also investigate the density distribution of RR Lyraes in the halo, finding that it is best fit by a broken-power-law model, in good agreement with previous work. I go on to develop a set of tracer mass estimators that build on previous work which make use of actual (and not projected) distance and proper motion data, reflecting the amount and quality of data now available to us. I show that proper motion data is, in theory, very useful and can greatly increase the accuracy of the mass estimates; in practice, however, current analysis is hampered by the large errors inherent in the proper motion data. The results are also subject to mass-anisotropy degeneracy, which current data is not yet able to break. Nevertheless, I am able to estimate the mass of the Milky Way to be M = 2.7±0

  1. Fourier analysis of multi-tracer cosmological surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Abramo, L Raul; Loureiro, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    We present optimal quadratic estimators for the Fourier analysis of cosmological surveys that detect several different types of tracers of large-scale structure. Our estimators can be used to simultaneously fit the matter power spectrum and the biases of the tracers - as well as redshift-space distortions (RSDs), non-Gaussianities (NGs), or any other effects that are manifested through differences between the clusterings of distinct species of tracers. Our estimators reduce to the one by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (ApJ 1994, FKP) in the case of a survey consisting of a single species of tracer. We show that the multi-tracer estimators are unbiased, and that their covariance is given by the inverse of the multi-tracer Fisher matrix (Abramo, MNRAS 2013; Abramo & Leonard, MNRAS 2013). When the biases, RSDs and NGs are fixed to their fiducial values, and one is only interested in measuring the underlying power spectrum, our estimators are projected into the estimator found by Percival, Verde & Peacock ...

  2. Determination of the self purification of streams using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for the 'in situ' evaluation of the self purification of streams is discussed. It consists of the simultaneous injection of two tracers into the stream. One of the tracers is oxidized by biochemical processes. It can be either artificially supplied to the stream or a naturally present component can be used. This tracer is used for the determination of the self purification parameters. The other tracer is conservative and allows for the hydrodynamic effects. Tests have been carried out in two streams with quite different hydrodynamic and physicochemical conditions. In the first stream, with a flow-rate of about 0.9 m3/s, urea was used as the nonconservative tracer. In the other stream, which had a flow-rate of about 5 m3/s, only a radioactive tracer has been used, and the rate of biochemical oxidation has been determined from BOD measurements. Calculations have been implemented on a digital computer. In both cases it was found that the reoxygenation rate is more conveniently determined by empirical formulas. Results from both tests have been deemed realistic by comparison with similar experiments. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of four blood pump geometries: the optical tracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M L; Mackay, T G; Martin, W; Wheatley, D J

    2000-01-01

    Artificial blood pump assistance of the failing human heart can allow it to recover. Analysis of blood pump fluid flow is a useful tool for design development and thrombosis minimization. The aim of this study was to investigate fluid flow, particularly ventricular clearance rate and stagnation areas, in four different blood pump geometries and to determine the best design. The blood pumps consisted of a polyurethane ventricle, and combinations of inlet/outlet pipe angles and compression plate shapes. A video camera recorded the motion of fluid labelled with an optical tracer (Methyl Blue histological dye). A novel processing method was developed to produce colour maps of tracer concentration, experimentally calibrated. An overall picture of fluid flow in each pump geometry was generated by considering clearance curves, tracer concentration maps and inflow jet animations. Overall and local mixing coefficients are calculated for each pump. The best geometry featured straight inlet/outlet pipes and a domed compression plate. This optical tracer technique has proven convenient, economical, sensitive to low concentrations of tracer and provides instantaneous pictures of tracer distribution in a ventricle. PMID:10997058

  4. Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed whereby a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream-the principle being that the tracer gas would be desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate-injection methods of measuring gas-tracer desorption. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, on methods of injection, sampling, and analysis, and on techniques for computing desorption and reaeration coefficients.

  5. Marine chemistry and tracer applications of radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general aims of this project were to study the marine chemistry of Windscale-derived radiocaesium and to continue previous research at Glasgow University on its tracer application in Scottish waters and sediments. It was found that a considerable percentage of sediment-associated 137Cs (approximately 12 to 50%) may be contained by carbonate, oxide and organic coatings which appear to be relatively stable under a wide range of redox conditions. Whilst the partitioning of 137Cs is related to the concentration of these oxides, organics and, to a much lesser extent, carbonates, their function is predominantly to prevent 137Cs release from clay mineral exchange sites. 137Cs activities per unit sediment weight were highest in the clay fraction with its uptake by coarse sediments appearing to be controlled by clay minerals coatings formed in the marine environment and cemented partly by oxides and organics. Though the sites sampled (Clyde Sea Area (C.S.A.) and L. Etive) encompassed a wide range of sediment types, the range of estimated 137Cs distribution coefficients (KD) was relatively small (360 to 890). Coatings may thus have more influence on Kds in the coastal marine environment than particle size distributions. Apparent concentration factors (CFs) of X325, X2800 and X1910 were determined for the associated carbonate, oxide and organic coatings, for a site off Greenock. Use of 'dry' sediments appeared to produce considerably overestimated values for the degree of 137Cs fixation. Thus 'wet' sediments were used in these studies. Over the 1978-1981 period, approximately 35% of Windscale output passed through the C.S.A., diluted 26 times during transit. An estimated 0.3% of this water-borne inventory was removed into the sediments. Windscale to C.S.A. transit and residence times of 4 and 12 months respectively were derived. Monitoring the deeper levels of L. Etive allowed 137Cs to be used to trace patterns of w

  6. Nickel isotopes as a new geochemical tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, L.; Williams, H. M.; Siebert, C.; Halliday, A.

    2010-12-01

    Research into "non-traditional" stable isotope systems has been of great interest over the past decade. The stable isotope system of nickel (Ni) has not been studied as intensively as other transition metals (e.g. Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mo), even though it is a ubiquitous element in geological environments and is a bioessential trace metal, e.g. for production of methane by methanogens. We have developed a novel chemical separation procedure to isolate Ni from most geological matrices. Because of its chemical behavior during ion-exchange chromatography complete separation of Ni is very complex. We therefore make use of a Ni double spike that allows us to optimize the chemical separation and correct instrumental mass bias during mass spectrometry analysis. This technique allows high precision Ni isotope measurements resulting in long term external reproducibility of USGS rock standard BHVO-2 of 0.09‰ (2s.d.) on δ60/58Ni with typical measurement errors as low as 0.04‰ (2s.d.). We have measured the isotope composition of Ni in a variety of terrestrial samples demonstrating significant isotope variation. In magmatic rocks Ni isotopes appear to be largely homogeneous, with only small variations (no more than 0.2‰) between different rock types, from ultramafic to felsic. There is no evidence of significant isotopic fractionation during melting and differentiation of the silicate Earth. In contrast we find significant systematic isotope variations (up to 1.5‰) between magmatic rocks and FeMn crusts, shales and sulphides. Our data clearly demonstrate mass-dependent fractionation of Ni isotopes in the marine and terrestrial environment by inorganic processes, in addition to the biological fractionations already reported by others, highlighting the potential of Ni isotopes as a powerful new tracer for Earth Surface processes.

  7. Atmospheric tracer tests and assessment of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the impact of a potential atmospheric release of radionuclides from the National Medical Cyclotron facility, in Camperdown, an atmospheric tracer release, sampling and analysis system using SF6 was developed. During eight experiments conducted in a variety of meteorological conditions, ten samplers were located in the vicinity of the Cyclotron building and other nearby buildings on the rapid downward movement of the tracer gas plume. The atmospheric dilution factors which lead to the highest observed air concentrations were then applied to the releases of I123 and Xe123 from a potential accident scenario in order to assess the impact on nearby receptors. Even given the conservative assumptions about the release of I123, the estimated radiation doses were at least an order of magnitude below the international standards for doses to member of the public. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  8. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field. PMID:23234267

  9. Biomedical Research Institute, Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana, Shreveport, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0789, evaluating the environmental impacts of construction and operation of a Biomedical Research Institute (BRI) at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Medical Center, Shreveport, Louisiana. The purpose of the BRI is to accelerate the development of biomedical research in cardiovascular disease, molecular biology, and neurobiology. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required

  10. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Jonathan C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  11. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  12. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  13. Proposal for a new LEIR Slow Extraction Scheme dedicated to Biomedical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Carli, C

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a proposal for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a biomedical research facility at CERN. LEIR has to be maintained as a heavy ion accumulator ring for LHC and for fixed-target experiments with the SPS. In parallel to this on-going operation for physics experiments, an additional secondary use of LEIR for a biomedical research facility was proposed [Dosanjh2013, Holzscheiter2012, PHE2010]. This facility would complement the existing research beam-time available at other laboratories for studies related to ion beam therapy. The new slow extraction [Abler2013] is based on the third-integer resonance. The reference beam is composed of fully stripped carbon ions with extraction energies of 20-440 MeV/u, transverse physical emittances of 5-25 µm and momentum spreads of ±2-9•10-4. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible...

  14. Evaluating 10B-enriched Boric Acid, Bromide, and Heat as Tracers of Recycled Groundwater Flow near MAR Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T.; Clark, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled with the unpredictability of a changing climate, the projected growth in human population over the next century requires new and innovative ways to augment already-depleted water supplies. An increasingly popular and promising development is managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a cost-effective method of intentionally storing potable water in groundwater aquifers at engineered sites worldwide. Reclaimed (or recycled) water, defined as cleaned and treated wastewater, will account for a larger portion of MAR water in future years. A crucial component for managing groundwater recharged with reclaimed water is its subsurface travel time. The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), with the most recent draft of regulations issued on November 21, 2011, requires the application of groundwater tracers to demonstrate subsurface residence time. Residence time increases the quality of reclaimed water via soil-aquifer treatment (SAT), which includes mechanisms such as sorption, biological degradation, and microbial inactivation to remove potential contaminants or pathogens. This study addresses the need for an appropriate tracer to determine groundwater residence times near MAR facilities. Standard shallow groundwater dating techniques, such as T/3He and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) methods, cannot be used because their uncertainties are typically ± 2 years, longer than the target CDPH retention time of ~6 months. These methods also cannot map preferential flow paths. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a nonreactive synthetic gas, is well-established as a deliberate tracer for determining subsurface travel time; however, SF6 is a very strong greenhouse gas and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is regulating its emission. Other tracers, such as noble gas isotopes, that have successfully determined subsurface retention times are impractical due to their high cost. A multi-tracer experiment at the San Gabriel Spreading Grounds test basin (Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles

  15. On the time to tracer equilibrium in the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Primeau

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for the interpretation of data from deep-sea cores is the time for tracers to be transported from the sea surface to the deep ocean. Global ocean circulation models can help shed light on the timescales over which a tracer comes to equilibrium in different regions of the ocean. In this note, we discuss how the most slowly decaying eigenmode of a model can be used to obtain a relevant timescale for a tracer that enters through the sea surface to become well mixed in the ocean interior. We show how this timescale depends critically on the choice between a Neumann surface boundary condition in which the flux of tracer is prescribed, a Robin surface boundary condition in which a combination of the flux and tracer concentration is prescribed or a Dirichlet surface boundary condition in which the concentration is prescribed. Explicit calculations with a 3-box model and a three-dimensional ocean circulation model show that the Dirichlet boundary condition when applied to only part of the surface ocean greatly overestimate the time needed to reach equilibrium. As a result regional-"injection" calculations which prescribe the surface concentration instead of the surface flux are not relevant for interpreting the regional disequilibrium between the Atlantic and Pacific found in paleo-tracer records from deep-sea cores. For tracers that enter the ocean through air-sea gas exchange a prescribed concentration boundary condition can be used to infer relevant timescales if the air-sea gas exchange rate is sufficiently fast, but the boundary condition must be applied over the entire ocean surface and not only to a patch of limited area. For tracers with a slow air-sea exchange rate such as 14C a Robin-type boundary condition is more relevant and for tracers such as δ18O that enter the ocean from melt water, a Neumann boundary condition is presumably more relevant. Our three-dimensional model results based on a steady

  16. 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering which was held on September 23-26, 2015 in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. ICNBME-2015 continues the series of International Conferences in the field of nanotechnologies and biomedical engineering. It aims at bringing together scientists and engineers dealing with fundamental and applied research for reporting on the latest theoretical developments and applications involved in the fields. Topics include Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials Plasmonics and metamaterials Bio-micro/nano technologies Biomaterials Biosensors and sensors systems Biomedical instrumentation Biomedical signal processing Biomedical imaging and image processing Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering Clinical engineering, health technology management and assessment; Health informatics, e-health and telemedicine Biomedical engineering education Nuclear and radiation safety and security Innovations and technology transfer...

  17. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Hermans, Thomas; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in...

  18. Heat tracer and solute tests in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Dassargues, Alain; Klepikova, Maria; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer conce...

  19. Analysis and modeling of noise in biomedical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Jalaleddini, Kian; Lopez, Diego Guarin; Kearney, Robert E; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2013-01-01

    Noise characteristics play an important role in evaluating tools developed to study biomedical systems. Despite usual assumptions, noise in biomedical systems is often nonwhite or non-Gaussian. In this paper, we present a method to analyze the noise component of a biomedical system. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the analysis of noise in voluntary ankle torque measured by a torque transducer and eye movements measured by electro-oculography (EOG).

  20. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Manuela Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and futu...

  1. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    OpenAIRE

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The c...

  2. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  3. Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Shang; Yanpeng Li; Hongfei Lin; Zhihao Yang

    2011-01-01

    Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2) W...

  4. Quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process on technical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Кучеренко, Валентина Леонідівна

    2014-01-01

    Construction of a system of biomedical equipment repair on the actual technical condition is considered, and results of research in this area are given in the paper. The purpose of the research is to analyze the ways of quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process in transition to the operation on the actual technical condition. Using the methods and means for the repair process stages automation allows to estimate actual technical condition of biomedical equipment. The analysis o...

  5. Introduction to Statistics for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ropella, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    There are many books written about statistics, some brief, some detailed, some humorous, some colorful, and some quite dry. Each of these texts is designed for a specific audience. Too often, texts about statistics have been rather theoretical and intimidating for those not practicing statistical analysis on a routine basis. Thus, many engineers and scientists, who need to use statistics much more frequently than calculus or differential equations, lack sufficient knowledge of the use of statistics. The audience that is addressed in this text is the university-level biomedical engineering stud

  6. Intermediate Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This volume focuses on expectation, standard deviation, moments, and the characteristic function. In addition, conditional expectation, conditional moments and the conditional characteristic function are also discussed. Jointly distributed random variables are described, along with joint expectation, joint moments, and the joint characteristic function. Convolution is also developed. A considerable effort has been made to develop the theory in a logical manner--developing sp

  7. Basic Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This text is written as an introduction to probability theory. The goal was to prepare students, engineers and scientists at all levels of background and experience for the application of this theory to a wide variety of problems--as well as pursue these topics at a more advanced level. The approach is to present a unified treatment of the subject. There are only a few key concepts involved in the basic theory of probability theory. These key concepts are all presented in the first

  8. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  9. Designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchao; Wang, Shutao

    2014-06-01

    Fractal structures in nature offer a unique "fractal contact mode" that guarantees the efficient working of an organism with an optimized style. Fractal nanostructured biointerfaces have shown great potential for the ultrasensitive detection of disease-relevant biomarkers from small biomolecules on the nanoscale to cancer cells on the microscale. This review will present the advantages of fractal nanostructures, the basic concept of designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces, and their biomedical applications for the ultrasensitive detection of various disease-relevant biomarkers, such microRNA, cancer antigen 125, and breast cancer cells, from unpurified cell lysates and the blood of patients.

  10. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  11. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, an international journal with emphasis on scientific findings in China, publishes articles dealing with biologic and toxic effects of environmental pollutants on man and other forms of life. The effects may be measured with pharmacological, biochemical, pathological, and immunological techniques. The journal also publishes reports dealing with the entry, transport, and fate of natural and anthropogenic chemicals in the biosphere, and their impact on human health and well-being.Papers describing biochemical, pharmacological, pathological, toxicological and immunological studies of pharmaceuticals (biotechnological products) are also welcome.

  12. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to...

  13. CMT for biomedical and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanne, P. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    This session includes two presentations describing applications for x-ray tomography using synchrotron radiation for biomedical uses and fluid flow modeling, and outlines advantages for using monoenergetic x-rays. Contrast mechanisms are briefly described and several graphs of absorbed doses and scattering of x-rays are included. Also presented are schematic diagrams of computerized tomographic instrumentation with camera head. A brief description of goals for a real time tomographic system and expected improvements to the system are described. Color photomicrographs of the Berea Sandstone and human bone are provided, as well as a 3-D microtomographic reconstruction of a human vertebra sample.

  14. Biomedical Imaging and Sensing using Flatbed Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600–700 cm2) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features o...

  15. Batteries used to power implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  16. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  17. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2012-12-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  18. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  19. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  20. MODELING MICROBUBBLE DYNAMICS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAHINE Georges L.; HSIAO Chao-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Controlling mierobubble dynamics to produce desirable biomedical outcomes when and where necessary and avoid deleterious effects requires advanced knowledge,which can be achieved only through a combination of experimental and numerical/analytical techniques.The present communication presents a multi-physics approach to study the dynamics combining viscousinviseid effects,liquid and structure dynamics,and multi bubble interaction.While complex numerical tools are developed and used,the study aims at identifying the key parameters influencing the dynamics,which need to be included in simpler models.

  1. Biomedical Applications of Advanced Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Thi, Cao Minh; Cao, Yanqin; Nogami, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we have presented the latest results and highlights on biomedical applications of a class of noble metal nanoparticles, such as gold, silver and platinum, and a class of magnetic nanoparticles, such as cobalt, nickel and iron. Their most important related compounds are also discussed for biomedical applications for treating various diseases, typically as cancers. At present, both physical and chemical methods have been proved very successful to synthesize, shape, control, and produce metal- and oxide-based homogeneous particle systems, e.g., nanoparticles and microparticles. Therefore, we have mainly focused on functional magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine because of their high bioadaptability to the organs inside human body. Here, bioconjugation techniques are very crucial to link nanoparticles with conventional drugs, nanodrugs, biomolecules or polymers for biomedical applications. Biofunctionalization of engineered nanoparticles for biomedicine is shown respective to in vitro and in vivo analysis protocols that typically include drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and recent outstanding progress in sweep imaging technique with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) MRI. The latter can be especially applied using magnetic nanoparticles, such as Co-, Fe-, Ni-based nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 oxide nanoparticles for analysis and treatment of malignancies. Therefore, this review focuses on recent results of scientists, and related research on diagnosis and treatment methods of common and dangerous diseases by biomedical engineered nanoparticles. Importantly, nanosysems (nanoparticles) or microsystems (microparticles) or hybrid micronano systems are shortly introduced into nanomedicine. Here, Fe oxide nanoparticles ultimately enable potential and applicable technologies for tumor-targeted imaging and therapy. Finally, we have shown the latest aspects of the most important Fe-based particle systems, such as Fe,

  2. All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatele, Mukta

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles presented by researchers and practitioners, including engineers, biologists, health professionals and informatics/computer scientists, interested in both theoretical advances and applications of information systems, artificial intelligence, signal processing, electronics and other engineering tools in areas related to biology and medicine in the All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012 (AISOBE 2012), organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Jabalpur Local Centre, Jabalpur, India during November 3-4, 2012. The content of the book is useful to doctors, engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  3. Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modaresi J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal.Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method.Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope.Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods.Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between

  4. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  5. Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth M.; Randel, William J.; Stanford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. in their study of two life cycle paradigms. The two life cycles LCn and LCs have different initial horizontal wind shear structures that result in distinctive nonlinear development. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature (PV-theta) diagnostics, the LCn case is characterized by thinning troughs that are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the LCs case has broadening troughs that wrap up cyclonically and poleward. Four idealized passive tracers are included in the model to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the CCM2, and their evolutions are investigated throughout the life cycles. Tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism in pressure coordinates and also in isentropic coordinates. Results for both LCn and LCs show transport that is downgradient with respect to the background structure of the tracer field, but with a characteristic spatial structure that maximizes in the middle to high latitudes. For the idealized tropospheric tracers in this study, this represents a net upward and poleward transport that enhances concentrations at high latitudes. These results vary little with the initial distribution of the constituent field. The time tendency of the tracer is influenced most strongly by the eddy flux term. with the largest transport occurring during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. The authors also study the transport of a lower-stratospheric tracer, to examine stratosphere-troposphere exchange for baroclinic waves.

  6. Multiple Tracer Tests in Porous Media During Clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, A.; Banning, A.; Siegmund, J.; Freye, S.; Goekpinar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Transport processes are known to be governed by the physical and chemical heterogeneity of the subsurface. Clogging processes can alter this heterogeneity as function of time and thus can modify transport. To understand transport under clogging conditions and to unravel the potential of multiple tracer tests to characterize such transport process we perform column and sandbox experiments. Our recently developed column and sandbox experiments are used to perform multiple tracer tests during clogging. In a first set of experiments, a cubic cell of 0.1 m x 0.1 m x 0.1 m is used to experimentally estimate flow and transport characteristics of an unconsolidated sediment through Darcy and tracer experiments. The water streaming through the experiment is amended with ammonium sulfate permanently. Salt tracers are added to the streaming water repeatedly, to be detected at micro electrodes at the inflow and the outflow of the cubic cell. Through repeated syringe injections of a barium chloride solution into the center of the cubic cell clogging processes are forced to occur around the mixing zone of the injected and streaming water by precipitation of barium sulfate. In a second set of experiments, a sandbox model including a sediment body of 0.3 m x 0.3 m x 0.1 m is used. Tracer, streaming, and injection water chemistry is kept similar to the cubic cell experiments. However, tracer breakthrough is now detected at nine positions within the experiment and at the inflow and the outflow of the sandbox model. Injection of barium chloride solution is now at two locations around the center of the sandbox model. Flow and transport characteristics of the sediment body are estimated based on Darcy and tracer experiments, which are performed repeatedly. Combined analysis of local and ensemble breakthrough curves and integrated numerical modeling will be used to understand effective and local flow and transport in a in a porous medium during clogging.

  7. Testing fundamentals: The chemical state of geochemical tracers in biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, O.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Read, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of many carbonate-derived geochemical proxies is underpinned by the assumption that tracer elements are incorporated 'ideally' as impurities the mineral lattice, following relatively straightforward kinetic and thermodynamic drives. This allows comparison to inorganic precipitation experiments, and provides a systematic starting point from which to translate geochemical tracers to environmental records. Biomineral carbonates are a prominent source of geochemical proxy material, and are far from an ideal inorganic system. They are structurally and compositionally heterogeneous mineral-organic composites, produced in tightly controlled biological environments, possibly via non-classical crystal growth mechanisms. Biominerals offer numerous opportunities for tracers to be incorporated in a 'non-ideal' state. For instance, tracers could be hosted within the organic component of the structure, in interstitial micro-domains of a separate mineral phase, or in localized high-impurity clusters. If a proxy element is hosted in a non-ideal state, our understanding of its incorporation and preservation is flawed, and the theoretical basis behind the proxies derived from it must be reevaluated. Thus far, the assumption of ideal tracer incorporation has remained largely untested, owing to the spatial resolution and sensitivity limits of available techniques. Developments in high-resolution, high-sensitivity X-ray spectroscopy at Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopes (STXMs) have allowed us to measure trace element coordination in foraminiferal calcite, at length-scales relevant to biomineralisation processes and tracer incorporation. This instrument has allowed us to test the fundamental assumptions behind several geochemical proxy elements. We present a summary of four STXM studies, assessing the chemical state and distribution of Mg (Branson et al, 2014), B (Branson et al, 2015), S and Na (unpub.), and highlight the implications of these data for the use of these

  8. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  9. High-Fidelity Simulation in Biomedical and Aerospace Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction / Background. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Aerospace Engineering. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Biomedical Engineering. Digital Astronaut. Project Columbia. Summary and Discussion.

  10. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IUPESM World Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, a tri-annual high-level policy meeting dedicated exclusively to furthering the role of biomedical engineering and medical physics in medicine. The book offers papers about emerging issues related to the development and sustainability of the role and impact of medical physicists and biomedical engineers in medicine and healthcare. It provides a unique and important forum to secure a coordinated, multileveled global response to the need, demand, and importance of creating and supporting strong academic and clinical teams of biomedical engineers and medical physicists for the benefit of human health.

  11. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  12. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  13. Role of the biomedical engineer in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurado, J G

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the short history of the development of radioactivity applied in the biomedical field, there have been many contributions made by engineers. With the advent of Nuclear Medicine as a well systematized specialty and its mushrooming in hospitals, the opportunities for biomedical engineers have increased. This article is written from the viewpoint of historic perspective in order to display the different aspects and situations where engineers, and particularly biomedical and clinical engineers, can participate in Nuclear Medicine. Finally, a more detailed survey is made of the activities of biomedical engineers in the nuclear medicine department.

  14. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  15. Surface tailoring of inorganic materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimondini, Lia; Vernè, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides comprehensive information on technologies for development and characterization of successful functionalized materials for biomedical applications relevant to surface modification.

  16. Marina Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The CIRPAS main facility and headquarters are at Marina Municipal Airport (formerly Fritchie Field, Fort Ord) in Marina, California. CIRPAS has a 30,000 sq. ft. maintenance hanger there, which houses staff offices, an instrument and calibration laboratory, maintenance and payload integration shops, conference rooms, and flight planning and operations control center.

  17. Photoluminescent PEG based comacromers as excitation dependent fluorophores for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vineeth M; Komeri, Remya; Victor, Sunita P; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel multi-modal biodegradable photoluminescent comacromer [poly(propylene fumarate)-PEG-glycine] (PLM) having excitation-dependent fluorescence (EDF) for biomedical applications. The photoluminescence of the synthesized PLM in aqueous and solid state condition, fluorescence life time and photo stability were evaluated. Hydrogels and nanogels were prepared from the PLM by cross linking with acrylic acid. Nanogels exhibited spherical morphology with a particle size of 100 nm as evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro cytotoxic and hemolytic studies revealed cytocompatibility. Furthermore, cellular imaging of nanogels on L929 fibroblast and Hela cell lines revealed EDF characteristics. We hypothesize that the EDF characteristics of the synthesized PLM may be attributed to the presence of n-π* interactions of the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of PEG with carbonyl groups of the ester linkages. Taken together, our results indicate that the synthesized PEG-based comacromer can serve as biocompatible fluorophores for various biomedical applications. More importantly, the facile way of synthesizing fluorescent polymers based on PEG with EDF characteristics demonstrated in this work can pave the way for developing more novel biocompatible fluorophores with wide range of biomedical applications.

  18. QoS-based management of biomedical wireless sensor networks for patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Ricardo, Manuel; Mendes, Paulo Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical wireless sensor networks are a key technology to support the development of new applications and services targeting patient monitoring, in particular, regarding data collection for medical diagnosis and continuous health assessment. However, due to the critical nature of medical applications, such networks have to satisfy demanding quality of service requirements, while guaranteeing high levels of confidence and reliability. Such goals are influenced by several factors, where the network topology, the limited throughput, and the characteristics and dynamics of the surrounding environment are of major importance. Harsh environments, as hospital facilities, can compromise the radio frequency communications and, consequently, the network's ability to provide the quality of service required by medical applications. Furthermore, the impact of such environments on the network's performance is hard to manage due to its random and unpredictable nature. Consequently, network planning and management, in general or step-down hospital units, is a very hard task. In such context, this work presents a quality of service based management tool to help healthcare professionals supervising the network's performance and to assist them managing the admission of new sensor nodes (i.e., patients to be monitored) to the biomedical wireless sensor network. The proposed solution proves to be a valuable tool both, to detect and classify potential harmful variations in the quality of service provided by the network, avoiding its degradation to levels where the biomedical signs would be useless; and to manage the admission of new patients to the network.

  19. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, under the Environment (Protection Act 1986), Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Govt. of India, at the chosen KLE Society's J. N. Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum, India and (ii) to quantitatively estimate the amount of non-infectious and infectious waste generated in different wards/sections. During the study, it was observed that: (i) the personnel working under the occupier (who has control over the institution to take all steps to ensure biomedical waste is handled without any adverse effects to human health and the environment) were trained to take adequate precautionary measures in handling these bio-hazardous waste materials, (ii) the process of segregation, collection, transport, storage and final disposal of infectious waste was done in compliance with the Standard Procedures, (iii) the final disposal was by incineration in accordance to EPA Rules 1998 (iv) the non-infectious waste was collected separately in different containers and treated as general waste, and (v) on an average about 520 kg of non-infectious and 101 kg of infectious waste is generated per day (about 2.31 kg per day per bed, gross weight comprising both infectious and non-infectious waste). This hospital also extends its facility to the neighboring clinics and hospitals by treating their produced waste for incineration

  20. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one