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Sample records for biomedical screening studies

  1. Optimal screening designs for biomedical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torney, D.C.; Bruno, W.J.; Knill, E. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Screening a large number of different types of molecules to isolate a few with desirable properties is essential in biomedical technology. For example, trying to find a particular gene in the Human genome could be akin to looking for a needle in a haystack. Fortunately, testing of mixtures, or pools, of molecules allows the desirable ones to be identified, using a number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of types of molecules. We show how to capitalize upon this potential by using optimize pooling schemes, or designs. We propose efficient non-adaptive pooling designs, such as {open_quotes}random sets{close_quotes} designs and modified {open_quotes}row and column{close_quotes} designs. Our results have been applied in the pooling and unique-sequence screening of clone libraries used in the Human Genome Project and in the mapping of Human chromosome 16. This required the use of liquid-transferring robots and manifolds--for the largest clone libraries. Finally, we developed an efficient technique for finding the posterior probability each molecule has the desirable property, given the pool assay results. This technique works well, in practice, even if there are substantial rates of errors in the pool assay data. Both our methods and our results are relevant to a broad spectrum of research in modern biology.

  2. Biomedical wellness standoff screening by unsupervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles; Hoekstra, Philip; Beeney, Jerry

    2009-04-01

    Biomedical Wellness (BMW) surveillance system may become indispensible in public health riding on four confluent trends: (i) The surge of retirement waves of WWII baby boomers; (ii) The longevity of the seniors, thanks to 3 decades steady NIH budgets 23B per year; (iii) The economic melting down is exasperating resources for entitlements; (iv) The emergent Next Gen Internet having the last mile challenges solved entirely and friendly with IT wired and wireless delivery system, thanks to DoD/DARPA pioneer and numerous entrepreneurs visionary efforts. To be effective in job recreation in current economic slag, BMW needs a jump start, WH/HHS should establish a balanced investment policy in health care, not just to illness but to wellness, and a BMW blue ribbon panel (BMWbrp), which must be, however, independent of NIHbrp, recommending additional resources, say 5B budget for BMW infrastructure building that will surely create new jobs to prepare badly needed geriatric caretakers. Being governmental investment, the BMWbrp must come back with a upward-conversion compatible infrastructure Blue-Print, version#1, an open architecture of standard interfaces, workable with distributed data bases and programming languages. The infrastructure must be simple, transparent, scalable, to leverage with a win-win-win(senior) CRADA from the private investments worldwide, e.g. from the insurance companies and home security companies, etc. that can further attract senior community center BOT. To start whenever the rubber meets the road, we shall enlist the military infrastructure, their sensors suite located in DoD & DHS labs supported with their affiliated contractors and universities. However, the down selections should be done under open bids, oversight by BMWbrp, under HHS $5B budget, to translate their sophisticated military persistent and precision surveillance know-how technology to watch out, no longer the enemy of USA but also, the enemy of mankind, the malicious microorganisms

  3. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  4. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  5. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  6. Biomedical Visual Computing: Case Studies and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Johnson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computational geometric modeling, imaging, and simulation let researchers build and test models of increasing complexity, generating unprecedented amounts of data. As recent research in biomedical applications illustrates, visualization will be critical in making this vast amount of data usable; it\\'s also fundamental to understanding models of complex phenomena. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  8. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-01-01

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H - , H + , and D + ). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H - cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes

  9. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Janet

    2000-01-01

    .... A record review of 28 active duty women who received pelvic exams at a military health clinic for chlamydia screening and chlamydia prevalence was performed to enrich the interpretation of the data...

  10. Revisit of Machine Learning Supported Biological and Biomedical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Lu; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies. Finally, the notes on new challenges for machine learning due to small-sample high-dimension are summarized from the key points of sample unbalance, white box, and causality.

  11. Biomedical Studies with the Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-15

    disorders includ- Procedure for photosensitization nalignant melanoma has remained ing vitiligo and psoriasis , a logical ex- studies. When tumnors...singlet oxygen which causes irreversible oxidation of this a very attractive form of therapy. Treatment para - some essential cellular component...visible light (red of blue-greenl) delivered by laser was used to treat a paitientf with psoriasis . The psuiriatic les~ons responded vigorously to lawe

  12. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  13. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers. Methods We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking) and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk). Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses. Results Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies) and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8%) and subsequent (58/600 9.7%) lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1%) than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%). Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48) than subsequent ones (29/45) and than lifestyle studies (31/63). Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38) than the neurological (26/41) or somatic (40/77) ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim. Conclusion Journalists

  14. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Dumas-Mallet

    Full Text Available To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers.We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk. Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses.Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8% and subsequent (58/600 9.7% lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1% than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%. Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48 than subsequent ones (29/45 and than lifestyle studies (31/63. Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38 than the neurological (26/41 or somatic (40/77 ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim.Journalists preferentially cover initial findings

  15. A Capacitive Touch Screen Sensor for Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Portable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honrado, Carlos; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is the second highest among all infections; thus, there is a high demand for bacteriuria detection. Escherichia coli are the main cause of UTIs, with microscopy methods and urine culture being the detection standard of these bacteria. However, the urine sampling and analysis required for these methods can be both time-consuming and complex. This work proposes a capacitive touch screen sensor (CTSS) concept as feasible alternative for a portable UTI detection device. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were conducted with a CTSS model. An exponential response of the model to increasing amounts of E. coli and liquid samples was observed. A measurable capacitance change due to E. coli presence and a tangible difference in the response given to urine and water samples were also detected. Preliminary experimental studies were also conducted on a commercial CTSS using liquid solutions with increasing amounts of dissolved ions. The CTSS was capable of distinguishing different volumes of liquids, also giving an exponential response. Furthermore, the CTSS gave higher responses to solutions with a superior amount of ions. Urine samples gave the top response among tested liquids. Thus, the CTSS showed the capability to differentiate solutions by their ionic content. PMID:25196109

  16. A Capacitive Touch Screen Sensor for Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Portable Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Honrado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs is the second highest among all infections; thus, there is a high demand for bacteriuria detection. Escherichia coli are the main cause of UTIs, with microscopy methods and urine culture being the detection standard of these bacteria. However, the urine sampling and analysis required for these methods can be both time-consuming and complex. This work proposes a capacitive touch screen sensor (CTSS concept as feasible alternative for a portable UTI detection device. Finite element method (FEM simulations were conducted with a CTSS model. An exponential response of the model to increasing amounts of E. coli and liquid samples was observed. A measurable capacitance change due to E. coli presence and a tangible difference in the response given to urine and water samples were also detected. Preliminary experimental studies were also conducted on a commercial CTSS using liquid solutions with increasing amounts of dissolved ions. The CTSS was capable of distinguishing different volumes of liquids, also giving an exponential response. Furthermore, the CTSS gave higher responses to solutions with a superior amount of ions. Urine samples gave the top response among tested liquids. Thus, the CTSS showed the capability to differentiate solutions by their ionic content.

  17. Biomedical scientist training officers' evaluation of integrated (co-terminus) Applied Biomedical Science BSc programmes: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, S J; Cunningham, J M

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) portfolio for pre-registration training in 2003 allowed universities to develop integrated (co-terminus) biomedical science BSc programmes. Students undertake structured placements within clinical pathology laboratories as part of their degree. The clinical training and professional development of students is undertaken by training officers (TOs), who are experienced Health Professions Council (HPC)-registered biomedical scientists and usually also members of the IBMS. This study aims to evaluate TOs' perceptions of these integrated degrees as a means of delivering pre-registration training for biomedical scientists. A questionnaire to collect quantitative data and be completed anonymously was sent to TOs, via staff at participating universities. Items considered TOs' perceptions in four categories: how well students fitted into the laboratory team, their professional and scientific development, the impact of delivering integrated degrees on service delivery, and the commitment to training students. Surveys took place in 2007, 2008 and 2009 and involved TOs taking students from 10, 14 and 17 universities each year, respectively. The response rates to the survey were 60% in 2007, 34% in 2008 and 12% in 2009. Participants were representative in terms of age, gender and pathology discipline and had a broad range of experience with students. The overall mean score for TOs perceptions was 3.38 in 2007 which increased significantly to 3.99 in 2009 (Kruskall Wallis test chi2 = 21.13, P<0.01). Mean scores in three of the four categories were positive in 2007, although the impact on service delivery was perceived negatively. In all areas, means were significantly greater in 2009. The results indicate that TOs view the integrated degrees favourably and are happy with the scientific and professional development of students. Although designing training sessions suitable for undergraduates took extra work initially

  18. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  19. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  20. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  1. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  2. Can informetrics shape biomedical research? A case study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the paper addresses the application of informetrics to examine whether or not informetrics can be used to shape biomedical research, with special reference to HIV/AIDS research in sub-Saharan Africa. In that regard, the paper reports on an informetrics perspective of the relatedness of opportunistic diseases and ...

  3. Biomedical techniques in translational studies: The journey so far ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical techniques have wide clinical application in many fields of medicine such as oncology, rheumatology, immunology, genomics, cardiology and diagnostics; among others. This has been made possible with the use of genetic engineering and a number of techniques like Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Fluorescent ...

  4. Luminescence studies on phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, G.; Nomikos, C.; Bakas, A.; Proimos, B.

    1994-01-01

    We report our results on x-ray phosphor screens prepared of some new materials focusing attention on their efficiency under fluoroscopy conditions, on optimization conditions and on comparisons among the various materials. All data are presented in absolute values. A theoretical model is presented, that takes into account the granular structure of the screens, permitting the explanation and prediction of the luminescence properties of the screens. (authors)

  5. Bioactive Phenothiazines and Benzo[a]phenothiazines: Spectroscopic Studies, and Biological and Biomedical Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, J. J.; Gaye Seye, M. D.; Trajkovska, S.; Motohashi, N.

    Recent progress in spectroscopic, photophysical, photochemical and analytical studies, as well as in the biological and biomedical properties of bioactive phenothiazines and benzophenothiazines, is reviewed. Their electronic absorption and luminescence properties, and their complexation and interactions in organized media are discussed. Various applications, including analytical studies, relative to phenothiazines and benzophenothiazines are described. Among the important biological and biomedical properties of these compounds, their neurological effects, their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic and antitumour activities, and their cytotoxicity are particularly reviewed.

  6. Rules and management of biomedical waste at Vivekananda Polyclinic: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Boojh, Ram; Mishra, Ajai; Chandra, Hem

    2009-01-01

    Hospitals and other healthcare establishments have a 'duty of care' for the environment and for public health, and have particular responsibilities in relation to the waste they produce (i.e., biomedical waste). Negligence, in terms of biomedical waste management, significantly contributes to polluting the environment, affects the health of human beings, and depletes natural and financial resources. In India, in view of the serious situation of biomedical waste management, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, within the Government of India, ratified the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, in July 1998. The present paper provides a brief description of the biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, and the current biomedical waste management practices in one of the premier healthcare establishments of Lucknow, the Vivekananda Polyclinic. The objective in undertaking this study was to analyse the biomedical waste management system, including policy, practice (i.e., storage, collection, transportation and disposal), and compliance with the standards prescribed under the regulatory framework. The analysis consisted of interviews with medical authorities, doctors, and paramedical staff involved in the management of the biomedical wastes in the Polyclinic. Other important stakeholders that were consulted and interviewed included environmental engineers (looking after the Biomedical Waste Cell) of the State Pollution Control Board, and randomly selected patients and visitors to the Polyclinic. A general survey of the facilities of the Polyclinic was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of the implemented measures. The waste was quantified based on random samples collected from each ward. It was found that, although the Polyclinic in general abides by the prescribed regulations for the treatment and disposal of biomedical waste, there is a need to further build the capacity of the Polyclinic and its staff in terms of providing state

  7. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  8. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  9. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  10. Study of probe-sample distance for biomedical spectra measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fiber-based optical spectroscopy has been widely used for biomedical applications. However, the effect of probe-sample distance on the collection efficiency has not been well investigated. Method In this paper, we presented a theoretical model to maximize the illumination and collection efficiency in designing fiber optic probes for biomedical spectra measurement. This model was in general applicable to probes with single or multiple fibers at an arbitrary incident angle. In order to demonstrate the theory, a fluorescence spectrometer was used to measure the fluorescence of human finger skin at various probe-sample distances. The fluorescence spectrum and the total fluorescence intensity were recorded. Results The theoretical results show that for single fiber probes, contact measurement always provides the best results. While for multi-fiber probes, there is an optimal probe distance. When a 400- μm excitation fiber is used to deliver the light to the skin and another six 400- μm fibers surrounding the excitation fiber are used to collect the fluorescence signal, the experimental results show that human finger skin has very strong fluorescence between 475 nm and 700 nm under 450 nm excitation. The fluorescence intensity is heavily dependent on the probe-sample distance and there is an optimal probe distance. Conclusions We investigated a number of probe-sample configurations and found that contact measurement could be the primary choice for single-fiber probes, but was very inefficient for multi-fiber probes. There was an optimal probe-sample distance for multi-fiber probes. By carefully choosing the probe-sample distance, the collection efficiency could be enhanced by 5-10 times. Our experiments demonstrated that the experimental results of the probe-sample distance dependence of collection efficiency in multi-fiber probes were in general agreement with our theory.

  11. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. (ed.); Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  12. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. [ed.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  13. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchem, L.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps

  14. A Case Study: Data Management in Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R. Gaudette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a biomedical engineering lab at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, co-author Dr. Glenn R. Gaudette and his research team are investigating the effects of stem cell therapy on the regeneration of function in damaged cardiac tissue in laboratory rats. Each instance of stem cell experimentation on a rat yields hundreds of data sets that must be carefully captured, documented and securely stored so that the data will be easily accessed and retrieved for papers, reports, further research, and validation of findings, while meeting NIH guidelines for data sharing. After a brief introduction to the bioengineering field and stem cell research, this paper focuses on the experimental workflow and the data generated in one instance of stem cell experimentation; the lab’s data management practices; and how Dr. Gaudette teaches data management to the lab’s incoming graduate students each semester. The co-authors discuss the haphazard manner by which engineering and science students typically learn data management practices, and advocate for the integration of formal data management instruction in higher education STEM curricula. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Frameworks for a Data Management Curriculum developed collaboratively by the co-authors’ institutions -- the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Worcester Polytechnic Institute -- to teach data management best practices to students in the sciences, health sciences, and engineering.

  15. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey), all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Arab countries also scored less when the data were normalized to population, gross domestic product (GDP), and GDP/capita. The publications from the Arab countries also have a significantly lower (p Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries. PMID:19374747

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesh Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100 of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75, nurses (60, laboratory technicians (78, and sanitary staff (70. Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.

  17. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  18. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran

    2009-04-17

    Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001-2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey), all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p GDP), and GDP/capita. The publications from the Arab countries also have a significantly lower (p < 0.001) citation frequency. The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  19. Suitability of customer relationship management systems for the management of study participants in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, J; Rienhoff, O; Schulze, T G; Nussbeck, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.

  20. Advisory group meeting on stable isotope labelled compounds in biomedical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.; Parr, R.M.

    1985-11-01

    The programme of the meeting was restricted to topics involving applications of stable isotopes of the lighter elements (H, C, N, O). The current status of stable isotope techniques and applications in nutritional and biomedical studies, the applicability of these techniques in developing countries and the IAEA's future programmes on this topic were discussed

  1. Why do people refuse to take part in biomedical research studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found nine key factors that influence people to refuse to participate in biomedical research. The factors are failure to follow traditional customs , lack of study benefits, superstition, poor informed consent procedures, ignorance of health research, fear of strangers, lack of cultural sensitivity, poor timing, and previous bad ...

  2. PASSIM – an open source software system for managing information in biomedical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neogi Sudeshna

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the crucial aspects of day-to-day laboratory information management is collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experiment results is absolutely imperative for a successful outcome of a biomedical study. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large-scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS. Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but often implies sufficient investment of time, effort and funds, which are not always available. There is a clear need for lightweight open source systems for patient and sample information management. Results We present a web-based tool for submission, management and retrieval of sample and research subject data. The system secures confidentiality by separating anonymized sample information from individuals' records. It is simple and generic, and can be customised for various biomedical studies. Information can be both entered and accessed using the same web interface. User groups and their privileges can be defined. The system is open-source and is supplied with an on-line tutorial and necessary documentation. It has proven to be successful in a large international collaborative project. Conclusion The presented system closes the gap between the need and the availability of lightweight software solutions for managing information in biomedical studies involving human research subjects.

  3. All that glitters isn't gold: a survey on acknowledgment of limitations in biomedical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Riet, Gerben; Chesley, Paula; Gross, Alan G; Siebeling, Lara; Muggensturm, Patrick; Heller, Nadine; Umbehr, Martin; Vollenweider, Daniela; Yu, Tsung; Akl, Elie A; Brewster, Lizzy; Dekkers, Olaf M; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Richter, Bernd; Singh, Sonal; Goodman, Steven; Puhan, Milo A

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledgment of all serious limitations to research evidence is important for patient care and scientific progress. Formal research on how biomedical authors acknowledge limitations is scarce. To assess the extent to which limitations are acknowledged in biomedical publications explicitly, and implicitly by investigating the use of phrases that express uncertainty, so-called hedges; to assess the association between industry support and the extent of hedging. We analyzed reporting of limitations and use of hedges in 300 biomedical publications published in 30 high and medium -ranked journals in 2007. Hedges were assessed using linguistic software that assigned weights between 1 and 5 to each expression of uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of publications (81/300) did not mention any limitations, while 73% acknowledged a median of 3 (range 1-8) limitations. Five percent mentioned a limitation in the abstract. After controlling for confounders, publications on industry-supported studies used significantly fewer hedges than publications not so supported (p = 0.028). Detection and classification of limitations was--to some extent--subjective. The weighting scheme used by the hedging detection software has subjective elements. Reporting of limitations in biomedical publications is probably very incomplete. Transparent reporting of limitations may protect clinicians and guideline committees against overly confident beliefs and decisions and support scientific progress through better design, conduct or analysis of new studies.

  4. All that glitters isn't gold: a survey on acknowledgment of limitations in biomedical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben Ter Riet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acknowledgment of all serious limitations to research evidence is important for patient care and scientific progress. Formal research on how biomedical authors acknowledge limitations is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which limitations are acknowledged in biomedical publications explicitly, and implicitly by investigating the use of phrases that express uncertainty, so-called hedges; to assess the association between industry support and the extent of hedging. DESIGN: We analyzed reporting of limitations and use of hedges in 300 biomedical publications published in 30 high and medium -ranked journals in 2007. Hedges were assessed using linguistic software that assigned weights between 1 and 5 to each expression of uncertainty. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of publications (81/300 did not mention any limitations, while 73% acknowledged a median of 3 (range 1-8 limitations. Five percent mentioned a limitation in the abstract. After controlling for confounders, publications on industry-supported studies used significantly fewer hedges than publications not so supported (p = 0.028. LIMITATIONS: Detection and classification of limitations was--to some extent--subjective. The weighting scheme used by the hedging detection software has subjective elements. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of limitations in biomedical publications is probably very incomplete. Transparent reporting of limitations may protect clinicians and guideline committees against overly confident beliefs and decisions and support scientific progress through better design, conduct or analysis of new studies.

  5. Discussing study limitations in reports of biomedical studies- the need for more transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhan Milo A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unbiased and frank discussion of study limitations by authors represents a crucial part of the scientific discourse and progress. In today's culture of publishing many authors or scientific teams probably balance 'utter honesty' when discussing limitations of their research with the risk of being unable to publish their work. Currently, too few papers in the medical literature frankly discuss how limitations could have affected the study findings and interpretations. The goals of this commentary are to review how limitations are currently acknowledged in the medical literature, to discuss the implications of limitations in biomedical studies, and to make suggestions as to how to openly discuss limitations for scientists submitting their papers to journals. This commentary was developed through discussion and logical arguments by the authors who are doing research in the area of hedging (use of language to express uncertainty and who have extensive experience as authors and editors of biomedical papers. We strongly encourage authors to report on all potentially important limitations that may have affected the quality and interpretation of the evidence being presented. This will not only benefit science but also offers incentives for authors: If not all important limitations are acknowledged readers and reviewers of scientific articles may perceive that the authors were unaware of them. Authors should take advantage of their content knowledge and familiarity with the study to prevent misinterpretations of the limitations by reviewers and readers. Articles discussing limitations help shape the future research agenda and are likely to be cited because they have informed the design and conduct of future studies. Instead of perceiving acknowledgment of limitations negatively, authors, reviewers and editors should recognize the potential of a frank and unbiased discussion of study limitations that should not jeopardize acceptance of

  6. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  7. Biomedical and health studies with the new Canadian SLOWPOKE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Isles, K.; Hill, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on clinical patients who had malnutrition, cystic fibrosis and other related electrolyte disorders. A stable activable tracer technique has been developed to determine the extracellular fluid volume (ECV) of infants. A regulated dose of sodium bromide is injected into the patient and, following short-term equilibration and dilution of this sample, a small blood sample is taken, yielding 50 μl of plasma. The plasma bromide concentration is determined by 80 Br (T=18 m) activation. Some samples were cross-checked by a microdiffusion method. The technique has been applied to 230 patients and controls, and has proved to be simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive for determining ECV to +-6%. Patients with cystic fibrosis (C.F.) were studied with respect to their growth and their sodium and electrolyte balance. In related clinical studies, hair and nail clippings from 50 C.F. patients and control children of the same age groups were activated at SLOWPOKE and Cu, Ca, Br, Cl, K, Na and I determined for use in differentiating C.F., along with a number of other elements including Zn, Mn, Al, Ti and Ni which showed little difference. A fairly good correlation of hair and nail concentrations was found for a number of the elements determined, suggesting that either tissue may be used in future studies. (T.G.)

  8. Resilience of a FIT screening programme against screening fatigue: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein J. E. Greuter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated participation is important in faecal immunochemical testing (FIT screening for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, a large number of screening invitations over time may lead to screening fatigue and consequently, decreased participation rates. We evaluated the impact of screening fatigue on overall screening programme effectiveness. Methods Using the ASCCA model, we simulated the Dutch CRC screening programme consisting of biennial FIT screening in individuals aged 55–75. We studied the resilience of the programme against heterogeneity in screening attendance and decrease in participation rate due to screening fatigue. Outcomes were reductions in CRC incidence and mortality compared to no screening. Results Assuming a homogenous 63 % participation, i.e., each round each individual was equally likely to attend screening, 30 years of screening reduced CRC incidence and mortality by 39 and 53 %, respectively, compared to no screening. When assuming clustered participation, i.e., three subgroups of individuals with a high (95 %, moderate (65 % and low (5 % participation rate, screening was less effective; reductions were 33 % for CRC incidence and 43 % for CRC mortality. Screening fatigue considerably reduced screening effectiveness; if individuals refrained from screening after three negative screens, model-predicted incidence reductions decreased to 25 and 18 % under homogenous and clustered participation, respectively. Figures were 34 and 25 % for mortality reduction. Conclusions Screening will substantially decrease CRC incidence and mortality. However, screening effectiveness can be seriously compromised if screening fatigue occurs. This warrants careful monitoring of individual screening behaviour and consideration of targeted invitation systems in individuals who have (repeatedly missed screening rounds.

  9. Study of EPR in calcium phosphates for biomedical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D.; Mendez G, M.; Juarez F, A.; Zamorano U, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The chemical impurities or defects have a very important paper at the time of determining the properties of a material. These impurities can to be consequence of the preparation process or induced by different external agents (atmosphere radiation, heating different, etc.), to modify their configuration or state of load, appearing with unusual chemicals valences. In multiple occasions these states of load turn out to be paramagnetic and in these cases the spectroscopy of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is a tool very useful for its given study its great sensitivity (small plans of these impurities are sufficient to modulate the properties of the material guest) and by their great specificity the EPR phantoms are sensible to small changes in the configuration of these defects. In the present work one reports the results obtained by means of EPR, in calcium phosphates in dust form to 300 K and 77 K. In the obtained phantoms, two superposed signals of the ion are observed (Fe 3+ ). The EPR signal, is reduced of substantial way when the phantom was taken to 77 K, this reduction in the intensity, shows the enormous sensitivity of the crystalline atmosphere of the two species of iron the change of the temperature, which also implies a change in the structure. (Author)

  10. Consumer nueroscience: a new area of study for biomedical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In scientific literature, the most accepted definition of consumer neuroscience or neuromarketing is that it is a field of study concerning the application of neuroscience methods to analyze and understand human behavior related to markets and marketing exchanges. First, it might seem strange that marketers would be interested in using neuroscience to understand consumer's preferences. Yet in practice, the basic goal of marketers is to guide the design and presentation of products in such a way that they are highly compatible with consumer preferences. To understand consumers preferences, several standard research tools are commonly used by marketers, such as personal interviews with the consumers, scoring questionnaries gathered from consumers, and focus groups. The reason marketing researchers are interested in using brain imaging tools instead of simply asking people for their preferences in front of marketing stimuli, arises from the assumption that people cannot (or do not want to) fully explain their preference when explicitly asked. Researchers in the field hypothesize that neuroimaging tools can access information within the consumer's brain during the generation of a preference or the observation of a commercial advertisement. The question of will this information be useful in further promoting the product is still up for debate in marketing literature. From the marketing researchers point of view, there is a hope that this body of brain imaging techniques will provide an efficient tradeoff between costs and benefits of the research. Currently, neuroscience methodology includes powerful brain imaging tools based on the gathering of hemodynamic or electromagnetic signals related to the human brain activity during the performance of a relevant task for marketing objectives. These tools are briefly reviewed in this article.

  11. Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Specificity Studies of Biomedically Important Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Siigur, Jüri; Trummal, Katrin; TÕnismägi, Külli; Samel, Mari; Siigur, Ene; Vija, Heikki; Tammiste, Indrek; Subbi, Juhan

    2002-01-01

    Proteases play crucial role starting from fertilization until to cell death. Our studies of the two Viperidae venoms (Levantine viper Vipera lebetina, Common viper Vipera berus) have demonstrated the existence of biomedically important proteases, both coagulants and anticoagulants that may be useful as diagnostic tools or potential therapeutics. We showed that venoms of both snakes contain: (i) metalloproteases and serine proteases that degrade fibrinogen, but not fibrin; (ii) factor X activa...

  12. TORCH screening in polyhydramnios: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Humera; Rafi, Junaid

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the TORCH test and to evaluate its significance in women with polyhydramnios in singleton pregnancies. Retrospective analysis of indications and results of TORCH referrals made from November 2007 to 2009 with detailed review of case notes of women with polyhydramnios who had TORCH test. The total number of deliveries during specimen time was 3004, out of which 110(3.6%) had serum TORCH screening. The main indication for this test was polyhydramnios 62 (56.36%) followed by obstetric cholestasis 20 (18.18%), Intra-uterine fetal demise 6 (5.45%), fetal anomalies 5(4.54%), and deranged liver function tests (LFTs) 2 (1.8%). 15 (13.6%) women had TORCH screening for other indications such as clinical polyhydramnios, increased nuchal translucency (>2.5 mm). cytomegalovirus (CMV) and toxoplasmosis antibodies were tested in all cases whereas, parvovirus and herpes simplex virus screen were carried out in 4 (12.7%) and 2 (1.8%) patients, respectively. One woman (0.09%) had infection with CMV who had TORCH screening carried out for deranged LFTs. None of these women had positive TORCH screening giving the p value of TORCH test in polyhydramnios, the statistical evaluation shows that this test is not beneficial in women in whom polyhydramnios is an isolated ultrasound finding, especially when it is diagnosed in third trimester.

  13. Accelerating Biomedical Signal Processing Using GPU: A Case Study of Snore Sound Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Gongxuan; Xu, Huijie; Schuller, Björn

    2017-12-01

    The advent of 'Big Data' and 'Deep Learning' offers both, a great challenge and a huge opportunity for personalised health-care. In machine learning-based biomedical data analysis, feature extraction is a key step for 'feeding' the subsequent classifiers. With increasing numbers of biomedical data, extracting features from these 'big' data is an intensive and time-consuming task. In this case study, we employ a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) via Python to extract features from a large corpus of snore sound data. Those features can subsequently be imported into many well-known deep learning training frameworks without any format processing. The snore sound data were collected from several hospitals (20 subjects, with 770-990 MB per subject - in total 17.20 GB). Experimental results show that our GPU-based processing significantly speeds up the feature extraction phase, by up to seven times, as compared to the previous CPU system.

  14. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Gayathri V.; Pokhrel, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, under the Environment (Protection Act 1986), Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Govt. of India, at the chosen KLE Society's J. N. Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum, India and (ii) to quantitatively estimate the amount of non-infectious and infectious waste generated in different wards/sections. During the study, it was observed that: (i) the personnel working under the occupier (who has control over the institution to take all steps to ensure biomedical waste is handled without any adverse effects to human health and the environment) were trained to take adequate precautionary measures in handling these bio-hazardous waste materials, (ii) the process of segregation, collection, transport, storage and final disposal of infectious waste was done in compliance with the Standard Procedures, (iii) the final disposal was by incineration in accordance to EPA Rules 1998 (iv) the non-infectious waste was collected separately in different containers and treated as general waste, and (v) on an average about 520 kg of non-infectious and 101 kg of infectious waste is generated per day (about 2.31 kg per day per bed, gross weight comprising both infectious and non-infectious waste). This hospital also extends its facility to the neighboring clinics and hospitals by treating their produced waste for incineration

  15. All that glitters isn't gold: a survey on acknowledgment of limitations in biomedical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Riet, Gerben; Chesley, Paula; Gross, Alan G.; Siebeling, Lara; Muggensturm, Patrick; Heller, Nadine; Umbehr, Martin; Vollenweider, Daniela; Yu, Tsung; Akl, Elie A.; Brewster, Lizzy; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Richter, Bernd; Singh, Sonal; Goodman, Steven; Puhan, Milo A.

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledgment of all serious limitations to research evidence is important for patient care and scientific progress. Formal research on how biomedical authors acknowledge limitations is scarce. To assess the extent to which limitations are acknowledged in biomedical publications explicitly, and

  16. Is Effective and Structured Training Key to Successful Biomedical Waste Management in Hospital : A Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shishir Basarkar

    2014-01-01

    Background The study is interventional in nature because the training has been done as an intervention. The study was done to find out the impact of training on knowledge level of the hospital staff who is dealing with biomedical waste on day to day basis. Methodology The study was conducted on 184 staff members during July – Sept 2012 in multispecialty tertiary care hospital. The survey form was prepared and was applied to all participants in person before and after the training was condu...

  17. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The proper handling and disposal of bio-medical waste is very imperative. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste disposal leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management ...

  18. Screening for Iron Overload: Lessons from the HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Adams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS Study provided data on a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort of participants in North America screened from primary care populations.

  19. Evaluation of biomedical waste management in primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Kalyan V; Al Shammari, Fares

    2017-11-19

    Awareness and knowledge of biomedical waste practices is very important for any health care setting. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about biomedical waste among health professionals in primary health care centres in Hail City, Saudi Arabia. The study included 135 of 155 professionals who dealt with biomedical waste from 16 out of 26 primary health care centres. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall 54.8%, 48.9% and 49.6% of the participants had good knowledge, attitudes and practices scores respectively. Profession, education and age were significantly associated with KAP level (P practices, and attitudes and practices (P ˂ 0.05). Training is recommended to enhance the knowledge of the professionals dealing with biomedical waste in the primary health care centres.

  20. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsoon; Park, Donghyeon; Choi, Yonghwa; Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-05

    With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC_T) and Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Last

  1. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  2. [Biomedical informatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  3. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  4. Study on the Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Behaviors of PEEK and CFRPEEK for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of polyether ether ketone (PEEK-based composites for biomedical applications and to gain a fundamental understanding of the effects of carbon fibers in carbon-fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFRPEEK on the mechanical properties and wear performance in a microscale. Nanoindentation tests with a Berkovich indenter and nanoscratch experiments with a diamond stylus were performed on PEEK and CFRPEEK samples. The nanowear features and mechanisms of the tested samples were analyzed using 3D white-light interfering profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The obtained results indicated that the reinforced carbon fibers increased the nanohardness and elastic modulus and decreased the friction coefficient and wear rate of PEEK. Different to many existing studies where a constant load was used in a nanoscratch test and the normal load was a key factor influencing the scratch performances of the tested specimens, stick–slip phenomena were observed on both PEEK and CFRPEEK in the nanoscratch tests with load increasing progressively. In constant load conditions, it was found that the major nanowear mechanisms of PEEK are adhesion, abrasion, and plastic deformation, while the nanowear mechanisms of CFRPEEK are dominated by severe adhesive wear, abrasive wear and mild fatigue. CFRPEEK has demonstrated superior nanomechanical and nanotribological performances, and hence can be considered a potential candidate for biomedical applications.

  5. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, Daniel; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN’s competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR an...

  6. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-07-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments.

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence studies of trace elements in biomedical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukus, A. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)]. E-mail: Aldona.Kubala-Kukus@pu.kielce.pl; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2004-08-31

    Application of the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in the studies of trace element contents in biomedical samples is discussed in the following aspects: (i) a nature of trace element concentration distributions, (ii) censoring approach to the detection limits, and (iii) a comparison of two sets of censored data. The paper summarizes the recent results achieved in this topics, in particular, the lognormal, or more general logstable, nature of concentration distribution of trace elements, the random left-censoring and the Kaplan-Meier approach accounting for detection limits and, finally, the application of the logrank test to compare the censored concentrations measured for two groups. These new aspects, which are of importance for applications of the TXRF in different fields, are discussed here in the context of TXRF studies of trace element in various samples of medical interest.

  8. Concept for linking de-identified biomedical research data using a study participant management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, Alexander; Bauer, Christian R K D; Schwanke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research projects show an increasing demand of large numbers of participants from different recruiting centers to achieve statistically significant results. The collected types of data are stored in distributed databases and are linked to the participant by different non-resolvable identifiers (layered pseudonyms) for de-identification. To ensure the quality of the gathered data, regular quality assurance analyses are required at each local center. Because of the distributed databases and layered pseudonyms the analyses can only be achieved manually. Therefore, the process is error-prone and laborious. The objective of this paper is to propose a solution concept to automate the manual process by using a local study participant management system. It orchestrates the process and enables the quality assurance analyses within a clinical data warehouse.

  9. Studies on polyethylene glycol coating on NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadatare, M.R.; Khot, V.M.; Salunkhe, A.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Pawar, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by the combustion method and these nanoparticles were successfully coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the possible biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, tissue repair, magnetic fluid hyperthermia etc. The structural and magnetic characterizations of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were carried out by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques, respectively. The morphology of the uncoated and coated nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The existence of PEG layer on NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of nanocrystalline NiFe 2 O 4 by the combustion method. ► Magnetic properties of the NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles at room temperature. ► Coating of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles by Polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  10. Motivational factors for participation in biomedical research: evidence from a qualitative study of biomedical research participation in Blantyre District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Masiye, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining effective informed consent from research participants is a prerequisite to the conduct of an ethically sound research. Yet it is believed that obtaining quality informed consent is generally difficult in settings with low socioeconomic status. This is so because of the alleged undue inducements and therapeutic misconception among participants. However, there is a dearth of data on factors that motivate research participants to take part in research. Hence, this study was aimed at filling this gap in the Malawian context. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with community members in urban and rural communities of Blantyre in Malawi. Most participants reported that they accepted the invitation to participate in research because of better quality treatment during study also known as ancillary care, monetary and material incentives given to participants, and thorough medical diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A comparison study on algorithms of detecting long forms for short forms in biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cathy H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation With more and more research dedicated to literature mining in the biomedical domain, more and more systems are available for people to choose from when building literature mining applications. In this study, we focus on one specific kind of literature mining task, i.e., detecting definitions of acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols in biomedical text. We denote acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols as short forms (SFs and their corresponding definitions as long forms (LFs. The study was designed to answer the following questions; i how well a system performs in detecting LFs from novel text, ii what the coverage is for various terminological knowledge bases in including SFs as synonyms of their LFs, and iii how to combine results from various SF knowledge bases. Method We evaluated the following three publicly available detection systems in detecting LFs for SFs: i a handcrafted pattern/rule based system by Ao and Takagi, ALICE, ii a machine learning system by Chang et al., and iii a simple alignment-based program by Schwartz and Hearst. In addition, we investigated the conceptual coverage of two terminological knowledge bases: i the UMLS (the Unified Medical Language System, and ii the BioThesaurus (a thesaurus of names for all UniProt protein records. We also implemented a web interface that provides a virtual integration of various SF knowledge bases. Results We found that detection systems agree with each other on most cases, and the existing terminological knowledge bases have a good coverage of synonymous relationship for frequently defined LFs. The web interface allows people to detect SF definitions from text and to search several SF knowledge bases. Availability The web site is http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesaurus.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  13. Breast density and outcome of mammography screening: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50...

  14. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  15. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodruzzama, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    ... and on-line analysis of the biomedical signals. Each Biopac system-based laboratory station consists of real-time data acquisition system, amplifiers for EMG, EKG, EEG, and equipment for the study of Plethysmography, evoked response, cardio...

  16. Study design and rationale for biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography monitoring in relevant clinical situations: ECG-shirt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Paweł; Lodziński, Piotr; Tymińska, Agata; Ozierański, Krzysztof; Januszkiewicz, Łukasz; Główczyńska, Renata; Wesołowska, Katarzyna; Peller, Michał; Pietrzak, Radosław; Książczyk, Tomasz; Borodzicz, Sonia; Kołtowski, Łukasz; Borkowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Opolski, Grzegorz; Grabowski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Today, the main challenge for researchers is to develop new technologies which may help to improve the diagnoses of cardiovascular disease (CVD), thereby reducing healthcare costs and improving the quality of life for patients. This study aims to show the utility of biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring of patients with CVD in different clinical situations using the Nuubo® ECG (nECG) system. An investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective observational study was carried out in a cardiology (adult and pediatric) and cardiac rehabilitation wards. ECG monitoring was used with the biomedical shirt in the following four independent groups of patients: 1) 30 patients after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), 2) 30 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients, 3) 120 patients during cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, and 4) 40 pediatric patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) before electrophysiology study. Approval for all study groups was obtained from the institutional review board. The biomedical shirt captures the electrocardiographic signal via textile electrodes integrated into a garment. The software allows the visualization and analysis of data such as ECG, heart rate, arrhythmia detecting algorithm and relative position of the body is captured by an electronic device. The major advantages of the nECG system are continuous ECG monitoring during daily activities, high quality of ECG recordings, as well as assurance of a proper adherence due to adequate comfort while wearing the shirt. There are only a few studies that have examined wearable systems, especially in pediatric populations. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT03068169. (Cardiol J 2018; 25, 1: 52-59).

  17. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  18. A Review of Cell Adhesion Studies for Biomedical and Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khalili, Amelia; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events. PMID:26251901

  19. A Review of Cell Adhesion Studies for Biomedical and Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ahmad Khalili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events.

  20. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  1. Student engagement in biomedical courses : studies in technology-enhanced seminar learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, RAM

    2016-01-01

    Academic medical and biomedical curricula are designed to educate future academics contributing to new developments in science, clinical practice and society. During undergraduate programs student training is typically focused on acquisition of knowledge and understanding of these interdisciplinary

  2. All that glitters isn't gold: A survey on acknowledgment of limitations in biomedical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Riet, Gerben; Chesley, Paula; Gross, Alan G; Siebeling, Lara; Muggensturm, Patrick; Heller, Nadine; Umbehr, Martin; Vollenweider, Daniela; Yu, Tsung; Akl, Elie A; Brewster, Lizzy; Dekkers, Olaf M; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Richter, Bernd; Singh, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acknowledgment of all serious limitations to research evidence is important for patient care and scientific progress. Formal research on how biomedical authors acknowledge limitations is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which limitations are acknowledged in biomedical publications explicitly, and implicitly by investigating the use of phrases that express uncertainty, so-called hedges; to assess the association between industry support and the extent of hedging. D...

  3. Biomedical studies on solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquefaction materials: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This technical report summarizes the results of biomedical research effort on solvent refined coal (SRC) materials. The samples, described in the text, as well as samples of raw shale oil, crude petroleum, and some SRC-I materials were evaluated for biological activity in several different systems: (1) microbial mutagenesis (Ames assay), coupled to chemical characterization efforts, (2) in vitro mammalian cell toxicity and transformation, (3) epidermal carcinogenesis (skin painting) in mice, (4) acute and subchronic oral toxicity in rats, (5) developmental toxicity in rats, and (6) dosimetry and metabolism in rats. High boiling point materials (identified) showed significant mutagenic activity while lower boiling fractions from both processes were inactive; crude petroleum was also inactive, while raw shale oil showed only a low level of activity. Chemical characterization studies suggested that 3- and 4-ring primary aromatic amines are responsible for a large fraction of the mutagenic activity. Cultured mammalian cell studies showed that materials exhibiting a positive effect in the Ames system also caused mammalian cell transformation. The results of skin carcinogenesis studies in the mouse were generally consistent with those of the cellular studies. Light distillates were found to be moderately toxic after oral administration to rats. Fuel upgrading, process modification, and appropriate occupational/environmental controls may ameliorate some of the biological effects of SRC materials and other coal liquids of high boiling point. Low-boiling SRC liquids appear to have little biological effects in the assays employed. (LTN)

  4. Comparatively Studied Color Correction Methods for Color Calibration of Automated Microscopy Complex of Biomedical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kravtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a task of generating the requirements and creating a calibration target for automated microscopy systems (AMS of biomedical specimens to provide the invariance of algorithms and software to the hardware configuration. The required number of color fields of the calibration target and their color coordinates are mostly determined by the color correction method, for which coefficients of the equations are estimated during the calibration process. The paper analyses existing color calibration techniques for digital imaging systems using an optical microscope and shows that there is a lack of published results of comparative studies to demonstrate a particular useful color correction method for microscopic images. A comparative study of ten image color correction methods in RGB space using polynomials and combinations of color coordinate of different orders was carried out. The method of conditioned least squares to estimate the coefficients in the color correction equations using captured images of 217 color fields of the calibration target Kodak Q60-E3 was applied. The regularization parameter in this method was chosen experimentally. It was demonstrated that the best color correction quality characteristics are provided by the method that uses a combination of color coordinates of the 3rd order. The study of the influence of the number and the set of color fields included in calibration target on color correction quality for microscopic images was performed. Six train sets containing 30, 35, 40, 50, 60 and 80 color fields, and test set of 47 color fields not included in any of the train sets were formed. It was found out that the train set of 60 color fields minimizes the color correction error values for both operating modes of digital camera: using "default" color settings and with automatic white balance. At the same time it was established that the use of color fields from the widely used now Kodak Q60-E3 target does not

  5. Is there a need for biomedical CBIR systems in clinical practice? Outcomes from a usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Sameer; Xue, Zhiyun; Long, L. Rodney; Bennett, Deborah; Ward, Sarah; Thoma, George R.

    2011-03-01

    Articles in the literature routinely describe advances in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) and its potential for improving clinical practice, biomedical research and education. Several systems have been developed to address particular needs, however, surprisingly few are found to be in routine practical use. Our collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has identified a need to develop tools to annotate and search a collection of over 100,000 cervigrams and related, anonymized patient data. One such tool developed for a projected need for retrieving similar patient images is the prototype CBIR system, called CervigramFinder, which retrieves images based on the visual similarity of particular regions on the cervix. In this article we report the outcomes from a usability study conducted at a primary meeting of practicing experts. We used the study to not only evaluate the system for software errors and ease of use, but also to explore its "user readiness", and to identify obstacles that hamper practical use of such systems, in general. Overall, the participants in the study found the technology interesting and bearing great potential; however, several challenges need to be addressed before the technology can be adopted.

  6. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  7. Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H M; Bowman, R V; Crossin, J; Lau, M A; Slaughter, R E; Passmore, L H; McCaul, E M; Courtney, D A; Windsor, M N; Yang, I A; Smith, I R; Keir, B J; Hayes, T J; Redmond, S J; Zimmerman, P V; Fong, K M

    2013-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. Screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of screening in Australia is unknown. This paper describes the rationale, design and methods of the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study. The aim of the study is to describe the methodology for a feasibility study of lung cancer screening by LDCT in Australia. The Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study is an ongoing, prospective observational study of screening by LDCT at a single tertiary institution. Healthy volunteers at high risk of lung cancer (age 60-74 years; smoking history ≥30 pack years, current or quit within 15 years; forced expiratory volume in 1s ≥50% predicted) are recruited from the general public through newspaper advertisement and press release. Participants receive a LDCT scan of the chest at baseline, year 1 and year 2 using a multidetector helical computed tomography scanner and are followed up for a total of 5 years. Feasibility of screening will be assessed by cancer detection rates, lung nodule prevalence, optimal management strategies for lung nodules, economic costs, healthcare utilisation and participant quality of life. Studying LDCT screening in the Australian setting will help us understand how differences in populations, background diseases and healthcare structures modulate screening effectiveness. This information, together with results from overseas randomised studies, will inform and facilitate local policymaking. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana - experiences from the Kumasi South Hospital: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2016-07-07

    Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline the challenges and motivations of the integration process. Qualitative phenomenological exploratory study design involving fieldwork observations, focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and key informants' interviews was employed to collect data. Policies and protocols outlining the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system to be parallel than integrated, health personnel providing herbal medicine perceived the system as integrated. Most patients were not aware of the herbal clinic in the hospital but those who had utilized services of the herbal clinic viewed the clinic as part of the hospital. The lack of a regulatory policy and protocol for the integration seemed to have led to the different perception of the integration. Policy and protocol to guide the integration are key recommendations.

  9. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  10. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  11. Whitehead Biomedical Research Building at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-04-01

    This case study of the Whitehead Biomedical Research Building is one in series of case studies for ''Laboratories for the 21st Century,'' a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings.

  12. Self-collection for under-screened women in a National Cervical Screening Program: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, M.; Hawkes, D; Mclachlan, E.; Anderson, S.; Arabena, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Commencing 1 December 2017, Australia introduced human papillomavirus (hpv)-based cervical screening. As part of this Australian renewed National Cervical Screening Program (ncsp) women who are either never- or under-screened and who refuse a practitioner collected sample will be able to collect their own sample for cervical screening. The aim of this study is to examine the quantitative results of a pilot study into the acceptability of the self-collection alternative pathway. Methods Eligible participants were offered the opportunity to collect their own sample. Those who agreed were given a flocked swab and an instruction sheet and took their own sample in an area of the health care clinic that afforded them adequate privacy. These samples were then given to clinic staff who returned them to Victorian Cytology Service (vcs) Pathology for hpv nucleic acid testing. Results Of 98 eligible women, seventy-nine undertook self-collection for hpv-based cervical screening. Seventy-seven produced valid results, 14 were positive for oncogenic hpv, with 10 undertaking follow-up. Three women were found to have cervical squamous abnormalities with two of those being high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesions. Conclusion The pilot study for self-collection for cervical screening produced quantitative data that were similar to that already reported in the literature, but had a much higher rate of acceptance compared with self-collection programs based in the home. PMID:29507492

  13. Financial Relationships between Organizations That Produce Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Biomedical Industry: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Campsall

    2016-05-01

    : guidelines produced by organizations reporting more comprehensive conflict of interest policies (per additional procedure, range 5-17 included fewer positive (rate ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 and more negative (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60 recommendations regarding patented biomedical products. The clinical practice guidelines produced by organizations reporting more comprehensive conflict of interest policies were also more likely to include disclosure statements for direct funding sources (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.56 and financial relationships of guideline committee members (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.79, but not financial relationships of the organizations (0 disclosures. Limitations of the study include the use of the National Guideline Clearinghouse as the single source of clinical practice guidelines and the self-report of survey responses and organizations' website postings.Financial relationships between organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines and biomedical companies are common and infrequently disclosed in guidelines. Our study highlights the need for an effective policy to manage organizational conflicts of interest and disclosure of financial relationships.

  14. Financial Relationships between Organizations That Produce Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Biomedical Industry: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campsall, Paul; Colizza, Kate; Straus, Sharon; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    ): guidelines produced by organizations reporting more comprehensive conflict of interest policies (per additional procedure, range 5-17) included fewer positive (rate ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95) and more negative (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60) recommendations regarding patented biomedical products. The clinical practice guidelines produced by organizations reporting more comprehensive conflict of interest policies were also more likely to include disclosure statements for direct funding sources (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.56) and financial relationships of guideline committee members (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.79), but not financial relationships of the organizations (0 disclosures). Limitations of the study include the use of the National Guideline Clearinghouse as the single source of clinical practice guidelines and the self-report of survey responses and organizations' website postings. Financial relationships between organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines and biomedical companies are common and infrequently disclosed in guidelines. Our study highlights the need for an effective policy to manage organizational conflicts of interest and disclosure of financial relationships.

  15. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of institutional climate in fostering diversity in biomedical research workforce: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Gary C; Hurd, Yasmin; Palermo, Ann-Gel S; Delbrune, Denise; Saran, Suman; Zony, Chati; Krulwich, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the barriers to diversity in biomedical research and describes the evolution of efforts to address climate issues to enhance the ability to attract, retain, and develop underrepresented minorities, whose underrepresentation is found both in science and medicine, in the graduate-school biomedical research doctoral programs (PhD and MD/PhD) at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. We also describe the potential beneficial impact of having a climate that supports diversity and inclusion in the biomedical research workforce. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine diversity-climate efforts are discussed as part of a comprehensive plan to increase diversity in all institutional programs: PhD, MD/PhD, and MD, and at the residency, postdoctoral fellow, and faculty levels. Lessons learned from 4 decades of targeted programs and activities at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine may be of value to other institutions interested in improving diversity in the biomedical science and academic medicine workforce. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Contribution for labelling study of cellular and molecular structures of biomedical interest with technetium 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebello, L.H.; Piotkwosky, M.C.; Pereira, J.A.A.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Silva, J.R.M.; Reis, R.J.N.; Pires, E.T.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1992-01-01

    The methodologies for labelling bacteria, planaria and cercaria from schistosomiasis evolution cycle and in oxamniquine with technetium 99 m, developed in the Biomedical Center of Rio de Janeiro University and in the Research Center of National Institute of Cancer are shown. (C.G.C.)

  18. Qualitative study of physicians' varied uses of biomedical research in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Moorhead, Laura L; Willinsky, John M

    2016-11-21

    To investigate the nature of physicians' use of research evidence in experimental conditions of open access to inform training and policy. This qualitative study was a component of a larger mixed-methods initiative that provided 336 physicians with relatively complete access to research literature via PubMed and UpToDate, for 1 year via an online portal, with their usage recorded in web logs. Using a semistructured interview protocol, a subset of 38 physician participants were interviewed about their use of research articles in general and were probed about their reasons for accessing specific articles as identified through their web logs. Transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Physician participants were recruited from and registered in the USA. 38 physicians from 16 US states, engaged in 22 medical specialties, possessing more than 1 year of experience postresidency training participated. 26 participants attested to the value of consulting research literature within the context of the study by making reference to their roles as clinicians, educators, researchers, learners, administrators and advocates. The physicians reported previously encountering what they experienced as a prohibitive paywall barrier to the research literature and other frustrations with the nature of information systems, such as the need for passwords. The findings, against the backdrop of growing open access to biomedical research, indicate that a minority of physicians, at least initially, is likely to seek out and use research and do so in a variety of common roles. Physicians' use of research in these roles has not traditionally been part of their training or part of the considerations for open access policies. The findings have implications for educational and policy initiatives directed towards increasing the effectiveness of this access to and use of research in improving the quality of healthcare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  19. Pressure-tuning FTIR Spectroscopy: Applications to Biomedical Research and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick T. T.

    2004-08-01

    A pressure-tuning FTIR spectroscopic technology for the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties at the molecular level in biological cells and tissues has been developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to study the molecular basis of various biomedical events including structural and dynamic changes of bio-molecules in diseased tissues and cells. After a brief introduction of this technology and a summary of various biomedical applications of this technology, details of the biomedical applications to the study of structural changes in bio-molecules of human tissues during the neoplastic transition and to the screening of human cervical cancer and precancerous lesions including clinical statistics are given.

  20. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Majority of women had poor knowledge. Mass media could be used to educate the women. There is a need to conduct community based study to know the practices of doctors and assess if they are educating and offering suggestions for screening. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Knowledge, Screening.

  1. Using typed dependencies to study and recognise conceptualisation zones in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    In the biomedical domain, authors publish their experiments and findings using a quasi-standard coarse-grained discourse structure, which starts with an introduction that sets up the motivation, continues with a description of the materials and methods, and concludes with results and discussions. Over the course of the years, there has been a fair amount of research done in the area of scientific discourse analysis, with a focus on performing automatic recognition of scientific artefacts/conceptualisation zones from the raw content of scientific publications. Most of the existing approaches use Machine Learning techniques to perform classification based on features that rely on the shallow structure of the sentence tokens, or sentences as a whole, in addition to corpus-driven statistics. In this article, we investigate the role carried by the deep (dependency) structure of the sentences in describing their rhetorical nature. Using association rule mining techniques, we study the presence of dependency structure patterns in the context of a given rhetorical type, the use of these patterns in exploring differences in structure between the rhetorical types, and their ability to discriminate between the different rhetorical types. Our final goal is to provide a series of insights that can be used to complement existing classification approaches. Experimental results show that, in particular in the context of a fine-grained multi-class classification context, the association rules emerged from the dependency structure are not able to produce uniform classification results. However, they can be used to derive discriminative pair-wise classification mechanisms, in particular for some of the most ambiguous types.

  2. Using typed dependencies to study and recognise conceptualisation zones in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available In the biomedical domain, authors publish their experiments and findings using a quasi-standard coarse-grained discourse structure, which starts with an introduction that sets up the motivation, continues with a description of the materials and methods, and concludes with results and discussions. Over the course of the years, there has been a fair amount of research done in the area of scientific discourse analysis, with a focus on performing automatic recognition of scientific artefacts/conceptualisation zones from the raw content of scientific publications. Most of the existing approaches use Machine Learning techniques to perform classification based on features that rely on the shallow structure of the sentence tokens, or sentences as a whole, in addition to corpus-driven statistics. In this article, we investigate the role carried by the deep (dependency structure of the sentences in describing their rhetorical nature. Using association rule mining techniques, we study the presence of dependency structure patterns in the context of a given rhetorical type, the use of these patterns in exploring differences in structure between the rhetorical types, and their ability to discriminate between the different rhetorical types. Our final goal is to provide a series of insights that can be used to complement existing classification approaches. Experimental results show that, in particular in the context of a fine-grained multi-class classification context, the association rules emerged from the dependency structure are not able to produce uniform classification results. However, they can be used to derive discriminative pair-wise classification mechanisms, in particular for some of the most ambiguous types.

  3. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Andrade, Dennia; Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos, Luana; Chaves Silva Carvalho, Isabel; Ferraz de Brito Penna Forte, Lilibeth; Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia de [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Falchete do Prado, Renata, E-mail: renatafalchete@hotmail.com [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos; Alves Cairo, Carlos Alberto [Division of Materials, Air and Space Institute, CTA, Praça Mal. do Ar Eduardo Gomes, 14, São José dos Campos 12904-000, SP (Brazil); Rodarte Carvalho, Yasmin [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys.

  4. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez de Andrade, Dennia; Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos, Luana; Chaves Silva Carvalho, Isabel; Ferraz de Brito Penna Forte, Lilibeth; Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia de; Falchete do Prado, Renata; Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos; Alves Cairo, Carlos Alberto; Rodarte Carvalho, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys

  5. Does gender discrimination impact regular mammography screening? Findings from the race differences in screening mammography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A

    2008-03-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.

  6. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  7. Breast Cancer Challenges and Screening in China: Lessons From Current Registry Data and Population Screening Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Xin-Na; Yang, Hua-Bing; Li, Yu-Chen; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Ren, Jun; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2015-07-01

    screening program targeting women aged 35-59 years had a low detection rate that resulted in a second-generation screening program that extended the cohort size and ages screened to 35-64 years. Cancer registration has been active in China for decades; however, a national survey of registries has not been routinely reported. This study used MapInfo to describe the reported data and found asymmetric registration activities, geographic variations in breast cancer (BC) burdens, and an increasing incidence with a peak at age 50. The initial Chinese BC screening programs focused on a relatively young population of women aged 35-59 years and had a low detection rate, but 69.7% of patients had early stage BC. Older women were included in the second-generation screening programs, and an additional 6 million women were screened. Consideration of regional variations and age is necessary to optimize the efficiency and utility of BC screening in China, with the ultimate goal to reduce BC mortality. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Public views on the donation and use of human biological samples in biomedical research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Clotworthy, Margaret; Hilton, Shona; Magee, Caroline; Robertson, Mark J; Stubbins, Lesley J; Corfield, Julie

    2013-08-07

    A mixed methods study exploring the UK general public's willingness to donate human biosamples (HBSs) for biomedical research. Cross-sectional focus groups followed by an online survey. Twelve focus groups (81 participants) selectively sampled to reflect a range of demographic groups; 1110 survey responders recruited through a stratified sampling method with quotas set on sex, age, geographical location, socioeconomic group and ethnicity. (1) Identify participants' willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research, (2) explore acceptability towards donating different types of HBSs in various settings and (3) explore preferences regarding use and access to HBSs. 87% of survey participants thought donation of HBSs was important and 75% wanted to be asked to donate in general. Responders who self-reported having some or good knowledge of the medical research process were significantly more likely to want to donate (pfamily members might benefit. The most controversial types of HBSs to donate included: brain post mortem (29% would donate), eyes post mortem (35%), embryos (44%), spare eggs (48%) and sperm (58%). Regarding the use of samples, there were concerns over animal research (34%), research conducted outside the UK (35%), and research conducted by pharmaceutical companies (56%), although education and discussion were found to alleviate such concerns. There is a high level of public support and willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research. Underlying concerns exist regarding the use of certain types of HBSs and conditions under which they are used. Improved education and more controlled forms of consent for sensitive samples may mitigate such concerns.

  9. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Background Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country’s international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) a...

  10. Use of Indian digital libraries by biomedical practitioners in West Bengal region: a study

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Susmita; Das, Anup Kumar; Sen, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Internet by students, teachers, researchers, journalists, librarians, information scientists, and numerous other professionals have already gathered momentum in our country with the strengthening of information infrastructure day-by-day. The number of Internet service providers, personal Internet connections, institutional Internet connections, cyber cafes, etc are also multiplying at a rapid rate. Biomedical practitioners in the world are also finding Internet-based information r...

  11. Comparison of domestic violence screening methods: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, P M; Sikora, R; Williams, J M; Derk, S J

    1998-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated a number of barriers to screening for domestic violence (DV) in an emergency department setting. These barriers result in inconsistencies which determine who is screened as well as the content and quality of the information obtained, and if uncontrolled they are likely to affect measurements of DV incidence in ED populations. The objectives of this project were to design a screening tool that circumvented these barriers and sources of error; to assess whether such an alternative method of screening for DV was acceptable to our patients; and to determine whether the alternative and traditional methods of screening for DV would yield comparable results. Our hypotheses were that the alternative screening tool would be acceptable to our patients and that no significant differences would be found between the two methods. The study took place in a rural, university-affiliated ED with approximately 36,000 annual patient visits. The study population consisted of 186 women older than 18 years of age who were treated by one designated physician. Approximately half of these subjects were screened for DV in a face-to-face interview. The other half listened to a tape-recorded questionnaire and recorded their responses on a coded answer sheet. There were 175 completed screenings. The average age of all respondents was 34 years, and 90 (51%) indicated a cumulative lifetime experience of DV of some sort. Overall, 3% of the respondents indicated they were in the ED for injuries received as a result of DV. No significant differences were found between the two methods of screening for DV on any measurement, including refusals. No problems hearing the tape or understanding the instructions were reported. These results indicate that the alternative method of employing a recorded questionnaire was no less effective than the best efforts of a designated and conscientious physician. As a means of quickly assessing the prevalence of DV in an ED setting, we

  12. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  13. Using Animal Instincts to Design Efficient Biomedical Studies via Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiaheng; Chen, Ray-Bing; Wang, Weichung; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-10-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an increasingly popular metaheuristic algorithm for solving complex optimization problems. Its popularity is due to its repeated successes in finding an optimum or a near optimal solution for problems in many applied disciplines. The algorithm makes no assumption of the function to be optimized and for biomedical experiments like those presented here, PSO typically finds the optimal solutions in a few seconds of CPU time on a garden-variety laptop. We apply PSO to find various types of optimal designs for several problems in the biological sciences and compare PSO performance relative to the differential evolution algorithm, another popular metaheuristic algorithm in the engineering literature.

  14. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  15. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  16. Screening for skin cancer: A pilot study in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M Robati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of skin cancers by screening could be very beneficial to decrease their morbidity or mortality. There is limited study about skin cancer screening in Iran. Aim: This essay was planned as a pilot skin cancer screening campaign in Tehran, Iran to evaluate its profit and failure and further design large-scale screening program more definitely. Materials and Methods: Thirty one public health centers of Shahid Beheshti Medical University were selected in different areas of Tehran. The project was announced via media and invited all the people above 40 years old to come for the whole-body skin examination in a one-week period. Patients with any suspected lesions were referred to the dermatology clinics of the university. Results: 1314 patients, 194 males (14.8% and 120 females (85.2%, with mean age of 51.81 ± 10.28 years participated in this screening campaign. Physicians found suspected lesions in 182 (13.85% of participants. The diagnosis of skin cancer was confirmed in 15 (1.14% patients. These malignancies included 10 (0.76% cases of basal cell carcinoma, 2 (0.15% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 (0.23% cases of malignant melanoma. Conclusion: Skin cancer screening seems to be valuable to detect skin malignancies in their early course. Regarding the considerable amount of facilities needed to perform skin cancer screening program, it might be more beneficial to perform the targeted screening programs for the high-risk groups or emphasis more on public education of skin cancer risk factors and their early signs.

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  18. [Comparing audiological evaluation and screening: a study on presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Negretti, Camila Aparecida; Ueda, Kerli Saori; Moreira, Renata Rodrigues; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of presbycusis and the damage it brings about, a screening test can be useful in the identification of hearing loss in primary care. To estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in a representative sample of elderly people living at Butantan using an audiological screening method (questionnaire) and a basic audiological evaluation; to compare the results of the two kinds of evaluations, checking the validity of this tool for hearing loss screening. Cross sectional descriptive study. 200 individuals (above 60 years old, both genders) were randomly selected to undergo audiological screening (questionnaire). Another randomly selected group encompassed 100 individuals who were submitted to a set of audiological tests. Then, we compared the results from the two methods. There were no statistically significant associations between the questionnaire and the degree of hearing loss of the patients. The prevalence of hearing loss in our sample was of 56% in the screening and of 95% when checked by the audiological evaluation. Therefore, screening was not proven valid to assess hearing when compared to audiological evaluation.

  19. The Vulnerability of Study Participants in the Context of Transnational Biomedical Research: From Conceptual Considerations to Practical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Helen Grete; Schicktanz, Silke

    2017-08-01

    Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different. To overcome these shortcomings, we analyze and unite different approaches of vulnerability and develop practical criteria in order to operationalize the concept especially for the context of TBR. These criteria refer to the context of a study as well as the characteristics and the current living situation of study participants. Based on a case study of an HIV-vaccine-trial conducted in India we demonstrate how those criteria can be applied in a retrospective way to identify potential ethical conflicts. The criteria can also indicate a prospective function for ethical pre-assessment. For this, we provide an outlook for three major topics: 1. Vulnerability as a normative concept: Different ways of protection; 2. The relevance of transparency and 3. Vulnerability as an instrument to increase decision participation of human subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Summer Biomedical Engineering Institute 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloatch, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The five problems studied for biomedical applications of NASA technology are reported. The studies reported are: design modification of electrophoretic equipment, operating room environment control, hematological viscometry, handling system for iridium, and indirect blood pressure measuring device.

  1. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium ( 47 Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO 3 . In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47 Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.B.; Feng Liu; Alfano, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    This review highlights time-resolved fluorescence kinetics and photon transport in tissues and other biomedical media with a special emphasis on ultrafast measurements of key optical parameters. Measurements of fluorescence decay lifetimes from human breast and atherosclerotic artery tissues in the uv and visible region are described after a brief description of fundamentals of fluorescence kinetics. A time-dependent diffusion model for photon migration and various ultrafast methods for time-resolved light scattering measurements to obtain key optical parameters of tissues and other model turbid media are presented. The usefulness of optical parameters as markers in optical diagnostics and imaging is considered. Time-gated measurements of ballistic and snake photons to obtain shadowgrams and an inverse numerical reconstruction of the interior map of a turbid medium from time-resolved data in the context of optical tomography are presented. (author)

  3. PhysioNet: a research resource for studies of complex physiologic and biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, G B; Mark, R G; Goldberger, A L

    2000-01-01

    PhysioNet (http://www.physionet.org/) is a web-based resource supplying well-characterized physiologic signals and related open-source software to the biomedical research community. Inaugurated in September 1999 under the auspices of the NIH's National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), PhysioNet provides an on-line forum for free dissemination and exchange of research data and software, with facilities for cooperative analysis of data and evaluation of new analytic methods. As of September 2000, PhysioBank, the data archive made available via PhysioNet, contained roughly 35 gigabytes of recorded signals and annotations. PhysioNet is a public service of the Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals, a cooperative project initiated by researchers at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston University, McGill University, and MIT.

  4. Resilience of a FIT screening programme against screening fatigue: a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Lew, Jie-Bin; Dekker, Evelien; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated participation is important in faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a large number of screening invitations over time may lead to screening fatigue and consequently, decreased participation rates. We evaluated the impact of screening fatigue on

  5. Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Fisher, Celia B; Bookheimer, Susan; Brown, Sandra A; Evans, John H; Hopfer, Christian; Hudziak, James; Montoya, Ivan; Murray, Margaret; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-06-28

    Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing an integrated behavioural and biomedical model of disability in N-of-1 studies with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Francis; Johnston, Marie; Johnston, Derek W

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has supported an integrated biomedical and behavioural model explaining activity limitations. However, further tests of this model are required at the within-person level, because while it proposes that the constructs are related within individuals, it has primarily been tested between individuals in large group studies. We aimed to test the integrated model at the within-person level. Six correlational N-of-1 studies in participants with arthritis, chronic pain and walking limitations were carried out. Daily measures of theoretical constructs were collected using a hand-held computer (PDA), the activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometer and the data were analysed using time-series analysis. The biomedical model was not supported as pain impairment did not predict activity, so the integrated model was supported partially. Impairment predicted intention to move around, while perceived behavioural control (PBC) and intention predicted activity. PBC did not predict activity limitation in the expected direction. The integrated model of disability was partially supported within individuals, especially the behavioural elements. However, results suggest that different elements of the model may drive activity (limitations) for different individuals. The integrated model provides a useful framework for understanding disability and suggests interventions, and the utility of N-of-1 methodology for testing theory is illustrated.

  7. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) among Filipino newborn infants. Philippine Newborn Screening Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagela-Domingo, C; Padilla, C D; Cutiongco, E M

    1999-01-01

    From June 1996 to June 1998 a total of 62.841 newborn infants were screened for congenital hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone assay as a primary test. The method used was an immunofluorescent assay using the DELFIA TSH Kit on dried blood specimens collected by heelprick on filter paper. All infants with TSH values greater than 20 microU/ml were retested. If the results remained abnormally high, confirmatory testing was done by radioimmunoassay. All infants who were confirmed to be hypothyroid were referred to pediatric endocrinologists for initial management. The overall weighted incidence of congenital hypothyroidism obtained in this study was 0.000277 (95% CI; 0.000122 - 0.000432) or 1:3,610 which may be higher than that reported by most screening programs worldwide. The recall rate was 0.16%. The higher recall rate may be explained by early testing in a number of cases and by the possibility of iodine deficiency in some of the mothers. On the basis of the results of this study, we would recommend (1) screening on a greater number of infants to verify the incidence of CH and (2) establishing normal TSH values at different hours of life to improve our recall rate.

  8. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  9. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  10. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  11. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  12. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  13. A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THREE DAY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING BIOMEDICAL WASTE AMONG PARAMEDICAL STAFF OF DISTRICT HOSPITAL ETAWAH (UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Kumar Srivastava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biomedical waste by definition means “Any waste which is generated during the process of diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human or animal or in research activities pertaining there to in the production or testing of biological”Objectives:•    The level of awareness about various aspect of Bio Medical Waste management among the paramedical staff.•    To study the impact of three day training programme on knowledge of Bio Medical Waste management. Material & Methods: The present study  is a Cross sectional Study carried out to assess the impact of three day training programme on knowledge of Paramedical staff posted at District Hospital, Etawah. The change in knowledge was assessed using pre- test and post- test questionnaire.Result: A total of 72 paramedical staff participated in the study. Majority of the participants were unaware about the hazards associated with the improper handing f Biomedical wastes. The knowledge about the different color codes used for the segregation of biomedical waste was also very low. Similarly, the awareness about the vehicle used for the transportation of biomedical waste was also poor.Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is an urgent need for regular training for paramedical staff posted at District Hospital and other government hospital located in small District & town as awareness about the Biomedical waste among them is very low.

  14. The impact of formative testing on study behaviour and study performance of (bio)medical students: a smartphone application intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Anke L; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2015-04-10

    Formative testing can increase knowledge retention but students often underuse available opportunities. Applying modern technology to make the formative tests more attractive for students could enhance the implementation of formative testing as a learning tool. This study aimed to determine whether formative testing using an internet-based application ("app") can positively affect study behaviour as well as study performance of (bio)medical students. A formative testing app "Physiomics, to the next level" was introduced during a 4-week course to a large cohort (n = 461) of Dutch first year (bio)medical students of the Radboud University. The app invited students to complete 7 formative tests throughout the course. Each module was available for 3-4 days to stimulate the students to distribute their study activities throughout the 4-week course. 72% of the students used the app during the course. Study time significantly increased in intensive users (p Students with an average grade students; students scored the app with a grade of 7.3 ± 1.0 out of 10 and 59% of the students indicated that they would like the app to be implemented in future courses. A smartphone-based application of formative testing is an effective and attractive intervention to stimulate study behaviour and improve study performance in (bio) medical students.

  15. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. How is adults’ screen time behaviour influencing their views on screen time restrictions for children? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schoeppe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High screen time in children and its detrimental health effects is a major public health problem. How much screen time adults think is appropriate for children remains little explored, as well as whether adults’ screen time behaviour would determine their views on screen time restrictions for children. This study aimed to investigate how adults’ screen time behaviour influences their views on screen time restrictions for children, including differences by gender and parental status. Methods In 2013, 2034 Australian adults participated in an online survey conducted by the Population Research Laboratory at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Adult screen time behaviour was assessed using the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire. Adults reported the maximum time children aged between 5–12 years should be allowed to spend watching TV and using a computer. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compare adult screen time behaviour with views on screen time restrictions for children. Results Most adults (68 % held the view that children should be allowed no more than 2 h of TV viewing and computer use on school days, whilst fewer adults (44 % thought this screen time limit is needed on weekend days. Women would impose higher screen time restrictions for children than men (p  2 h on watching TV and using the computer at home on work days (66 % and non-work days (88 %. Adults spending ≤ 2 h/day in leisure-related screen time were less likely to permit children > 2 h/day of screen time. These associations did not differ by adult gender and parental status. Conclusions Most adults think it is appropriate to limit children’s screen time to the recommended ≤ 2 h/day but few adults themselves adhere to this screen time limit. Adults with lower screen use may be more inclined to limit children’s screen time. Strategies to reduce screen time in children may also need to target adult screen use.

  17. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  18. An intercultural study of first-person plural references in biomedical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Carciu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a contrastive analysis of biomedical research articles published in international English-medium journals and written by scholars from two cultural contexts (Anglo-American and Spanish. It first describes both similarities and differences in terms of the rhetorical effects that first-person plural references (“we”, “our” and “us” create across the different sections of the IMRaD pattern (Swales, 1990. Then, the functions of these pronouns are explored following Tang and John’s (1999 taxonomy of the discourse roles of personal pronouns. Quantitative results show that, overall, Spanish writers tend to use “we” pronouns more than their native counterparts, thus making themselves more visible in their texts particularly in Introduction and Discussion sections. On the other hand, results also indicate striking similarities regarding the discourse role of “we” as “guide”, “architect”, “opinion-holder” and “originator” –roles which seem to indicate writers’ awareness of the specific communicative purposes of “we” references in each RA section. This crosscultural variation is finally discussed in relation to the dominance of English as the international lingua franca of academic communication and research (Benfield & Howard, 2000; Tardy, 2004; Giannoni, 2008a.

  19. Expediting citation screening using PICo-based title-only screening for identifying studies in scoping searches and rapid reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, John; Albarqouni, Loai; Bakhit, Mina; Beller, Elaine; Byambasuren, Oyungerel; Hoffmann, Tammy; Scott, Anna Mae; Glasziou, Paul

    2017-11-25

    Citation screening for scoping searches and rapid review is time-consuming and inefficient, often requiring days or sometimes months to complete. We examined the reliability of PICo-based title-only screening using keyword searches based on the PICo elements-Participants, Interventions, and Comparators, but not the Outcomes. A convenience sample of 10 datasets, derived from the literature searches of completed systematic reviews, was used to test PICo-based title-only screening. Search terms for screening were generated from the inclusion criteria of each review, specifically the PICo elements-Participants, Interventions and Comparators. Synonyms for the PICo terms were sought, including alternatives for clinical conditions, trade names of generic drugs and abbreviations for clinical conditions, interventions and comparators. The MeSH database, Wikipedia, Google searches and online thesauri were used to assist generating terms. Title-only screening was performed by five reviewers independently in Endnote X7 reference management software using OR Boolean operator. Outcome measures were recall of included studies and the reduction in screening effort. Recall is the proportion of included studies retrieved using PICo title-only screening out of the total number of included studies in the original reviews. The percentage reduction in screening effort is the proportion of records not needing screening because the method eliminates them from the screen set. Across the 10 reviews, the reduction in screening effort ranged from 11 to 78% with a median reduction of 53%. In nine systematic reviews, the recall of included studies was 100%. In one review (oxygen therapy), four of five reviewers missed the same included study (median recall 67%). A post hoc analysis was performed on the dataset with the lowest reduction in screening effort (11%), and it was rescreened using only the intervention and comparator keywords and omitting keywords for participants. The reduction in

  20. Expediting citation screening using PICo-based title-only screening for identifying studies in scoping searches and rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rathbone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citation screening for scoping searches and rapid review is time-consuming and inefficient, often requiring days or sometimes months to complete. We examined the reliability of PICo-based title-only screening using keyword searches based on the PICo elements—Participants, Interventions, and Comparators, but not the Outcomes. Methods A convenience sample of 10 datasets, derived from the literature searches of completed systematic reviews, was used to test PICo-based title-only screening. Search terms for screening were generated from the inclusion criteria of each review, specifically the PICo elements—Participants, Interventions and Comparators. Synonyms for the PICo terms were sought, including alternatives for clinical conditions, trade names of generic drugs and abbreviations for clinical conditions, interventions and comparators. The MeSH database, Wikipedia, Google searches and online thesauri were used to assist generating terms. Title-only screening was performed by five reviewers independently in Endnote X7 reference management software using OR Boolean operator. Outcome measures were recall of included studies and the reduction in screening effort. Recall is the proportion of included studies retrieved using PICo title-only screening out of the total number of included studies in the original reviews. The percentage reduction in screening effort is the proportion of records not needing screening because the method eliminates them from the screen set. Results Across the 10 reviews, the reduction in screening effort ranged from 11 to 78% with a median reduction of 53%. In nine systematic reviews, the recall of included studies was 100%. In one review (oxygen therapy, four of five reviewers missed the same included study (median recall 67%. A post hoc analysis was performed on the dataset with the lowest reduction in screening effort (11%, and it was rescreened using only the intervention and comparator keywords and

  1. The potential harms of primary human papillomavirus screening in over-screened women: a microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Steffie K; de Kok, Inge M C M; Matthijsse, Suzette M; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2016-04-01

    It is well acknowledged that HPV testing should not be performed at young age and at short intervals. Cytological screening practices have shown that over-screening, i.e., from a younger age and at shorter intervals than recommended, is hard to avoid. We quantified the consequences of a switch to primary HPV screening for over-screened women, taking into account its higher sensitivity but lower specificity than cytology. The health effects of using the HPV test instead of cytology as the primary screening method were determined with the MISCAN-Cervix model. We varied the age women start screening and the interval between screens. In the sensitivity analyses, we varied the background risk of cervical cancer, the HPV prevalence, the discount rate, the triage strategy after cytology, and the test characteristics of both cytology and the HPV test. For women screened 5 yearly from age 30, 32 extra deaths per 100,000 simulated women were prevented when switching from primary cytology to primary HPV testing. For annual screening from age 20, such a switch resulted in 6 extra deaths prevented. It was associated with 9,044 more positive primary screens in the former scenario versus 76,480 in the latter. Under all conditions, for women screened annually, switching to HPV screening resulted in a net loss of quality-adjusted life years. For over-screened women, the harms associated with a lower test specificity outweigh the life years gained when switching from primary cytology to primary HPV testing. The extent of over-screening should be considered when deciding on inclusion of primary HPV screening in cervical cancer screening guidelines.

  2. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  3. Considering biomedical/CAM treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, JX; Widjaja, F; Choi, JE; Hendren, RL

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used to treat children with psychiatric disorders. In this review, MedLine was searched for various biomedical/CAM treatments in combination with the key words "children," "adolescents," "psychiatric disorders," and "complementary alternative medicine." The biomedical/CAM treatments most thoroughly researched were omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, and memantine. Those with the fewest published studies were N-acetylcysteine, vitamin B 12 , a...

  4. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falc?o, Andr? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  5. What Google Maps can do for biomedical data dissemination: examples and a design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianu, Radu; Laidlaw, David H

    2013-05-04

    Biologists often need to assess whether unfamiliar datasets warrant the time investment required for more detailed exploration. Basing such assessments on brief descriptions provided by data publishers is unwieldy for large datasets that contain insights dependent on specific scientific questions. Alternatively, using complex software systems for a preliminary analysis may be deemed as too time consuming in itself, especially for unfamiliar data types and formats. This may lead to wasted analysis time and discarding of potentially useful data. We present an exploration of design opportunities that the Google Maps interface offers to biomedical data visualization. In particular, we focus on synergies between visualization techniques and Google Maps that facilitate the development of biological visualizations which have both low-overhead and sufficient expressivity to support the exploration of data at multiple scales. The methods we explore rely on displaying pre-rendered visualizations of biological data in browsers, with sparse yet powerful interactions, by using the Google Maps API. We structure our discussion around five visualizations: a gene co-regulation visualization, a heatmap viewer, a genome browser, a protein interaction network, and a planar visualization of white matter in the brain. Feedback from collaborative work with domain experts suggests that our Google Maps visualizations offer multiple, scale-dependent perspectives and can be particularly helpful for unfamiliar datasets due to their accessibility. We also find that users, particularly those less experienced with computer use, are attracted by the familiarity of the Google Maps API. Our five implementations introduce design elements that can benefit visualization developers. We describe a low-overhead approach that lets biologists access readily analyzed views of unfamiliar scientific datasets. We rely on pre-computed visualizations prepared by data experts, accompanied by sparse and intuitive

  6. Impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Gómez, S.; Torres Tabanera, M.; Vega Bolivar, A.; Sainz Miranda, M.; Baroja Mazo, A.; Ruiz Diaz, M.; Martinez Miravete, P.; Lag Asturiano, E.; Muñoz Cacho, P.; Delgado Macias, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to perform a prospective assessment of the impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program during a period of 3 years. Materials and methods: Our study was carried out on a population of 21,855 asymptomatic women (45–65 years). Mammograms were processed in a CAD system and independently interpreted by one of six radiologists. We analyzed the following parameters: sensitivity of radiologist's interpretation (without and with CAD), detection increase, recall rate and positive predictive value of biopsy, CAD's marks, radiologist's false negatives and comparative analysis of carcinomas detected and non-detected by CAD. Results: Detection rate was 4.3‰. CAD supposed an increase of 0.1‰ in detection rate and 1% in the total number of cases (p < 0.005). The impact on recall rate was not significant (0.4%) and PPV of percutaneous biopsy was unchanged by CAD (20.23%). CAD's marks were 2.7 per case and 0.7 per view. Radiologist's false negatives were 13 lesions which were initially considered as CAD's false positives. Conclusions: CAD supposed a significant increase in detection, without modifications in recall rates and PPV of biopsy. However, better results could have been achieved if radiologists had considered actionable those cases marked by CAD but initially misinterpreted.

  7. Scintillating screens study for LEIR/LHC heavy ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Lefèvre, T; Scrivens, R; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed on different machines that scintillating ceramic screens (like chromium doped alumina) are quickly damaged by low energy ion beams. These particles are completely stopped on the surface of the screens, inducing both a high local temperature increase and the electrical charging of the material. A study has been initiated to understand the limiting factors and the damage mechanisms. Several materials, ZrO2, BN and Al2O3, have been tested at CERN on LINAC3 with 4.2MeV/u lead ions. Alumina (Al2O3) is used as the reference material as it is extensively used in beam imaging systems. Boron nitride (BN) has better thermal properties than Alumina and Zirconium oxide (ZrO2). BN has in fact the advantage of increasing its electrical conductivity when heated. This contribution presents the results of the beam tests, including the post-mortem analysis of the screens and the outlook for further measurements. The strategy for the choice of the screens for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), currently under ...

  8. On what grounds do women participate in prenatal screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Aro, A R; Hemminki, E

    1998-01-01

    of a procedure. The aim of this study was to examine Finnish women's knowledge and perceptions of, and stated reasons to participate in, two prenatal screening tests: serum screening and mid-trimester ultrasound screening. Subjects (n=1035) for the serum screening survey were catered for in the maternity care......Along with the rapid biomedical development of prenatal screening tests, target groups' attitudes and decision-making about, and the acceptance of, screening procedures have come into focus. To understand users' decision-making, it is essential to understand users' knowledge and perceptions...... hospital of another town; the response rate was 85 per cent. Women's perceptions of the studied prenatal screening tests, serum screening and mid-trimester ultrasound screening, differed significantly, even though both are used to detect fetal malformations. Serum screening was far more often perceived...

  9. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  10. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  11. A Study of the Information Literacy of Biomedical Graduate Students: Based on the Thesis Topic Discovery Process in Molecular Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhao-Yen Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical information environment is in a state of constant and rapid change due to the increase in research data and rapid technological advances. In Taiwan, few research has investigated the information literacy of biomedical graduate students. This exploratory study examined the information literacy abilities and training of biomedical graduate students in Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews based on the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology were conducted with 20 molecular biological graduate students. The interview inquired about their information-seeking channels and information literacy education. The findings show that the biomedical graduate students developed a workable thesis topic with their advisors. Through various information-seeking channels and retrieval strategies, they obtained and critically evaluated information to address different information needs for their thesis research. Through seminars, annual conferences and papers, the interviewees were informed of current developments in their field. Subsequently, through written or oral communications, they were able to integrate and exchange the information. Most interviewees cared about the social, economic, legal, and ethical issues surrounding the use of information. College courses and labs were the main information literacy education environment for them to learn about research skills and knowledge. The study concludes four areas to address for the information literacy of biomedical graduate students, i.e., using professional information, using the current information, efficiency in assessing the domain information, and utilization of diverse information channels. Currently, the interviewees showed rather low usage of library resources, which is a concern for biomedical educators and libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  12. A study of matching fluid loss in a biomedical microwave tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Colin; Zakaria, Amer; LoVetri, Joe; Pistorius, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Effective imaging of human tissue with microwave tomography systems requires a matching fluid to reduce the wave reflections at the tissue boundary. Further, in order to match the idealized mathematical model used for imaging with the complicated physical measurement environment, loss must be added to the matching fluid. Both too little and too much loss result in low-quality images, but due to the nonlinear nature of the imaging problem, the exact nature of loss-to-image quality cannot be predicted a priori. Possible optimal loss levels include a single, highly sensitive value, or a broad range of acceptable losses. Herein, the authors outline a process of determining an appropriate level of loss inside the matching fluid and attempt to determine the bounds for which the images are the highest quality. Our biomedical microwave tomography system is designed for 2D limb imaging, operating from 0.8 to 1.2 GHz. Our matching fluid consists of deionized water with various levels of loss introduced by the addition of table salt. Using two homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms, and eight different matching fluids of varying salt concentrations, the authors introduce quantitative image quality metrics based on L-norms, mean values, and standard deviations to test the tomography system and assess image quality. Images are generated with a balanced multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion algorithm. The authors further generate images of a human forearm which may be analyzed qualitatively. The image metrics for the phantoms support the claim that the worst images occur at the extremes of high and low salt concentrations. Importantly, the image metrics show that there exists a broad range of salt concentrations that result in high-quality images, not a single optimal value. In particular, 2.5-4.5 g of table salt per liter of deionized water provide the best reconstruction quality for simple phantoms. The authors argue that qualitatively, the human forearm data

  13. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  14. The potential harms of primary human papillomavirus screening in over-screened women: a microsimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Naber (Steffie); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is well acknowledged that HPV testing should not be performed at young age and at short intervals. Cytological screening practices have shown that over-screening, i.e., from a younger age and at shorter intervals than recommended, is hard to avoid. We quantified the

  15. Translation of biomedical prevention strategies for HIV: prospects and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Tique, José A; Cassell, Holly M; Pask, Megan E; Ciampa, Philip J; Audet, Carolyn M

    2013-06-01

    Early achievements in biomedical approaches for HIV prevention included physical barriers (condoms), clean injection equipment (both for medical use and for injection drug users), blood and blood product safety, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In recent years, antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of transmission (when the infected person takes the medicines; treatment as prevention) or reduce the risk of acquisition (when the seronegative person takes them; preexposure prophylaxis) have proven to be efficacious. Circumcision of men has also been a major tool relevant for higher prevalence regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. Well-established prevention strategies in the control of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis are highly relevant for HIV (ie, screening, linkage to care, early treatment, and contact tracing). Unfortunately, only slow progress is being made in some available HIV-prevention strategies such as family planning for HIV-infected women who do not want more children and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Current studies seek to integrate strategies into approaches that combine biomedical, behavioral, and structural methods to achieve prevention synergies. This review identifies the major biomedical approaches demonstrated to be efficacious that are now available. We also highlight the need for behavioral risk reduction and adherence as essential components of any biomedical approach.

  16. Relationship between quality and editorial leadership of biomedical research journals: a comparative study of Italian and UK journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Matarese

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of biomedical reporting is guided by statements of several organizations. Although not all journals adhere to these guidelines, those that do demonstrate "editorial leadership" in their author community. To investigate a possible relationship between editorial leadership and journal quality, research journals from two European countries, one Anglophone and one non-Anglophone, were studied and compared. Quality was measured on a panel of bibliometric parameters while editorial leadership was evaluated from journals' instructions to authors.The study considered all 76 Italian journals indexed in Medline and 76 randomly chosen UK journals; only journals both edited and published in these countries were studied. Compared to UK journals, Italian journals published fewer papers (median, 60 vs. 93; p = 0.006, less often had online archives (43 vs. 74; p<0.001 and had lower median values of impact factor (1.2 vs. 2.7, p<0.001 and SCImago journal rank (0.09 vs. 0.25, p<0.001. Regarding editorial leadership, Italian journals less frequently required manuscripts to specify competing interests (p<0.001, authors' contributions (p = 0.005, funding (p<0.001, informed consent (p<0.001, ethics committee review (p<0.001. No Italian journal adhered to COPE or the CONSORT and QUOROM statements nor required clinical trial registration, while these characteristics were observed in 15%-43% of UK journals (p<0.001. At multiple regression, editorial leadership predicted 37.1%-49.9% of the variance in journal quality defined by citation statistics (p<0.0001; confounding variables inherent to a cross-cultural comparison had a relatively small contribution, explaining an additional 6.2%-13.8% of the variance.Journals from Italy scored worse for quality and editorial leadership than did their UK counterparts. Editorial leadership predicted quality for the entire set of journals. Greater appreciation of international initiatives to improve biomedical reporting

  17. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?i?, Mladen; Bjelo?, Mirjana; Petrove?ki, Mladen; Kuzmanovi? Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Rami?, Senad; Mileti?, Daliborka; Andrija?evi?, Lidija; Kond?a Krstonijevi?, Edita; Jakovljevi?, Vid; Bi??an Tvrdi, Ana; Predovi?, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bi??an, Filip; Kova?evi? Ljubi?, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at...

  18. The art and science of selecting graduate students in the biomedical sciences: Performance in doctoral study of the foundational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Young; Berkowitz, Oren; Symes, Karen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study. These criteria were compared with competencies in the program defined as students who pass the curriculum as well as students categorized as High Performers. These data indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between FiBS performance and undergraduate GPA, GRE scores, and competitiveness of undergraduate institution. No significant correlations were found between FiBS performance and research background. By taking a data-driven approach to examine admissions and performance, we hope to refine our admissions criteria to facilitate an unbiased approach to recruitment of students in the life sciences and to share our strategy to support similar goals at other institutions.

  19. Evaluation of cancer service screening: case referent studies recommended.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Various cancer screening trials, randomised or otherwise controlled, have demonstrated reductions in cancer mortality. As a consequence, population screening programmes have been implemented. In the mean time, major advances are being made in early detection and treatment modalities of specific

  20. Studies Comparing Screen-Film Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer Screening: Updated Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaane, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has several potential benefits as compared with screen-film mammography (SFM) in mammography screening. Digital technology also opens for implementation of advanced applications, including computer-aided detection (CAD) and tomosynthesis. Phantom studies and experimental clinical studies have shown that FFDM is equal or slightly superior to SFM for detection and characterization of mammographic abnormalities. Despite obvious advantages, the conversion to digital mammography has been slower than anticipated, and not only due to higher costs. Until very recently, some countries did not even permit the use of digital mammography in breast cancer screening. The reason for this reluctant attitude was concern about lower spatial resolution and about using soft-copy reading. Furthermore, there was a lack of data supporting improved diagnostic accuracy using FFDM in a screening setting, since two pioneer trials both showed nonsignificantly lower cancer detection rate at FFDM. The 10 studies comparing FFDM and SFM in mammography screening published so far have shown divergent and rather conflicting results. Nevertheless, there is a rapid conversion to digital mammography in breast cancer screening in many western countries. The aim of this article is to give an updated review of these studies, discuss the conflicting findings, and draw some conclusions from the results

  1. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  2. Sensitivity study of the monogroove with screen heat pipe design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Austin L.; Joyce, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The present sensitivity study of design variable effects on the performance of a monogroove-with-screen heat pipe obtains performance curves for maximum heat-transfer rates vs. operating temperatures by means of a computer code; performance projections for both 1-g and zero-g conditions are obtainable. The variables in question were liquid and vapor channel design, wall groove design, and the number of feed lines in the evaporator and condenser. The effect on performance of three different working fluids, namely ammonia, methanol, and water, were also determined. Greatest sensitivity was to changes in liquid and vapor channel diameters.

  3. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  4. Screening frequency and histologic type influence the efficacy of cervical cancer screening: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; You, San-Lin; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chen, Chi-An

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of age, screening interval, and histologic type on the effect of Pap smears in cervical cancer screening. Data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry and Cervical Cancer Screening Registration System for the period from 2002 to 2010. Age, Pap smear interval, FIGO stage, and histology were further analyzed. A total of 12,294 women with cervical cancer were enrolled, including 10,040 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1720 with adenocarcinoma (ADC), 401 with adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), and 133 with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SMC). Women who had a Pap smear at an interval of cervical cancer screening (p Pap smear; however, women with ADCs were predominantly in the younger age and greater than 40% of women with ADCs had Pap smear at intervals Pap smear is more effective in screening for cervical SCCs compared to cervical ADCs. Improving adherence to screening recommendations is important for the prevention of cervical SCC, especially in elderly women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Towards a rational cervical cytology screening strategy - Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and age-specific prevalence rates of women who had been screened, relative prevalence by age group of women who had not been screened, and yield of screening were estimated from cytopathology laboratory records and available demographic data. Age-specific prevalence rates among women who had been ...

  6. Screening situations for risk of ethical conflicts: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol L; Hellyer, Joan Henriksen; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Miers, Anne G; Squire, Karina

    2015-05-01

    Ethical conflicts, often leading to poor teamwork and moral distress, are very challenging to patients, patients' families, and health care providers. A proactive approach to ethical conflicts may improve patient care outcomes. To examine acceptability and feasibility of an ethics screening and early intervention tool for use by nurses caring for critically ill patients. Twenty-eight nurses in 2 medical centers applied the ethics screening tool to 55 patient situations. Nurses assessed situations for risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts and analyzed level of risk. At study completion, nurses participated in focus group discussions about the tool's benefits and challenges. Frequency counts were performed on risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts. Content analysis was used on written explanations regarding high-, medium-, and low-risk situations and on focus group data. Older patients with multiple comorbid conditions and aggressive treatments were frequently assessed to be at risk for ethical conflicts. Nurses who witnessed patients' suffering and deterioration were likely to initiate the screening process. The most prominent family risk factors included unrealistic expectations and adamancy about treatment. The most prominent early indicators were signs of patients' suffering, unrealistic expectations, and providers' own moral distress. High-risk situations averaged a greater number of risk factors and early indicators than did medium- and low-risk situations. Certain risk factors featured prominently in high-risk situations. A phenomenon of shared suffering emerged from the study and signifies the importance of relational strategies such as routine family conferences and ethics consultation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last years computational methods lead to new approaches that can be applied within medical practice. Based on the tremendous advances in medical imaging and high-performance computing, virtual testing is able to help in medical decision processes or implant designs. Current challenges in medicine and engineering are related to the application of computational methods to clinical medicine and the study of biological systems at different scales. Additionally manufacturers will be able to use computational tools and methods to predict the performance of their medical devices in virtual patients. The physical and animal testing procedures could be reduced by virtual prototyping of medical devices. Here simulations can enhance the performance of alternate device designs for a range of virtual patients. This will lead to a refinement of designs and to safer products. This book summarizes different aspects of approaches to enhance function, production, initialization and complications of different types o...

  8. Development and validation study of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Kyeong; Kim, Ji-Hae; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a screening questionnaire that could distinguish individuals at high risk of smartphone overuse from casual users. The reliability, validity, and diagnostic ability of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire (SOS-Q) were evaluated. Preliminary items were assessed by 50 addiction experts on-line, and 28 questions were selected. A total of 158 subjects recruited from six community centers for internet addiction participated in this study. The SOS-Q, Young's internet addiction scale, Korean scale for internet addiction, and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale) were used to assess the concurrent validity. Construct validity was supported by a six-factor model using an exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency and the item-total correlations were favorable (α = 0.95, r = 0.35-0.81). The test-retest reliability was moderate (r = 0.70). The SOS-Q showed superior concurrent validity with the highest correlation between the S-Scale (r = 0.76). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.877. A cut-off point of 49 effectively categorized addiction high-risk group with a sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.86. Overall, the current study supports the use of SOS-Q as both a primary and supplementary measurement tool in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Bag of Concepts Approach for Biomedical Document Classification Using Wikipedia Knowledge*. Spanish-English Cross-language Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño-García, Marcos A; Pérez-Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido-Rifón, Luis E

    2017-10-26

    The ability to efficiently review the existing literature is essential for the rapid progress of research. This paper describes a classifier of text documents, represented as vectors in spaces of Wikipedia concepts, and analyses its suitability for classification of Spanish biomedical documents when only English documents are available for training. We propose the cross-language concept matching (CLCM) technique, which relies on Wikipedia interlanguage links to convert concept vectors from the Spanish to the English space. The performance of the classifier is compared to several baselines: a classifier based on machine translation, a classifier that represents documents after performing Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), and a classifier that uses a domain-specific semantic annotator (MetaMap). The corpus used for the experiments (Cross-Language UVigoMED) was purpose-built for this study, and it is composed of 12,832 English and 2,184 Spanish MEDLINE abstracts. The performance of our approach is superior to any other state-of-the art classifier in the benchmark, with performance increases up to: 124% over classical machine translation, 332% over MetaMap, and 60 times over the classifier based on ESA. The results have statistical significance, showing p-values knowledge mined from Wikipedia to represent documents as vectors in a space of Wikipedia concepts and translating vectors between language-specific concept spaces, a cross-language classifier can be built, and it performs better than several state-of-the-art classifiers.

  10. In silico assessment of biomedical products: The conundrum of rare but not so rare events in two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Cobelli, Claudio; Haddad, Tarek; Himes, Adam; Kovatchev, Boris; Palmer, Mark

    2017-05-01

    In silico clinical trials, defined as "The use of individualized computer simulation in the development or regulatory evaluation of a medicinal product, medical device, or medical intervention," have been proposed as a possible strategy to reduce the regulatory costs of innovation and the time to market for biomedical products. We review some of the the literature on this topic, focusing in particular on those applications where the current practice is recognized as inadequate, as for example, the detection of unexpected severe adverse events too rare to be detected in a clinical trial, but still likely enough to be of concern. We then describe with more details two case studies, two successful applications of in silico clinical trial approaches, one relative to the University of Virginia/Padova simulator that the Food and Drug Administration has accepted as possible replacement for animal testing in the preclinical assessment of artificial pancreas technologies, and the second, an investigation of the probability of cardiac lead fracture, where a Bayesian network was used to combine in vivo and in silico observations, suggesting a whole new strategy of in silico-augmented clinical trials, to be used to increase the numerosity where recruitment is impossible, or to explore patients' phenotypes that are unlikely to appear in the trial cohort, but are still frequent enough to be of concern.

  11. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  12. Overdiagnosis in organised mammography screening in Denmark. A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten J; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overdiagnosis in cancer screening is the detection of cancer lesions that would otherwise not have been detected. It is arguably the most important harm. We quantified overdiagnosis in the Danish mammography screening programme, which is uniquely suited for this purpose, as only 20......% of the Danish population has been offered organised mammography screening over a long time-period. METHODS: We collected incidence rates of carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer in areas with and without screening over 13 years with screening (1991-2003), and 20 years before its introduction (1971...

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krustev, P.; Ruskov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe different biomedical application using magnetic nanoparticles. Over the past decade, a number of biomedical applications have begun to emerge for magnetic nanoparticles of differing sizes, shapes, and compositions. Areas under investigation include targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection, gene therapy, high throughput genetic screening, biochemical sensing, and rapid toxicity cleansing. Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic behavior, magnetizing strongly under an applied field. In the second case (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) there is no permanent magnetism once the field is removed. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles are highly attractive as in vivo probes or in vitro tools to extract information on biochemical systems. The optical properties of magnetic metal nanoparticles are spectacular and, therefore, have promoted a great deal of excitement during the last few decades. Many applications as MRI imaging and hyperthermia rely on the use of iron oxide particles. Moreover magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies are also applied to hyperthermia and have enabled tumor specific contrast enhancement in MRI. Other promising biomedical applications are connected with tumor cells treated with magnetic nanoparticles with X-ray ionizing radiation, which employs magnetic nanoparticles as a complementary radiate source inside the tumor. (authors)

  14. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    A comparative study was conducted to assess the practices of medical waste disposal in some hospitals in Alexandria.[4] The results revealed that the most common problems associated with health care wastes are the absence of waste management, lack of awareness about their health hazards, insufficient financial and ...

  15. Biocompatibility study of two diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications by in vitro toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain); Mariani, Valentina [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Cohen, Dror [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Madi, Lea [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Thevenot, Julie; Oliveira, Hugo [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Coradeghini, Rosella [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Garanger, Elisabeth [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Rossi, François [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Oron, Miriam [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Lecommandoux, Sébastien [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Ponti, Jessica [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Heredia, Pedro, E-mail: heredia@gaiker.es [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Drugs used for chemotherapy normally carry out adverse, undesired effects. Nanotechnology brings about new horizons to tackle cancer disease with a different strategy. One of the most promising approaches is the use of nanocarriers to transport active drugs. These nanocarriers need to have special properties to avoid immune responses and toxicity, and it is critical to study these effects. Nanocarriers may have different nature, but polypeptide-based copolymers have attracted considerable attention for their biocompatibility, controlled and slow biodegradability as well as low toxicity. Little has been done regarding specific nanocarriers toxicity. In this study, we performed a thorough toxicological study of two different block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs); poly(trimethylene carbonate)-block–poly(l-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b–PGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block–poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-b–PBLG) with sizes between 113 and 131 nm. Low blood–serum–protein interaction was observed. Moreover, general toxicity assays and other endpoints (apoptosis or necrosis) showed good biocompatibility for both NPs. Reactive oxygen species increased in only two cell lines (HepG2 and TK6) in the presence of PTMC-b–PGA. Cytokine production study showed cytokine induction only in one cell line (A549). We also performed the same assays on human skin organ culture before and after UVB light treatment, with a moderate toxicity after treatment independent of NPs presence or absence. Interleukin 1 induction was also observed due to the combined effect of PEG-b–PBLG and UVB light irradiation. Future in vivo studies for biocompatibility and toxicity will provide more valuable information, but, so far, the findings presented here suggest the possibility of using these two NPs as nanocarriers for nanomedical applications, always taking into account the application procedure and the way in which they are implemented.

  16. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  17. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  18. Improving completion rates of students in biomedical PhD programs: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viđak, Marin; Tokalić, Ružica; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach. The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. We compared performance of PhD students between the new and existing programs and analyzed their current status, time to obtain a degree (from enrolment to doctorate), age at doctorate, number of publications on which the thesis was based and the impact factor of journals in which these were published. These improvement strategies were associated with higher thesis completion rate and reduced time to degree for students enrolled in the TRIBE program. There was no change in the impact factor or number of publications that were the basis for the doctoral theses. Our study describes good practices which proved useful in the design or reform of the PhD training program.

  19. Studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical, mechanical and electrical applications using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiji, Roya Roientan

    The promise of carbon nanotubes to provide high-strength composites implies that carbon nanotubes might find widespread use throughout the world, implying that humans everywhere will be exposed to carbon nanotube-containing materials. In order to study what effects if any carbon nanotubes might have on the function of living cells, we have studied the association of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a first step toward understanding the interaction of SWCNTs with living matter. Studies have been performed on both as-received and chemically oxidized SWCNTs to better understand the preferential association of ssDNA with SWCNTs. Samples of T30 ssDNA:SWCNT were examined under ambient conditions using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)) techniques. AFM images of well-dispersed, as-received SWCNTs revealed isolated features on the SWCNT that are 1.4 to 2.8 nm higher than the bare SWCNT itself. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed these features to be T30 ssDNA in nature. Chemically oxidizing SWCNTs before dispersion by sonication is found to be an effective way to increase the number of T30 ssDNA features. A series of experiments showed that free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid and trolox can effectively prevent the conjugation of ssDNA to SWCNTs, suggesting a significant role of free radicals in this association. Also hybridization of the complimentary ssDNA sequences showed the covalent nature of this association. These results are important to understanding the precise mechanism of ssDNA:SWCNT association and provide valuable information for future use in electronics, biosensors and as a possible drug carrier into individual cells. If SWCNTs are used in biosensor or circuit design applications then it is important to note how much energy can be stored in a SWCNT based on its shape and configuration before a permanent damage is introduced to it. Therefore a study has been done on bending SWCNTs into

  20. Awareness of Biomedical Waste Management among Dentists associated with Institutions and Private Practitioners of North India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Malvika; Sinha, Shruti; Mohiddin, Gouse; Panda, Abikshyeet; Dash, Kailash C; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to obtain information about knowledge, execution, and attitude toward biomedical waste (BMW) and its management. In the present study, a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire was designed to conduct a cross-sectional survey. It was distributed among 614 dentists (institution associated or private practitioners) in the cities of North India. The questionnaire comprised 36 questions regarding knowledge, execution, and attitude toward BMW and its management. Frequency distribution and chi-square test along with paired t-test were used to compare the data obtained between the private practitioners and institution-associated dentists. The study showed that 80% private practitioners were aware of the categories of BMW as compared with 100% of institution-associated dentists. However, 41% dentists associated with institution were disposing the chemical waste directly into sewer and a surprising high number of private practitioners were discarding directly without any treatment. Furthermore, regarding the mandatory maintenance of BMW records, 100% institution-associated respondents were aware, whereas only 6.5% private practitioners knew about it. Regarding BMW management not frequently being followed, 78% of private practitioners believed extra burden as the reason. Most of the dentists had adequate knowledge regarding BMW policies and its management. Although it was being practiced in mostly all the institutes on a regular basis, the majority of private practitioners were not practicing it due to various reasons, such as financial burden, lack of availability of service, and poor attitude toward its management. There is a need to make it compulsory and organize training sessions to educate the dental personnel and to establish the importance of proper management.

  1. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  2. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  3. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  4. Studying the influence of nanodiamonds over the elasticity of polymer/nanodiamond composites for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, T.; Mitev, D.; Radeva, E.; Iglic, A.; Presker, R.; Daniel, M.; Sepitka, J.; Krasteva, N.; Keremidarska, M.; Cvetanov, I.; Pramatarova, L.

    2014-12-01

    The combined unique properties offered by organic and inorganic constituents within a single material on a nanoscale level make nanocomposites attractive for the next generation of biocompatible materials. The composite materials of the detonation nanodiamond/polymer type possess spatial organization of components with new structural features and physical properties, as well as complex functions due to the strong synergistic effects between the nanoparticles and the polymer [1]. The plasma polymerization (PP) method was chosen to obtain composites of silicon-based polymers, in which detonation generated nanodiamond (DND) particles were incorporated. The composite layers are homogeneous, chemically resistant, thermally and mechanically stable, thus allowing a large amount of biological components to be loaded onto their surface and to be used in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, implants, stents, biosensors and other medical and biological devices. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main focus of research in regenerative medicine due to their extraordinary potential to differentiate into different kinds of cells including osteoblasts, which are needed for various bone disease treatments. However, for optimal usage of MSCs knowledge about the factors that influence their initial distribution in the human system, tissue-specific activation and afterwards differentiation into osteoblasts is required. In recent studies it was found that one of these factors is the elasticity of the substrates [2]. The choice of the proper material which specifically guides the differentiation of stem cells even in the absence of growth factors is very important when building modern strategy for bone regeneration. One of the reasons for there not being many studies in this area worldwide is the lack of suitable biomaterials which support these kinds of experiments. The goal of this study is to create substrates suitable for cell culture with a range of mechanical properties

  5. Studying the influence of nanodiamonds over the elasticity of polymer/nanodiamond composites for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikov, T; Iglic, A; Presker, R; Daniel, M; Sepitka, J; Krasteva, N; Keremidarska, M; Mitev, D; Radeva, E; Cvetanov, I; Pramatarova, L

    2014-01-01

    The combined unique properties offered by organic and inorganic constituents within a single material on a nanoscale level make nanocomposites attractive for the next generation of biocompatible materials. The composite materials of the detonation nanodiamond/polymer type possess spatial organization of components with new structural features and physical properties, as well as complex functions due to the strong synergistic effects between the nanoparticles and the polymer [1]. The plasma polymerization (PP) method was chosen to obtain composites of silicon-based polymers, in which detonation generated nanodiamond (DND) particles were incorporated. The composite layers are homogeneous, chemically resistant, thermally and mechanically stable, thus allowing a large amount of biological components to be loaded onto their surface and to be used in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, implants, stents, biosensors and other medical and biological devices. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main focus of research in regenerative medicine due to their extraordinary potential to differentiate into different kinds of cells including osteoblasts, which are needed for various bone disease treatments. However, for optimal usage of MSCs knowledge about the factors that influence their initial distribution in the human system, tissue-specific activation and afterwards differentiation into osteoblasts is required. In recent studies it was found that one of these factors is the elasticity of the substrates [2]. The choice of the proper material which specifically guides the differentiation of stem cells even in the absence of growth factors is very important when building modern strategy for bone regeneration. One of the reasons for there not being many studies in this area worldwide is the lack of suitable biomaterials which support these kinds of experiments. The goal of this study is to create substrates suitable for cell culture with a range of mechanical properties

  6. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data.

  7. Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Evelyn; Shi, Honglan; Wang, Tongwen; Ma, Yinfa; Fulmer, Alice; Adams, Craig

    2012-01-11

    This comprehensive study focused on the reactivity of a set of 62 pesticides via oxidization by free chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and permanganate; photodegradation with UV(254); and hydrolysis at pH 2, 7, and 12. Samples were analyzed using direct injection liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography-electron capture detection after liquid-liquid extraction. Many pesticides were reactive via hydrolysis and/or chlorination and ozonation mechanisms under typical drinking water treatment conditions, with less reactivity exhibited on average for chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and UV(254). The pyrazole and organophosphorous pesticides were most reactive in general, whereas carbamates and others were less reactive. The screening study provides guidance for the pesticide/oxidation systems that are most likely to lead to degradates in water treatment and the environment.

  8. Studying the correlation between different word sense disambiguation methods and summarization effectiveness in biomedical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Laura; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio J; Díaz, Alberto; Aronson, Alan R

    2011-08-26

    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) attempts to solve lexical ambiguities by identifying the correct meaning of a word based on its context. WSD has been demonstrated to be an important step in knowledge-based approaches to automatic summarization. However, the correlation between the accuracy of the WSD methods and the summarization performance has never been studied. We present three existing knowledge-based WSD approaches and a graph-based summarizer. Both the WSD approaches and the summarizer employ the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the knowledge source. We first evaluate WSD directly, by comparing the prediction of the WSD methods to two reference sets: the NLM WSD dataset and the MSH WSD collection. We next apply the different WSD methods as part of the summarizer, to map documents onto concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and evaluate the summaries that are generated. The results obtained by the different methods in both evaluations are studied and compared. It has been found that the use of WSD techniques has a positive impact on the results of our graph-based summarizer, and that, when both the WSD and summarization tasks are assessed over large and homogeneous evaluation collections, there exists a correlation between the overall results of the WSD and summarization tasks. Furthermore, the best WSD algorithm in the first task tends to be also the best one in the second. However, we also found that the improvement achieved by the summarizer is not directly correlated with the WSD performance. The most likely reason is that the errors in disambiguation are not equally important but depend on the relative salience of the different concepts in the document to be summarized.

  9. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. Text summarization in the biomedical domain: a systematic review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Bian, Jiantao; Fiszman, Marcelo; Weir, Charlene R; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Mostafa, Javed; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2014-12-01

    The amount of information for clinicians and clinical researchers is growing exponentially. Text summarization reduces information as an attempt to enable users to find and understand relevant source texts more quickly and effortlessly. In recent years, substantial research has been conducted to develop and evaluate various summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. The goal of this study was to systematically review recent published research on summarization of textual documents in the biomedical domain. MEDLINE (2000 to October 2013), IEEE Digital Library, and the ACM digital library were searched. Investigators independently screened and abstracted studies that examined text summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. Information is derived from selected articles on five dimensions: input, purpose, output, method and evaluation. Of 10,786 studies retrieved, 34 (0.3%) met the inclusion criteria. Natural language processing (17; 50%) and a hybrid technique comprising of statistical, Natural language processing and machine learning (15; 44%) were the most common summarization approaches. Most studies (28; 82%) conducted an intrinsic evaluation. This is the first systematic review of text summarization in the biomedical domain. The study identified research gaps and provides recommendations for guiding future research on biomedical text summarization. Recent research has focused on a hybrid technique comprising statistical, language processing and machine learning techniques. Further research is needed on the application and evaluation of text summarization in real research or patient care settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 'I got a letter...' a qualitative study of women's reasoning about attendance in a cervical cancer screening programme in urban Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, A; Tishelman, C; Widmark, C; Lundgren, E; Sachs, L; Törnberg, S

    2001-01-01

    This explorative study aims at investigating how 'healthy' women describe and reason about participation in a cervical cancer screening programme in Sweden. The study is part of a multidisciplinary research project studying a population-based cervical cancer-screening programme from the perspective of different actors. Data collection took place at three ante-natal health centres (ANHCs) in demographically diverse areas in the Stockholm region in spring 1995. Interviews were conducted and audiotaped with 66 'healthy' women at the ANHCs immediately before taking a Papanicolau test. Open questions such as 'Why have you come here today?' and 'What kind of test will you take?' were used to initiate the interview. Verbatim transcripts were analysed with a modified phenomenographical method to identify and describe qualitatively different ways of understanding cervical cancer screening. Four different ways of reasoning about cervical cancer screening are described, with only one similar to the biomedical rationale for screening with focus on attending for the test/results. Two types of reasoning refer to the invitation letter as a catalyst, with one emphasizing benefits in attendance and the second emphasizing hinders to attendance. A final way of reasoning focuses on the individual's own proactive role in prevention. Common themes are also identified. This study complements the research literature by providing a better knowledge base of the variations in reasoning among women attending screening, often seen as a homogenous group. It can contribute to better adapting the screening situation to the varied needs and expectations of the women who attend. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cognitive screening using a tape recorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Peter W; Lee, Stephen J; Davies, Graeme C

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether a tape recorder can be used to administer cognitive tests efficiently and yield valid results. Convenience sample. Administration of cognitive test materials by tape recorder and conventional technique. Outpatient clinic. Subjects from memory disorder clinic, hostel accommodation, and community. Responses to Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised, verbal fluency items from the controlled oral word association test, 10-item naming task, a construction task, and speed writing task. Performances on the tape- and clinician-administered battery of tests were highly correlated. Memory impairment was accurately detected using the tape battery. Data from 30 minutes of testing via tape were obtained at the cost to the clinician of 2 to 3 minutes of scoring time. Tape-administration of cognitive test material warrants further study as an efficient means of cognitive screening.

  13. Data-Driven Approaches for Computation in Intelligent Biomedical Devices: A Case Study of EEG Monitoring for Chronic Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Verma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent biomedical devices implies systems that are able to detect specific physiological processes in patients so that particular responses can be generated. This closed-loop capability can have enormous clinical value when we consider the unprecedented modalities that are beginning to emerge for sensing and stimulating patient physiology. Both delivering therapy (e.g., deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, etc. and treating impairments (e.g., neural prosthesis requires computational devices that can make clinically relevant inferences, especially using minimally-intrusive patient signals. The key to such devices is algorithms that are based on data-driven signal modeling as well as hardware structures that are specialized to these. This paper discusses the primary application-domain challenges that must be overcome and analyzes the most promising methods for this that are emerging. We then look at how these methods are being incorporated in ultra-low-energy computational platforms and systems. The case study for this is a seizure-detection SoC that includes instrumentation and computation blocks in support of a system that exploits patient-specific modeling to achieve accurate performance for chronic detection. The SoC samples each EEG channel at a rate of 600 Hz and performs processing to derive signal features on every two second epoch, consuming 9 μJ/epoch/channel. Signal feature extraction reduces the data rate by a factor of over 40×, permitting wireless communication from the patient’s head while reducing the total power on the head by 14×.

  14. Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-12-10

    To document albuminuria prevalence and its associated factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) adults with high renal and metabolic risks from 19 rural and remote north Queensland communities. One thousand nine hundred seventy-one indigenous adults were enrolled in 1998 and 566 completed follow up in 2007 in this population-based study. Measurements included weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity (PA). Albuminuria was defined as an UACR > =2.5 g/mol in males and > =3.5 g/mol in females. The association between albuminuria and biomedical factors was assessed with generalised linear modelling. Baseline albuminuria prevalence was 19.7 % (95 % CI: 18.0-21.6 %). Follow up prevalence was 42.4 % (95 % CI: 38.4-46.5 %) among the 566 adults having the 2(nd) UACR measurements. Follow-up albuminuria was associated with fasting glucose of 5.4 mmol/L (OR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.5-4.2), GGT tertiles in a dose-response manner (OR 2.0 for 2(nd) and 3.7 for 3(rd) tertile, p for trend albuminuria compared to TSI counterparts, while TSI smokers had twice the likelihood (95 % CI 1.2-3.2). At both baseline and follow up, albuminuria was more prevalent among older participants. Indigenous Australians in north Queensland are at high risk of albuminuria. Overweight and obesity, glycaemia, increased GGT, and smoking were associated with albuminuria at baseline and/or follow up.

  15. Performance of systematic and non-systematic ('opportunistic') screening mammography: a comparative study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Jensen, Allan; Olsen, Anne Helene

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation and comparison of the performance of organized and opportunistic screening mammography. METHODS: Women attending screening mammography in Denmark in 2000. The study included 37,072 women attending organized screening. Among these, 320 women were diagnosed with breast cancer...

  16. Fluidized beds with interal screens. II. Study in a cylindrical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodra, L.G.; Aragon, J.M.; Corella, J.

    1979-10-01

    A fluidized bed reactor with several horizontal tube screens was studied. The number of tubes in a row, the number of rows, and the height to the bottom of the screen were varied. The conversion increase for the chemical reaction of butanol and ammonia was used as a criterion to develop several correlations between screen efficiency and the above variables. The application of the results for the design of fluidized beds with internal screens is also given.

  17. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 6 out of 83 women had undergone screening. Though women had come into contact with doctors earlier, they were neither educated about cervical cancer nor were they told about the screening. Whatever little knowledge the women had was obtained from mass media. Conclusions: Majority of women had poor ...

  18. Studies of teh phytotoxicity of the seed of phytochemical screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytotoxicity of the seed and phytochemical screening of the leaf of Ricinus communis were investigated. The secondary metabolites in the leaf were screened and identified. The leaves were sun dried, pulverized and sieved. The resulting powdered extract was subjected to phytochemical tests. A proximate analysis ...

  19. SCREENING FOR LUNG CANCER BY IMAGING : THE NELSON STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, M.; Heuvelmans, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The NELSON trial is the first randomised lung cancer screening trial in which pulmonary nodule management is based on volumetry. This led to considerably less false-positive referrals compared to other lung cancer screening trials, with very high negative predictive values found in the first and

  20. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  1. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career "coaching" intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students' goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students' research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career development that students receive in their home training

  2. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  3. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    Full Text Available Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations.From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement.Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted.This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as

  4. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting

  5. Biomedical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Cruz, Marcos A E; Tovani, Camila B; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications. The chemical and physical properties of the surface of these materials allow their use in diagnosis, biosensing and bioimaging devices, drug delivery systems, and bone substitute implants. The toxicology of these particles is also discussed in the light of a new field referred to as nanotoxicology that studies the surface effects emerging from nanostructured materials.

  6. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  7. Studies on antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Mariba Waghmare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb. (A. campanulatus. Methods: Antibacterial activities of methanolic, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of corm of A. campanulatus were studied by agar diffusion technique to determine in vitro antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity was measured with respect to the standard antibacterial drug. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined by using serial dilution method to determine and evaluate antibacterial potency of test corm extracts of A. campanulatus. Results: The results showed significant antibacterial activities against four pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against test bacteria were found to be remarkable range in bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 0.25 mg/ well, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5 mg/well concentration, in Vibrio cholerae was 2 mg/ well, Streptococcus pyogenes at concentration of 0.5 mg/well and Proteus mirabilis was at concentration of 2 mg/well. Conclusions: The methanolic and petroleum ether extracts are capable to maximum inhibition of the tested pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Longitudinal cognitive screening study in community-dwelling individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P.M. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive changes in normal aging can be similar to the alterations that take place in the initial stages of a dementia process. Longitudinal studies can provide a better understanding of this progression. Objectives: To evaluate the cognitive and functional evolution of community-dwelling individuals without dementia through a three-year longitudinal study. Methods: 168 individuals were evaluated in 2006. Three years later in 2009, 73 of these subjects were reevaluated as regards cognition and functionality using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis included descriptive measurements, the Wilcoxon's test for intra-group comparison, and the Spearman's correlation coefficient test for comparing cognitive and functionality scores. Results: After three years, the Wilcoxon's test showed a discreet yet significant cognitive decline (MMSE: -0.7 points; p=0.02; Z= -2.29; and global score on the BCB: +3.6 points; p=0.02; Z= -2.29, in addition to functional decline (Pfeffer: +0.7 points; p= 0.001; Z= -3.38. Conclusions: After three years of follow-up we observed a discreet yet significant functional and cognitive decline in the subjects. Longitudinal cognitive screening represents an important strategy in the early identification of changes from normal conditions to a dementia process.

  9. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  10. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  11. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  12. Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: Screening and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Naggar, Amal Hamed; Baeshen, Areej Ali

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed insignificant differences in the selected species, with noticeably significant higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in U. lactuca by 4.2 and 3 times, with respect to P. boryana and U. intestinalis, respectively. The recorded increase in PUFAs was attributed to higher content of C16:4n-3, C18:3n-3 and C18:4n-3. By lipid fractionation, P. boryana showed significant higher concentration of neutral lipids (37.7 mg g -1 CDW, representing 46.7% of total fatty acids) in comparison to U. lactuca and U. intestinalis, which showed 16% and 17% lower neutral lipid fractions, respectively. In addition, biodiesel characteristics of the studied macroalgae complied with that of international standards. Furthermore, oil-free residual biomass can be readily converted into fermentable sugars or biogas due to its high carbohydrates content, which adds to the economics of macroalgae as biofuel feedstock. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that macroalgae represent an attractive alternative renewable feedstock for biodiesel and other biofuels. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening studies of yeasts capable of utilizing petroleum fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Masry, H.G.; Foda, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In these studies 23 yeasts cultures belonging to 10 genera of ascosporogenous, ballistosporogenous, and asporogenous yeasts, were screened with respect to their abilities of hydrocarbon utilization in synthetic media. Thus, kerosene, n-hexadecane, and wax distillate were compared as sole carbon sources in 2% final concentration. Kerosene exhibited marked inhibition on the growth of the majority of the strains, whereas active growth was observed with Debaryomyces vanrijii and many species of the genus Candida in media with n-hexadecane or wax distillate as sole source of carbon. In addition, some cultures belonging to the genera Sporobolomyces, Hansenula, Cryptococcus, and Trigonopsis could utilize some of these substrates, but to a lesser extent. Highest yield of cells and protein was obtained with Candida lipolytica NRRL 1094 in n-hexadecane medium, supplied with 0.03% yeast extract and trace element solutions. The results are discussed with respect to the possibilities of using new yeast genera, with special reference to the genus Debaryomyces, in microbial protein production.

  14. Basic study on the rectangular numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the optimum inter-key spacing of numeric rectangular keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) participated in the experiment. Each subject performed the data entry task using rectangular keys of touch devices. These keys were arranged in both horizontal and vertical layouts. The sizes of the rectangular keys in both layouts were 12 x 21 mm and 15 x 39 mm, and each of the inter-key spacing of each key was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. The response time with inter-key spacing of 3 mm was significantly faster than with the inter-key spacing of 0, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05). Keys of vertical position produced faster response time than that of horizontal position. The subjective ratings showed that the inter-key spacing of 6 mm was significantly better than the inter-key spacing of 0, 3, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05).

  15. Cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer screening: a simulation study based on ERSPC data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Carvalho, T M; Auvinen, A; Zappa, M; Nelen, V; Kwiatkowski, M; Villers, A; Páez, A; Moss, S M; Tammela, T L J; Recker, F; Denis, L; Carlsson, S V; Wever, E M; Bangma, C H; Schröder, F H; Roobol, M J; Hugosson, J; de Koning, H J

    2015-01-01

    The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs. Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests. Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained. Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. General practitioners' perceptions of population based bowel screening and their influence on practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Greer; Crane, Melanie; Lyons, Claudine; Burnham, Anna; Bowman, Tara; Perez, Donna; Travaglia, Joanne

    2017-03-15

    Although largely preventable, Australia has one of the highest rates of bowel cancer in the world. General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in prevention and early detection of bowel cancer, however in Australia this is yet to be optimised and participation remains low. This study sought to understand how GPs' perceptions of bowel screening influence their attitudes to, and promotion of the faecal occult blood test (FOBT), to identify opportunities to enhance their role. Interviews were conducted with 31 GPs from metropolitan and regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Discussions canvassed GPs' perceptions of their role in bowel screening and the national screening program; perceptions of screening tests; practices regarding discussing screening with patients; and views on opportunities to enhance their role. Transcripts were coded using Nvivo and thematically analysed. The study revealed GPs' perceptions of screening did not always align with broader public health definitions of 'population screening'. While many GPs reportedly understood the purpose of population screening, notions of the role of asymptomatic screening for bowel cancer prevention were more limited. Descriptions of screening centred on two major uses: the use of a screening 'process' to identify individual patients at higher risk; and the use of screening 'tools', including the FOBT, to aid diagnosis. While the FOBT was perceived as useful for identifying patients requiring follow up, GPs expressed concerns about its reliability. Colonoscopy by comparison, was considered by many as the gold standard for both screening and diagnosis. This perception reflects a conceptualisation of the screening process and associated tools as an individualised method for risk assessment and diagnosis, rather than a public health strategy for prevention of bowel cancer. The results show that GPs' perceptions of screening do not always align with broader public health definitions of 'population

  17. Disability and participation in breast and bowel cancer screening in England: a large prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floud, S; Barnes, I; Verfürden, M; Kuper, H; Gathani, T; Blanks, R G; Alison, R; Patnick, J; Beral, V; Green, J; Reeves, G K

    2017-11-21

    There is limited information about participation in organised population-wide screening programmes by people with disabilities. Data from the National Health Service routine screening programmes in England were linked to information on disability reported by the Million Women Study cohort participants. Of the 473 185 women offered routine breast or bowel cancer screening, 23% reported some disability. Women with disabilities were less likely than other women to participate in breast cancer screening (RR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.62-0.65) and in bowel cancer screening (RR=0.75, 0.73-0.76). Difficulties with self-care or vision were associated with the greatest reduction in screening participation. Participation in routine cancer screening programmes in England is reduced in people with disabilities and participation varies by type of disability.

  18. Prenatal maternal plasma DNA screening for cystic fibrosis: A computer modelling study of screening performance [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Old

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal cystic fibrosis (CF screening is currently based on determining the carrier status of both parents. We propose a new method based only on the analysis of DNA in maternal plasma. Methods: The method relies on the quantitative amplification of the CF gene to determine the percentage of DNA fragments in maternal plasma at targeted CF mutation sites that carry a CF mutation. Computer modelling was carried out to estimate the distributions of these percentages in pregnancies with and without a fetus affected with CF. This was done according to the number of DNA fragments counted and fetal fraction, using the 23 CF mutations recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics for parental carrier testing. Results: The estimated detection rate (sensitivity is 70% (100% of those detected using the 23 mutations, the false-positive rate 0.002%, and the odds of being affected given a positive screening result 14:1, compared with 70%, 0.12%, and 1:3, respectively, with current prenatal screening based on parental carrier testing. Conclusions: Compared with current screening practice based on parental carrier testing, the proposed method would substantially reduce the number of invasive diagnostic procedures (amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling without reducing the CF detection rate. The expected advantages of the proposed method justify carrying out the necessary test development for use in a clinical validation study.

  19. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Rob; de Koning, Harry; Threlfall, Anthony; Warmerdam, Peter; Street, Andrew; Friedman, Ellis; Woodman, Ciaran

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69.

  20. What explains the differences between centres in the European screening trial? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaakko; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tammela, Teuvo L; Roobol, Monique; Carlsson, Sigrid; Talala, Kirsi; Schröder, Fritz H; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-02-01

    The European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) is a multicentre, randomised screening trial on men aged 55-69 years at baseline without known prostate cancer (PrCa) at randomisation to an intervention arm invited to screening or to a control arm. The ERSPC has shown a significant 21% reduction in PrCa mortality at 13 years of follow-up. The effect of screening appears to vary across centres, for which several explanations are possible. We set to assess if the apparent differences in PrCa mortality reduction between the centres can be explained by differences in screening protocols. We examined the centre differences by developing a simulation model and estimated how alternative screening protocols would have affected PrCa mortality. Our results showed outcomes similar to those observed, when the results by centres were reproduced by simulating the screening regimens with PSA threshold of 3 versus 4ng/ml, or screening interval of two versus four years. The findings suggest that the differences are only marginally attributable to the different screening protocols. The small screening impact in Finland was not explained by the differences in the screening protocols. A possible reason for it was the contamination of and the unexpectedly low PrCa mortality in the Finnish control arm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  2. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  3. Does skin cancer screening save lives?: an observational study comparing trends in melanoma mortality in regions with and without screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinic, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Weinstock, Martin A; Geller, Alan C; Eisemann, Nora; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Breitbart, Eckhard

    2012-11-01

    From July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004, a population-based skin cancer screening project was conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In total, 360,288 individuals aged ≥20 years were screened by means of a whole-body examination. In this report, the authors compare trends in melanoma mortality in Schleswig-Holstein with those in all adjacent regions, none of which had population-based skin cancer screening. Trends in melanoma mortality rates for Schleswig-Holstein and the adjacent regions (Denmark and the German federal states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Hamburg, and Lower Saxony) and in Germany excluding Schleswig-Holstein were compared. Log-linear regression was used to assess mortality trends. In Schleswig-Holstein during the pre skin cancer screening period (1998-1999), the age-standardized melanoma mortality rate (World standard population) was 1.9 per 100,000 for men and 1.4 per 100,000 for women. Melanoma mortality declined by 47% to 1.0 per 100,000 men and by 49% to 0.7 per 100,000 women by 2008/2009. The annual percentage change in the most recent 10-year period (2000-2009) was -7.5% (95% confidence interval, -14.0, -0.5) for men and -7.1% (95% confidence interval, -10.5, -2.9) for women. In each of the 4 adjacent regions and in the rest of Germany, mortality rates were stable, and the decline in Schleswig-Holstein was significantly different from the changes observed in all of the other areas studied. The current data represent strong evidence, but not absolute proof, that the skin cancer screening program produced a reduction in melanoma mortality in Schleswig-Holstein. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  4. Low Cancer Screening Rates among Japanese People with Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Masaki; Nakaya, Naoki; Fujimori, Maiko; Higuchi, Yuji; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; So, Ryuhei; Kakeda, Kyoko; Kodama, Masafumi; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito

    2018-03-01

    Health care disparities among people with schizophrenia is a global concern. Our previous study revealed cancer screening rates in Japanese people with schizophrenia lower than rates of approximately 40% of the general population. However, that study was based on self-reports, which can be inaccurate, and rates did not differentiate the types of cancer screening provider (i.e., municipal screening, collective opportunistic screening, and individual opportunistic screening). This study aimed to investigate records-based cancer screening rates, focusing on participation rates of people with schizophrenia who are subject to municipal cancer screening programs. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a psychiatric hospital outpatient clinic from September to November 2016. We randomly extracted 420 potential participants from among 680 eligible patients and asked them to participate. We then selected subgroups of participants living in Okayama city who were enrolled in the National Health Insurance or Public Assistance systems and were subject to colorectal, gastric, lung, breast, or cervical cancer screening provided by Okayama city (n = 97, 96, 97, 42, and 64, respectively). Participation in cancer screenings was assessed based on local government records. Municipal cancer screening rates were as follows: 13.4% (95% confidence interval: 6.6%-20.2%) for colorectal, 7.3% (2.1%-12.5%) for gastric, 16.5% (9.1%-23.9%) for lung, 21.4% (9.0%-33.8%) for breast, and 14.1% (5.6%-22.6%) for cervical cancers. The findings demonstrated extremely low cancer screening rates among people with schizophrenia subject to municipal cancer screenings in Japan. A strategy to promote municipal cancer screening for people with schizophrenia is needed.

  5. Digital mammography in a screening programme and its implications for pathology: a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Most studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with conventional screen-film mammography (SFM) have been radiology-based. The pathological implications of FFDM have received little attention in the literature, especially in the context of screening programmes. The primary objective of this retrospective study is to compare FFDM with SFM in a population-based screening programme with regard to a number of pathological parameters.

  6. Tackling the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Mott, Isabela; Martins, Catarina; Couto, Francisco M; Cruz, Isabel F

    2018-01-15

    Biomedical ontologies pose several challenges to ontology matching due both to the complexity of the biomedical domain and to the characteristics of the ontologies themselves. The biomedical tracks in the Ontology Matching Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) have spurred the development of matching systems able to tackle these challenges, and benchmarked their general performance. In this study, we dissect the strategies employed by matching systems to tackle the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies and gauge the impact of the challenges themselves on matching performance, using the AgreementMakerLight (AML) system as the platform for this study. We demonstrate that the linear complexity of the hash-based searching strategy implemented by most state-of-the-art ontology matching systems is essential for matching large biomedical ontologies efficiently. We show that accounting for all lexical annotations (e.g., labels and synonyms) in biomedical ontologies leads to a substantial improvement in F-measure over using only the primary name, and that accounting for the reliability of different types of annotations generally also leads to a marked improvement. Finally, we show that cross-references are a reliable source of information and that, when using biomedical ontologies as background knowledge, it is generally more reliable to use them as mediators than to perform lexical expansion. We anticipate that translating traditional matching algorithms to the hash-based searching paradigm will be a critical direction for the future development of the field. Improving the evaluation carried out in the biomedical tracks of the OAEI will also be important, as without proper reference alignments there is only so much that can be ascertained about matching systems or strategies. Nevertheless, it is clear that, to tackle the various challenges posed by biomedical ontologies, ontology matching systems must be able to efficiently combine multiple strategies into a mature matching

  7. Nurses' roles in screening for intimate partner violence: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L

    2016-09-01

    To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.; Higashi, Yoshitaka; Fukuya, Tatsuro

    1989-11-01

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  9. Screening of Potential Lead Molecule as Novel MurE Inhibitor: Virtual Screening, Molecular Dynamics and In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Kunal; Kiranmayi, Patnala

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one of the most challenging tasks for the treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. To screen the potential MurE inhibitor by in silico approach and evaluate the best potential lead molecule by in vitro methods. In the current study, we have employed structure based virtual screening targeting the active site of MurE, followed by Molecular dynamics and in vitro studies. Virtual screening resulted in successful screening of potential lead molecule ((2R)-2-[[1-[(2R)- 2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino) propanoyl] piperidine-4-carbonyl]amino]-5-guanidino-pentan). The molecular dynamics of the MurE and Lead molecule complex emphasizes that lead molecule has shown stable interactions with active site residues Asp 406 and with Glu 460. In vitro studies demonstrate that the lead molecule shows antibacterial activity close to standard antibiotic Vancomycin and higher than that of Ampicillin, Streptomycin and Rifampicin. The MIC of lead molecule at 50μg/mL was observed to be 3.75 μg/mL, MBC being bactericidal with value of 6.25 μg/mL, cytotoxicity showing 34.44% and IC50 of 40.06μg/mL. These results suggest ((2R)-2-[[1-[(2R)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino) propanoyl] piperidine-4-carbonyl]amino]-5-guanidino-pentan) as a promising lead molecule for developing a MurE inhibitor against treatment of S. aureus infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Examining the role of collaboration in studies of health information technologies in biomedical informatics: A systematic review of 25 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikey, Elizabeth V; Reddy, Madhu C; Kuziemsky, Craig E

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to identify and examine studies of collaboration in relation to the use of health information technologies (HIT) in the biomedical informatics field. We conducted a systematic literature review of articles through PubMed searches as well as reviewing a variety of individual journals and proceedings. Our search period was from 1990-2015. We identified 98 articles that met our inclusion criteria. We excluded articles that were not published in English, did not deal with technology, and did not focus primarily on individuals collaborating. We categorized the studies by technology type, user groups, study location, methodology, processes related to collaboration, and desired outcomes. We identified three major processes: workflow, communication, and information exchange and two outcomes: maintaining awareness and establishing common ground. Researchers most frequently studied collaboration within hospitals using qualitative methods. Based on our findings, we present the "collaboration space model", which is a model to help researchers study collaboration and technology in healthcare. We also discuss issues related to collaboration and future research directions. While collaboration is being increasingly recognized in the biomedical informatics community as essential to healthcare delivery, collaboration is often implicitly discussed or intertwined with other similar concepts. In order to evaluate how HIT affects collaboration and how we can build HIT to effectively support collaboration, we need more studies that explicitly focus on collaborative issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Embryotoxicity of Mirtazapine: a study using Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňáková, E.; Hubičková, L.; Košťálová, J.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : embryo toxicity * screening test * mirtazapine Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  12. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  13. Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar citation rates: a case study of medical physics and biomedical engineering: what gets cited and what doesn't?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    There are often differences in a publication's citation count, depending on the database accessed. Here, aspects of citation counts for medical physics and biomedical engineering papers are studied using papers published in the journal Australasian physical and engineering sciences in medicine. Comparison is made between the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Papers are categorised into subject matter, and citation trends are examined. It is shown that review papers as a group tend to receive more citations on average; however the highest cited individual papers are more likely to be research papers.

  14. Disability and participation in breast and bowel cancer screening in England: a large prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Floud, S; Barnes, I; Verfürden, M; Kuper, H; Gathani, T; Blanks, R G; Alison, R; Patnick, J; Beral, V; Green, J; Reeves, G K

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited information about participation in organised population-wide screening programmes by people with disabilities. Methods Data from the National Health Service routine screening programmes in England were linked to information on disability reported by Million Women Study cohort participants. Results Of 473,185 women offered routine breast or bowel cancer screening, 23% reported some disability. Women with disabilities were less likely than oth...

  15. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  16. Estimating screening-mammography receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves from stratified random samples of screening mammograms: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Richard M; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Jiang, Yulei

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate stratified random sampling (SRS) of screening mammograms by (1) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment categories, and (2) the presence of breast cancer in mammograms, for estimation of screening-mammography receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in retrospective observer studies. We compared observer study case sets constructed by (1) random sampling (RS); (2) SRS with proportional allocation (SRS-P) with BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases accounting for 90.6% of all noncancer cases; (3) SRS with disproportional allocation (SRS-D) with BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases accounting for 10%-80%; and (4) SRS-D and multiple imputation (SRS-D + MI) with missing BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases imputed to recover the 90.6% proportion. Monte Carlo simulated case sets were drawn from a large case population modeled after published Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial data. We compared the bias, root-mean-square error, and coverage of 95% confidence intervals of area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimates from the sampling methods (200-2000 cases, of which 25% were cancer cases) versus from the large case population. AUC estimates were unbiased from RS, SRS-P, and SRS-D + MI, but biased from SRS-D. AUC estimates from SRS-P and SRS-D + MI had 10% smaller root-mean-square error than RS. Both SRS-P and SRS-D + MI can be used to obtain unbiased and 10% more efficient estimate of screening-mammography ROC curves. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Duracinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d’Articles Médicaux survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France, the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers’ satisfaction and perceived needs. Methods A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d’Interrogation, de Gestion et d’Analyse des Publications Scientifiques bibliometric database. Results Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches––accreditation to direct research––: 45%. 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79% or submit (27%, limited skills in English (40% or in writing (32%, and difficulty in starting writing (35%. 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%, critical reediting (63%, formatting (52%, and/or writing (41%, to save time (92% and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%. 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%, medical writing (21%, or publication (38% fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73% and/or by the added financial value obtained by their

  18. A retrospective study of the performance of radiographers in interpreting screening mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper provides data on the continued success of radiographers in reviewing mammograms with similar accuracy to screen readers. Method: The participants consisted of 7 radiographers and 2 current official screen readers. Two hundred and fifty sets of mammograms from 2003 were used in this study. Each participant reviewed each set of mammograms as a Rescreen or Recall. Patient outcomes were assessed by following up the results of any histology or pathology tests in 2003 or the 2005/2006 screening results. Results: The screen reader's sensitivities ranged from 79% to 93% and the specificities ranged from 82% to 84%. The radiographer values ranged from 57% to 97% and 63% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity values attained by some radiographers were equivalent to those of both the screen readers. Accuracy rates of the radiographers suggest that screen reading by selected and appropriately trained radiographers should be achievable in Australia.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy in diagnosis and screening

    CERN Document Server

    Severcan, F

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the use of vibrational spectroscopic methods for diagnosis and screening. These applications range from diagnosis of disease states in humans, such as cancer, to rapid identification and screening of microorganisms. The growth in such types of studies has been possible thanks to advances in instrumentation and associated computational and mathematical tools for data processing and analysis. This volume of Advances in Biomedical Spectroscopy contains chapters from leading experts who discuss the latest advances in the application of Fourier

  20. Capacity-Building for Career Paths in Public Health and Biomedical Research for Undergraduate Minority Students: A Jackson Heart Study Success Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Wendy Brown; Srinivasan, Asoka; Nelson, Cheryl; Fahmy, Nimr; Henderson, Frances

    2016-07-21

    This article chronicles the building of individual student capacity as well as faculty and institutional capacity, within the context of a population-based, longitudinal study of African Americans and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this article is to present preliminary data documenting the results of this approach. The JHS Scholars program is designed, under the organizational structure of the Natural Sciences Division at Tougaloo College, to provide solid preparation in quantitative skills through: good preparation in mathematics and the sciences; a high level of reading comprehension; hands-on learning experiences; and mentoring and counseling to sustain the motivation of the students to pursue further studies. This program is on the campus of a private Historically Black College in Mississippi. The participants in the program are undergraduate students. Data, which included information on major area of study, institution attended, degrees earned and position in the workforce, were analyzed using STATA 14. Of 167 scholars, 46 are currently enrolled, while 118 have graduated. One half have completed graduate or professional programs, including; medicine, public health, pharmacy, nursing, and biomedical science; approximately one-fourth (25.4 %) are enrolled in graduate or professional programs; and nearly one tenth (9.3%) completed graduate degrees in law, education, business or English. These data could assist other institutions in understanding the career development process that helps underrepresented minority students in higher education to make career choices on a path toward public health, health professions, biomedical research, and related careers.

  1. Applications of isotopes. [Need and cost of stable iotopes for use as tracers in biomedical and environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O are discussed.

  2. Handbook of photonics for biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donghyun; Somekh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides ...

  3. Evaluation of methods of detecting cell reactive oxygen species production for drug screening and cell cycle studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lampson M; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is essential to normal cell function. However, excessive ROS production causes oxidative damage and cell death. Many pharmacological compounds exert their effects on cell cycle progression by changing intracellular redox state and in many cases cause oxidative damage leading to drug cytotoxicity. Appropriate measurement of intracellular ROS levels during cell cycle progression is therefore crucial in understanding redox-regulation of cell function and drug toxicity and for the development of new drugs. However, due to the extremely short half-life of ROS, measuring the changes in intracellular ROS levels during a particular phase of cell cycle for drug intervention can be challenging. In this article, we have provided updated information on the rationale, the applications, the advantages and limitations of common methods for screening drug effects on intracellular ROS production linked to cell cycle study. Our aim is to facilitate biomedical scientists and researchers in the pharmaceutical industry in choosing or developing specific experimental regimens to suit their research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction to biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Splinter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    GENERAL BIOMEDICAL OPTICS THEORYIntroduction to the Use of Light for Diagnostic and Therapeutic ModalitiesWhat Is Biomedical Optics?Biomedical Optics TimelineElementary Optical DiscoveriesHistorical Events in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Use of LightLight SourcesCurrent State of the ArtSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory and Description of Light SourcesDefinitions in OpticsKirchhoff's Laws of RadiationElectromagnetic Wave TheoryLight SourcesApplications of Various LasersSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Classical OpticsGeometrical OpticsOther Optical PrinciplesQuantum PhysicsGaussian OpticsSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Interaction PropertiesAbsorption and ScatteringSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction VariablesLaser VariablesTissue VariablesLight Transportation TheoryLight Propagation under Dominant AbsorptionSummaryNomenclatureAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction Th...

  5. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Y. P. Leung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening; psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening; and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation. The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area.

  6. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  7. Rotterdam AMBlyopia screening effectiveness study: Detection and causes of amblyopia in a large birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Groenewoud (Hanny); A.M. Tjiam (Angela); V.K. Lantau (Kathleen); W.C. Hoogeveen; J.T.H.N. de Faber; R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Dutch population-based child health monitoring program includes regular preverbal (age range, 1-24 months) and preschool (age range, 36-72 months) vision screening. This study is on the contribution of an organized vision screening program to the detection of amblyopia.

  8. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  9. Superhydrophobic Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air state at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors’ future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic surfaces for biomedical applications. PMID:27449946

  10. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  11. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  12. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Robert H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer screening rates are low among disadvantaged patients; few studies have explored barriers to screening in community health centers. The purpose of this study was to describe barriers to/facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among diverse patients served by community health centers. Methods We identified twenty-three outpatients who were eligible for colorectal cancer screening and their 10 primary care physicians. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, we asked patients to describe factors influencing their screening decisions. For each unscreened patient, we asked his or her physician to describe barriers to screening. We conducted patient interviews in English (n = 8, Spanish (n = 2, Portuguese (n = 5, Portuguese Creole (n = 1, and Haitian Creole (n = 7. We audiotaped and transcribed the interviews, and then identified major themes in the interviews. Results Four themes emerged: 1 Unscreened patients cited lack of trust in doctors as a barrier to screening whereas few physicians identified this barrier; 2 Unscreened patients identified lack of symptoms as the reason they had not been screened; 3 A doctor's recommendation, or lack thereof, significantly influenced patients' decisions to be screened; 4 Patients, but not their physicians, cited fatalistic views about cancer as a barrier. Conversely, physicians identified competing priorities, such as psychosocial stressors or comorbid medical illness, as barriers to screening. In this culturally diverse group of patients seen at community health centers, similar barriers to screening were reported by patients of different backgrounds, but physicians perceived other factors as more important. Conclusion Further study of these barriers is warranted.

  14. HIV screening in pregnant women: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Biancone, Paolo; Brescia, Valerio; Camussi, Elisa; Martorana, Maria; Thomas, Robin; Secinaro, Silvana; Siliquini, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Vertical transmission represents the major route of HIV infection for children. However, the preventive interventions available are extremely effective. This review summarizes evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of mother-to-child-transmission preventive screenings, to help policy makers in choosing the optimal antenatal screening strategy. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted, using 3 databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry. All articles regarding HIV screening to avoid vertical transmission were included. The review included 21 papers. Seven studies assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal screening during early gestation. Two papers considered the integration of HIV screening with other medical interventions. Eight works estimated the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in late pregnancy. Finally, 4 papers considered the combination of multiple strategies. The selected papers focused on both developed and developing countries, with a different HIV prevalence. The characteristics and methodology of the studies were heterogeneous. However, all studies agreed about the main findings, outlining the cost-effectiveness of both universal antenatal screening and HIV rescreening in late pregnancy. Cost-effectiveness improved when HIV burden increased. The major findings were proved to be robust across various scenarios when tested in sensitivity analysis. The review confirmed the cost-effectiveness not only of HIV universal antenatal screening but also of rescreening in late gestation in both developed and developing countries. Universal screening is cost-effective even in case of extremely low HIV prevalence. Therefore, to maximize screening, coverage appears as a worldwide priority. In certain settings, a targeted screening towards high-risk groups could be a valuable option. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Honey/PVA hybrid wound dressings with controlled release of antibiotics: Structural, physico-mechanical and in-vitro biomedical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Tang, Youhong

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogel/honey hybrids manifest an attractive design with an exclusive therapeutic property that promotes wound healing process. The greater the concentration of honey within the formulation, the better the biomedical properties that will be achieved. However, an increase in the percentage of honey can negatively affect the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels. The need exists, therefore, to prepare wound dressings that contain high honey density with optimal biomedical, mechanical and physicochemical properties. In this study, a simple method for the preparation of a highly concentrated honey/PVA hybrid hydrogel with borax as the crosslinking agent is reported. Comprehensive evaluations of the morphology, swelling kinetics, permeability, bio-adhesion, mechanical characteristics, cytotoxicity, antibacterial property, cell proliferation ability and their controlling release properties were conducted as a function of crosslinking density. All the borax-induced hydrogels showed acceptable biocompatibility, and the incorporation of 1% borax in the hydrogel formulation produced optimal behaviours for wound addressing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of newborn hearing screening in a public hospital setting in South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Kanji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility of newborn hearing screening (NHS in a hospital setting with clinical significance for the implementation of NHS. Context-specific objectives included determining the average time required to screen each neonate or infant; the most suitable time for initial hearing screening in the wards; as well as the ambient noise levels in the wards and at the neonatal follow-up clinic where screening would be conducted. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal, repeated measures, within-subjects design was employed. The pilot study comprised 11 participants who underwent hearing screening. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The average time taken to conduct hearing screening using otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory brainstem response was 18.4 minutes, with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions taking the least time. Ambient noise levels differed between wards and clinics with the sound level readings ranging between 50 dBA and 70 dBA. The most suitable screening time was found to be the afternoons, after feeding times. Conclusion: Findings highlight important considerations when embarking on larger scale NHS studies or when planning a hospital NHS programme. Current findings suggest that NHS can be efficiently and effectively conducted in public sector hospitals in South Africa, provided that test time is considered in addition to sensitivity and specificity when deciding on a screening protocol; bar recognised personnel challenges.

  17. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Rob; Threlfall, A.; Warmerdam, Peter; Street, Andrew; Friedman, Eitan; Woodman, C.; Koning, Harry

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69. __DESIGN__: Computer simulation model which first simulates life histories for women in the absence of a screening programme for breast cancer and then assesses how these life histories would be changed by introducing different screenin...

  18. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  19. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  20. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Boer (Rob); A. Threlfall; P. Warmerdam (Peter); A. Street (Andrew); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Woodman; H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69.

  1. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  2. Screening of congenital CMV infection in saliva of neonates by PCR: report of a pilot screening study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimzad, Alireza; Afgeh, Seyyed Abolfazl; Eghbali, Elham; Abdinia, Babak; Shiva, Farideh; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of congenital infection in neonates. Most infants with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic at birth and not diagnosed on routine clinical examination. To identify these at-risk infants early in life, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are done to screen large populations of newborn infants. We carried out a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of CMV in saliva from newborns by DNA PCR assay. This study was performed from January 2012 to March 2012 at a maternity hospital in the south of Tehran. All newborns aged between 1 to 14 days born at this hospital were enrolled. Saliva specimens from newborns were collected by swabbing the inside of the baby's mouth and stored at -70 degrees C until PCR processing for virus detection. Six-hundred and twenty infants between 1 to 14 days of age were enrolled during the study period of two months. The PCR assay was positive for CMV in 2 newborns [0.3%]. Both of these infants were asymptomatic for congenital CMV at birth and also when followed up at three months and six months of age. Our findings reveal that because of a low yield of positive results, screening for congenital CMV infection would not be cost-effective in Iranian neonates.

  3. Biomedical Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, N.; Combi, C.; Tucker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the special topic of Methods of Information in Medicine on data mining in biomedicine, with selected papers from two workshops on Intelligent Data Analysis in bioMedicine (IDAMAP) held in Verona (2006) and Amsterdam (2007). Methods: Defining the field of biomedical data

  4. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  5. Biomedical research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The biomedical research Panel believes that the Calutron facility at Oak Ridge is a national and international resource of immense scientific value and of fundamental importance to continued biomedical research. This resource is essential to the development of new isotope uses in biology and medicine. It should therefore be nurtured by adequate support and operated in a way that optimizes its services to the scientific and technological community. The Panel sees a continuing need for a reliable supply of a wide variety of enriched stable isotopes. The past and present utilization of stable isotopes in biomedical research is documented in Appendix 7. Future requirements for stable isotopes are impossible to document, however, because of the unpredictability of research itself. Nonetheless we expect the demand for isotopes to increase in parallel with the continuing expansion of biomedical research as a whole. There are a number of promising research projects at the present time, and these are expected to lead to an increase in production requirements. The Panel also believes that a high degree of priority should be given to replacing the supplies of the 65 isotopes (out of the 224 previously available enriched isotopes) no longer available from ORNL

  6. Screen time is associated with depressive symptomatology among obese adolescents: a HEARTY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Wilson, Angela L; Phillips, Penny; Kenny, Glen P; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Alberga, Angela; Cameron, Jameason D; Tulluch, Heather; Sigal, Ronald J

    2016-07-01

    Obese adolescents spend a disproportionate time in screen-based activities and are at higher risk for clinical depression compared to their normal-weight peers. While screen time is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, little is known about the relationship between screen time and mental health. This cross-sectional study examines the association between duration and types of screen time and depressive symptomatology (subclinical symptoms) in a sample of 358 (261 female; 97 male) overweight and obese adolescents aged 14-18 years. Self-report measures assessed depressive symptoms and time spent in different types of screen behavior (TV, recreational computer use, and video games). After controlling for age, ethnicity, sex, parental education, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, caloric intake, carbohydrate intake, and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, total screen time was significantly associated with more severe depressive symptomatology (β = 0.21, p = 0.001). After adjustment, time spent playing video games (β = 0.13, p = 0.05) and recreational computer time (β = 0.18, p = 0.006) was associated with depressive symptoms, but TV viewing was not. Screen time may represent a risk factor or marker of depressive symptomatology in obese adolescents. Future intervention research should evaluate whether reducing screen exposure reduces depressive symptoms in obese youth, a population at increased risk for psychological disorders. • Screen time is associated with an increased risk of obesity in youth. • Screen time is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic profile in youth. What is New: • Screen time is associated with more severe depressive symptoms in overweight and obese adolescents. • Time spent in recreational computer use and playing video games, but not TV viewing, was associated with more severe depressive symptoms in overweight and obese adolescents.

  7. Influence of primary care practices on patients’ uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening: a qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Sturt, Jackie A; Hipwell, Alison; Stratton, Irene M; al-Athamneh, Nidal; Gadsby, Roger; O’Hare, Joseph Paul; Scanlon, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Background The NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme aims to reduce the risk of sight loss among people with diabetes in England by enabling prompt diagnosis of sight-threatening retinopathy. However, the rate of screening uptake between practices can vary from 55% to 95%. Existing research focuses on the impact of patient demographics but little is known about GP practice-related factors that can make a difference. Aim To identify factors contributing to high or low patient uptake of retinopathy screening. Design and setting Qualitative case-based study; nine purposively selected GP practices (deprived/affluent; high/low screening uptake) in three retinopathy screening programme areas. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients, primary care professionals, and screeners. A comparative case-based analysis was carried out to identify factors related to high or low screening uptake. Results Eight possible factors that influenced uptake were identified. Five modifiable factors related to service and staff interactions: communication with screening services; contacting patients; integration of screening with other care; focus on the newly diagnosed; and perception of non-attenders. Three factors were non-modifiable challenges related to practice location: level of deprivation; diversity of ethnicities and languages; and transport and access. All practices adopted strategies to improve uptake, but the presence of two or more major barriers made it very hard for practices to achieve higher uptake levels. Conclusions A range of service-level opportunities to improve screening attendance were identified that are available to practices and screening teams. More research is needed into the complex interfaces of care that make up retinopathy screening. PMID:25071061

  8. Influence of primary care practices on patients' uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Sturt, Jackie A; Hipwell, Alison; Stratton, Irene M; Al-Athamneh, Nidal; Gadsby, Roger; O'Hare, Joseph Paul; Scanlon, Peter H

    2014-08-01

    The NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme aims to reduce the risk of sight loss among people with diabetes in England by enabling prompt diagnosis of sight-threatening retinopathy. However, the rate of screening uptake between practices can vary from 55% to 95%. Existing research focuses on the impact of patient demographics but little is known about GP practice-related factors that can make a difference. To identify factors contributing to high or low patient uptake of retinopathy screening. Qualitative case-based study; nine purposively selected GP practices (deprived/affluent; high/low screening uptake) in three retinopathy screening programme areas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients, primary care professionals, and screeners. A comparative case-based analysis was carried out to identify factors related to high or low screening uptake. Eight possible factors that influenced uptake were identified. Five modifiable factors related to service and staff interactions: communication with screening services; contacting patients; integration of screening with other care; focus on the newly diagnosed; and perception of non-attenders. Three factors were non-modifiable challenges related to practice location: level of deprivation; diversity of ethnicities and languages; and transport and access. All practices adopted strategies to improve uptake, but the presence of two or more major barriers made it very hard for practices to achieve higher uptake levels. A range of service-level opportunities to improve screening attendance were identified that are available to practices and screening teams. More research is needed into the complex interfaces of care that make up retinopathy screening. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  9. A modified Delphi study of screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little reliable information on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD in Australia and no coordinated national approach to facilitate case detection. The aim of this study was to identify health professionals’ perceptions about screening for FASD in Australia. Method A modified Delphi process was used to assess perceptions of the need for, and the process of, screening for FASD in Australia. We recruited a panel of 130 Australian health professionals with experience or expertise in FASD screening or diagnosis. A systematic review of the literature was used to develop Likert statements on screening coverage, components and assessment methods which were administered using an online survey over two survey rounds. Results Of the panel members surveyed, 95 (73% responded to the questions on screening in the first survey round and, of these, 81 (85% responded to the second round. Following two rounds there was consensus agreement on the need for targeted screening at birth (76% and in childhood (84%. Participants did not reach consensus agreement on the need for universal screening at birth (55% or in childhood (40%. Support for targeted screening was linked to perceived constraints on service provision and the need to examine the performance, costs and benefits of screening. For targeted screening of high risk groups, we found highest agreement for siblings of known cases of FASD (96% and children of mothers attending alcohol treatment services (93%. Participants agreed that screening for FASD primarily requires assessment of prenatal alcohol exposure at birth (86% and in childhood (88%, and that a checklist is needed to identify the components of screening and criteria for referral at birth (84% and in childhood (90%. Conclusions There is an agreed need for targeted but not universal screening for FASD in Australia, and sufficient consensus among health professionals to warrant development and

  10. Novel magnetic multicore nanoparticles designed for MPI and other biomedical applications: From synthesis to first in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kratz

    Full Text Available Synthesis of novel magnetic multicore particles (MCP in the nano range, involves alkaline precipitation of iron(II chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. This step yields green rust, which is oxidized to obtain magnetic nanoparticles, which probably consist of a magnetite/maghemite mixed-phase. Final growth and annealing at 90°C in the presence of a large excess of carboxymethyl dextran gives MCP very promising magnetic properties for magnetic particle imaging (MPI, an emerging medical imaging modality, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible and thus potential candidates for future biomedical applications such as cardiovascular imaging, sentinel lymph node mapping in cancer patients, and stem cell tracking. The new MCP that we introduce here have three times higher magnetic particle spectroscopy performance at lower and middle harmonics and five times higher MPS signal strength at higher harmonics compared with Resovist®. In addition, the new MCP have also an improved in vivo MPI performance compared to Resovist®, and we here report the first in vivo MPI investigation of this new generation of magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting Modern Standards in Biomedical Research. ... biomedical techniques. SOTA biomedical science needs adequate financial investment for the scientific resources as well as stable civic infrastructure, thus these public institutions need more of such provisions.

  12. Screen time exposure and reporting of headaches in young adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagni, Ilaria; Guichard, Elie; Carpenet, Claire; Tzourio, Christophe; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to investigate whether excessive screen time exposure is associated with non-migraine headache and migraine in young adults. Background Increased levels of television time have been associated with increased risk of headache. However, time spent using newer electronic devices with a screen (smartphone, tablet) has not been examined yet. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 4927 participants of the French i-Share cohort. Demographic characteristics, screen time exposure (computers, tablets, smartphones and television) as well as headache/migraine symptoms were recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between screen time exposure and headache status. Results Participants had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. The multivariable model showed that students in the highest screen time exposure quintile had an increased risk for migraine. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.37 (1.14 to 1.66) for migraine when compared with students without headache and with low screen time exposure. This association was somewhat stronger for migraine without aura (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89). We found no significant association between screen time exposure and non-migraine headache. Conclusion High levels of screen time exposure are associated with migraine in young adults. No significant association was found with non-migraine headache.

  13. Men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J James

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. Screening for prostate cancer is widely accepted; however concerns regarding the harms outweighing the benefits of screening exist. Although patient's play a pivotal role in the decision making process, men may not be aware of the controversies regarding prostate cancer screening. Therefore we aimed to describe men's attitudes, beliefs and experiences of prostate cancer screening.Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to October 2016.Sixty studies involving 3,029 men aged from 18-89 years, who had been screened for prostate cancer by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA or Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and not screened, across eight countries were included. Five themes were identified: Social prompting (trusting professional opinion, motivation from family and friends, proximity and prominence of cancer; gaining decisional confidence (overcoming fears, survival imperative, peace of mind, mental preparation, prioritising wellbeing; preserving masculinity (bodily invasion, losing sexuality, threatening manhood, medical avoidance; avoiding the unknown and uncertainties (taboo of cancer-related death, lacking tangible cause, physiological and symptomatic obscurity, ambiguity of the procedure, confusing controversies; and prohibitive costs.Men are willing to participate in prostate cancer screening to prevent cancer and gain reassurance about their health, particularly when supported or prompted by their social networks or healthcare providers. However, to do so they needed to mentally overcome fears of losing their masculinity and accept the intrusiveness of screening, the ambiguities about the necessity and the potential for substantial costs. Addressing the concerns and priorities of men may facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screening

  14. Delay between pregnancy confirmation and sickle cell and thalassaemia screening: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormandy, Elizabeth; Gulliford, Martin C; Reid, Erin P; Brown, Katrina; Marteau, Theresa M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening sometimes occurs too late to allow couples a choice regarding termination of affected fetuses. The target gestational age for offering the test in the UK is 10 weeks. Aim To describe the proportion of women screened before 70 days' (10 weeks') gestation and the delay between pregnancy confirmation in primary care and antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening. Design of study Cohort study of reported pregnancies. Setting Twenty-five general practices in two UK inner-city primary care trusts offering universal screening. Method Anonymised data on all pregnancies reported to participating general practices was collected for a minimum of 6 months. Results There were 1441 eligible women intending to proceed with their pregnancies, whose carrier status was not known. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) gestational age at pregnancy confirmation was 7.6 weeks (6.0–10.7 weeks) and 74% presented before 10 weeks. The median gestational age at screening was 15.3 weeks (IQR = 12.6–18.0 weeks), with only 4.4% being screened before 10 weeks. The median delay between pregnancy confirmation and screening was 6.9 weeks (4.7–9.3 weeks) After allowing for practice level variation, there was no association between delay times and maternal age, parity, and ethnic group. Conclusion About 74% of women consulted for pregnancy before 10 weeks' gestation but fewer than 5% of women were screened before the target time of 10 weeks. Reducing the considerable delay between pregnancy confirmation in primary care and antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening requires methods of organising and delivering antenatal care that facilitate earlier screening to be developed and evaluated. PMID:18318968

  15. Screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in primary versus secondary care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dea, Angela

    2014-01-17

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.

  16. Comparison of Digital Screening Mammography and Screen-Film Mammography in the Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Cancers: A Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, Adriana M. J.; Holland, Roland; Karssemeijer, Nico; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare screen-film mammography with digital mammography in a breast cancer screening program, with a focus on the clinical relevance of detected cancers. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the regional medical ethics review board. Informed consent was not required. Before

  17. Comparison of digital screening mammography and screen-film mammography in the early detection of clinically relevant cancers: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, A.M.; Holland, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Heeten, G.J. den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare screen-film mammography with digital mammography in a breast cancer screening program, with a focus on the clinical relevance of detected cancers. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the regional medical ethics review board. Informed consent was not required. Before

  18. A study on knowledge and practice regarding biomedical waste management among staff nurses and nursing students of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are the centre of cure and also the important centres of infectious waste generation. Effective management of Biomedical Waste (BMW is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice in managing the biomedical wastes among nursing staff and student nurses in RIMS, Ranchi. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at RIMS, Ranchi from Oct 2013 to March 2014 (6 months. It was a descriptive, hospital based, cross-sectional study. A total of 240 nurses participated in the present study, randomly chosen from various departments A pre-designed, pre-tested, structured proforma was used for data collection after getting their informed consent. Self-made scoring system was used to categorize the participants as having good, average and poor scores. Data was tabulated and analyzed using percentages and chi-square test. Results: The knowledge regarding general information about BMW management was assessed(with scores 0-8,it was found  that level of knowledge was better in student nurses than staff nurses as student nurses scored good(6-8correct answers in more than half of the questions (65%.Whereas staff nurses scored good in only 33.33% questions. When the practical information regarding the BMW management is assessed (with scores 0-8, it was found that staff nurses had relatively better practice regarding BMW management than students as they scored good(6-8correct answers in 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusion: Though overall knowledge of study participants was good but still they need good quality training to improve their current knowledge about BMW. 

  19. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  20. CANCER SCREENING AWARENESS AMONG NURSING STAFF IN GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical and breast cancers are the common malignancies among female population in India. Though there are approved screening methods available to prevent and detect these cancers at an early stage, there is a lack of awareness about cancer screening among general public as well as the health care professionals. This study is aimed to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among the nursing staff regarding cancer screening in these two diseases. METHOD A cross-sectional interview based survey was conducted among 303 female nursing staff working in a government medical college hospital from November 2015 to December 2015. Ethical committee approval was taken. Verbal informed consent was sought from the study subjects. Nursing staff who gave consent to participate in the study were enrolled. There were no specific inclusion or exclusion criteria for the study subjects. A structured pretested questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP was used to collect the data. The questions were open-ended. Recall and recognition type of questions were used. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Total of 303 nurses included in the study. The age ranged from 21 to 64 years. Median age is 38 years. Only 24.4% (74/303 of Nurses were aware of cancer screening and many of them were aware of Pap smear (55.1%, 167/303 and mammogram (66.3%, 201/303 as investigational tools in diagnosing cancer. Only 17 out of 303 (5.6% nurses had Pap smear test done with an average of 1.23% Pap smear per individual. Mammogram screening was done in 13% (15/115 of the eligible nurses with an average of 1.2% mammogram per individual. The most common reason for not undergoing screening as expressed was they did not feel the need to be screened unless they were symptomatic (55%, they are too young for screening (14.8%, shyness (11.1%, fear (11.1% and lack of time (7.4%. However, 90% of them

  1. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  2. Effects of Promotional Materials on Attitudes and Fear towards Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese Older Adults: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chen, Joanne M T; Lou, Vivian W Q; Wong, Eliza M L; Chan, Aileen W K; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2017-07-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy. However, the promotion of CRC screening for older adults may be difficult because reading CRC prevention information may evoke embarrassment, fear, and anxiety towards the screening procedure and cancer diagnosis. This study aims to (1) examine the effects of three promotional materials for CRC screening on the attitudes toward CRC screening tests (screening interest, screening effectiveness, and trust in the screening results) and cancer fear, and (2) to explore the interaction effect of cancer fear with screening effectiveness and trust in the screening results on screening interest of the three screening tests (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) among Chinese older adults. A total of 114 community-dwelling older adults were asked to look at the corresponding promotional materials (pamphlet, cartoon, and video) of one of the three study groups. The pamphlet and video represent convention strategies and the cartoon represents an innovative strategy. No significant difference was observed in the screening interest and cancer fear across groups. FOBT was the most preferred screening modality. The video group has a large proportion agreed screening effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy than pamphlet and cartoon groups and trusted in the screening results for FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy than the pamphlet group. Logistic regression results showed that the effect of trust in the screening results on screening interest for colonoscopy was greater among participants with higher cancer fear than those with lower cancer fear level. In conclusion, the three promotional groups had produced similar results in their attitudes toward CRC screening and cancer fear. The use of cartoons may be a comparable approach with conventional methods in the promotion of CRC screening. Additional components that can arouse fear and boost response efficacy

  3. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  4. The effect of health literacy on knowledge and receipt of colorectal cancer screening: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignone Michael P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated one-half of Americans have limited health literacy skills. Low literacy has been associated with less receipt of preventive services, but its impact on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is unclear. We sought to determine whether low literacy affects patients' knowledge or receipt of CRC screening. Methods Pilot survey study of patients aged 50 years and older at a large, university-affiliated internal medicine practice. We assessed patients' knowledge and receipt of CRC screening, basic sociodemographic information, and health literacy level. We defined limited literacy as reading below the ninth grade level as determined by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Bivariate analyses and exact logistic regression were used to determine the association of limited health literacy with knowledge and receipt of CRC screening. Results We approached 105 patients to yield our target sample of 50 completing the survey (recruitment rate 48%. Most subjects were female (72%, African-American (58%, and had household incomes less than $25,000 (87%. Overall, 48% of patients had limited literacy skills (95% CI 35% to 61%. Limited literacy patients were less likely than adequate literacy patients to be able to name or describe any CRC screening test (50% vs. 96%, p Conclusion Patients with limited literacy skills are less likely to be knowledgeable of CRC screening compared to adequate literacy patients. Primary care providers should ensure patients' understanding of CRC screening when discussing screening options. Further research is needed to determine if educating low literacy patients about CRC screening can increase screening rates.

  5. [Economic impact of lung cancer screening in France: A modeling study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarme, S; Perrot, É; Reskot, F; Bhoowabul, V; Fourre, G; Souquet, P-J; Milleron, B; Couraud, S

    2017-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial found that, in a selected population with a high risk of lung cancer, an annual low-dose CT-scan decreased lung cancer mortality by 20% and overall mortality by 7% compared to annual chest X-Ray. In France, a work group stated that individual screening should be considered in this setting. However, the economic impact of an organized and generalized (to all eligible individuals) screening in France was never reported. This is a modeling study using French population demographic data and published data from randomized screening trials. We used the same selection criteria as NLST: 55-74-year-old smokers for at least 30 pack-years, current smoker or quit less than 15 years. We computed a second model including also 50-54-year-old individuals. Then, we used different participation rates: 65%, 45%, and 32%. According to the considered model, there would be 1,650,588 to 2,283,993 subjects eligible to screening in France. According to the model and participation rate, lung cancer screening would diagnose 3600 to 10,118 stages 1/2 lung cancer each year. There would be 5991 to 16,839 false-positives, of whom 1416 to 3981 would undergo unnecessary surgery. Screening policy would cost 105 to 215 € million per year. However, increasing the price of a cigarette pack by 0.05 to 0.10 € would fully cover the screening costs. Participation rate is a key point for screening impact. Screening could be easily funded by a small increase in cigarette prices. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  7. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  8. Economic evaluation, human immunodeficiency virus infection and screening: a review and critical appraisal of economic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Roberts, Tracy

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review, systematically and critically, evidence used to derive estimates of cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening. A systematic review was conducted. Searched were three main electronic bibliographic databases from 1993 to 2008 using key words including HIV, mass screening, HAART, economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, modeling. We included studies of sexually transmitted HIV infection in both sexes, including studies comparing diagnostic testing protocols and partner notification. Outcomes included were cases of HIV infection detected, deterioration to the AIDS state, secondary transmission of HIV, the quality-adjusted life-years/survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening. Eighty-four papers were identified; ten of which were formal economic evaluations, one cost study, three effectiveness studies, and three systematic reviews of HIV prevention programs. The predominant assertion was that HIV screening is cost-effective; methodological problems, such as the preponderance of static models which are inappropriate for infectious diseases, varying perspectives from which the studies were analyzed, and arbitrary threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio levels, limited the validity of these findings, and their usefulness in informing health policy decisions. The majority of published economic evaluations are based on inappropriate static models. This flaw renders the results of these studies as inconclusive and the purported cost-effectiveness of HIV screening debatable. The results of this review could form a basis for consideration of further research and analysis by health economists into the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening.

  9. A Student Team in a University of Michigan Biomedical Engineering Design Course Constructs a Microfluidic Bioreactor for Studies of Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-chi; Li, David; Al-Shoaibi, Ali; Bersano-Begey, Tom; Chen, Hao; Ali, Shahid; Flak, Betsy; Perrin, Catherine; Winslow, Max; Shah, Harsh; Ramamurthy, Poornapriya; Schmedlen, Rachael H.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a valuable model for teaching developmental, molecular, and cell biology; aquatic sciences; comparative anatomy; physiology; and genetics. Here we demonstrate that zebrafish provide an excellent model system to teach engineering principles. A seven-member undergraduate team in a biomedical engineering class designed, built, and tested a zebrafish microfluidic bioreactor applying microfluidics, an emerging engineering technology, to study zebrafish development. During the semester, students learned engineering and biology experimental design, chip microfabrication, mathematical modeling, zebrafish husbandry, principles of developmental biology, fluid dynamics, microscopy, and basic molecular biology theory and techniques. The team worked to maximize each person's contribution and presented weekly written and oral reports. Two postdoctoral fellows, a graduate student, and three faculty instructors coordinated and directed the team in an optimal blending of engineering, molecular, and developmental biology skill sets. The students presented two posters, including one at the Zebrafish meetings in Madison, Wisconsin (June 2008). PMID:19292670

  10. An assessment of the efficacy of searching in biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE in identifying studies for a systematic review on ward closures as an infection control intervention to control outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoojin; Powelson, Susan E; Wong, Holly; Ghali, William A; Conly, John M

    2014-11-11

    The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews. We analyzed the results from a systematic review conducted by the authors and others on ward closure as an infection control practice. Ovid MEDLINE including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, and IndMED were systematically searched for articles of any study type discussing ward closure, as were bibliographies of selected articles and recent infection control conference abstracts. Search results were tracked, recorded, and analyzed using a relative recall method. The sensitivity of searching in each database was calculated. Two thousand ninety-five unique citations were identified and screened for inclusion in the systematic review: 2,060 from database searching and 35 from hand searching and other sources. Ninety-seven citations were included in the final review. MEDLINE and Embase searches each retrieved 80 of the 97 articles included, only 4 articles from each database were unique. The CINAHL search retrieved 35 included articles, and 4 were unique. The IndMED and LILACS searches did not retrieve any included articles, although 75 of the included articles were indexed in LILACS. The true value of using regional databases, particularly LILACS, may lie with the ability to search in the language spoken in the region. Eight articles were found only through hand searching. Identifying studies for a systematic review where the research is observational is complex. The value each individual study contributes to the review cannot be accurately measured. Consequently, we could not determine the value of results found from searching beyond MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL with accuracy. However, hand searching for serendipitous retrieval remains an important aspect due to indexing and keyword challenges inherent in this literature.

  11. Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, David

    2017-06-11

    To explore community knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda so as to generate data to inform interventions. A qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Discussions and interviews carried out in the community within two districts in Eastern Uganda. Ten ( 10) focus group discussions with 119 screening-eligible women aged between 25 and 49 years and 11 key informant interviews with healthcare providers and administrators. Study participants' knowledge about cervical cancer causes, signs and symptoms, testing methods and prevention was poor. Many participants attributed the cause of cervical cancer to use of contraception while key informants said that some believed it was due to witchcraft. Perceptions towards cervical cancer and screening were majorly positive with many participants stating that they were at risk of getting cervical cancer. The facilitators to accessing cervical cancer screening were: experiencing signs and symptoms of cervical cancer, family history of the disease and awareness of the disease/screening service. Lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, health system challenges, fear of test outcome and consequences and financial constraints were barriers to cervical cancer screening. Whereas perceptions towards cervical cancer and screening were positive, knowledge of study participants on cervical cancer was poor. To improve cervical cancer screening, effort should be focused on reducing identified barriers and enhancing facilitators. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Genetic screening in the Persian Jewish community: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Michael; Lopatequi, Jean; Portuges, Amin Riley; Quindipan, Cathy; Pariani, Mitchel; Salimpour-Davidov, Nilou; Rimoin, David L

    2010-10-01

    Israeli investigators have identified several relatively frequent disorders due to founder point mutations in Persian (Iranian) Jews, who, for nearly three centuries up to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, were completely isolated reproductively. Using a community-based model previously employed with Tay-Sachs disease prevention, we developed a pilot program for the Persian Jewish community of greater Los Angeles. We screened for mutations responsible for four relatively frequent autosomal recessive conditions in Persian Jews in which effective interventions are available for each: Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (butyryl cholinesterase deficiency); Congenital hypoaldosteronism (corticosterone methyl oxidase II); Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (autoimmune regulatory element); and Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy. One thousand individuals volunteered. Mutations were assessed in saliva-derived DNA and were positive for 121/1000 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency; 92/1000 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy; 38/1000 corticosterone methyl oxidase II; and 37/1000 autoimmune regulatory element. Ten homozygous individuals (9 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and 1 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy) and 10 "at-risk" couples (seven for butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and one each for the other three disorders) were identified. These frequencies are comparable with those in Israel and indicate an extraordinary level of inbreeding, as anticipated. A carefully planned effort can be delivered to an "increased risk" community if detailed attention is given to planning and organization. However, availability of an effective intervention for those found to be "at-risk" or possibly affected, is essential before embarking.

  13. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...... spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy....

  14. What Do Men Want from a Health Screening Mobile App? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Chin Hai; Ng, Chirk Jenn; White, Alan

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of mobile app which aims to improve health screening uptake developed for men. As part of the study to develop an effective mobile app to increase health screening uptake in men, we conducted a needs assessment to find out what do men want from a health screening mobile app. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 31 men from a banking institution in Kuala Lumpur. The participants were purposely sampled according to their job position, age, ethnicit...

  15. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  16. An empirical study of the 'underscreened' in organised cervical screening: experts focus on increasing opportunity as a way of reducing differences in screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M

    2016-10-06

    Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of cervical screening experts involved in program organisation. Participants were 23 experts from several countries and a range of backgrounds: gynecology; epidemiology; public health; pathology; general practice; policy making. Data were gathered via semi-structured interview and concepts developed through transcript coding and memo writing. Most experts expressed an intuitive commitment to reducing systematic differences in screening participation or cancer outcomes. They took three different implicit positions, however, on what made organised programs justifiable with respect to underscreened populations. These were: 1) accepting that population screening is likely to miss certain disenfranchised groups for practical and cultural reasons, and focusing on maximising mainstream reach; 2) identifying and removing barriers to screening; and 3) providing parallel tailored screening services that attended to different cultural needs. Positions tended to fall along country of practice lines. Experts emphasised the provision of opportunity for underscreened populations to take up screening. A focus on opportunity appeared to rely on tacit premises not supported by evidence: that provision of meaningful opportunity leads to increased uptake, and that increased uptake of an initial screening test by disadvantaged populations would decrease

  17. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  18. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing 3 H-AMS to measure 3 H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied 14 C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of 3 H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform 3 H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for 14 C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in 14 C-tagged form. A 3 H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds

  19. Biomedical Applications of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, He; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structure and exceptional phyiscal and chemical properties that lead to many potential applications. Among various applications, biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last three years. In this review, we present an overview of current advances in applications of graphene in biomedicine with focus on drug delivery, cancer therapy and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:22448195

  20. Multilingual biomedical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical information from a domain-specific, multilingual corpus.

  1. Reluctance to screening colonoscopy in Arab Americans: a community based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Nizar; Harb, Walid

    2013-08-01

    To explore compliance of Arab-Americans to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and identify the barriers for non-compliance. An observational community based study. Arab-American Friday prayer attendees' ≥50 years in three mosques in Dearborn, MI volunteered. Demographics, health insurance status, screening history, availability of a primary care physician (PCP) and the ability to communicate in Arabic were inquired. The responses were compared using a student t test between respondents who have had CRC screening with colonoscopy and those who have not had any screening tests. A p value of 0.05 or lower was considered statistically significant. Total number surveyed was 130. Average age is 64 years. Males were 76 % (99) and females 24 % (31). More than 50 % were Lebanese and 28 % were from Yemen. Majority had health insurance (89 %), and 86 % had a primary care physician of which 79 % of them spoke Arabic. Half of the participants had colonoscopy mostly for screening purposes. Fifty-eight (45 %) participants did not have CRC screening. Majority of the females (72.4 %) had colonoscopy compared to 46.8 % of the males (p value = 0.016). The mean length of stay in the U.S was 39.16 years in the colonoscopy group compared to 30.77 years in the non-screening group (p value = 0.006). Participants without a PCP did not have CRC screening (77.8 %) (p value = 0.005). Participants with a non-Arabic speaking PCP had more colonoscopy rates (77.3 %) compared to those with an Arabic speaking PCP (50 %) (p value = 0.027). More Lebanese had colonoscopy (71.9 %) compared to 25.7 % of the surveyed Yemenis (p value = 0.00). Discomfort, unawareness about CRC screening, and nonrecommendation by PCP were reported barriers. Arab-Americans have lower screening colonoscopy rates. Unfamiliarity of the importance of screening is a principal issue. Having a non-arabic speaking PCP is beneficial. Better education to this population about the benefits and ease of

  2. Cancer screening participation in schizophrenic outpatients and the influence of their functional disability on the screening rate: A cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaki; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Nakaya, Naoki; Fujimori, Maiko; Higuchi, Yuji; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; So, Ryuhei; Kakeda, Kyoko; Kodama, Masafumi; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito

    2017-12-01

    The influence of schizophrenic patients' functional disability on cancer screening participation worldwide is unclear. There are few findings on the disparities in schizophrenic patients' participation in cancer screening programs in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the screening rate and the associations between screening and symptom severity/functional disability in patients with schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a psychiatric hospital outpatient clinic in Japan. We recruited schizophrenic patients meeting the national program criteria for cancer screening for colorectal, gastric, lung, breast, and cervical cancer (n = 224, 223, 224, 110, and 175, respectively). Receipt of cancer screenings was assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Scores on the modified Global Assessment of Functioning (mGAF) were evaluated by participants' primary psychiatrists. Rates of cancer screenings were as follows: 24.1% for colorectal, 21.5% for gastric, 30.8% for lung, 25.5% for breast, and 19.4% for cervical cancer. A multivariable logistic analysis showed that a 1-point increase in severity/disability (100 minus mGAF score) was associated with significantly lower odds ratios (OR) for receipt of cancer screenings, except for breast cancer (OR, 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98 for colorectal; OR, 0.96, 95%CI, 0.93-0.98 for gastric; OR, 0.95, 95%CI, 0.93-0.97 for lung; OR, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.94-1.00 for breast; and OR, 0.95, 95%CI, 0.92-0.98 for cervical cancer). The findings demonstrated low rates of cancer screenings in schizophrenic patients in Japan. Our study suggests the need to encourage attendance at cancer screenings, especially in schizophrenic patients with severe symptoms/functional disability. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Ripping, Theodora M; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening programme (1975-2008), which invites women (aged 50-74 years) biennially. Performance measures were determined. Furthermore, a case-control study was performed for women having dense and women having fatty breasts. Breast density was assessed visually with a dichotomized Wolfe scale. Breast density data were available for cases. The prevalence of dense breasts among controls was estimated with age-specific rates from the general population. Sensitivity analyses were performed on these estimates. Screening performance was better in the fatty than in the dense group (sensitivity 75.7% vs 57.8%). The mortality reduction appeared to be smaller for women with dense breasts, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 (95% CI 0.52-1.45) in the dense and 0.59 (95% CI 0.44-0.79) in the fatty group. We can conclude that high density results in lower screening performance and appears to be associated with a smaller mortality reduction. Breast density is thus a likely candidate for risk-stratified screening. More research is needed on the association between density and screening harms. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  5. To what extent is women's economic situation associated with cancer screening uptake when nationwide screening exists? A study of breast and cervical cancer screening in France in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Ringa, Virginie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Beck, François

    2014-08-01

    In France, larger social inequalities are reported for cervical cancer screening, based on individual practice, than for breast cancer screening for which organized screening exists. Our aim was to investigate the association between women's economic situation and breast and cervical cancer screening. We used data from a large French national health survey conducted in 2010. The economic situation was assessed using the number of adverse economic conditions respondents were facing, based on three variables (low income, lacking food, and perceived financial difficulties). Logistic regressions were adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare use and insurance, and health behaviors. Mammography was less frequent among women experiencing two or more adverse economic conditions, whereas Pap smear was less frequent among women experiencing at least one adverse economic condition. For both screenings, higher rates were observed among women who lived in the Paris region. Sociodemographic indicators and health behaviors were associated with Pap smear, whereas healthcare use and insurance characteristics were associated with mammography. The women's economic situation is an important determinant of breast and cervical cancer screening in France in 2010. Alleviating economic barriers to female cancers screening should be a priority in future programs implementation.

  6. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Fatigue failure analysis of vibrating screen spring by means of finite element simulation: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Rodríguez, Rosendo

    2017-01-01

    Vibrating screens are often used in the mining industry to separate mineral particles by size. In many designs, spring arrays are used to provide the system with the necessary stiffness for screens to vibrate in a controlled manner. Naturally, these springs are subjected to varying loading cycles, which can cause their premature fatigue failure. This behavior has been studied by means of finite element analysis and compared with data obtained from a real case scenario, in which a helical spri...

  8. Screening for tuberculosis in an urban shelter for homeless in Switzerland: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Jean-Paul; Wuillemin, Timothee; Adler, Dan; Jackson, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Background Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk. Geneva health and social authorities implemented an intersectoral project to screen for active TB in homeless persons. We aimed to assess acceptability of this program and prevalence of active TB in this group. Methods This prospective study targeted all homeless adults regi...

  9. Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based p...

  10. Automated antinuclear immunofluorescence antibody screening: a comparative study of six computer-aided diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Platzgummer, Stefan; Tonutti, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Pesente, Fiorenza; Tozzoli, Renato; Tampoia, Marilina; Villalta, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) plays an important role in immunological assays for detecting and measuring autoantibodies. However, the method is burdened by some unfavorable features: the need for expert morphologists, the subjectivity of interpretation, and a low degree of standardization and automation. Following the recent statement by the American College of Rheumatology that the IIF technique should be considered as the standard screening method for the detection of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), the biomedical industry has developed technological solutions which might significantly improve automation of the procedure, not only in the preparation of substrates and slides, but also in microscope reading. We collected 104 ANA-positive sera from patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of autoimmune disease and 40 ANA-negative sera from healthy blood donors. One aliquot of each serum, without information about pattern and titer, was sent to six laboratories of our group, where the sera were tested with the IIF manual method provided by each of the six manufacturers of automatic systems. Assignment of result (pos/neg), of pattern and titer was made by consensus at a meeting attended by all members of the research team. Result was assigned if consensus for pos/neg was reached by at least four of six certifiers, while for the pattern and for the titer, the value observed with higher frequency (mode) was adopted. Seventeen ANA-positive sera and six ANA-negative sera were excluded. Therefore, the study with the following automatic instrumentation was conducted on 92 ANA-positive sera and on 34 ANA-negative sera: Aklides, EUROPattern, G-Sight (I-Sight-IFA), Helios, Image Navigator, and Nova View. Analytical imprecision was measured in five aliquots of the same serum, randomly added to the sample series. Overall sensitivity of the six automated systems was 96.7% and overall specificity was 89.2%. Most false negatives were recorded for cytoplasmic patterns

  11. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.; van Grieken, A.; Renders, C.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Raat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we

  12. Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Myers, Jonathan S; McKendrick, Allison M

    2016-05-01

    We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study. The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-program visual field test pattern is used, and a dataset of 385 glaucoma and 86 normal patients. Using a 1-of-3 sampling strategy at a level equal to the 95 percentile of normal observers gave the most robust specificity under the influences of false-negative responses using an average of 1.5 presentations per location. The PPV analysis gave 19 locations that completely classified our glaucomatous data. A further 9 points were added to screen for nonglaucomatous loss. The final stage found that insisting that 3 locations are missed for the screening to fail gave a simulated specificity and sensitivity of approximately 95% for unreliable responders. Our method gives a principled approach to choosing between the many parameters of a visual field screening procedure. We have developed a procedure for the Octopus that should terminate in less than 1 minute for normal observers with high specificity and sensitivity to glaucoma. Visual field screening is used in community settings and eye care practice. This study provides a principled approach to the development of such screening procedures and details a new procedure.

  13. Impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Frederick D; Cohen, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  14. Screening for tuberculosis in an urban shelter for homeless in Switzerland: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jean-Paul; Wuillemin, Timothee; Adler, Dan; Jackson, Yves

    2017-05-16

    Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk. Geneva health and social authorities implemented an intersectoral project to screen for active TB in homeless persons. We aimed to assess acceptability of this program and prevalence of active TB in this group. This prospective study targeted all homeless adults registering for shelter accommodation in Geneva during winter 2015. Applicants were proposed a questionnaire-based screening ( www.tb-screen.ch ) exploring epidemiological and clinical risk factors for active TB. Participants with a positive score underwent diagnostic procedures at Geneva University Hospital. Enhanced TB surveillance targeting homeless persons in the community was continued 3 months after the study termination. Overall, 726/832 (87.3%) homeless persons accepted the screening procedure. Most were young male migrants without access to care in Switzerland. Male gender (adjusted OR: 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.62), age below 25 years (aOR: 4.16; 95% CI: 1.27-13.64) and short duration of homelessness (aOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.06-2.87) were predictors of acceptance. Thirty (4.1%) had positive screening scores but none of the 24 who underwent further testing had active TB. Post-study surveillance did not identify any incident case in Geneva. Active TB screening targeting highly mobile homeless persons in shelters was well accepted and feasible. The participants' sociodemographic profile highlighted the heterogeneity of homeless groups in Europe and the null TB prevalence the variability of their active TB risks. These findings underline the feasibility of health programs targeting this hard to reach group and the need for close monitoring of this social group considering the rapid changes in international mobility patterns to tailor preventive and screening strategies to the local

  15. Development of a screening tool predicting the transition from acute to chronic low back pain for patients in a GP setting: Protocol of a multinational prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajracharya Suraj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is by far the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal problem in our society today. Following the recommendations of the Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study (MMICS Statement, our study aims to define outcome assessment tools for patients with acute LBP and the time point at which chronic LBP becomes manifest and to identify patient characteristics which increase the risk of chronicity. Methods Patients with acute LBP will be recruited from clinics of general practitioners (GPs in New Zealand (NZ and Switzerland (CH. They will be assessed by postal survey at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome will be disability as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; key secondary endpoints will be general health as measured by the acute SF-12 and pain as measured on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A subgroup analysis of different assessment instruments and baseline characteristics will be performed using multiple linear regression models. This study aims to examine 1. Which biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational outcome assessment tools are identifiers for the transition from acute to chronic LBP and at which time point this transition becomes manifest 2. Which psychosocial and occupational baseline characteristics like work status and period of work absenteeism influence the course from acute to chronic LBP 3. Differences in outcome assessment tools and baseline characteristics of patients in NZ compared with CH. Discussion This study will develop a screening tool for patients with acute LBP to be used in GP clinics to access the risk of developing chronic LBP. In addition, biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational patient characteristics which influence the course from acute to chronic LBP will be identified. Furthermore, an appropriate time point for follow-ups will be given to detect this transition. The generalizability of our

  16. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  17. Do Cervical Cancer Patients Diagnosed with Opportunistic Screening Live Longer? An Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Elena E.; Nieboer, Evert; Kharkova, Olga A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Odland, Jon Ø.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare cervical cancer (СС) patients diagnosed with and without screening in terms of: (i) sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; (ii) factors associated with survival; and (iii), and levels of risk. A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry. It included women with newly diagnosed malignant neoplasm of the uterine cervix during the period of 1 January 2005 to 11 November 2016 (N = 1548). The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox regression were applied. Most participants who were diagnosed by screening were at stage I and died less frequently from CC than those diagnosed without screening. The latter group was also diagnosed with СС at a younger age and died younger. Younger individuals and urban residents diagnosed with stage I and II, squamous cell carcinoma had longer survival times. Cox regression modeling indicated that the hazard ratio for death among women with CC diagnosed without screening was 1.61 (unadjusted) and 1.37 (adjusted). CC diagnosed by screening, cancer stage, patient residence, histological tumor type, and age at diagnosis were independent prognostic variables of longer survival time with CC. Diagnosis of CC made within a screening program improved survival. PMID:29186874

  18. Do Cervical Cancer Patients Diagnosed with Opportunistic Screening Live Longer? An Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E. Roik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare cervical cancer (СС patients diagnosed with and without screening in terms of: (i sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; (ii factors associated with survival; and (iii, and levels of risk. A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry. It included women with newly diagnosed malignant neoplasm of the uterine cervix during the period of 1 January 2005 to 11 November 2016 (N = 1548. The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox regression were applied. Most participants who were diagnosed by screening were at stage I and died less frequently from CC than those diagnosed without screening. The latter group was also diagnosed with СС at a younger age and died younger. Younger individuals and urban residents diagnosed with stage I and II, squamous cell carcinoma had longer survival times. Cox regression modeling indicated that the hazard ratio for death among women with CC diagnosed without screening was 1.61 (unadjusted and 1.37 (adjusted. CC diagnosed by screening, cancer stage, patient residence, histological tumor type, and age at diagnosis were independent prognostic variables of longer survival time with CC. Diagnosis of CC made within a screening program improved survival.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates - A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kingsley

    Full Text Available Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society.The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC.A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers.At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society's willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY. Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy.Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%.

  20. In situ salt screening--a useful technique for discovery support and preformulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W Q; Whitesell, G

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present an in situ salt screening technique which is applicable to most basic compounds. The theoretical aspects, experimental details, applications, and significance of this technique are illustrated through in situ salt screening studies performed on GW1818, an alpha 1A andrenergic receptor antagonist intended for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Generally, the in situ salt screening technique includes (i) acid selection, (ii) a solubility study, (iii) characterization of residual solids, and (iv) calculation of the Ksp and solubility of the salts. Six acids were screened for salt formation with GW1818. Excellent agreement was found between the solubility results determined using the authentic salts and solubility results obtained through in situ screening. Additional evidence of salt formation and some solid state properties of the salts formed in situ were obtained through microscopic examinations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and x-ray powder diffraction studies. Four salts of GW1818, the phosphate, succinate, mesylate, and hydrochloride, were crystalline and demonstrated adequate solubility. These were selected for further evaluation. Adequate solubility was also observed in the case of citrate and tartrate salts, but these were considered only as potential backup candidates because they were difficult to crystallize. The results of the in situ salt screening experiments also led to the development of an IV formulation for use in pilot toxicological studies and pharmacological studies. In conclusion, the in situ salt screening technique offers a time- and compound-conserving approach for prioritizing salt selection and for providing solubility and stability information useful for formulation development both in the research and the development stages.

  1. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  2. An exploration of the biomedical optics course construction of undergraduate biomedical engineering program in medical colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shijun; Lyu, Jie; Zhang, Peiming

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the teaching goals, teaching contents and teaching methods in biomedical optics course construction are discussed. From the dimension of teaching goals, students should master the principle of optical inspection on the human body, diagnosis and treatment of methodology and instruments, through the study of the theory and practice of this course, and can utilize biomedical optics methods to solve practical problems in the clinical medical engineering practice. From the dimension of teaching contents, based on the characteristics of biomedical engineering in medical colleges, the organic integration of engineering aspects, medical optical instruments, and biomedical aspects dispersed in human anatomy, human physiology, clinical medicine fundamental related to the biomedical optics is build. Noninvasive measurement of the human body composition and noninvasive optical imaging of the human body were taken as actual problems in biomedical optics fields. Typical medical applications such as eye optics and laser medicine were also integrated into the theory and practice teaching. From the dimension of teaching methods, referencing to organ-system based medical teaching mode, optical principle and instrument principle were taught by teachers from school of medical instruments, and the histological characteristics and clinical actual need in areas such as digestive diseases and urinary surgery were taught by teachers from school of basic medicine or clinical medicine of medical colleges. Furthermore, clinical application guidance would be provided by physician and surgeons in hospitals.

  3. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  4. HIV screening among newly diagnosed TB patients: a cross sectional study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Suzanne; Mejía, Fernando; Rojas, Marlene; Seas, Carlos; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Otero, Larissa

    2018-03-20

    Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima. NTP staff offered VCT to all TB patients. Patients with an HIV positive result were referred for confirmation tests and management. We interviewed patients to collect their demographic and clinical characteristics and registered if patients opted in or out of the screening. Of the 1295 enrolled TB patients, nine had a known HIV diagnosis. Of the remaining, 76.1% (979) were screened for HIV. Among the 23.9% (307) not screened, 38.4% (118) opted out of the screening. TB patients at one of the health care facilities of the higher areas of the district (OR = 3.38, CI 95% 2.17-5.28 for the highest area and OR = 2.82, CI 95% 1.78-4.49 for the high area) as well as those reporting illegal drug consumption (OR = 1.65, CI 95% 1.15-2.37) were more likely not to be screened. Twenty-four were HIV positive (1.9% of all patients 1295, or 2.4% of those screened). Of 15 patients diagnosed with HIV during the TB episode, ten were enrolled in an HIV program. The median time between the result of the HIV screening and the first consultation at the HIV program was 82 days (IQR, 32-414). The median time between the result of the HIV screening and antiretroviral initiation was 148.5 days (IQR 32-500). An acceptable proportion of TB patients were screened for HIV in Lima. Referral systems of HIV positive patients should be strengthened for timely ART initiation.

  5. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this

  6. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  7. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  8. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  9. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  10. Polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Yasser; Shabani, Iman

    2016-03-01

    Polymer/metal nanocomposites consisting of polymer as matrix and metal nanoparticles as nanofiller commonly show several attractive advantages such as electrical, mechanical and optical characteristics. Accordingly, many scientific and industrial communities have focused on polymer/metal nanocomposites in order to develop some new products or substitute the available materials. In the current paper, characteristics and applications of polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications are extensively explained in several categories including strong and stable materials, conductive devices, sensors and biomedical products. Moreover, some perspective utilizations are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled release of 5-flurouracil from biomedical polyurethanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The soft segment determines the elasticity and hydrophilicity of the polymer and thus affects the polymer's biocompati- bility. The macromonomer Pluronic F-68 used in this study is having biomedical applications and it has been approved for biomedical applications by US food and drug administration. The properties of am-.

  12. Investigations for modelling hardness of biomedical implant during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupinder Singh

    Abstract. In the present work, effort has been made for modelling the microhardness of biomedical implant prepared by combining fused deposition modelling, vacuum moulding and stir casting (SC) process. A dynamic condylar screw (DCS) plate was selected as a real '3D' biomedical implant for this case study. The DCS ...

  13. A Novel Approach to Physiology Education for Biomedical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, J.; Wu, J.; Kuwasawa, K.; Sun, Y.

    2007-01-01

    It is challenging for biomedical engineering programs to incorporate an indepth study of the systemic interdependence of cells, tissues, and organs into the rigorous mathematical curriculum that is the cornerstone of engineering education. To be sure, many biomedical engineering programs require their students to enroll in anatomy and physiology…

  14. Factors associated with screen time in Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mozafarian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged screen time is frequent in children and adolescents. Implementing interventions to reduce physical inactivity needs to assess related determinants. This study aims to assess factors associated with screen time in a national sample of children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6–18 years. Data collection was performed using questionnaires and physical examination. The World Health Organization-Global School Health Survey questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic variables, socioeconomic status (SES, family structure, physical activity, unhealthy eating habits, body mass index, and mental distress with screen time. Results: The participation rate was 90.6% (n = 13,486, 50.8% were male, and 75.6% lived in urban areas. Mean (standard deviation age of participants was 12.47 (3.36 years. The SES, eating junk foods, urban residence, and age had significant association with screen time, watching television (TV, and computer use (P < 0.05. With increasing number of children, the odds ratio of watching TV reduced (P < 0.001. Statistically, significant association existed between obesity and increased time spent watching TV (P < 0.001. Girls spent less likely to use computer and to have prolonged screen time (P < 0.001. Participants in the sense of worthlessness were less likely to watch TV (P = 0.005. Screen time, watching TV, and using computer were higher in students with aggressive behaviors (P < 0.001; screen time was higher in those with insomnia. Conclusions: In this study, higher SES, unhealthy food habits, and living in urban areas, as well as aggressive behaviors and insomnia increased the risk of physical inactivity.

  15. Evaluating radiographers' diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading mammograms: what constitutes a quality study?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers as mammogram screen-readers and then to develop an adapted tool for determining the quality of screen-reading studies. A literature search was used to identify relevant studies and a quality evaluation tool constructed by combining the criteria for quality of Whiting, Rutjes, Dinnes et al. and Brealey and Westwood. This constructed tool was then applied to the studies and subsequently adapted specifically for use in evaluating quality in studies investigating diagnostic accuracy of screen-readers. Eleven studies were identified and the constructed tool applied to evaluate quality. This evaluation resulted in the identification of quality issues with the studies such as potential for bias, applicability of results, study conduct, reporting of the study and observer characteristics. An assessment of the applicability and relevance of the tool for this area of research resulted in adaptations to the criteria and the development of a tool specifically for evaluating diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading. This tool, with further refinement and rigorous validation can make a significant contribution to promoting well-designed studies in this important area of research and practice

  16. Studying Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Breast Cancer Screening Methods among Behshahr Dwelling Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhasan Naghibi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among all widespread cancers worldwide. After lung cancer, breast cancer is the main cause of death among women. One of the best ways to detect this disease early is to do screening. This study has been done to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of women regarding the breast cancer screening methods. Materials & Methods: The study is of cross-sectional descriptive type. The participants were 500 Behshahr dwelling women above 20 years old selected based on cluster sampling. The instrument used was a 34-item questionnaire to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the women. The data has been analyzed through inferential statistical methods. Results: The participants' age mean was 35.16. The average knowledge score of the disease and screening methods was 1.3 and 54.6. The average attitude score of was 82.5. Regarding behavior, 13.1 percent do regular self-examination, and 15.2 percent do regular clinical examination. 16.7 percent of women have one experience of doing mammography. In the present study, there was a significant relation among knowledge, attitude and behavior. Conclusion: Since the knowledge of women was at average level and the behavior of using the screening methods was weak, planning to enable and motivate women to use the screening methods is highly emphasized.

  17. Screen-based sedentary behaviours in Italian school children: the ZOOM8 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Galfo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 Background: screen-based sedentary behaviours likely have a negative impact on many aspects of youth health and development. The purpose of this study was to describe the screen-based sedentary behaviours and to examine factors associated in a sample of Italian school children. Methods: 2129 children, aged 8-9 years, from the three main geographical areas of Italy were involved. Body weight and height were measured. Screen-based sedentary behaviours were evaluated using a parent-reported questionnaire that included items about the time spent watching television (TV and using computer/playstation and other electronic games. Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to study possible associated factors.Results: more time was spent in screen-based sedentary activities during non-school days rather than on school days. More males than females watched television more than the recommended 2 hours a day and spent the same time using computer (PC, playstation and other electronic games.  The presence of a TV in the child’s bedroom was significantly associated with geographical area, and inversely associated with mother’s education. Moreover, children with a TV in the bedroom had higher odds of being overweight/obese and watching TV more than 2 hours a day than those without a TV. According to multiple logistic regression gender, mother’s age and mother’s education were predictors of the total screen time.Conclusions: Italian children spent a significant amount of time in screen-based sedentary behaviours, exceeding media recommendations. In addition gender, mother’s age and mother’s education were predictors of the total screen time.

  18. Hazard Screening Methods for Nanomaterials: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Sheehan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hazard identification is the key step in risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (NM. However, the rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products continues to out-pace the development of a prudent risk management mechanism that is widely accepted by the scientific community and enforced by regulators. However, a growing body of academic literature is developing promising quantitative methods. Two approaches have gained significant currency. Bayesian networks (BN are a probabilistic, machine learning approach while the weight of evidence (WoE statistical framework is based on expert elicitation. This comparative study investigates the efficacy of quantitative WoE and Bayesian methodologies in ranking the potential hazard of metal and metal-oxide NMs—TiO2, Ag, and ZnO. This research finds that hazard ranking is consistent for both risk assessment approaches. The BN and WoE models both utilize physico-chemical, toxicological, and study type data to infer the hazard potential. The BN exhibits more stability when the models are perturbed with new data. The BN has the significant advantage of self-learning with new data; however, this assumes all input data is equally valid. This research finds that a combination of WoE that would rank input data along with the BN is the optimal hazard assessment framework.

  19. Organizational Change: A Case Study in Implementing a Breast Cancer Screening Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    ANO SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : A CASE STUDY IN IMPLEMENTING A BREAST CANCER SCREENING CLINIC 4. AUTHOR(S) i MAJ PATRICIA A...4psrANcsrBbed by ANS. SWOIl. UM-E S 6.~~ AUHO1S ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : A CASE STUDY IN IMPLEMENTING A BREAST CANCER SCREENING CLINIC A Graduate Management...Major Patricia A. Hayes, AN May 1993 Running head : ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 94-13 74BIH|iU •9 4 ,5 0 2 00 6 I] ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A special thanks to COL

  20. Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10 or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4% students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2% students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality.

  1. Detection of alpha particles by means of zinc sulphide screens. Study of their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, R.; Manero, F.

    1959-01-01

    A method of SZn(Ag) screens preparation in order to detect alpha particles is described. The behaviour of the luminophore in a scintillometer is primarily studied and followed by experimental methods in the preparation of screens with the specific qualities required. A sedimentation technic of SZn(Ag) deposition has been employed, and followed by pressing in hot. The variation of impulse size with the massif thickness of luminophore has been studied, and found a maximum value for 6,5 mg/cm 2 in unpressed screens and 6 mg/cm 2 in the pressed ones. The plateau curves present flat areas till 450 volts. The background in source absence is below 0.5 impulse/minute. (Author) 19 refs

  2. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95% CI 0...

  3. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-05-20

    To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts' reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts' arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts' overall views on breast cancer screening. Experts' positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and provide a mechanism for responding to these differences. Published by

  4. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  5. Can Australian general practitioners effectively screen for diabetic retinopathy? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Inge C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has been identified as one of the national health priority areas in Australia. After 20 years of diabetes most patients can be expected to develop diabetic retinopathy which, if undetected, is likely to cause significant visual loss or blindness. This paper reports on a pilot study aimed to test the ability of Australian GPs to clinically recognise diabetic retinopathy following a brief training intervention. Method 17 GPs from a Brisbane Division of General Practice were recruited to participate in a clinical upskilling intervention pilot. Participant scores on clinical assessments were used to analyse GP sensitivity and specificity in screening for diabetic retinopathy. Results were compared with the NHMRC guidelines for acceptable screening accuracy. Results Ten of the 17 GPs (59% achieved a screening sensitivity of 25% or less in the pre test, three (18% a sensitivity of 50%, and four (23% achieved a sensitivity of ≥ 75%. In the post-test, all seventeen GPs achieved between 50 and 100% sensitivity. In the pre-test, thirteen (76% GPs achieved a screening specificity of less than or equal to 50%, and four (23% a specificity of 75 %. In the post test, four GPs (23% rated a screening specificity of less than 50%, six (35% achieved a specificity of 66%, and seven (41% 100% specificity. Conclusion 24% of GPs met the NHMRC diabetic retinopathy screening criterion prior to the workshop, and 94% following this brief training intervention. Australian GPs are capable of a much more significant role in community screening for diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Biomedical computing facility interface design plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of a design study performed to establish overall system interface requirements for the Biomedical Laboratories Division's Sigma-3 computer system. Emphasis has been placed upon the definition of an overall implementation plan and associated schedule to meet both near-term and long-range requirements within the constraints at available resources.

  7. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori; Belsky, J.L.; Pastore, J.O.

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  8. BIOMedical Search Engine Framework: Lightweight and customized implementation of domain-specific biomedical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Alberto G; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-07-01

    meaningful to that particular scope of research. Conversely, indirect concept associations, i.e. concepts related by other intermediary concepts, can be useful to integrate information from different studies and look into non-trivial relations. The BIOMedical Search Engine Framework supports the development of domain-specific search engines. The key strengths of the framework are modularity and extensibilityin terms of software design, the use of open-source consolidated Web technologies, and the ability to integrate any number of biomedical text mining tools and information resources. Currently, the Smart Drug Search keeps over 1,186,000 documents, containing more than 11,854,000 annotations for 77,200 different concepts. The Smart Drug Search is publicly accessible at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/sds/. The BIOMedical Search Engine Framework is freely available for non-commercial use at https://github.com/agjacome/biomsef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  10. Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences publishes in all aspects of biomedical research sciences. Both basic and clinical research papers are welcomed. Vol 23 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Phytochemical And ...

  11. A qualitative study of intimate partner violence universal screening by family therapy interns: implications for practice, research, training, and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented-and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening-is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy interns when implementing universal screening for IPV in an outpatient clinic setting. Twenty-two graduate students in a COAMFTE-accredited program were interviewed using qualitative research methods grounded in phenomenology. Three domains, 7 main themes, and 26 subthemes were identified. The three domains that emerged in this study include (a) therapist practice of universal screening, (b) client response to universal screening, and (c) therapist response to universal screening. Implications for practice, research, training, and supervision are discussed.

  12. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137 Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137 Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

  13. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility study of Au/TMC/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as a promising, nontoxic system for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Shirazi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties and applications of iron oxide and Au nanoparticles have motivated researchers to synthesize and optimize a combined nanocomposite containing both. By using various polymers such as chitosan, some of the problems of classic core–shell structures (such as reduced saturation magnetization and thick coating have been overcome. In the present study, chitosan and one of its well-known derivatives, N-trimethylchitosan (TMC, were applied to construct three-layer nanocomposites in an Au/polymer/Fe3O4 system. It was demonstrated that replacement of chitosan with TMC reasonably improved the properties of the final nanocomposites including their size, magnetic behavior and thermal stability. Moreover, the results of the MTT assay showed no significant cytotoxicity effect when the Au/TMC/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were applied in vitro. These TMC-containing magnetic nanoparticles are well-coated by Au nanoparticles and have good biocompatibility and can thus play the role of a platform or a label in various fields of application, especially the biomedical sciences and biosensors.

  14. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  15. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  16. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Dauvilliers, Yves; Oertel, Wolfgang; Ju, Yo-El; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Pelletier, Amelie; Wolfson, Christina; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Cochen De Cock, Valerie; Unger, Marcus M; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Fantini, Maria Livia; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2012-06-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response. Four hundred and eighty-four sleep-clinic-based participants (242 idiopathic RBD patients and 242 controls) completed the screen during a multicenter case-control study. All participants underwent a polysomnogram to define gold-standard diagnosis according to standard criteria. We found a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 87.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were similar in healthy volunteers, compared to controls or patients with other sleep diagnoses. A single-question screen for RBD may reliably detect disease, with psychometric properties favorably comparable to those reported for longer questionnaires. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Periodic abstinence from Pap (PAP) smear study: women's perceptions of Pap smear screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy; French, Linda; Barry, Henry C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to risk-based cervical cancer screening through focus group interviews of patients. We conducted 8 focus group interviews of women using semistructured interviews. The investigators independently reviewed the focus group transcripts and identified the overall themes and themes unique to each question using an immersion and crystallization approach. Women are in agreement that cervical cancer screening is important and that women should get Pap smears regularly as an important way of protecting their health. They are not open to the idea of reducing the frequency of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, however, because they perceive annual screening to be successful in reducing cervical cancer mortality. Additionally, they have concerns about test accuracy. Women are distrustful of the rationale for reducing the frequency of Pap smears. Women's previous bad experiences have reinforced their need for self-advocacy. Women are reluctant to engage in risk-based cervical cancer screening. In this environment, risk-based cervical cancer screening recommendations are likely to be met with resistance.

  18. Young children's screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: results from a prospective European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, S; Berg, C; Eiben, G; Lanfer, A; Reisch, L; Ahrens, W; Kourides, Y; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; Lissner, L

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children's screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. The study is a part of the prospective cohort study IDEFICS ("Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants"), investigating diet, lifestyle and social determinants of obesity in 2 to 9-year-olds in eight European countries (baseline n=16,225, two-year follow-up; n=11,038). Anthropometry was objectively measured, and behaviours were parent-reported. The main hypothesis was supported, but the second hypothesis was not confirmed. The odds ratio of being in the highest quintile of % change in WHtR was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and in BMI 1.22 (95% CI: 1.13-1.31), for each hour per day watching television. The odds ratio of having increased SSB consumption was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.29) for each hour per day watching TV. The associations for total screen time were slightly weaker. The results indicate substantial effects of TV viewing and other screen activities for young children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group.

  19. What Do Men Want from a Health Screening Mobile App? A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hai Teo

    Full Text Available There is a lack of mobile app which aims to improve health screening uptake developed for men. As part of the study to develop an effective mobile app to increase health screening uptake in men, we conducted a needs assessment to find out what do men want from a health screening mobile app. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 31 men from a banking institution in Kuala Lumpur. The participants were purposely sampled according to their job position, age, ethnicity and screening status. The recruitment was stopped once data saturation was achieved. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic approach. Three themes emerged from the analysis and they were: content, feature and dissemination. In terms of the content, men wanted the app to provide information regarding health screening and functions that can assess their health; which must be personalized to them and are trustable. The app must have user-friendly features in terms of information delivery, ease of use, attention allocation and social connectivity. For dissemination, men proposed that advertisements, recommendations by health professionals, providing incentive and integrating the app as into existing systems may help to increase the dissemination of the app. This study identified important factors that need to be considered when developing a mobile app to improve health screening uptake. Future studies on mobile app development should elicit users' preference and need in terms of its content, features and dissemination strategies to improve the acceptability and the chance of successful implementation.

  20. What Do Men Want from a Health Screening Mobile App? A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of mobile app which aims to improve health screening uptake developed for men. As part of the study to develop an effective mobile app to increase health screening uptake in men, we conducted a needs assessment to find out what do men want from a health screening mobile app. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 31 men from a banking institution in Kuala Lumpur. The participants were purposely sampled according to their job position, age, ethnicity and screening status. The recruitment was stopped once data saturation was achieved. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic approach. Three themes emerged from the analysis and they were: content, feature and dissemination. In terms of the content, men wanted the app to provide information regarding health screening and functions that can assess their health; which must be personalized to them and are trustable. The app must have user-friendly features in terms of information delivery, ease of use, attention allocation and social connectivity. For dissemination, men proposed that advertisements, recommendations by health professionals, providing incentive and integrating the app as into existing systems may help to increase the dissemination of the app. This study identified important factors that need to be considered when developing a mobile app to improve health screening uptake. Future studies on mobile app development should elicit users’ preference and need in terms of its content, features and dissemination strategies to improve the acceptability and the chance of successful implementation. PMID:28060953

  1. Rationale and design of the screening of pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus (SOPHIE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current guideline-recommended screening for pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis has not been evaluated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which is disproportionately prevalent in Asians. This multicentre, cross-sectional screening study aims to study the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among SLE patients using these guidelines, and identify independent predictors and develop a prediction model for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. SLE patients from participating centres will undergo an echocardiography- and biomarker-based pulmonary hypertension screening procedure as in the DETECT study. Standard right heart catheterisation will be provided to patients with intermediate or high echocardiographic probability of pulmonary hypertension. Those with low echocardiographic probability will rescreen within 1 year. The primary measure will be the diagnosis and types of pulmonary hypertension and prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The secondary measures will be the predictors and prediction models for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The estimated sample size is approximately 895 participants. The results of the SOPHIE study will be an important contribution to the literature of SLE-related pulmonary hypertension and may be immediately translatable to real clinical practice. Ultimately, this study will provide the necessary evidence for establishing universal guidelines for screening of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients.

  2. Rationale and design of the screening of pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus (SOPHIE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duo; Cheng, Yang-Yang; Chan, Pak-Hei; Hai, Jojo; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Wong, Ka-Lam; Fan, Katherine; Li, Ying Wah; Ng, Woon-Leung; Yim, Cheuk-Wan; Wong, Cheuk-Hon John; Tam, Lai-Shan; Wong, Priscilla C H; Wong, Chi-Yuen; Ho, Chup-Hei; Leung, Alexander M H; Mok, Chi-Chiu; Lam, Ho; Lau, Chak-Sing; Cheung, Tommy; Ho, Carmen; Law, Sharon W Y; Chan, Esther W; Yin, Li-Xue; Yue, Wen-Sheng; Mok, Toi Meng; Evora, Mario Alberto; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Current guideline-recommended screening for pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis has not been evaluated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is disproportionately prevalent in Asians. This multicentre, cross-sectional screening study aims to study the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among SLE patients using these guidelines, and identify independent predictors and develop a prediction model for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. SLE patients from participating centres will undergo an echocardiography- and biomarker-based pulmonary hypertension screening procedure as in the DETECT study. Standard right heart catheterisation will be provided to patients with intermediate or high echocardiographic probability of pulmonary hypertension. Those with low echocardiographic probability will rescreen within 1 year. The primary measure will be the diagnosis and types of pulmonary hypertension and prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The secondary measures will be the predictors and prediction models for pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients. The estimated sample size is approximately 895 participants. The results of the SOPHIE study will be an important contribution to the literature of SLE-related pulmonary hypertension and may be immediately translatable to real clinical practice. Ultimately, this study will provide the necessary evidence for establishing universal guidelines for screening of pulmonary hypertension in SLE patients.

  3. A Danish nationwide questionnaire study of hepatitis B virus screening before immunosuppressive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunyoz, Kristine Ifigenia; Krarup, Henrik; Weis, Nina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation...... of immunosuppressive therapy and to explore HBV treatment strategies. METHODS: All Danish units of haematology, oncology, dermatology, rheumatology and gastroenterology using immunosuppressive agents were invited to fill out a questionnaire for The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. RESULTS: A total of 28 (53......%) of the 53 included units answered the questionnaire, of which 25 (89.3%) had a guideline regarding screening for HBV serological markers prior to immunosuppressive therapy, but only ten (37%) had a guideline that is in line with the joint guidelines from the national Danish Societies of Infectious Diseases...

  4. Study of radiological risk in breast cancer screening programme at Comunidad Valenciana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Leon, A.; Verdu, G.; Cuevas, M.D.; Salas, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk being the most important late somatic effect the induction of cancer. This study is made in order to evaluate the risk produced into the population by the Cimadon Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriment are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X-ray equipment. And on the other hand, radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains into the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography unit's doses and average compression breast thickness. (author)

  5. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  6. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-08-11

    To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Nationwide register-based cohort study. In 2003-2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25-69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25-33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34-69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25-33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34-69 years. The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25-33 years and 34-69 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  7. A Danish nationwide questionnaire study of hepatitis B virus screening before immunosuppressive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunyoz, Kristine Ifigenia; Krarup, Henrik; Weis, Nina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation...... of immunosuppressive therapy and to explore HBV treatment strategies. METHODS: All Danish units of haematology, oncology, dermatology, rheumatology and gastroenterology using immunosuppressive agents were invited to fill out a questionnaire for The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. RESULTS: A total of 28 (53...

  8. Optimizing Glaucoma Screening in High-Risk Population: Design and 1-Year Findings of the Screening to Prevent (SToP) Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Gajwani, Prateek; Swenor, Bonnielin; Crews, John; Saaddine, Jinan; Mudie, Lucy; Varadaraj, Varshini; Friedman, David S

    2017-08-01

    To develop, implement, and evaluate a replicable community-based screening intervention designed to improve glaucoma and other eye disease detection and follow-up care in high-risk populations in the United States. We present the design of the study and describe the findings of the first year of the program. Prospective study to evaluate screening and follow-up. This is an ongoing study to develop an eye screening program using trained personnel to identify individuals with ophthalmic needs, focusing on African Americans ≥50 years of age at multiple inner-city community sites in Baltimore, Maryland. The screening examination uses a sequential referral approach and assesses presenting visual acuity (VA), best-corrected VA, digital fundus imaging, visual field testing, and measurement of intraocular pressure. We screened 901 individuals between January 2015 and October 2015. Subjects were mostly African Americans (94.9%) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 64.3 (9.9) years. Among them, 356 (39.5%) participants were referred for a definitive eye examination and 107 (11.9%) only needed prescription glasses. The most common reasons for referral were ungradable fundus image (39.3% of those referred), best-corrected VA < 20/40 (14.6%), and ungradable autorefraction (11.8%). Among people referred for definitive examination, 153 (43%) people attended their scheduled examination. The most common diagnoses at the definitive examination were glaucoma and cataract (51% and 40%, respectively). A large proportion of individuals screened required ophthalmic services, particularly those who were older and less well educated. To reach and encourage these individuals to attend screenings and follow-up examinations, programs could develop innovative strategies and approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  10. To assess the knowledge, level of awareness, and attitude on biomedical waste management among practicing dentists in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Lakshmikantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental waste is a subset of hazardous biomedical (BM waste. It has been observed that most of the dental health facilities, the guidelines for proper management of dental waste are not adopted and not up to the prescribed standard. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude/behavior of BM waste generation, hazards, and legislation among the study subjects using self-structured questionnaire. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 337 practicing dentists in Bengaluru city for the past 2 months. A self-structured questionnaire was used to obtain required data. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The first section of the questionnaire contained questions regarding knowledge of BM waste generation, hazards, and legislation, whereas the second section contained questions regarding the level of awareness on BM waste management practice, and the third section contained questions regarding attitude/behavior toward BM waste. Results: Of 337 (100% study participants, 176 (52.2% were males and 161 (47.8% were females. Among 337 (100% study participants, more than three-fourth, i.e., 291 (88.4% knew about BM waste generation and legislation, whereas 23 (6.8% each did not know and were not aware of it. Conclusion: There is a good level of knowledge and awareness about BM waste generation hazards, legislation, and management among health care personnel in Bengaluru city. Regular monitoring and training are still required at all levels, and there is a need for continuing dental education on dental waste management practices to these dental practitioners.

  11. A population study comparing screening performance of prototypes for depression and anxiety with standard scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be

  12. A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kimeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Records for 591 dogs were included in this study. The data was obtained from the national screening office, Kenya Veterinary Board, for the period between the years 1998 and 2014. Monthly screening records were assessed and information relating to year of evaluation, breed, sex, age, and hip score captured. Descriptive statistics of hip scores was computed based on year, sex, age, and breed. Results: A total of 591 records from the year 1998 to 2014 were retrieved at the National Screening Centre, the Kenya Veterinary Board. Each record was examined and data pertaining to year of screening, the breed, sex, age of the dogs, and the total hip score were recorded. The highest number of dogs screened for hip dysplasia (HD was in the year 2009 and the lowest in the year 1998. More females than males were screened for HD and the mean age of all the dogs was 22.9±12.7 months. The most common breeds of dogs screened during the study period were German Shepherd (67.0%, Rottweiler (15.6%, and Labrador Retriever (12.2%. The mean hip score for the 591 dogs was 15.1±10.9 and the median 12.0. The mean hip scores per breed were; German Shepherd (16.3±12.1; Golden Retriever (16.0; Hungarian Vizla (15.0; Labrador Retriever (3.0±6.7; Great Dane (13.3±3.2; Rottweiler (12.2±8.2; Doberman (10.3±4.2; Rhodesian Ridgeback (9.6±3.8; and Boxer (9.3±0.6. Based on the hip score, moderate to severe HD was diagnosed in 16.6% of the dogs, mild HD in 32.7%, Borderline HD in 37.7%, fair HD in 6.9%, and good HD in 6.1%. Conclusion: Canine HD is a common occurrence in Kenya with most dogs suffering mild to border line HD. In addition, German Shepherd and Golden Retriever appear to be the most affected breeds. It is therefore recommended that stringent measures be imposed to dog breeding programs to avoid transmission of this undesirable trait

  13. Breast cancer screening practices of African migrant women in Australia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun

    2017-04-17

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical

  14. The Rotterdam AMblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: RAMSES is a 7 year follow up study, aiming at the evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for amblyopia. In this first report, concerning the first 2 years of life, the compliance with the prevention programme and the positive

  15. Contribution to the study for an optimum choice of filter and screens in radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillieret, V.; Peix, G.; Babot, D.; Lormand, G.

    1985-01-01

    In order to optimize the choices of screens and filter in steel specimens radiographic testing with iridium 192 and cobalt 60, we started a theoretical and experimental study of their actions on radiative and latent images formation. Theoretical modelisation of photons interactions in steel and experimental apparatus for spectral analysis are described

  16. Anthropometric methods for obesity screening in schoolchildren: the Ouro Preto Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cándido, A P C; Alosta, J P S; Oliveira, C T; Freitas, R N; Freitas, S N; Machado-Coelho, G L L

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in last decades. To evaluate the usefulness of body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness (ST), waist circumference (WC), and foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance (BIA-FF) for screening for obesity in mixed-race population, using the tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance (BIA-T) technique as reference method. A cross-sectional-based population study was performed in the city of Ouro Preto, Brazil, in 2006. Schoolchildren aged 6-15 years (n = 788) was randomly selected according to age and sex stratified by the proportion of students in each schools of the city. Nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to define the sensitivity and specificity for each method studied using the tetrapolar method as reference. The BMI and the BIA-FF were the most suitable for adiposity screening in pre-pubertal and pubertal stages because they present a better balance between sensitivity and specificity, and smaller misclassification. For post-pubertal boys, the BF-ST-D was the best body fat assessment method. The results suggest that BIA-FF and BMI are choice methods for obesity screening in mixed population and that the method choice for body fat screening must be done according to sexual maturity of boys and girls. The present study demonstrates the need to perform studies in wider mixed-race population to determine anthropometric parameters and to examine the predictive ability of methods and cut-offs here elucidated in the development of obesity.

  17. Reliability of intra-oral camera using teledentistry in screening of oral diseases – Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion/recommendations: Intra-oral camera was shown to be a reliable tool to identify common oral diseases. Further studies involving applications like sealant retention, pre-malignant lesions, recurrent apthae, gingival recession and dental malocclusion and effectiveness in regular screening are needed.

  18. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I. J.; van Ballegooijen, M.; Wauben, B.; Looman, C. W. N.; Habbema, J. D. F.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Korfage I, van Ballegooijen M, Wauben B, Looman C, Habbema J, Essink-Bot M. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study. BJOG 2012;119:936944. Objective To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact of

  19. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J M; van Putten, Michel J A M; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  20. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J.M.; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  1. Electrochemical Study and Determination of Electroactive Species with Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Yerga, Daniel; Costa Rama, Estefanía; Costa García, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    A lab appropriate to introduce voltammetric techniques and basic electrochemical parameters is described in this work. It is suitable to study theoretical concepts of electrochemistry in an applied way for analytical undergraduate courses. Two electroactive species, hexaammineruthenium and dopamine, are used as simple redox systems. Screen-printed…

  2. A multicentre observational study of the outcomes of screening detected sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, J B; Stather, P W; Biancari, F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Currently most abdominal aortic aneurysm screening programmes discharge patients with aortic diameter of less than 30 mm. However, sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation (25 mm-29 mm) does not represent a normal aortic diameter. This observational study aimed to determine the outcomes of pa...

  3. Chemical, biomedical and ecological studies of SRC-I materials from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlum, D.D. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses studies performed with solvent refined coal (SRC) materials obtained from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant during operation in the SRC-I mode. The development of analytical methodology is presented as well as results obtained from the application of these methods to light oil (LO), wash solvent (WS) and process solvent (PS). Results of cellular and animal studies with LO, WS and PS are included, along with a description of methods for the generation and characterization of LO and PS aerosols, and for exposing rats, mice and guinea pigs to these aerosols. The effects of SRC-I product on seed germination and plant growth which have also been studied are discussed. The SRC-I product, feed coal and the mineral residue have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. The higher-boiling-point material, PS, exhibited significant mutagenic activity in the Ames assay; LO and WS were inactive. Process solvent also caused transformation of cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells. Additional chemical fractionation studies suggest that primary aromatic amines are major determinants of the observed mutagenic activity. Skin-painting studies with SRC-II naphtha, heavy distillate, shale oil and petroleum crude indicate a good correlation between the results of the cellular assays and skin carcinogenesis in mice. Wash solvent was more toxic after oral administration to rats than was light oil or process solvent. The effects of LO, WS and PS on development were studied after administration to pregnant rats. The tissue distribution of a number of components of PS was studied after oral administration of PS to rats. The effect of SRC-I product on the germination and growth of barley was investigated by mixing or layering the product with soil and placing the mixture in a field lysimeter.

  4. A systematic review of alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Paul; Böhnke, Jan R; McCambridge, Jim

    2017-06-06

    Alcohol consumption creates a significant public health burden, and young people who drink alcohol place themselves at risk of harm. Expert guidance and reviews have highlighted the pressing need for reliable and valid, age-appropriate alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people. The proposed systematic review will evaluate existing alcohol screening and assessment measures for young people aged 24 and under. Six electronic databases will be searched for published and grey literature. In addition, reverse and forward citation searching and consultation with experts will be performed. Three sets of search terms will be combined, including alcohol use/problems, young people and validation studies. The titles and abstracts of reports from the searches will be screened, and potentially relevant full-text reports will be retrieved and independently assessed for inclusion by two reviewers based on prespecified criteria. Discrete validation studies within included reports will then be assessed for eligibility. There will be an a priori basic quality threshold for predictive validity, internal and test-retest for studies to warrant full data extraction. Studies above the quality threshold will be assessed for quality using the modified consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist and a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies. This review will highlight the best performing measures both for screening and assessment based on their psychometric properties and the quality of the validation studies supporting their use. Providing clear guidance on which existing measures perform best to screen and assess alcohol use and problems in young people will inform policy, practice and decision-making, and clarify the need for further research. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42016053330. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  5. Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in community-based annual lung cancer screening: Chiba Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung Cancer Screening Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yasuo; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kiminori; Tsutatani, Shuko; Kubota, Kazuko; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Isobe, Yuji; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial in the management of COPD. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a community-based lung cancer screening for detecting COPD. In Japan, community-based lung cancer screening for residents who are 40 years or older using chest radiography is well established. A screening system in Chiba City, Japan, was used to detect COPD. The criteria to consider COPD at screening included age of 60 years or older, a smoking history and chronic respiratory symptoms. Participants fulfilling these criteria were referred for diagnostic evaluation consisting of pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT). Of 89,100 Chiba City residents who underwent lung cancer screening, 72,653 residents were 60 years or older. Among them, 878 (1.0%) were identified with suspected COPD and referred for further evaluation. Of those identified, a total of 567 residents (64.6%, 567/878) underwent further evaluations, and 161 (28.4%) were reported to have COPD, with 38.5% of them requiring COPD treatment. To verify the diagnoses from the secondary evaluation centres, PFT and CT data were collected from 228 study participants, and 24.9% were diagnosed with COPD. CT findings classified according to the Goddard classification revealed that 20.1% of these participants had moderate to severe emphysema. COPD screening added to a community-based lung cancer screening programme may be effective in the detection of patients with COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Tailoring consent to context: designing an appropriate consent process for a biomedical study in a low income setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Fasil; Bull, Susan J; Farsides, Bobbie; Newport, Melanie J; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N; Davey, Gail

    2009-07-21

    Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the approach that should be followed for gaining consent. The study was conducted prior to a family-based genetic study among people with podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in southern Ethiopia. We adapted a method of rapid assessment validated in The Gambia. The methodology was entirely qualitative, involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Discussions were conducted with podoconiosis patients and non-patients in the community, fieldworkers, researchers, staff of the local non-governmental organisation (NGO) working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis, and community leaders. We found that the extent of use of everyday language, the degree to which expectations of potential participants were addressed, and the techniques of presentation of information had considerable impact on comprehension of information provided about research. Approaching podoconiosis patients via locally trusted individuals and preceding individual consent with community sensitization were considered the optimal means of communication. Prevailing poverty among podoconiosis patients, the absence of alternative treatment facilities, and participants' trust in the local NGO were identified as potential barriers for obtaining genuine informed consent. Researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of consent processes in providing appropriate information in a comprehensible manner and in supporting voluntary decision-making on a study-by-study basis.

  7. Overview of community-based studies of depression screening interventions among the elderly population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    In most Western and Asian countries, a higher risk of suicide is found among elderly people than those in other age groups. However, the treatment needs of elderly people who are at risk of committing suicide are not well understood. We conducted an overview of studies that assessed the impact of suicide prevention interventions on suicide rates in elderly people in Japan. We interpreted the results of these studies, as well as prominent findings associated with other successful interventions, within a framework of the suicidal process and preventive strategies. We assessed six quasi-experimental studies of community-based interventions providing universal depression screening, subsequent care, and education to elderly people in Japan, and performed a combined analysis of outcome data. Screening interventions were associated with lower suicide rates. We also found a gender difference in the response to subsequent psychiatric or primary care. Two types of interventions decreased the rate of suicide among elderly people: crisis helplines and screening interventions. These interventions featured a close link between universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies, which reflect different approaches tailored to the size and risk profile of the target individuals. Successful interventions appear to hinge on systematic links between multi-level prevention interventions. Multi-level interventions for depression screening may result in lower suicide rates among elderly individuals in communities, although primary care interventions alone appear to be insufficient in men. The benefit of linked multi-level prevention interventions may highlight the importance of the multiple steps and components of the suicidal process.

  8. Danish Rural Eye Study: the association of preschool vision screening with the prevalence of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study on the protection of fish larvae at water intakes using wedge-wire screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority has conducted a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of several species of larval fish to avoid entrainment through and impingement against wedge-wire stationary screen (fish avoidance concept). The results are presented in this study. The fish avoidance concept features small-opening screens, low inlet velocities, and an unobstructed bypass. Its success is dependent on the ability of larvae to detect and swim away from the screens. The study was designed to test this concept in a flowing-water environment. All species showed some ability to avoid entrainment, and many species showed considerable avoidance of entraining flows. Safe bypass or avoidance of entrainment was generally related inversely to slot size and slot velocity. Best results were shown for the 0.5-mm slot and 7.6 cm/s (0.25 fps) slot velocity. At least one of the smallest species showed appreciable avoidance of the largest slot size (2.0 mm) tested. From a biological point of view this screening concept has the potential for protecting nearly all fish of impingeable size as well as a large portion of fish of entrainable size

  10. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  11. Tailoring consent to context: designing an appropriate consent process for a biomedical study in a low income setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Tekola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the approach that should be followed for gaining consent. The study was conducted prior to a family-based genetic study among people with podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis in southern Ethiopia.We adapted a method of rapid assessment validated in The Gambia. The methodology was entirely qualitative, involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Discussions were conducted with podoconiosis patients and non-patients in the community, fieldworkers, researchers, staff of the local non-governmental organisation (NGO working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis, and community leaders. We found that the extent of use of everyday language, the degree to which expectations of potential participants were addressed, and the techniques of presentation of information had considerable impact on comprehension of information provided about research. Approaching podoconiosis patients via locally trusted individuals and preceding individual consent with community sensitization were considered the optimal means of communication. Prevailing poverty among podoconiosis patients, the absence of alternative treatment facilities, and participants' trust in the local NGO were identified as potential barriers for obtaining genuine informed consent.Researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of consent processes in providing appropriate information in a comprehensible manner and in supporting voluntary decision-making on a study-by-study basis.

  12. 5C.04: SCREENING FOR HYPERTENSION IN THE BARBERSHOP: A FRANCO-MOROCCAN FEASIBILITY STUDY (THE "DECOIFFA" STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, J; Laurière, E; Iraqi, M; Fay, R; Burnier, M; Boivin, J-M

    2015-06-01

    High Blood Pressure (HBP) is responsible for 7.5 million deaths per year worldwide. About 15 million of French people are hypertensive and 4 millions of them are undiagnosed. More than 7 millions of Moroccans are hypertensive. Today, a high percentage of hypertensive patients remain undiagnosed and mass screening programs in pharmacies or shopping centers are not very efficient. Therefore, there is a need to develop new strategies to identify untreated hypertensive patients.To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of a HBP screening strategy for unknown or insufficiently treated hypertensive patient with Self-Blood Pressure Measurements (SBPM) in barbershops. Prospective multicenter study of HBP screening in France and Morocco. Willing customers of 23 barbershops in France and 6 in Morocco were included between January and April 2013. Three validated humeral Omron M7 Automatic BP monitors connected to a printer were needed in each barbershop. An information formular was delivered to all customers. Customers were free to give their phone number to be contacted 3 months later for a standardized follow-up questionnaire. Suspected HBP was defined by an average of 3 SMBP >  = 135 and/or > 85 mmHg. The primary endpoints of the study were: number of patients with treated or untreated HBP, number of patients referred to their physicians, proportion of permanent HBP diagnosis after screening and the acceptability of this screening strategy. Table 1:(Figure is included in full-text article.)The screening identified a very high percentage of untreated hypertensive patients particularly in Morocco (70.2%) and France (25.7%).In France, 40.2% (n = 41) of customers having an average of SMBP >  = 135/85 mmHg have consulted a physician after screening. 75.8% (n = 213) of participants contacted for the follow-up considered the screening test to be innovating and none have found it inappropriate : HBP screening by SMBP in the barbershop helped

  13. The Canadian National Breast Screening Studies are compromised and their results are unreliable. They should not factor into decisions about breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopans, Daniel B

    2017-08-01

    The Canadian National Breast Screening Studies were compromised by an unblinded allocation process and poor quality mammography. Contrary to the requirement that allocation in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) be blinded to avoid any possible intentional or unintentional subversion of a random allocation, all women in the CNBSS trials underwent a clinical breast examination prior to assignment to the study arm or the usual care arm. Women with abnormal clinical breast examinations were identified, and this information was available to the coordinators who then assigned the women on open lists. It was, therefore, possible to assign women to whichever arm the coordinator chose. Although subversion was likely unintended, a significant number of women with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes were assigned to the screening arm of CNBSS1. This explains why there were more breast cancer deaths among the screened women in the first ten years of the trial and why the 5 year survival of the control women was better than 90% when the background survival in Canada at the time was only 75%. The trials were further compromised by the poor quality of the mammography which was confirmed by a review conducted by the trials' organizers. These fundamental problems compromise the CNBSS and make their results, which are major outliers in the RCT's of breast cancer screening, unreliable. Consequently, they should not be used to establish guidelines for breast cancer screening.

  14. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E; Susman, Rachel; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2014-09-01

    Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrollment in the study. We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrollment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the

  15. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  16. The upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies is method-dependent: A collaborative study with biomedical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Metus, Paolo; Caruso, Beatrice; Perosa, Anna Rosa; Sirianni, Francesca; Stenner, Elisabetta; Steffan, Agostino; Villalta, Danilo

    2016-01-15

    The determination of the upper reference limit (URL) for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAbs) is a contentious issue, because of the difficulty in defining the reference population. The aim of this study was to establish the URL (eURL) for TPOAbs, according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to compare them with those obtained in a female counterpart, by the use of six commercial automated platforms. 120 healthy males and 120 healthy females with NACB-required characteristics (Lumipulse G1200, Fujirebio. Within each method, TPOAbs values had a high degree of dispersion and the eURLs were lower than those stated by the manufacturer. A statistically significant difference (p0.05). Despite the analytical harmonization, the wide dispersion of the results and the differences of the eURLs between methods suggest the need of further studies focusing on TPO antigen preparations as the possible source of variability between different assays. In addition, the lack of clinical significant difference between males and females, in terms of TPOAb eURLs, confirms the suitability of the NACB recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The study of Parkinson's disease with biomedical instrumentation: a project for the classroom of Technology in secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Encarnación Micó-Amigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to engage young students of educación secundaria obligatoria (ESO and bachillerato (last levels of the compulsory high school education system in an experimental project based on the application of medical technology for the study of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The project consists of an informative session and two practical sessions, all to be carried on the classroom-workshop of the Technology course. At the initial and informative session, it is proposed to expose the context, challenges and current technical constraints in the field of neurology for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, with special focus on PD. The first practical session presents an interactive activity that includes the study, design, assembly and calibration of an inertial sensor (accelerometer or gyroscope. The second practical session requests the students to perform a measurement protocol with a commercial device of clinical use on all the students and involved teachers. The analysis of the obtained measures and the comparison of these with data corresponding to a cohort of patients with PD (provided by the teachers will lead to the proposal of ideas for the development of a diagnostic method for PD. With an experimental, innovative and pragmatic methodology, this projects aims to foster a constructivist learning, to boost a rational thinking, to stimulate the imagination and wit, to expand multidisciplinary knowledge, to raise awareness about a socially relevant reality, to develop social skills though a team work approach and to motivate and inspire the students.

  18. Hepatitis B screening before rituximab therapy: a multicentre South Australian study of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel Al; Shaikh, Abdul; KailinTeh; Tantiongco, Mahsa; Coghlan, Douglas; Karapetis, Chris S; Chinnaratha, Mohammad A; Woodman, Richard; Muller, Kate R; Wigg, Alan J

    2018-01-18

    Background and Aims International guidelines recommend screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prior to administration of rituximab, due to high risk of HBV reactivation in at risk patients. The aim of this study was to determine; (1) adherence to the South Australian (SA) protocol for HBV screening, (2) HBV prevalence in patients receiving rituximab, and (3) outcomes of patients at risk of HBV reactivation. All patients commenced on rituximab at the 6 major SA public hospitals during a 12-month period were included in the study. Adherence was assessed by documentation of both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) prior to initiation of rituximab. Patients were observed for a minimum of 6 months following rituximab initiation. 438 patients were included in the study. The main indication for rituximab therapy was haematological malignancy (76.0%). 209 (47.7%) failed to receive appropriate HBV screening, 86 (19.6%) had neither HBsAg nor HBcAb performed, and 119 (27.2%) had only HBsAg performed. The identified prevalence of at risk cases (either HBsAg or HBcAb positive) within the study population was 4.6% (20/438 cases). One case of HBV reactivation was identified but none led to acute liver failure, transplantation or death. Poor adherence to HBV screening protocols suggests the need for targeted clinician education and system redesign. While the rate of reactivation was low, the prevalence of at risk patients in this population was high and justifies further initiatives to increase adherence rates to HBV screening pre-rituximab. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fenglei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition

  20. Barriers to biomedical care and use of traditional medicines for treatment of cervical cancer: an exploratory qualitative study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaka, A D; Okello, E S; Orach, C G

    2015-07-01

    Use of traditional medicines for treatment of cancers has increased worldwide. We used a qualitative approach to explore barriers to biomedical care and reasons for use of traditional medicines for the treatment of cervical cancer in Gulu, northern Uganda. We carried out 24 focus group discussions involving men and women aged 18-59 years. We employed content analyses technique in data analysis. Traditional medicines were used mainly due to barriers to biomedical care for cervical cancer. The barriers included health system factors, for example long distances to health facilities and unavailability of medicines; health workers' factors, for example negative attitudes towards patients and demands for bribes; individual patient's factors, for example inability to pay for medical care; and socio-cultural beliefs about superiority of traditional medicines and perceived greater privacy in accessing traditional healers. Barriers to biomedical care and community beliefs in the effectiveness of traditional medicines encourage use of traditional medicines for treatment of cervical cancer but might hinder help-seeking at biomedical facilities. There is need for targeted culturally sensitive awareness campaign to promote effectiveness of modern medicine and to encourage cautious use of traditional medicines in the treatment of cervical cancer. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Screening history of women with cervical cancer: a 6-year study in Aarhus, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemann-Hansen, O; Lidang, M; Niemann, I; Dinesen, J; Baandrup, U; Svanholm, H; Petersen, Lk

    2008-04-08

    To identify possible weaknesses in cervical screening in Aarhus County, 10 years after the programme was introduced, screening histories were examined. A major problem for the screening programme was that 31% of women were never screened and 61% under-screened, the latter group being significantly dominated by older women and high-stage tumours.

  2. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  3. Feasibility Study on Active Back Telemetry and Power Transmission Through an Inductive Link for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Pyungwoo; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Lim, Jaemyung; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of wireless power and data transmission through an inductive link to a 1-mm 2 implant, to be used as a free-floating neural probe, distributed across a brain area of interest. The proposed structure utilizes a four-coil inductive link for back telemetry, shared with a three-coil link for wireless power transmission. We propose a design procedure for geometrical optimization of the inductive link in terms of power transmission efficiency (PTE) considering specific absorption rate and data rate. We have designed a low-power pulse-based active data transmission circuit and characterized performance of the proposed inductive link in terms of its data rate and bit error rate (BER). The 1-mm 2 data-Tx/power-Rx coil is implemented using insulated bonding wire with diameter, resulting in measured PTE in tissue media of 2.01% at 131 MHz and 1.8-cm coil separation distance when the resonator coil inner radius is 1 cm. The measured BER at 1-Mbps data rate was and in the air and tissue environments, respectively.

  4. Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis in São Paulo State, Brazil: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodrigues

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive hereditary diseases in the Caucasian population, with an incidence of 1:2000 to 1:3500 liveborns. More than 1000 mutations have been described with the most common being F508del. It has a prevalence of 23-55% within the Brazilian population. The lack of population-based studies evaluating the incidence of cystic fibrosis in São Paulo State, Brazil, and an analysis concerning the costs of implantation of a screening program motivated the present study. A total of 60,000 dried blood samples from Guthrie cards obtained from April 2005 to January 2006 for neonatal screening at 4 reference centers in São Paulo State were analyzed. The immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT/IRT protocol was used with the cut-off value being 70 ng/mL. A total of 532 children (0.9% showed IRT >70 ng/mL and a 2nd sample was collected from 418 (80.3% of these patients. Four affected children were detected at two centers, corresponding to an incidence of 1:8403. The average age at diagnosis was 69 days, and 3 of the children already showed severe symptoms of the disease. The rate of false-positive results was 95.2% and the positive predictive value for the test was 8%. The cost of detecting an affected subject was approximately US$8,000.00 when this cystic fibrosis program was added to an existing neonatal screening program. The present study clearly shows the difficulties involved in cystic fibrosis screening using the IRT/IRT protocol, particularly in a population with no long-term tradition of neonatal screening.

  5. Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in Liberia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Venée N; Marshall, Roseda; Jallah, Wilhemina; Guo, Dongjing; Ma, Clement; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; London, Wendy B; Heeney, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    In malaria-endemic countries in West Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to childhood mortality. Historically, Liberia had regions wherein hemoglobin S and beta-thalassemia trait were mutually exclusive. Data on hemoglobinopathies in the Monrovia, the capital, are outdated and do not reflect urban migration. Updating the epidemiology of SCD is necessary to plan a public health and clinical agenda. Neither newborn screening (NBS) nor screening tools were available in country. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of NBS using a South-South partnership and define the incidence of sickle cell trait (SCT) and SCD in Monrovia. This descriptive epidemiologic feasibility study collected dried blood spots from 2,785 consecutive newborns delivered at a hospital in Monrovia. Samples were analyzed by isoelectric focusing at a regional reference laboratory. Infants with SCD were referred for preventive care. SCT occurred in 10.31% of infants screened. SCD occurred in 33 infants screened [1.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-1.59%)] (FS: 28/33, FSB: 2/33, FSA: 2/33, FSX: 1/33). There were no infants with FSC phenotype observed. Nonsickling hemoglobin phenotypes "FC" and "F" were each present in three infants screened. Seventy-six percent of infants with SCD were brought to care, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach. The incidence of SCD and other hemoglobinopathies remains high in Liberia. Additional studies are needed to clarify sickle genotypes and identify the contribution of silent beta-thalassemia alleles. By developing regional partnerships, countries similar to Liberia can acquire current data to inform NBS as an important public health initiative toward improving child health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Andrew; Myers, Jonathan S.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study. Methods The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-...

  7. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  8. Screening Mammography: A Pilot Study on Its Pertinence in Indian Population by Means of a Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Joish Upendra; Sreekanth, Vivek; Reddy, Harikiran R; Sridhar, Aishwarya B; Kodali, Niveditha; Prabhu, Anitha S

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer incidence and related mortality is increasing in Indian women. Indian ladies hesitate to seek medical care for breast related issues. Screening mammography, proved to effectively reduce mortality, has been deemed not feasible in Indian context due to cost considerations. The suggested alternatives have not been proven to improve mortality rates. To find the relevance of screening mammography camp among Indian women. A week long screening mammography camp was organized in a tertiary care hospital. Clinical examination was done followed by bilateral mammography. Mammograms were reported as per American College of Radiology-Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (ACR-BIRADS) 5 th edition specifications. Lesions deemed BIRADS 4 and 5 were biopsied. BIRADS 3 category findings were suggested short interval follow up. A total of 118 women, ranging from 35 to 64 years of age with mean age of 49.6 years underwent mammography. Thirty ladies with dense breast compositions further underwent sono-mammography. Six (5.1%) new cases of breast carcinomas were detected during this study and 28 (23.7%) cases with probably benign findings were advised short interval follow up. Mammography, being a proven screening modality effective in reducing mortality, needs incorporation into the nationwide program for breast cancer detection, inspite of financial considerations. Organizing mammography camps will help create awareness and encourage public to utilize services.

  9. Sample Preparations Used in Biomedical Research and Training at the Special Training Division of the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, L.K.

    1965-01-01

    A very wide variety of sample preparation is used in the Special Training Division's research and teaching programmes. These range from simple source holders such as metal, cardboard and plastic source mounts, to precipitation devices using stainless steel and fibreglass mounts, and special source holders for liquid counting of samples. In addition to these techniques, a number of procedures of special interest in biomedical problems have been developed. One of the most important of these is the use of a catalytic synthesis of benzene which has been developed to the point to which an over-all yield of better than 90% is obtained. This synthesis can be used for carbon-containing compounds of interest in low-level tracing experiments and age dating problems. Since the synthesis involves the production of carbon dioxide at one step and the hydration of metallic carbide in another, it can be used either for the measurement of 14 C or 3 H or both in double labelling experiments. Considerable work is done on activation analysis of biological materials, particularly in the Division's radioecological programmes. Special techniques for the preparation of these materials for activation analysis and other radiochemical procedures are described. Since the problem of resolution in alpha-ray spectroscopy remains a very difficult one, considerable work is carried out by the oceanography and environmental studies group in the development of very thin samples which are capable of permitting higher resolution of alpha-ray spectra. These employ electrodeposition procedures from mixed solvents. Measurements are made with a special bank of Fairstein-Frisch grid counters associated with a 512-channel analyser for simultaneous recording of more than one spectrum. Solid-state detectors are also used and comparative results of gridded and solid-state detectors are shown. (author) [fr

  10. [Results of a pilot study for breast cancer screening by mammography in Sfax region, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, M; Yaiche, O; Elloumi, F; Mnejja, W; Slimi, L; Kassis, M; Daoud, J

    2013-05-01

    Evaluation of three rounds of mammography screening pilot programme operated between 2004 and 2010 in Sfax by the founders of Dar El Amal association. A biennial screening was offered to women aged over 45years and residing in five delegations of Sfax. Two radiologists independently interpret the mammograms. Twelve thousand six hundred and fifty-seven mammographies were performed. The rate of participation was 17.35%. Women under 50years had the higher rate of participation (34.7%). Some 17.2%/8% (prevalent/incident round) of participants were recalled for further assessment. The chirurgical biopsy rate was 2.1% in prevalence and 1.34% in incidence. The predictive positive value (PPV) of biopsy was 26.5% and 47.14% in the prevalent and incident rounds, respectively. The cancer detection rate amounted to 5.6‰ in prevalent round and to 6.3‰ in incident round. Twenty-five percent of invasive detected cancers were less or equal to 10mm in size and 65.5% were node-negative. The rate of interval cancer was 0.78‰. The performance of screening in this study was undermined by the relative importance of women younger than 50years. The cost of one test was 26,200TD and the cost of one cancer case screening was 6142TD. This study identified the benefits and limitations of this pilot programme to inform policy makers on the importance and feasibility of an organized mammography screening of breast cancer in Tunisia in a context of a generalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity in China: a neonatal units-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Qi; Ji, Xunda; Zhang, Qin; Zhu, Jianxing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Peiquan

    2013-12-19

    To analyze the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in China, and to explore the workload implications of applying different criteria. A prospective, neonatal units-based study undertaken in two tertiary level hospitals in Shanghai, China, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012. All infants with birth weight (BW) of 2000 g or less and/or gestational age (GA) of 34 weeks or less were screened for ROP. Retinopathy of prematurity was classified using the international classification, and was treated in accordance with the recommendations of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. A total of 2825 (93.7%) of 3014 eligible infants were screened, and ROP was diagnosed in 503 infants (17.8%). One hundred ninety-one infants (6.8%) had type 1 or worse ROP and were treated with laser or vitrectomy. The mean GA of ROP patients was 29.9 ± 2.1 weeks and their mean BW was 1425 ± 266 g. Infants who needed treatment for ROP had a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.1 weeks and mean BW of 1331 ± 330 g. Among these treated infants, 18 infants (9.4%) exceeded the United Kingdom's (UK) screening criteria, and 28 (14.7%) exceeded the criteria used in the United States (US). If narrower criteria, as in GA less than or equal to 33 weeks and/or BW less than or equal to 1750 g were adopted, almost 16.9% fewer infants would not have been examined, with no infant missing treatment. Larger, older infants are at risk in China and screening criteria used in the US and UK may not be suitable for China. Further population-based studies are recommended to determine the necessity of modifying the current ROP screening protocol.

  12. Screening for Type 1 Diabetes Risk in Newborns: The Freder1k Pilot Study in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Angela; Haupt, Florian; Delivani, Petrina; Winkler, Christiane; Stopsack, Marina; Wimberger, Pauline; Nitzsche, Katharina; Heinke, Sophie; Naeke, Andrea; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Bergert, Renate; Stadthaus, Daniel; Groeger, Katrin; Heubner, Georg; Schramm, Ursula; Dziambor, Ullrich; Zirkel, Agnes; Kiess, Wieland; Mueller, Iris; Lange, Karin; Berner, Reinhard; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    An increased risk for type 1 diabetes can be identified using genetic and immune markers. The Freder1k study introduces genetic testing for type 1 diabetes risk within the context of the newborn screening in order to identify newborns with a high risk to develop type 1 diabetes for follow-up testing of early stage type 1 diabetes and for primary prevention trials. Consent for research-based genetic testing of type 1 diabetes risk is obtained with newborn screening. Increased risk is assessed using three single nucleotide polymorphisms for HLA DRB1*03 (DR3), HLA DRB1*04 (DR4), HLA DQB1*0302 (DQ8) alleles, and defined as 1. an HLA DR3/DR4-DQ8 or DR4-DQ8/DR4-DQ8 genotype or 2. an HLA DR4-DQ8 haplotype and a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes. Families of infants with increased risk are asked to participate in follow-up visits at infant age 6 months, 2 years, and 4 years for autoantibody testing and early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. After 8 months, the screening rate has reached 181 per week, with 63% coverage of newborns within Freder1k-clinics and 24% of all registered births in Saxony. Of 4178 screened, 2.6% were identified to have an increased risk, and around 80% of eligible infants were recruited to follow-up. Psychological assessment of eligible families is ongoing with none of 31 families demonstrating signs of excessive burden associated with knowledge of type 1 diabetes risk. This pilot study has shown that it is feasible to perform genetic risk testing for childhood disease within the context of newborn screening programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Ramirez, Marizen; Beckman, Linda J; Danao, Leda L; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2011-08-01

    Studies on colorectal cancer screening among specific Asian American groups are limited despite the fact that Asians are comprised of culturally distinct subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States. One hundred and seventeen Filipino men and women aged 50 years or older participated in the cross-section research design. Lifetime proportion of immigration, language preference and cultural beliefs of personal control regarding health outcomes measured cultural characteristics. Demographic and healthcare variables were also measured to describe the study sample. Participant recruitment employed culturally responsive sampling methods. There was no significant association between language preference and screening. Likewise, perceived personal internal control of health outcome was not related to screening. However, personal external control revealed a marginally significant association. The percent of lifetime residence in the United States was significantly greater among those who were adherent to screening than those who were not adherent. After adjusting for demographic and healthcare variables, the relationship between length of immigration and screening adherence was no longer significant. Finally, age and doctor's recommendation showed significant impact on colorectal cancer screening adherence. This pilot study adds to the knowledge regarding cultural factors associated with colorectal cancer screening behaviors among Filipino Americans. Future research is needed to confirm findings that will be useful in developing culturally appropriate strategies to increase screening adherence. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  15. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  16. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  17. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  18. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  19. Parental factors associated with screen time in pre-school children in primary-care practice: a TARGet Kids! study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon; Mekky, Magda; Manlhiot, Cedric; Beck, Carolyn E; Jacobson, Sheila; Peer, Michael; Taylor, Carolyn; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C

    2011-12-01

    To identify child and parental factors associated with screen time in 3-year-old children. Observational study. Participants were recruited from a large primary-care paediatric group practice in Toronto, Canada. Healthy 3-year-old children were included. A questionnaire was completed by their parents on screen time. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were used to assess associations between child screen time and selected factors. Multivariable models included factors from the univariate analysis with P eating lunch and dinner in front of the screen and mother being employed were associated with an increase in child weekday screen time of 96 (95% CI 30, 192), 42 (95% CI 12, 90) and 36 (95% CI 6, 72) min/d, respectively. Eating lunch in front of the screen and an increase of 1 h of parental screen time were associated with an increase of 78 (95% CI 36, 132) and 12 (95% CI 6, 18) min/d in child weekend screen time. Family rules decreased child weekend screen time by 30 (95% CI 6, 54) min/d. Interventions that include these important parental factors should be evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing screen time.

  20. Biomedical Free Electron Laser Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    myosin using the procedure of Kinosita et al., 1984. Unreacted probe (eosin) was removed by a 10 cm Sephadex G-25 " desalting " column or extensive...Inc.). The tube is electrostatically and magnetically shielded for noise reduction. In our current measurements on blood and blood-agar composites an

  1. A population-based screening study for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Danish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marie; Frost, Lars; Søgaard, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVD and DM as well as the acceptability toward screening and preventive actions. METHODS: An observational study was performed among all women born in 1936, 1941, 1946 and 1951 living in Viborg Municipality, Denmark, from October 2011. In total, 1984 were...... invited to screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), carotid plaque (CP), hypertension (HT), atrial fibrillation (AF), DM and dyslipidaemia. Participants with positive tests were offered prophylactic intervention including follow-up consultations in case of AAA, PAD...... in 191 (30.3%) women. Initiation of antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy was further recommended to 134 (21.2%) and 141 (22.4%) women, respectively, who hesitated to follow the recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The study recorded an acceptable total attendance rate, even though a significantly lower...

  2. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  3. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pérez, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This final year project presents the design principles and prototype implementation of BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System), a flexible software system which provides an infrastructure to manage all information required by biomedical research projects.The BIMS project was initiated with the motivation to solve several limitations in medical data acquisition of some research projects, in which Universitat Pompeu Fabra takes part. These limitations,based on the lack of control mechan...

  4. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  5. Modified chitosans for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalınca, Zülal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the suitability of chitosan and some of its derivatives for some chosen biomedical applications. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chitosan-tripolyphosphate and ascorbyl chitosan were synthesized and characterized for specific biomedical applications in line with their chemical functionalities. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chi-graft-PNVI, was synthesized by two methods; via an N-protection route and without N-pr...

  6. Can we screen for pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination in epidemiologic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew D; Neubauer, Nikki L; Klein-Olarte, Victoria

    2006-10-01

    Large population-based epidemiologic studies of pelvic organ prolapse are rare. One barrier is the need for physical examination in order to confirm disease status. The objectives of this study were to develop a simple screening question for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to evaluate its test characteristics in high and low prevalence populations. Data from 100 women enrolled in the validation study of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) were used to identify the question or questions that most accurately identified women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. After identifying an accurate and reliable screening question from this original group, its test characteristics were evaluated prospectively in 2 additional distinct populations: a group of 120 women presenting to a tertiary care urogynecology clinic (High prior probability of POP) and 448 women presenting to a nurse practitioner for annual gynecologic examination (Low prior probability of POP). Subjects in these 2 groups each completed the screening question and underwent a POPQ examination by a blinded examiner. A single question was identified from the original study population that most accurately and reliably identified those women with POP "Do you usually have a bulge or something falling out that you can see or feel in your vaginal area?" An affirmative answer to this question was 96% sensitive (95%CI 92-100) and 79% specific (95%CI 77-92) for prolapse beyond the hymen. The 1-week test-retest reliability was good (kappa .84). The prevalence of POP in this group was 29%. No other single question or group of questions had better test characteristics. When prospectively evaluated in the second High probability population (prevalence 39%), similar test characteristics were noted: sensitivity 85% (95%CI 71-93), specificity 86% (95%CI 75-92). However, when evaluated in the Low prior probability group (POP prevalence 3.8%) the specificity improved to 99% (95%CI 98-99), while the sensitivity decreased

  7. Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of Tuberculosis Screening in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzooqi, Farida; Alkhemeiri, Aysha; Aljaberi, Ahmed; Hashmey, Rayhan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2018-03-08

    Intense migrations from tuberculosis endemic areas to Gulf countries create special risks to people in the region. The purpose of this study is to provide data that could justify implementing a universal, regular TB screening in UAE. This prospective, cross-sectional study used interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen for TB among Emirati citizens between August-2016 and May-2017; expatriates were not included in this study. Participants were recruited from Emiratis attending Tawam Hospital Polyclinics for problems unrelated to TB risk assessment. IGRA was requested for all enrolled participants. A risk-assessment questionnaire was completed by all participants. In addition, a retrospective review of IGRA results (January-2011 to April-2016) was conducted to compare prevalence of positive IGRA in the 'prospective sample' with that in 'patients screened in the past'. Four hundred fifty-five participants (69% females) were enrolled in this study. Participants' age (mean±SD) was 42±16y. The majority of participants had traveled to or had helpers from TB-endemic areas. Two hundred forty (53%) participants had IGRA test. Forty-five (18.8%) participants had positive IGRA, similar to the retrospective results of 12.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of positive-IGRA in this study is high. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pilot study of a high-frequency school-based hearing screen to detect adolescent hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Zalewski, Thomas R; Ghossaini, Soha N; King, Tonya S; Rhoades, Julie A; Czarnecki, Beth; Grounds, Shannon; Deese, Barry; Barr, Ashley L; Paul, Ian M

    2014-03-01

    Like most of the United States, school-based hearing screening in Pennsylvania focuses on low-frequency, conductive hearing losses typical for young children, rather than the high-frequency, noise-induced hearing loss more prevalent among adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of current school hearing screening in Pennsylvania with hearing screening including high frequencies, designed to detect adolescent hearing loss. A single public high school. In the Autumn of 2011 the high-frequency screen was delivered alongside the Pennsylvania school screen for students in the 11(th) grade. Screening referrals and a subset of passes returned for "gold standard" testing with audiology in a sound treated booth, in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the screening tests. Of 282 participants, five (2%) were referred on the Pennsylvania school screen, and 85 (30%) were referred on the high-frequency screen. Of the 48 who returned for gold standard testing with audiology, hearing loss was diagnosed in 9/48 (19%). Sensitivity of the Pennsylvania and high-frequency screens were 13% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-53%) and 100% (95% CI 66-100%) respectively. Specificity of the Pennsylvania and high-frequency screens were 97% (95% CI 87-100%) and 49% (95% CI 32-65%) respectively. Current school hearing screens have low sensitivity for detection of adolescent hearing loss. Modifying school-based protocols may be warranted to best screen adolescents, and make optimal use of school nurse time and effort.

  9. Multimodal lung cancer screening using the ITALUNG biomarker panel and low dose computed tomography. Results of the ITALUNG biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carrozzi, Laura; Falaschi, Fabio; Lopes Pegna, Andrea; Mascalchi, Mario; Picozzi, Giulia; Peluso, Marco; Sani, Cristina; Greco, Luana; Ocello, Cristina; Paci, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Asymptomatic high-risk subjects, randomized in the intervention arm of the ITALUNG trial (1,406 screened for lung cancer), were enrolled for the ITALUNG biomarker study (n = 1,356), in which samples of blood and sputum were analyzed for plasma DNA quantification (cut off 5 ng/ml), loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. The ITALUNG biomarker panel (IBP) was considered positive if at least one of the two biomarkers included in the panel was positive. Subjects with and without lung cancer diagnosis at the end of the screening cycle with LDCT (n = 517) were evaluated. Out of 18 baseline screen detected lung cancer cases, 17 were IBP positive (94%). Repeat screen-detected lung cancer cases were 18 and 12 of them positive at baseline IBP test (66%). Interval cancer cases (2-years) and biomarker tests after a suspect Non Calcific Nodule follow-up were investigated. The single test versus multimodal screening measures of accuracy were compared in a simulation within the screened ITALUNG intervention arm, considering screen-detected and interval cancer cases. Sensitivity was 90% at baseline screening. Specificity was 71 and 61% for LDCT and IBP as baseline single test, and improved at 89% with multimodal, combined screening. The positive predictive value was 4.3% for LDCT at baseline and 10.6% for multimodal screening. Multimodal screening could improve the screening efficiency at baseline and strategies for future implementation are discussed. If IBP was used as primary screening test, the LDCT burden might decrease of about 60%. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases in Costa Rica: a feasibility study toward a national screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Román, Norbel; Quirós, Indiana; Páez, Laura; García, Vilma; Mora, Ana María; Juncos, Jorge L; Steenland, Kyle N

    2013-12-27

    The integration of mental and neurologic services in healthcare is a global priority. The universal Social Security of Costa Rica aspires to develop national screening of neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly, as part of the non-communicable disease agenda. This study assessed the feasibility of routine screening for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the public healthcare system of Costa Rica. The population (aged ≥65) in the catchment areas of two primary healthcare clinics was targeted for motor and cognitive screening during routine annual health check-ups. The screening followed a tiered three-step approach, with increasing specificity. Step 1 involved a two-symptom questionnaire (tremor-at-rest; balance) and a spiral drawing test for motor assessment, as well as a three-word recall and animal category fluency test for cognitive assessment. Step 2 (for those failing Step 1) was a 10-item version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Step 3 (for those failing Step 2) was a comprehensive neurologic exam with definitive diagnosis of PD, AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), other disorders, or subjects who were healthy. Screening parameters and disease prevalence were calculated. Of the 401 screened subjects (80% of target population), 370 (92%), 163 (45%), and 81 (56%) failed in Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3, respectively. Thirty-three, 20, and 35 patients were diagnosed with PD, AD, and MCI, respectively (7 were PD with MCI/AD); 90% were new cases. Step 1 sensitivities of motor and cognitive assessments regarding Step 2 were both 93%, and Step 2 sensitivities regarding definitive diagnosis 100 and 96%, respectively. Specificities for Step 1 motor and cognitive tests were low (23% and 29%, respectively) and for Step 2 tests acceptable (76%, 94%). Based on international data, PD prevalence was 3.7 times higher than expected; AD prevalence was as expected. Proposed protocol adjustments

  11. First trimester screening for pre-eclampsia in Chinese pregnancies: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yky; Leung, T Y; Law, L W; Ting, Y H; Law, K M; Sahota, D S

    2018-03-01

    To assess the potential of screening for pre-eclampsia (PE) in a Chinese population. Case-control study. Teaching hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 3330 women having a viable singleton pregnancy attending first-trimester Down-syndrome screening. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), bilateral uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI), and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured. Screening markers were transformed to multiples of the gestational median (MoM) and adjusted for maternal and pregnancy characteristics. MoM distributions in PE and non-PE pregnancies were compared with published expected values. PE screening performance was assessed using area under receiver operating curves (AUROC). PE detection rate. A total of 30 (0.9%) women developed either early (UtA-PI on fetal crown rump length, uterine artery peak systolic velocity (UtA-PSV) on maternal age and gestation, and PlGF on gestation in non-PE pregnancies. MoM distributions determined using published Fetal Medicine Foundation models deviated significantly from one for both MAP (P < 0.0001) and PI (P < 0.0001), but not PlGF (P = 0.52) in non-PE pregnancies, whilst PlGF MoM distributions in those who developed early as opposed to late onset PE were significantly higher (P = <0.05). AUROC for any PE using multiple markers was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64-0.81) with detection rates of 72 and 55% for early and late PE, respectively, for a 10% false positive rate. Detection rates for PE in our Chinese population were lower than the expected 90-95% even after adjusting MoM for local women's characteristics. General Research Fund (Project number 470513). Pre-eclampsia screening in the Chinese population had detection rates lower than previously published results. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Beliefs and Attitudes to Bowel Cancer Screening in Patients with CKD: A Semistructured Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Laura J; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Ju, Angela; Williams, Narelle; Lim, Wai H; Cross, Nicholas; Tong, Allison

    2017-04-03

    Bowel cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in people with CKD. Shared decision making regarding cancer screening is particularly complex in CKD and requires an understanding of patients' values and priorities, which remain largely unknown. Our study aimed to describe the beliefs and attitudes to bowel cancer screening in patients with CKD. Face to face, semistructured interviews were conducted from April of 2014 to December of 2015 with 38 participants ages 39-78 years old with CKD stages 3-5, on dialysis, or transplant recipients from four renal units in Australia and New Zealand. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Five themes were identified: invisibility of cancer (unspoken stigma, ambiguity of risk, and absence of symptomatic prompting); prioritizing kidney disease (preserving the chance of transplantation, over-riding attention to kidney disease, protecting graft survival, and showing loyalty to the donor); preventing the crisis of cancer (evading severe consequences and cognizant of susceptibility); cognitive resistance (reluctance to perform a repulsive procedure, intensifying disease burden threshold, anxiety of a positive test, and accepting the inevitable); and pragmatic accessibility (negligible financial effect, convenience, and protecting anonymity). Patients with CKD understand the potential health benefits of bowel cancer screening, but they are primarily committed to their kidney health. Their decisions regarding screening revolve around their present health needs, priorities, and concerns. Explicit consideration of the potential practical and psychosocial burdens that bowel cancer screening may impose on patients in addition to kidney disease and current treatment is suggested to minimize decisional conflict and improve patient satisfaction and health care outcomes in CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral in the emergency department: an implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désy, Pierre M; Perhats, Cydne

    2008-02-01

    Alcohol is the single greatest contributor to injury in the United States. Numerous studies have reported that a standardized screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) intervention can effectively minimize future alcohol consumption, reduce injury recurrence, and decrease the number of repeat ED visits. To date, SBIRT studies have been conducted in settings in which physicians or research assistants carried out SBIRT. Little is known about ED nurses carrying out SBIRT. The purpose of this study was to examine ED nurse training needs and identify both barriers to, and enablers of, SBIRT implementation in the emergency department. Two coordinators from each of the 5 ED sites selected for the study attended a 1-day SBIRT educational session. Site coordinators then trained their staff nurses to conduct SBIRT. Site coordinators were surveyed at the midpoint and end of the 6-month implementation study period. Patient data from each facility was collected. Ten site coordinators were trained and held subsequent training sessions with nursing staff in their respective emergency departments. All sites encountered barriers to implementation, but 2 of 5 sites were able to implement the SBIRT process fully by the end of the evaluation period. A total of 3265 patients were screened for alcohol use problems. Of those screened, 678 (21%) were classified as hazardous drinkers. Overall, 56% of the positive-screened patients received 3 to 5 minutes of a brief intervention. After the brief intervention, between 9% and 82% of patients were referred for further care. The SBIRT process can be conducted successfully by emergency nurses. However, substantial operational barriers to widespread routine implementation exist. These barriers need to be addressed before emergency nurses incorporate SBIRT as routine part of ED care.

  14. [The biomedical periodicals of Hungarian editions--historical overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhidi, Anna; Geges, József; Vasas, Lívia

    2006-03-12

    The majority of Hungarian scientific results are published in international periodicals in foreign languages. Yet the publications in Hungarian scientific periodicals also should not be ignored. This study analyses biomedical periodicals of Hungarian edition from different points of view. Based on different databases a list of titles consisting of 119 items resulted, which contains both the core and the peripheral journals of the biomedical field. These periodicals were analysed empirically, one by one: checking out the titles. 13 of the titles are ceased, among the rest 106 Hungarian scientific journals 10 are published in English language. From the remaining majority of Hungarian language and publishing only a few show up in international databases. Although quarter of the Hungarian biomedical journals meet the requirements, which means they could be represented in international databases, these periodicals are not indexed. 42 biomedical periodicals are available online. Although quarter of these journals come with restricted access. 2/3 of the Hungarian biomedical journals have detailed instructions to authors. These instructions inform the publishing doctors and researchers of the requirements of a biomedical periodical. The increasing number of Hungarian biomedical journals published is welcome news. But it would be important for quality publications which are cited a lot to appear in the Hungarian journals. The more publications are cited, the more journals and authors gain in prestige on home and international level.

  15. The impact of formative testing on study behaviour and study performance of (bio)medical students: a smartphone application intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, A.L.L.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formative testing can increase knowledge retention but students often underuse available opportunities. Applying modern technology to make the formative tests more attractive for students could enhance the implementation of formative testing as a learning tool. This study aimed to

  16. Screening for trace explosives by AccuTOF™-DART®: an in-depth validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Dake, Jeffrey; Bridge, Candice

    2013-10-10

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry is finding increasing utility as a rapid analysis technique in a number of fields. In forensic science specifically, analysis of many types of samples, including drugs, explosives, inks, bank dye, and lotions, has been shown to be possible using these techniques [1]. This paper focuses on one type of ambient ionization mass spectrometry, Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS or DART), and its viability as a screening tool for trace explosives analysis. In order to assess viability, a validation study was completed which focused on the analysis of trace amounts of nitro and peroxide based explosives. Topics which were studied, and are discussed, include method optimization, reproducibility, sensitivity, development of a search library, discrimination of mixtures, and blind sampling. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique over other similar screening techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HPV vaccination impact on a cervical cancer screening program: methods of the FASTER-Tlalpan Study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Jorge; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Bosch, F Xavier; Cuzick, Jack; Lörincz, Attila; Wheeler, Cosette M; Castle, Philip E; Robles, Claudia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    To outline the design of a clinical trial to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination as part of a hrHPV-based primary screening program to extend screening intervals. A total of 18,000 women aged 25-45 years, attending the regular cervical cancer-screening program in primary health care services in Tlalpan, Mexico City, will be invited to the study. Eligible participants will be assigned to one of three comparison groups: 1) HPV16/18 vaccine and hrHPV-based screening; 2) HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine and hrHPV-based screening; 3) Control group who will receive only hrHPV-based screening. Strict surveillance of hrHPV persistent infection and occurrence of precancerous lesions will be conducted to estimate safety profiles at different screening intervals; participants will undergo diagnosis confirmation and treatment as necessary. The FASTER-Tlalpan Study will provide insights into new approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs. It will offer valuable information on potential benefits of combining HPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening to safety extend screening intervals.

  18. Pilot study on use of home telephoning to identify and recruit high-risk individuals for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Novellis, Pierluigi; Crepaldi, Alessandro; Lutman, Romano Fabio; Dieci, Elisa; Profili, Manuel; Siracusano, Licia; Alloisio, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Widespread lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography is urgently needed in Europe to identify lung cancers early and reduce lung cancer deaths. The most effective method of identifying high-risk individuals and recruiting them for screening has not been determined. In the present pilot study we investigated direct telephoning to families as a way of identifying high risk individuals and recruiting them to a screening/smoking cessation program, that avoided the selection bias of voluntary screening. Families in the province of Milan, Italy, were contacted by telephone at their homes and asked about family members over 50 years who were heavy smokers (30 or more pack-years). Persons meeting these criteria were contacted and asked to participate in the program. Those who agreed were given an appointment to undergo screening and receive smoking cessation counseling. Among the 1000 contacted families, involving 2300 persons, 44 (1.9%) were eligible for LDCT screening, and 12 (27%) of these participated in the program. The cost of this recruitment strategy pilot study was around 150 euro per screened subject. We obtained useful information on the proportion of the general population eligible for lung cancer screening and the proportion of those who responded. However the cost of home telephone calling is probably too high to be practicable as a method of recruiting high risk persons for screening. Alternative recruitment methods, possibly involving family physicians practitioners, need to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p=0.001, respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001, and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p=0.001. Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28. Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  20. Notes on a local study on effectiveness and risk of X-ray mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Leonardi, M.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution consists of some special remarks, which may be of general interest, on the results of a local investigation on effectiveness and radiological risk of mass chest screening carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia, an area of North-East Italy limited by well defined geographical and administrative borders. Population is about 1,300,000, ten percent of which is undergoing X-ray chest screening each year. The results of the study are in the working report of the technical workshop on mass screening organized on 4-5 December 1984 in Luxembourg by CEC and CEA. The study itself does not intend to have any character of generality. It has been proposed as an example of syntetic methodology for other similar local investigations which could possibly constitute a reliable basis for putting together larger ones, of national range, as already mentioned in the report. The conclusions on the results of this study seem obvious to us, however, we are aware that any obvious conclusion must be considered very carefully especially when dealing with a very complex matter as epidemiologic statistic, and particularly if we consider the previous papers on this subject as well as other reports presented in the workshop. Finally, we hope that our remarks may at least contribute as a good background for further discussion

  1. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  2. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shiva, Niloofar

    2011-11-15

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI) was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI). In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  3. Faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer in Serbia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scepanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Olivera; Keber, Dusan; Jovanovic, Ivan; Miljus, Dragan; Nikolic, Goran; Kovacevic, Bojan; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Dugalic, Predrag; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Grgov, Sasa; Knezevic, Slavko; Milenkovic, Predrag; Perisic, Nenad; Faivre, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is becoming a major public health problem in the Republic of Serbia. Organized mass screening has been shown to decrease CRC mortality and even its incidence. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability of a faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin proposed by primary care physicians. From August to November 2013, a pilot study for CRC screening was organized in individuals aged 50 to 74 years. The study included 50 primary healthcare centres from all 25 administrative regions of Serbia. A qualitative immunochromatographic faecal immunochemical test for human haemoglobin detection was used. Overall, 50 894 individuals were invited. The participation rate was 67.8 and 3.4% of the tests were positive. Among individuals with a positive test, 69.7% agreed to undergo colonoscopy. The positive predictive value was 27.1% for adenoma and 14.6% for carcinoma. This was the first CRC screening project encompassing approximately one-third of primary healthcare facilities in all regions across the country. It showed a good response of the target population and satisfactory cooperation of the healthcare professionals involved.

  4. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  5. Evaluation of a Biomedical Informatics course for medical students: a pre-posttest study at UNAM Faculty of Medicine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Martínez-Franco, Adrián I; Lobato-Valverde, Marlette; Fernández-Saldívar, Fabián; Vives-Varela, Tania; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2015-04-01

    Biomedical Informatics (BMI) education in medical schools is developing a sound curricular base, but there are few published reports of their educational usefulness. The goal of this paper is to assess knowledge change and satisfaction in medical students after a BMI curriculum. The National Autonomous University of México Faculty of Medicine (UNAM) recently implemented a curricular reform that includes two BMI sequential courses (BMI-1 and BMI-2). The research design was one-group pretest-posttest. An objective test with evidence of validity was used for knowledge measurement. A satisfaction questionnaire was applied at the end of the courses. Two-tailed paired Student's t-tests were applied, comparing knowledge scores in the pre and post-test for each course. The study included student cohorts during two consecutive academic years. The 2013 BMI-1 course (n = 986 students) knowledge pretest score was 43.0 ± 8.6 (mean percent correct ± SD), and the post-test score was 57.7 ± 10.3 (p < 0.001); the 2014 BMI-1 (n = 907) pretest score was 43.7 ± 8.5, and the post-test was 58.1 ± 10.5 (p < 0.001). The 2012 BMI-2 course (n = 683) pretest score was 26.3 ± 7.9, the post-test score was 44.3 ± 13.3 (p < 0.001); the 2013 BMI-2 (n = 926) pretest score was 27.5 ± 7.5, and the post-test was 42.0 ± 11.0 (p < 0.001). The overall opinion of the students regarding the course was from good to excellent, with a response rate higher than 90%. The satisfaction questionnaires had high reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.93). The study shows a significant increase in BMI knowledge after an educational intervention in four medical student cohorts, and an overall positive evaluation by the students. Long-term follow-up is needed, as well as controlled studies of BMI educational interventions using performance endpoints.

  6. A pilot study on screening blood donors with individual-donation nucleic acid testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061

  7. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-11-30

    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Evonik-Mainz-Eye-Care-Study (EMECS: design and execution of the screening investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Barleon

    Full Text Available To determine if screening for major ophthalmological diseases is feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations in a large working population.13037 employees of Evonik Industries aged 40 to 65 years were invited to be screened for major ophthalmological diseases (glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy between June 2007 and March 2008 within an extended setting of occupational medicine. Ophthalmological examinations consisted of visual acuity, objective refraction, pachymetry, tonometry, perimetry (frequency doubling technology, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and digital fundus photography. Participants responded to a questionnaire addressing history of ocular and general diseases and social history.4183 participants (961 female and 3222 male were examined at 13 different sites. Response rates for eligible persons at those sites ranged from 17.9 to 60.5% but were in part limited by availability of examination slots. Average age of participants was 48.4 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD. 4147 out of 4183 subjects (99.1% had a visual acuity ≥ 0.5 in the better eye and 3665 out of 4183 (87.6% subjects had a visual acuity ≥ 0.8 in the better eye. 1629 participants (38.9% had previously not been seen by an ophthalmologist at all or not within the last three years.This article describes the study design and basic characteristics of study participants within a large occupational medicine based screening study for ophthalmological diseases. Response rates exceeded expectations and were limiting examination capacity. Meaningful data could be obtained for almost all participants. We reached participants who previously had not received ophthalmic care. Thus, ophthalmological screening appears to be feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations.

  9. The Evonik-Mainz-Eye-Care-Study (EMECS): design and execution of the screening investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barleon, Lorenz; Wahl, Jochen; Morfeld, Peter; Deters, Claudia; Lichtmeβ, Andrea; Haas-Brähler, Sibylle; Müller, Uta; Breitstadt, Rolf; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    To determine if screening for major ophthalmological diseases is feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations in a large working population. 13037 employees of Evonik Industries aged 40 to 65 years were invited to be screened for major ophthalmological diseases (glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy between June 2007 and March 2008 within an extended setting of occupational medicine. Ophthalmological examinations consisted of visual acuity, objective refraction, pachymetry, tonometry, perimetry (frequency doubling technology), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and digital fundus photography. Participants responded to a questionnaire addressing history of ocular and general diseases and social history. 4183 participants (961 female and 3222 male) were examined at 13 different sites. Response rates for eligible persons at those sites ranged from 17.9 to 60.5% but were in part limited by availability of examination slots. Average age of participants was 48.4 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD). 4147 out of 4183 subjects (99.1%) had a visual acuity ≥ 0.5 in the better eye and 3665 out of 4183 (87.6%) subjects had a visual acuity ≥ 0.8 in the better eye. 1629 participants (38.9%) had previously not been seen by an ophthalmologist at all or not within the last three years. This article describes the study design and basic characteristics of study participants within a large occupational medicine based screening study for ophthalmological diseases. Response rates exceeded expectations and were limiting examination capacity. Meaningful data could be obtained for almost all participants. We reached participants who previously had not received ophthalmic care. Thus, ophthalmological screening appears to be feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations.

  10. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpanah, Hossein; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracy is of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrument in triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED). Method: The present diagnostic accuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years, using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a social worker, and a forensic physician) was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculated using STATA 21. Results: 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 ± 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls). 137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5%) children were confirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 – 100), 98.3 (97.9 – 98.6), 25.5 (18.6 – 33.8), 100 (99.9 – 100), 0.34 (0.25 – 0.46), and 0 (0 – NAN), respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 – 99.4). Conclusion: It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which is in the excellent range. PMID:28286815

  11. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dinpanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracyis of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrumentin triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED. Methods: The present diagnosticaccuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years,using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a socialworker, and a forensicphysician was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculatedusing STATA 21. Results: 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 § 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls.137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5% children wereconfirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive andnegative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 – 100, 98.3 (97.9 – 98.6, 25.5 (18.6 – 33.8, 100(99.9 – 100, 0.34 (0.25 – 0.46, and 0 (0 – NAN, respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 – 99.4.Conclusion: It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abusepresenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which isin the excellent range.

  12. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpanah, Hossein; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracy is of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrument in triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED). The present diagnostic accuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years, using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a social worker, and a forensic physician) was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculated using STATA 21. 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 ± 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls). 137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5%) children were confirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 - 100), 98.3 (97.9 - 98.6), 25.5 (18.6 - 33.8), 100 (99.9 - 100), 0.34 (0.25 - 0.46), and 0 (0 - NAN), respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 - 99.4). It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which is in the excellent range.

  13. The Participation of HPV-Vaccinated Women in a National Cervical Screening Program: Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Herweijer

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised that HPV-vaccination might affect women's cervical screening behavior. We therefore investigated the association between opportunistic HPV-vaccination and attendance after invitation to cervical screening.A cohort of all women resident in Sweden, born 1977-1987 (N=629,703, and invited to cervical screening, was followed October 2006 - December 2012. Invitations to screening were identified via the National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention, as was the primary outcome of a registered smear. Vaccination status was obtained from two nationwide health data registers. Hazard ratios (HR were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for age, education level and income (HRadj. Women were individually followed for up to 6 years, of which the first and second screening rounds were analyzed separately.Screening attendance after three years of follow-up was 86% in vaccinated women (N=4,897 and 75% in unvaccinated women (N=625,804. The crude HR of screening attendance in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women was 1.31 (95% CI 1.27-1.35 in the first screening round. Adjustment for education and income reduced but did not erase this difference (HRadj=1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13. In the second screening round, attendance was likewise higher in HPV-vaccinated women (crude HR=1.26, 95% CI 1.21-1.32; HRadj=1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20.HPV-vaccination is so far associated with equal or higher attendance to cervical screening in Sweden in a cohort of opportunistically vaccinated young women. Most but not all of the difference in attendance was explained by socioeconomic differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. HPV vaccine effectiveness studies should consider screening attendance of HPV-vaccinated women when assessing incidence of screen-detected cervical lesions.

  14. Patient and Clinician Perspectives on Shared Decision-making in Early Adopting Lung Cancer Screening Programs: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Koppelman, Elisa; Bolton, Rendelle; Lasser, Karen E; Borrelli, Belinda; Au, David H; Slatore, Christopher G; Clark, Jack A; Kathuria, Hasmeena

    2018-02-21

    Guidelines recommend, and Medicare requires, shared decision-making between patients and clinicians before referring individuals at high risk of lung cancer for chest CT screening. However, little is known about the extent to which shared decision-making about lung cancer screening is achieved in real-world settings. To characterize patient and clinician impressions of early experiences with communication and decision-making about lung cancer screening and perceived barriers to achieving shared decision-making. Qualitative study entailing semi-structured interviews and focus groups. We enrolled 36 clinicians who refer patients for lung cancer screening and 49 patients who had undergone lung cancer screening in the prior year. Participants were recruited from lung cancer screening programs at four hospitals (three Veterans Health Administration, one urban safety net). Using content analysis, we analyzed transcripts to characterize communication and decision-making about lung cancer screening. Our analysis focused on the recommended components of shared decision-making (information sharing, deliberation, and decision aid use) and barriers to achieving shared decision-making. Clinicians varied in the information shared with patients, and did not consistently incorporate decision aids. Clinicians believed they explained the rationale and gave some (often purposely limited) information about the trade-offs of lung cancer screening. By contrast, some patients reported receiving little information about screening or its trade-offs and did not realize the CT was intended as a screening test for lung cancer. Clinicians and patients alike did not perceive that significant deliberation typically occurred. Clinicians perceived insufficient time, competing priorities, difficulty accessing decision aids, limited patient comprehension, and anticipated patient emotions as barriers to realizing shared decision-making. Due to multiple perceived barriers, patient

  15. Impact of development of population-based study in biomedical field on laws and regulations: a cross-strait experience on biobank development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chien Te; Wu, Chunyan; Shi, Zhiyuan

    2008-12-01

    Together with the completion of the Human Genome Project, biomedical research has marched into the "Post-Genomic Era." In order to take advantage of these extracted gene related information extensively and precisely so as to realize the human being's biological phenomena as well as the mechanism of pathogenesis, consequentially, large scale sample collection of different geological areas and/or ethic group becomes necessary for the future population based genetic research of a country and, in turn, the construction of population-based genetic database (Biobank). In recent years, both mainland China & Taiwan have not only made great progress in information & computation technologies but have also gradually taken a close look into the quality of medicine delivery. Thus, it becomes unavoidable for both sides to create each one's population-based genetic databases (Biobank). Theoretically speaking, the Biobank development shall benefit the study on the correlation between genes and disease and, also, the solution for disease treatment. At the same time, medical diagnosis technology has also been significantly improved. It is believable that the population-based genetic database might be utilized to promote medical quality and to reduce the cost of public health delivery. Furthermore, in the near future, it might become the "raw materials" for medical research application. However, when taking the public welfare promotion as the premises for a Biobank development, severe and multi challenges occurred against traditional legal rules in terms of the privacy protection, public trust development, the compliance of informed consent principle, the implementation of a benefit-sharing doctrine and the possible discrimination concern on the population/participants selection and some other ELSI issues. In this paper, the major legal issues encountered by the Biobank development will be firstly reviewed accompanied with the background information concerning the Biobank development

  16. The impact of development of population-based study in the biomedical field on laws and regulations: a cross-strait experience on biobank development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Fan Chien; Chunyan, Wu; Zhiyuan, Shi

    2012-06-01

    Together with the completion of the Human Genome Project, biomedical research has marched into the "Post-Genomic Era." In order to take advantage of this extracted gene related information extensively and precisely so as to realize man's biological phenomena as well as the mechanism of pathogenesis, consequentially, a large scale sample collection of different geological areas and/or ethnic groups becomes necessary for the future population based genetic research of a country and, in turn, the construction of population-based genetic database (Biobank). In recent years, both mainland China and Taiwan have not only made great progress in information and computation technologies, but have also gradually taken a close look into the quality of medicine delivery. Thus, it becomes unavoidable for both sides to create each one's population-based genetic databases (Biobank). Theoretically speaking, the Biobank development shall benefit the study on the correlation between genes and disease and also the solution for disease treatment as well. At the same time, medical diagnostic technology has also been significantly improved. It is believable that the population-based genetic database might be utilized to promote medical quality and to reduce the cost of public health delivery. Further; in the near future, it might become the "raw materials "for medical research application. However when taking promotion of public welfare as the premises for a Biobank development, the severe and multi challenge occurred against the traditional legal rules in terms of the privacy protection, public trust development, the compliance of informed consent principle, the implementation of benefit-sharing doctrine and the possible discrimination concern about the population/participants selection and some other ELSI issues. In this paper, the major legal issues encountered by the Biobank development will first be reviewed accompanied by the background information concerning the Biobank

  17. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  18. No efficacy of annual gynaecological screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers; an observational follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, B. B. J.; Olivier, R. I.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; van Beurden, M.; de Hullu, J. A.; Massuger, L. F.; Burger, C. W.; Brekelmans, C. T.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Gaarenstroom, K. N.; van Boven, H. H.; Mooij, T. M.; Rookus, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    BRCA1/ 2 mutation carriers are offered gynaecological screening with the intention to reduce mortality by detecting ovarian cancer at an early stage. We examined compliance and efficacy of gynaecological screening in BRCA1/ 2 mutation carriers. In this multicentre, observational, follow-up study we

  19. Design of biomedical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Design. Fundamental Design Tools. Design Team Management, Reporting, and Documentation. Product Definition. Product Documentation. Product Development. Hardware Development Methods and Tools. Software Development Methods and Tools. Human Factors. Industrial Design. Biomaterials and Material Testing. Safety Engineering: Devices and Processes. Testing. Analysis of Test Data. Reliability and Liability. Food and Drug Administration. Regulations and Standards. Licensing, Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Secrets. Manufacturing and Quality Control. Miscellaneous Issues. Product Issues. Professional Issues. Design Case Studies. Future Design Issues.

  20. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  1. FluoroGold-Labeled Organotypic Retinal Explant Culture for Neurotoxicity Screening Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Smedowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical toxicity screening of the new retinal compounds is an absolute requirement in the pathway of further drug development. Since retinal neuron cultivation and in vivo studies are relatively expensive and time consuming, we aimed to create a fast and reproducible ex vivo system for retinal toxicity screening. For this purpose, we used rat retinal explant culture that was retrogradely labeled with the FluoroGold before the isolation. Explants were exposed to a toxic concentration of gentamicin and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, a known neuroprotective agent. The measured outcomes showed the cell density in retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the culture medium. Gentamicin-induced oxidative stress resulted in retinal cell damage and rapid LDH release to the culture medium (p0.05. As well as this, the LDH activity was directly correlated with the cell count in GCL (R=−0.84, p<0.00001, making a sensitive marker of retinal neuron damage. The FLOREC protocol could be considered as a fast, reproducible, and sensitive method to detect neurotoxicity in the screening studies of the retinal drugs.

  2. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  3. [Drug using risks screening in primary care patients using the ASSIST test: Cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Rigabert, Alina; Gómez Llano, M Nieves; Rubio, Gabriel

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care. Total points scored at the test were obtained. A sum of 441 screening test were collected. Mean age was 51,3 years and 51.6% of patients presented a moderate-severe risky drug use out of the nine drugs tested. The more frequent drug use screened were tobacco (41.7%) followed by alcohol (15.4%), hypnotics (13.7%) and cannabis (5.7%). Differences were found between genders in the patterns: men had higher risky drug uses compared to women regarding alcohol and cannabis. Women had higher sedatives/hypnotics consumption prevalence. A 16% of patients presented with polyconsumption drug use patterns. There is risk derived from drug misuse in primary care for tobacco, alcohol, hypnotics and cannabis as detected by the ASSIST test. There is a higher rate of hypnotics than expected. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Respiratory viruses in airline travellers with influenza symptoms: Results of an airport screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Priest, Patricia C; Psutka, Rebecca A; Duncan, Alasdair R; Anderson, Trevor; Mahagamasekera, Patalee; Strathdee, Andrew; Baker, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    There is very little known about the prevalence and distribution of respiratory viruses, other than influenza, in international air travellers and whether symptom screening would aid in the prediction of which travellers are more likely to be infected with specific respiratory viruses. In this study, we investigate whether, the use of a respiratory symptom screening tool at the border would aid in predicting which travellers are more likely to be infected with specific respiratory viruses. Data were collected from travellers arriving at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, during the winter 2008, via a symptom questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Respiratory viruses were detected in 342 (26.0%) of 1313 samples obtained from 2714 symptomatic travellers. The most frequently identified viruses were rhinoviruses (128), enteroviruses (77) and influenza B (48). The most frequently reported symptoms were stuffy or runny nose (60%), cough (47%), sore throat (27%) and sneezing (24%). Influenza B infections were associated with the highest number of symptoms (mean of 3.4) followed by rhinoviruses (mean of 2.2) and enteroviruses (mean of 1.9). The positive predictive value (PPV) of any symptom for any respiratory virus infection was low at 26%. The high prevalence of respiratory virus infections caused by viruses other than influenza in this study, many with overlapping symptotology to influenza, has important implications for any screening strategies for the prediction of influenza in airline travellers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of computerized oculomotor vision screening in a military population: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó-Aponte, José E; Tarbett, Aaron K; Urosevich, Thomas G; Temme, Leonard A; Sanghera, Navjit K; Kalich, Melvyn E

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of oculomotor dysfunctions associated with blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in warfighters has increased as a consequence of recent conflicts. This study evaluated the effectiveness of computerized oculomotor vision screening (COVS) in a military population. Oculomotor functions were assessed with COVS and by conventional methods in 20 U.S. military personnel with and 20 without mTBI. The validity of COVS was determined by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman method or the kappa coefficient. The repeatability of the COVS was assessed with the coefficient of repeatability or the kappa coefficient. The results showed that COVS had high sensitivity and specificity for screening near oculomotor functions. Overall, the COVS showed excellent validity and repeatability for assessing near lateral and vertical phorias, Worth 4 Dot, and fixation, as well as pursuit and saccadic eye movements. Despite the strong Pearson correlation, the Bland-Altman analysis identified minor to moderate discrepancies for both positive and negative fusional vergence and their associated recovery as well as for the monocular accommodative facility measurements. This study demonstrated that non-eye-care professionals may be able to use the COVS as a tool to efficiently screen oculomotor functions in a military population with or without mTBI.

  6. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  7. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  8. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  9. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Louise M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group. Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening

  10. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Angela H; Howell-Jones, Rebecca S; Pottinger, Elizabeth; Wallace, Louise M; McNulty, Cliodna Am

    2010-10-18

    Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP) surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group). We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgmental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgmental attitude and minimising barriers to screening such as embarrassment. The GP surgery is the ideal place to screen

  11. Predictors and health consequences of screen-time change during adolescence--1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-12-01

    To investigate screen-time change from early to mid adolescence, its predictors, and its influence on body fat, blood pressure, and leisure-time physical activity. We used data from a longitudinal prospective study, conducted among participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. At baseline, adolescents were, on average, 11 years old. They were later visited at age 15 years. Screen time was self-reported, accounting for the time spent watching television, playing video games, and using the computer. Several predictors were examined. The effect of screen-time change on some health outcomes was also analyzed. Screen time increased on average 60 min/d from 11 to 15 years of age, for the 4,218 adolescents studied. The groups that presented the highest increases in screen time were male, wealthiest, those whose mothers had higher education, and adolescents with a history of school failure. There were positive associations between screen-time change and body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and leisure-time physical activity at 15 years of age. Screen time increased from early to mid adolescence. This increment was higher among boys and the wealthiest adolescents. Increases in screen time affected body composition, with negative implications on adiposity. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on nanocomposite construction based on the multi-functional biotemplate self-assembled by the recombinant TMGMV coat protein for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Wang, Shiwen; Wang, Haina; Zhang, Hua; Cong, Haolong; Jiang, Xingyu; Tien, Po

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in bio-scaffolded nanoarchitectures. Rapid progress in nanobiotechnology and molecular biology has allowed the engineering of inorganic-binding peptides termed as genetically engineered polypeptides for inorganics (GEPIs) into self-assembling biological structures to facilitate the design of novel biomedical or bioimaging devices. Here we introduce a novel nanocomposite comprising a self-assembled protein scaffold based on a recombinant tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV) coat protein (CP) and the photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles attached to it, which may provide a generic method for materials engineering. A template containing a modified TMGMV CP (mCP) gene, with the first six C-terminal amino acid residues deleted to accommodate more foreign peptides and expressing a site-directed mutation of A123C for bioconjugation utility, and two genetically engineered mutants, Escherichia coli-based P-mCP-Ti7 containing a C-terminal TiO2 GEPI sequence of seven peptides (Ti7) and Hi5 insect cells-derived E-CP-Ti7-His6 C-terminally fused with Ti7+His6 tag were created. Expression vectors and protocols for enriching of the two CP variants were established and the resultant proteins were identified by western blot analysis. Their RNA-free self-assembling structures were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immuno-gold labeling TEM analysis. Adherence of nanoparticles to the P-mCP-Ti7 induced protein scaffold was visualized by TEM analysis. Also discussed is the Cysteine thiol reactivity in bioconjugation reactions with the maleimide-functionalized porphyrin photosensitizers which can function as clinical photodynamic therapy agents. This study introduced a novel approach to producing an assembly-competent recombinant TMGMV CP, examined its ability to serve as a novel platform for the multivalent display of surface ligands and demonstrated an alternative method for nanodevice synthesis for nanobiotechnological

  13. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  14. Electrical circuits in biomedical engineering problems with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Keskin, Ali Ümit

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph presents a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of electrical circuit theory in biomedical engineering, ideally suited as textbook for a course program. The book contains methods and theory, but the topical focus is placed on practical applications of circuit theory, including problems, solutions and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in electrical engineering who intend to embark on biomedical applications. The book is also very well suited for graduate students in the field. .

  15. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  16. Prostate cancer prevention trial and European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer risk calculators: a performance comparison in a contemporary screened cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Vítor; Osório, Luís; Sabell, Francisco; Teves, Frederico; Branco, Frederico; Silva-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Several models can predict the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy. To evaluate the performance of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in detecting PCa in a contemporary screened cohort. We analyzed prebiopsy characteristics of 525 consecutive screened patients submitted to biopsy, as required by the risk calculators, in one European center between 2006 and 2007. Comparisons were done using tests of accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC-ROC]), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis. Biopsy predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. PCa was detected in 35.2% of the subjects. Among predictors included in the calculators, the logarithmic transformations of prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, previous biopsy status, and age were significantly associated with PCa; transrectal ultrasound abnormalities and family history were not. AUC-ROC for the ERSPC calculator was significantly higher than the PCPT calculator and PSA alone (80.1%, 74.4%, and 64.3%, respectively). Calibration plots showed better performance for the ERSPC calculator; nevertheless, ERSPC may underestimate risk, while PCPT tends to overestimate predictions. Decision curve analysis displayed higher net benefit for the ERSPC calculator; 9% and 23% unnecessary biopsies can be avoided if a threshold probability of 20% and 30%, respectively, is adopted. In contrast, the PCPT model displayed very limited benefit. Our findings apply to a screened European cohort submitted to extended biopsy schemes; consequently, caution should be exerted when considering different populations. The ERSPC risk calculator, by incorporating several risks factors, can aid in the estimation of individual PCa risk and in the decision to perform biopsy. The ERSPC calculator outperformed the PCPT model, which is of very

  17. Breast cancer risk after diagnosis by screening mammography of nonproliferative or proliferative benign breast disease: a study from a population-based screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Corominas, Josep María; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Quintana, María Jesús; Baré, Marisa; Vidal, Carmen; Natal, Carmen; Sánchez, Mar; Saladié, Francina; Ferrer, Joana; Vernet, Mar; Servitja, Sonia; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Roman, Marta; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Sala, María

    2015-01-01

    Benign breast disease increases the risk of breast cancer. This association has scarcely been evaluated in the context of breast cancer screening programs although it is a prevalent finding in mammography screening. We assessed the association of distinct categories of benign breast disease and subsequent risk of breast cancer, as well as the influence of a family history of breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 545,171 women aged 50-69 years biennially screened for breast cancer in Spain. The median of follow-up was 6.1 years. The age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of breast cancer for women with benign breast disease, histologically classified into nonproliferative and proliferative disease with and without atypia, compared with women without benign breast disease was estimated by Poisson regression analysis. A stratified analysis by family history of breast cancer was performed in a subsample. All tests were two-sided. The age-adjusted RR of breast cancer after diagnosis of benign breast disease was 2.51 (95 % CI: 2.14-2.93) compared with women without benign breast disease. The risk was higher in women with proliferative disease with atypia (RR = 4.56, 95 % CI: 2.06-10.07) followed by those with proliferative disease without atypia (RR = 3.58; 95 % CI = 2.61-4.91). Women with nonproliferative disease and without a family history of breast cancer remained also at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.68). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among screening participants with proliferative or nonproliferative benign breast disease, regardless of a family history of breast cancer. This information may be useful to explore risk-based screening strategies.

  18. New software for collecting data from the organized cervical cancer screening program in Serbia. Are we on the threshold of a new screening registry? - A multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumovic, Tamara; Lakic, Vesna; Jovicevic, Ana; Ilic, Dragan; Milosevic, Predrag; Stevic-Gajic, Vesna; Antonijevic, Ana; Milovanovic, Nada; Magdic, Ivica; Koricanac, Rajko; Malkov, Sasa; Grkavac, Igor; Mihajlovic, Milos; Djuricic, Slavisa; Zivkovic, Branislava; Stegic, Uros; Milovanovic, Zorka; Opric, Dejan; Knezevic, Marija; Jovanovic, Verica; Todorovic, Zoran; Todorovic, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the Screening Registry and the results of organized cervical cancer screening program (OCCSP) in the Republic of Serbia using a database made as an output model, linked with the Screening Registry. Data were respectively collected over a onemonth period from 3 state primary health care centers (and related hospitals/clinical center) in central Serbia in which OCCSP was conducted. The sample consisted of women of the target population (25 to 64 years old) who responded the call for Pap test. The most frequent abnormal cytological diagnosis was in the 38-50 years age group, and consisted of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance - ASCUS (7.5%) and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions - L-SIL (7.3%). The most frequent abnormal colposcopic finding in the youngest age group of women (25-37 years) was iodine negative epithelium (35.7%) and in the group of women aged 38-50 and 51-64 years acid-white epithelium. The most common histopathological diagnosis was L-SIL. Positive predictive value of colposcopy in relation to the Pap test was 0.64 (95% CI=0.56-0.70). Interrater agreement (between cytotechnicians and supervisors) measured by the Cohen's coefficient was 0.94 (95% CI=0.91 to 0.97), but between cytology (supervisors) and pathology findings it was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99). The existence of a screening registry contributes to a better epidemiological surveillance of a screening program, and to a possibility for development of various epidemiological researches.

  19. The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Carolina E; Levinson, Kimberly L; Salmeron, Jorge; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Fernandez, Maria Jose Vallejos; Belinson, Jerome L

    2014-06-01

    Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

  20. Impact of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program: a nationwide registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Mette; Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Svanholm, Hans; Andersen, Berit

    2015-07-21

    Systematic screening for precancerous cervical lesions has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, even in systematic screening programs, many women are still tested opportunistically. This study aimed to determine the spread of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program, the impact of opportunistic testing in terms of detecting cytological abnormalities and examine the associations between sociodemography and opportunistic testing. A nationwide registry study was undertaken including women aged 23-49 years (n = 807,624) with a cervical cytology between 2010 and 2013. The women were categorised into: 1) screening after invitation; 2) routine opportunistic testing, if they were either tested more than 9 months after the latest invitation or between 2.5 years and 3 years after the latest cervical cytology and 3) sporadic opportunistic testing, if they were tested less than 2.5 years after the latest cervical cytology. Cytological diagnoses of women in each of the categories were identified and prevalence proportion differences (PPD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to explore group differences. Associations between sociodemography and undergoing opportunistic testing were established by multinomial logistic regression. In total, 28.8% of the cervical cytologies were due to either routine (20.7%) or sporadic (8.1%) opportunistic testing. Among women undergoing routine opportunistic testing, a larger proportion had high-grade squamous intraepithelial abnormalities than invited women (PPD: 0.6%, 95 % CI: 0.03-1.17%). A similar proportion of cytological abnormalities among women undergoing sporadic opportunistic testing and invited women was found. In multivariate analyses, younger age, being single or a social welfare recipient and residence region (North Denmark) were especially associated with opportunistic testing (routine or sporadic). One fourth of cervical cytologies in this study were

  1. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  2. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18648528

  3. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-10-17

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl(4). The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  5. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, L