WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical research facilities

  1. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-12-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12.

  2. Spacelab Life Sciences 3 biomedical research using the Rhesus Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. W.; Searby, N. D.; Stone, L. S.; Hogan, R. P.; Viso, M.; Venet, M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a letter of agreement was signed between the French space agency, CNES, and NASA, formally initiating a joint venture called the RHESUS Project. The goal of this project is to provide a facility to fly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to support spaceflight experiments which are applicable but not practical to carry out on human subjects. Biomedical investigations in behavior/performance, immunology/microbiology, muscle physiology, cardiopulmonary physiology, bone/calcium physiology, regulatory physiology, and neurophysiology disciplines will be performed. The Rhesus Research Facility, hardware capable of supporting two adult rhesus monkeys in a microgravity environment, is being developed for a first flight on Spacelab Life Sciences in early 1996.

  3. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  4. Caring for nonhuman primates in biomedical research facilities: scientific, moral and emotional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine

    2011-03-01

    Animal care for nonhuman primates (NHPs) in biomedical facilities has undergone major changes in the past few decades. Today, most primate facilities have dedicated and highly trained animal care technicians who go to great efforts to ensure the physiological and psychological well being of the primates in their charge. These caretakers work closely with the animals and, as a result, often develop strong relationships with them. Once discouraged and considered a potential threat to scientific objectivity, such positive relationships are now seen as important components to animal care. Positive interactions between caretakers and primates can benefit the primates by reducing their stress and improving their overall well being which can, in turn, help the scientific endeavor. Further, providing the best possible care is our moral responsibility. However, there can also be emotional costs associated with caring for NHPs in research facilities, particularly when animals become ill or have to be euthanized. Facilities can do much to help ease this conflict. High-quality and conscientious animal care is good for the animals, science, and public perception of research facilities.

  5. ENLIGHT and LEIR biomedical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Cirilli, M; Navin, S

    2014-07-01

    Particle therapy (including protons and carbon ions) allows a highly conformal treatment of deep-seated tumours with good accuracy and minimal dose to surrounding tissues, compared to conventional radiotherapy using X-rays. Following impressive results from early phase trials, over the last decades particle therapy in Europe has made considerable progress in terms of new institutes dedicated to charged particle therapy in several countries. Particle therapy is a multidisciplinary subject that involves physicists, biologists, radio-oncologists, engineers and computer scientists. The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) was created in response to the growing needs of the European community to coordinate such efforts. A number of treatment centres are already operational and treating patients across Europe, including two dual ion (protons and carbon ions) centres in Heidelberg (the pioneer in Europe) and Pavia. However, much more research needs to be carried out and beamtime is limited. Hence there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have a facility with greater access to relevant beamtime. Such a facility would facilitate research in radiobiology and the development of more accurate techniques of dosimetry and imaging. The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator at CERN presents such an opportunity, and relies partly on CERN's existing infrastructure. The ENLIGHT network, European Commission projects under the ENLIGHT umbrella and the future biomedical facility are discussed.

  6. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  7. Statistics in biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new p...

  8. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  9. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  10. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  11. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  12. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  13. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  14. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  15. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology research The Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  16. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  17. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2013-11-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research.

  18. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  19. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  20. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  1. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  2. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest...

  3. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. (ed.); Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  4. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. [ed.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  5. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  6. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment.

  7. Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Vivien R; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-01

    The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research.

  8. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  9. Magnetics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Research Facility houses three Helmholtz coils that generate magnetic fields in three perpendicular directions to balance the earth's magnetic field....

  10. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long qaodmasdkwaspemas5ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 22 ft wide qaodmasdkwaspemas4ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 7 ft deep concrete...

  11. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  12. Geodynamics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This GSL facility has evolved over the last three decades to support survivability and protective structures research. Experimental devices include three gas-driven...

  13. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  14. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  15. Building interdisciplinary biomedical research using novel collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Katya; Faux, Russell; Corkey, Barbara; Coleman, David

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research has been carried out mainly within departmental boundaries. However, successful biomedical research increasingly relies on development of methods and concepts crossing these boundaries, requiring expertise in different disciplines. Recently, major research institutes have begun experimenting with ways to foster an interdisciplinary ethos. The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research ("the Evans Center") at Boston University is a new organizational paradigm to address this challenge. The Evans Center is built around interdisciplinary research groups termed affinity research collaboratives (ARCs). Each ARC consists of investigators from several academic departments and at least two research disciplines, bound by a common goal to investigate biomedical problems concerning human disease. Novel aspects of the Evans Center include a "bottom-up" approach to identifying areas of ARC research (research vision and strategy are typically initiated by a core group of faculty with input from the center director); a pre-ARC period of faculty affiliation/project(s)' self-selection prior to formation of a peer-reviewed ARC; and Evans Center support for innovative ARCs for up to three years pending yearly metric evaluation, followed by continued administrative support as a group matures into an ARC program.Since its inception in early 2009, the Evans Center has documented achievements at discovery/publication, grant award, and educational levels. Enhanced interactions between members of individual ARCs, as assessed by quantitative networking analysis, are discussed in the context of high productivity. As universities seek new approaches to stimulate interdisciplinary research, the Evans Center and its ARCs are offered as a productive model for leveraging discovery.

  16. Polar Biomedical Research - An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Nutrition. .. *.... ... .. 33 Desic Sciences**.**................ 34 x SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............ 36 Toward an OveralliStrategy...because there is a -6- TABLE 1. High-Latitude Environmental Constraints Environmental Characteristics Nelor Consequences Sustained deep winter Restricts...Research Angus , R.G., D.G. Pearce, A.G. Buguet, and L. Olson. Vigilance performance of men sleeping under Arctic conditions, Aviation, Space and

  17. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  18. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  19. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  20. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  1. Concrete Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is a 20,000-sq ft laboratory that supports research on all aspects of concrete and materials technology. The staff of this facility offer wide-ranging expertise...

  2. Field Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Field Research Facility (FRF) located in Duck, N.C. was established in 1977 to support the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' coastal engineering mission. The FRF is...

  3. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditions The Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for...

  4. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  5. Fraud and deceit in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitrago Juliana

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available History: Scientists are supposed to be moved by lofty ideals and be taught to work restlessly in pursue of the truth, but sadly fraud in biomedical research can be traced through the entire history of science. Definition: Nowadays, typology of fraud is clearly defined. Principal types of misconduct are reviewed. Consequences: It is impossible to know to what extent the damage will remain. Fraud threats public confidence in the integrity of science and may change professional attitudes and health public policies leading to serious social consequences. Evaluation of the problem: Prevalence of research fraud is unknown but in almost every country where investigation has been largely developed, at least a corroborated case of mis-conduct has been known. Policies on the scientific process may eventually contribute to fraudulent behaviour. Situation in Colombia: Colombia lacks of comprehensive policies to deal with fraud in research. How to tackle this problem: Finally, some recommendations are given to prevent, detect and deal with fraud in biomedical research.

  6. Designing an Internet-based collaboratory for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Rex E

    2002-01-01

    Several recent grants from the National Institutes of Health to the Universities of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana have created a unique opportunity for collaboration in biomedical research among the three schools, as well as the community colleges in the region. NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) programs at Wyoming have been established to study the biological effect of nitric oxide and to investigate stressors that can contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. Funding from these and related grants have significantly upgraded Wyoming bioimaging and microscopy facilities, as well as provided support for faculty and students in a variety of research disciplines. In order to enhance these research efforts, the Center for Rural Health Research and Education at the University of Wyoming is spearheading an effort to create an Internet-based system for sharing data and research resources among the involved sites. This paper describes how such a "collaboratory" could be designed, using techniques developed for distributed research and development in the computer industry. The system, as envisioned, will support remote data acquisition, management, and visualization, while providing security in the form of authorization and authentication of users and virtual private networking for data transmitted between nodes of the network.

  7. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, Daniel; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN’s competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR an...

  8. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-07-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments.

  9. Variable gravity research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-10-20

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10{sup 9}) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10{sup 13--15} on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. {sup 14}C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. {sup 3} H, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 26}Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13-15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels for tracing biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. Our primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subjects research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3H, 41Ca and 26Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  12. [The need for information in biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumate, J

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need of every researcher to be informed on advances in his field. It reviews the means available for keeping abreast of developments in a specific area of scientific inquiry. In the author's view, articles in reference journals on a specific specialty are the best source of information. However, the interval between the writing and publication of a scientific paper is sometimes long, which poses a considerable impediment to the use of the traditional media as a means of keeping up. He also examines the limitations of information in biomedical research and reviews the characteristics of this research in Latin America. Finally, he makes a number of recommendations for improving scientific communications and making the most of the services of national and international information dissemination systems.

  13. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F. [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  14. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO2 nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH2 and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe2O4 have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI).

  15. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors.

  16. [Biomedical research from philanthropy to scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Antonio; De Fiore, Luca; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Some huge information technology companies have increased investment in biomedical research: recently Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. The latter presented the ambitious Zuckerberg-Chan Initiative involving three major Californian universities: UC San Francisco, Berkeley and Stanford. These important private investments arouse reflections. First, investing in scientific research improves the corporate image of the most generous companies and it is a great marketing strategy. Second, the availability of private funds is surely useful, especially if these funds are directed to relevant projects, and produce studies conducted and disseminated in a transparent way. Third, private funding should not replace public ones, representing an integration that will not likely affect the determination of the research agenda, which should remain the prerogative of public institutions. Fourth, the researchers involved in public funded projects should benefit from the margin of freedom that private industry promises, both in the decision of research pathways and in their course. Finally, the scarcity of resources is likely to divert energy and attention of the public researchers and this aspect should be considered by decision makers when determining size and recipients of research funding.

  17. The diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research may be influenced by biomedical funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Peirson, B R; Kropp, Heather; Damerow, Julia; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2017-03-30

    Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results. Critics have argued that a focus on model organisms has unduly constrained the diversity of experimental organisms. The availability of large electronic databases of scientific literature, combined with interest in quantitative methods among philosophers of science, presents new opportunities for data-driven investigations into organism choice in biomedical research. The diversity of organisms used in NIH-funded research may be considerably lower than in the broader biomedical sciences, and may be subject to greater constraints on organism choice.

  18. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  19. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  20. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  1. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999.

  2. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  3. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  4. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  5. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with...

  6. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  7. Domestic animals as models for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene.

  8. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  9. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2004-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  10. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the... location changes have been made for the following panel meetings of the of the Joint Biomedical...

  11. Engine Environment Research Facility (EERF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility supports research and development testing of the behavior of turbine engine lubricants, fuels and sensors in an actual engine environment....

  12. Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) enables engineers to develop manufacturing processes for producing advanced battery materials in sufficient...

  13. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; Zimmerli, Greg; Asipauskas, Marius

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of two-photon microscopy as it applies to biomedical research. The topics include: 1) Overview; 2) Background; 3) Principles of Operation; 4) Advantages Over Confocal; 5) Modes of Operation; and 6) Applications.

  14. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, R. M.

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosiotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radio-pharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology: (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for Mg 26, Ca 43, Zn 70, Se 76, Se 77, Se 78, Pd 102, Cd 111, Cd 113, and Os 190. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments.

  15. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is... International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (``Guiding Principles''). The NIH is... ) that commits the institution to follow the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical...

  16. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  17. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  18. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  19. Robotics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 60 feet x 100 feet structure on the grounds of the Fort Indiantown Gap Pennsylvania National Guard (PNG) Base is a mixed-use facility comprising office space,...

  20. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  1. LAMPF: a nuclear research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, M.S.

    1977-09-01

    A description is given of the recently completed Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) which is now taking its place as one of the major installations in this country for the support of research in nuclear science and its applications. Descriptions are given of the organization of the Laboratory, the Users Group, experimental facilities for research and for applications, and procedures for carrying on research studies.

  2. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine.

  3. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields.

  4. A price index for biomedical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T M; Reeb, J S

    1989-01-01

    Price changes of goods and services used in biomedical research and development have important effects on the costs of conducting research. We summarize the trends suggested by a recently constructed biomedical research and development price index, which measures the effects of price changes on the inputs to biomedical research from 1979 to 1986. The fixed-weighted index uses fiscal year 1984 National Institutes of Health expenditure patterns in developing the weights. The rate of increase shown in the price index peaked in 1981 and slowed in following years. However, in most years, the rate of increase in the price index has exceeded the rate of increase in other major price indexes, such as the consumer price index, the producer price index, and the Gross National Product fixed-weighted price index.

  5. Detonation Engine Research Facility (DERF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility is configured to safely conduct experimental pressuregain combustion research. The DERF is capable of supporting up to 60,000 lbf thrust...

  6. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  7. Navy Fuel Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research to understand the underlying chemistry that impacts the use, handling, and storage of current and future Navy mobility...

  8. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  9. The Research of Biomedical Intelligent Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; CHEN Yuan-wei; TANG Chang-wei; QIU Kai; LUO Juan; XU Cheng-yin; WAN Chang-xiu

    2004-01-01

    The properties of biomedical intelligent polymer materials can be changed obviously when there is a little physical or chemical change caused by external condition. They are in the forms of solids, solutions and the polymers on the surface of carrier, and include water solution of hydrophilic polymers, cross-linking hydrophilic polymers(i.e. hydrogels) and the polymers on the surface of carrier. The environmental stimulating factors are temperature, pH value, composition of solution, ionic intention, light intention, electric field, stress field and magnetic field etc.. The properties of intelligent polymer are those of phase, photics, mechanics, electric field, surface energy,reaction ratio, penetrating ratio and recognition etc..Stimulation-response of intelligent water-soluble polymerWater-soluble intelligent polymer can be separated out from solution under special external condition. It can be used as the switch of temperature or pH indicator. When water-soluble intelligent polymer is mixed with soluble-enzyme matter or cell suspension, the polymer can bring phase separation and react with soluble-enzyme matter or cell membrane through accepting some external stimulation. Other water-soluble intelligent polymer is that can make the main chemical group of some natural biomolecular recognition sequence section to arrange on skeleton of polymer at random. It is the same ratio as natural biomolecules.Stimulation-response of intelligent polymer of carrier surface Intelligent polymer can be fixed on the surface of solid polymer carrier through chemical grafting or physical adsorption. When the external conditions are changed, the thickness, humidity and electric field of the surface layer will be changed. Intelligent polymer can be preparated the permanence switch by precipitating into the hole of porous surface, and it can control on-off state of the hole. When protein or cell interacts with intelligent polymer surface to be placed in to open or close, they can be

  10. Reasons behind the participation in biomedical research: a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi; Moisés Goldbaum

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the lit...

  11. Trust me, I'm a researcher!: The role of trust in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2017-03-01

    In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research. However, what is often missing is a clear definition of trust. This paper seeks to address this gap. It starts with a conceptual analysis of the term trust. It compares trust with two other related terms, those of reliance and trustworthiness, and offers a defence of Baier's attribute of 'good will' a basic characteristic of trust. It, then, proceeds to consider trust in the context of biomedical research by examining two questions: First, is trust necessary in biomedical research?; and second, do increases in regulatory oversight of biomedical research also increase trust in the field? This paper argues that regulatory oversight is important for increasing reliance in biomedical research, but it does not improve trust, which remains important for biomedical research. It finishes by pointing at professional integrity as a way of promoting trust and trustworthiness in this field.

  12. [Required procedure for nominal data files processing in biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Dubray, C; Albuisson, E; Sauvant, M P

    2001-12-01

    To date, biomedical research using nominal data files for the data collection, data acquisition or data processing has had to comply with 2 French laws (Law of December, 20, 1988, modified, relating to the protection of patients participating in biomedical research, and the Law of January, 6, 1978, completed by the Law of July 1, 1994 n degrees 94-548, chapter V bis). This later law dictates rules not only for the establishment of nominal data files, but also confer individual rights to filed persons. These regulations concern epidemiological research, clinical trials, drug watch studies and economic health research. In this note, we describe the obligations and specific general and simplified procedure required for conducting biomedical research. Included in the requirements are an information and authorization procedure with the local and national consultative committees on data processing in biomedical research (CCTIRS, Comité Consultatif sur le Traitement de l'Information en Recherche Biomédicale, and CNIL, Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés).

  13. OPENMED: A facility for biomedical experiments based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Christian

    At present protons and carbon ions are in clinical use for hadron therapy at a growing number of treatment centers all over the world. Nevertheless, only limited direct clinical evidence of their superiority over other forms of radiotherapy is available [1]. Furthermore fundamental studies on biological effects of hadron beams have been carried out at different times (some a long time ago) in different laboratories and under different conditions. Despite an increased availability of ion beams for hadron therapy, beam time for preclinical studies is expected to remain insufficient as the priority for therapy centers is to treat the maximum number of patients. Most of the remaining beam time is expected to be required for setting up and measurements to guarantee appropriate good quality beams for treatments. The proposed facility for biomedical research [2] in support of hadron therapy centers would provide ion beams for interested research groups and allow them to carry out basic studies under well defined conditions. Typical studies would include radiobiological phenomena like relative biological effectiveness with different energies, ion species, and intensities. Furthermore possible studies include the development of advanced dosimetry in heterogeneous materials that resemble the human body, imaging techniques and, at a later stage, when the maximum energy with the LEIR magnets can be reached, fragmentation.

  14. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  15. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

  16. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following three panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... review by the Board involve a wide range of medical specialties within the general areas of...

  17. ChE Undergraduate Research Projects in Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Pieter

    1981-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate research program in biomedical engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Includes goals and faculty comments on the program. Indicates that 58 percent of projects conducted between 1976 and 1980 have been presented at meetings or published. (SK)

  18. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) é um excelente organismo modelo para o estudo do desenvolvimento dos vertebrados. Este facto deve-se às grandes ninhadas que cada casal produz, que podem atingir 200 embriões a cada sete dias, e ao facto dos embriões serem pequenos, transparentes e com um rápido desenvolvimento externo.Material e Métodos: Usando ferramentas de pesquisa bibliográfica científica disponíveis online e utilizando e as palavras-chave “Zebrafish”, “biomedical research”, “human disease” e “drug screening”, avaliámos estudos originais e revisões indexadas na PubMed.Resultados: Neste artigo de revisão fazemos um resumo do trabalho realizado com este modelo no melhoramento doconhecimento de várias doenças humanas. Fizemos ainda um breve relato da investigação biomédica realizada em Portugal com o modelo de peixe-zebra.Discussão: Têm sido desenvolvidas poderosas ferramentas genéticas e de microscopia in vivo, que também tornaram o peixe-zebra num modelo valioso em investigação biomédica. A conjugação destes atributos com a optimização de sistemas automatizados de triagem de medicamentos, transformaram o peixe-zebra num top model da investigação em biomedicina, nomeadamente na triagem de compostos químicos com efeitos terapêuticos e em testes de toxicidade. Além disso, com a otimização da tecnologia dos xenografos, será possível usar o peixe-zebra na escolha de uma terapia personalizada.Conclusão: O peixe-zebra é um excelente organismo modelo na pesquisa biomédica, em screens de medicamentos e na terapia clinica.

  19. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  20. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  1. Research Facility Development at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Dongsheng; Miao Yougui; Zhang Hongsong

    2005-01-01

    @@ This article gives an introductory account on the development of research facilities at the CAS over the past six years since the initiation of the Knowledge Innovation Program in 1998 and during the period of the national 10th Five-year Plan in particular. In addition, it expounds the key points for the future work at the CAS in this regard.

  2. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, G.J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  3. Consenting to Heteronormativity: Assumptions in Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottingham, M.D.; Fisher, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The process of informed consent is fundamental to basic scientific research with human subjects. As one aspect of the scientific enterprise, clinical drug trials rely on informed consent documents to safeguard the ethical treatment of trial participants. This paper explores the role of heteronormati

  4. The two revolutions in bio-medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern medical science, we can identify certain epochs. Some of these will be our concern here, for they offer important insights into the development of modern medicine and offer equally important predictors of where it is heading in the future. In fact they are so important that they qualify to be called nothing less than revolutions.Till the early twentieth century, medicine was an activity dependent on a small privileged elite. This changed by the mid-twentieth century into a vast publicly owned enterprise with enlightened governmental approach, support and funding. One example of this was in the 1940s, sixty five years ago, when Vannever Bush in the US, for example, persuaded the government there to divert resources allocated for the then war effort (World War II to fund basic research in academic institutions. Similarly, in India, what was earlier dependent on the benevolence of zamindars/philanthropists and some missionaries who set up charitable dispensaries/hospitals to serve certain sections of the population was supplemented, and then overtaken, by governmental funding after independence in 1947.This major governmental support to medical science was an important development that led to great advances in medical research and facilities all over. Such funding and consequent blossoming of medical science was nothing less than a revolution, which we can legitimately consider the first revolution in modern medicine.A second revolution was soon to follow four decades later. It was fuelled by a vast upsurge in medical research, training and therapy, with capital pouring in from private enterprise and philanthropy. This revolution is still on. It is aided by efforts like the Bayh-Dole Amendments of 1980 in the US, for example. This epoch making amendment conferred intellectual property rights to institutions and connected scientists even if they had developed their products/inventions with government funding. It was followed

  5. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research.

  6. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  7. Capsule review of the DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A description is given of the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Technology Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities, which are located in all regions of the US. Descriptions of DOE facilities are given for multiprogram laboratories (12); program-dedicated facilities (biomedical and environmental facilities-12, fossil energy facilities-7, fusion energy facility-1, nuclear development facilities-3, physical research facilities-4, safeguards facility-1, and solar facilities-2); and Production, Testing, and Fabrication Facilities (nuclear materials production facilities-5, weapon testing and fabrication complex-8). Three appendices list DOE field and project offices; DOE field facilities by state or territory, names, addresses, and telephone numbers; DOE R and D field facilities by type, contractor names, and names of directors. (MCW)

  8. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  9. Multidisciplinary Russian biomedical research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Sychev, V. N.; Samarin, G. I.; Ilyin, E. A.; Belakovskiy, M. S.; Kussmaul, A. R.

    2014-08-01

    Research activities on a comprehensive multidisciplinary program are vital for enhancement of the system of crew's medical care, environmental health and hygiene in space missions. The primary goal of the program must be identification of patterns, intensity and dynamics of structural and functional shifts in organism induced by an aggregate of spaceflight factors including microgravity, isolation, artificial environment, space radiation, etc. Also, the program must pursue differential assessment of emerging deviations from the standpoint of adequacy to the spaceflight conditions and prospects of returning to Earth and guide the development of principles, methods and techniques necessary to maintain health and working capacity of humans during short- and long-duration missions and on return to Earth. Over 50 years, since 1963, the IBMP researchers apply systemic and innovational approaches to fundamental and exploratory studies in the fields of medical sciences, radiation biology, engineering science, biotechnology, etc. with participation of various biological specimens and human volunteers. Investigations aboard manned spacecrafts and biological satellites as well as in ground-based laboratories further enhancement of the medical care system for crews on orbital and remote space missions; they give insight into the fundamental problems of gravitational physiology and biology, psychophysiology, radiation biology, and contribute thereby to the development of knowledge, methods and technologies, as well as medical and scientific equipment.

  10. Education and research in biomedical engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Z

    2006-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This review paper presents the biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) and its partner institutions. In the first parts the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering Education Program is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches most of them carried out in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of BUTE.

  11. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  12. The first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan: an attempt to care for the "surplus" of biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    This article specifically examines several aspects of the human-captive chimpanzee bond and the effort to create the first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan. We discuss our ethical responsibility for captive chimpanzees that have been used in biomedical research. On April 1, 2007, the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto (CSU) was established as the first sanctuary for retired laboratory chimpanzees in Japan. This initiative was the result of the continuous efforts by members of Support for African/Asian Great Apes (SAGA), and the Great Ape Information Network to provide a solution to the large chimpanzee colony held in biomedical facilities. However, the cessation of invasive biomedical studies using chimpanzees has created a new set of challenges because Japan lacks registration and laws banning invasive ape experiments and lacks a national policy for the life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees. Therefore, CSU has initiated a relocation program in which 79 retired laboratory chimpanzees will be sent to domestic zoos and receive life-long care. By the end of 2009, the number of chimpanzees living at CSU had decreased from 79 to 59 individuals. A nationwide network of care facilities and CSU to provide life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees is growing across Japan. This will result in humane treatment of these research animals.

  13. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweileh Waleed M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18% articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9% articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  14. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  15. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  16. [Ocean and bio-medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, par Gilles

    2007-01-01

    On the Planet Earth, oceans and seas today correspond to the largest volume offered to Life. Roughly, 275,000 species have been described from marine environments, only representing some 15% of all the present known living. But marine biomass can be enormous. Life appeared in the ancestral ocean 3 800 million years ago and determining events occurred there: appearance of the nuclear membrane and cell nucleus, "pluricellularity", capture of bacteria transformed into organelles, then sexuality. On the 33 phyla existing today on the Earth, 12 never have left the ocean and are exclusively marine. Such biodiversity, archaism of characters, organisational and behavioural patterns make these marine organisms an excellent reservoir for identifying and extracting very interesting pharmacological and cosmetic molecules (>5 000 today) and/or to represent very pertinent "models" for basic and applied research. Relationships between ocean and public health are physical, chemical, biological and physiological. A few marine species as "models" set the base for major advances in life sciences recognized by several Nobel Prices: from the discovery of phagocytosis to anaphylactic shock, and including nervous influx transmission, memory molecular bases, cyclins discovery, eye organisation, neurotransmitter membrane receptors, bases of the specific immune system... These marine models are very useful to understand the origin and functioning of important living mechanisms in the human and sometimes to deduce applications for efficient treatments. Ocean supplies mankind with renewable living resources, much threatened today. We have to manage and protect these to maintain ecosystems, stocks and biodiversity. Only because of the greenhouse effect and anthropic emissions, temperature is globally increasing: and, what if (tomorrow?) one million species would disappear (before 2050) because of global warming?

  17. [IPS an ethical paradigm for biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest advances in molecular and cell biology was the discovery of the Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) in mice, by Shinya Yamanka and his team in 2006. The possibility that these cells can be generated also in humans opens up unexpected ways of development for biomedicine. Its main contribution is the creation of a strong protocol that takes into account three major advances in biology such as; nuclear transfer techniques, the discovery of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and the isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells. A protocol that can be easily replicated in other laboratories to have the oportunity to design tests that allow modeling of many incurable diseases, drug testing for human cells or explore the possibilities of autologous transplants of tissues or organs. Yamanaka ethical motivation to find an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ES) and prevent the destruction of embryos produced by In Vitro Fertilization techniques (IVF), has proved to be a research model, in which the intuition of the ethical principles and its application in advanced biotechnology projects, has meant the opening of a whole new way of understanding the biology of embryonic development. It is clear that development, biologically understood (puede ser también ″treated″; tratado), is not a one-way street. The possibilities to deepen into the foundations of molecular biology and genetics, along with the expectations of its clinical applications have earned Yamanka the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2012, along with another great scholar Sir John Gurdon, discoverer of nuclear transfer techniques.

  18. Biomedical engineering education in developing countries: research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) contributes to development through improving human health. This paper examines BME education to address the needs of developing countries. Components of different BME programs described in the literature are synthesized to represent what has been proposed or implemented for the production of graduates able to address health problems in a manner suited to the local environment in which they occur. Published research on BME education is reviewed with reference to problem context, interventions and their mechanisms, and intended outcomes.

  19. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and countermeasure development.

  20. Proposal for a new LEIR Slow Extraction Scheme dedicated to Biomedical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Carli, C

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a proposal for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a biomedical research facility at CERN. LEIR has to be maintained as a heavy ion accumulator ring for LHC and for fixed-target experiments with the SPS. In parallel to this on-going operation for physics experiments, an additional secondary use of LEIR for a biomedical research facility was proposed [Dosanjh2013, Holzscheiter2012, PHE2010]. This facility would complement the existing research beam-time available at other laboratories for studies related to ion beam therapy. The new slow extraction [Abler2013] is based on the third-integer resonance. The reference beam is composed of fully stripped carbon ions with extraction energies of 20-440 MeV/u, transverse physical emittances of 5-25 µm and momentum spreads of ±2-9•10-4. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible...

  1. Tooth regeneration: challenges and opportunities for biomedical material research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2006-03-01

    Tooth regeneration presents many challenges to researchers in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. This review considers the opportunities for biomedical material research to contribute to this multidisciplinary endeavor. We present short summaries and an overview on the collective knowledge of tooth developmental biology, advances in stem-cell research, and progress in the understanding of the tooth biomineralization principles as they provide the foundation for developing strategies for reparative and regenerative medicine. We emphasize that various biomaterials developed via biomimetic strategies have great potential for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration applications. The current practices in tooth tissue engineering approaches and applications of biomimetic carriers or scaffolds are also discussed.

  2. Monoamine theories of depression: historical impact on biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine theories associate depression with reduced brain monoamine levels. These theories achieved broad popularity in the mid-1960s. The present article reviews the historical development of monoamine theories and their subsequent impact on biomedical research. Alleged divisions between West European and US researchers over competing versions of the theories are investigated using bibliometrics. Subsequently, the application of monoamine theories in the NIMH Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression is covered. The article argues that the impact of monoamine theories is best explained by the ability of researchers, governmental agencies, and pharmaceutical companies to invoke theories that advance various projects and agendas.

  3. Nano-biotechnology for biomedical and diagnostic research

    CERN Document Server

    Zahavy, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The title ""Nano Biotechnology for Biomedical and Diagnostics Research"" will address research aspects related to nanomaterial in imaging and biological research, nanomaterials as a biosensing tool, DNA nanotechnology, nanomaterials for drug delivery, medicinal and therapeutic application and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. These topics will be covered by 16 different manuscripts. Amongst the authors that will contribute to the book are major scientific leaders such as S. Weiss - UCLA, I. Willner, and G. Golomb -- HUJI, S. Esener - UCSD, E.C. Simmel - Tech. Univ. Munchen, I. Medintz -- NRL, N.

  4. Reaping the benefits of biomedical research: partnerships required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Lili M; Alving, Barbara

    2010-06-09

    Reaping the benefits of investments in biomedical research can be achieved most efficiently through active collaboration among industry, academia, government, and nonprofit organizations. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are exploring multiple ways in which to increase the efficiency of the translational process. Investigators involved in the NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards are developing public-private partnerships, addressing the barriers to collaboration, training the next generation of interdisciplinary team-oriented researchers, and producing open-source tools for collaboration. NIH is engaging with industry through the Foundation for the NIH and the Small Business Innovation Research Awards.

  5. Reasons behind the participation in biomedical research: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed through several databases using the keywords: "motivation", "decision", "reason", "biomedical research", "clinical research", "recruitment", "enrollment", "participation", "benefits", "altruism", "decline", "vulnerability" and "ethics", between August and November 2013, in English and in Portuguese. RESULTS: The review pointed out that the reasons can be different according to some characteristics such as the disease being treated, study phase, prognoses and socioeconomic and cultural environment. Access to better health care, personal benefits, financial rewards and altruism are mentioned depending on the circumstances. CONCLUSION: Finding out more about individuals' reasons for taking part in the research will allow clinical investigators to design studies of greater benefit for the community and will probably help to remove undesirable barriers imposed to participation. Improving the information to health care professionals and patients on the benefits and risks of clinical trials is certainly a good start.

  6. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina eGutierrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers.

  7. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  8. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  9. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  10. Irreproducibility in Preclinical Biomedical Research: Perceptions, Uncertainties, and Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael F; Williams, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Concerns regarding the reliability of biomedical research outcomes were precipitated by two independent reports from the pharmaceutical industry that documented a lack of reproducibility in preclinical research in the areas of oncology, endocrinology, and hematology. Given their potential impact on public health, these concerns have been extensively covered in the media. Assessing the magnitude and scope of irreproducibility is limited by the anecdotal nature of the initial reports and a lack of quantitative data on specific failures to reproduce published research. Nevertheless, remediation activities have focused on needed enhancements in transparency and consistency in the reporting of experimental methodologies and results. While such initiatives can effectively bridge knowledge gaps and facilitate best practices across established and emerging research disciplines and therapeutic areas, concerns remain on how these improve on the historical process of independent replication in validating research findings and their potential to inhibit scientific innovation.

  11. A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenaude Johane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs, especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. Methods We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. Results The proposed model includes the following: 1 a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2 offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3 protects the participant's confidentiality and 4 adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. Conclusion Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs

  12. The miniature pig as an animal model in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, Petr; Smetana, Karel; Dvoránková, Barbora; Emerick, Teresa; Xu, Yingzhi Z; Ourednik, Jitka; Ourednik, Václav; Motlík, Jan

    2005-05-01

    Crucial prerequisites for the development of safe preclinical protocols in biomedical research are suitable animal models that would allow for human-related validation of valuable research information gathered from experimentation with lower mammals. In this sense, the miniature pig, sharing many physiological similarities with humans, offers several breeding and handling advantages (when compared to non-human primates), making it an optimal species for preclinical experimentation. The present review offers several examples taken from current research in the hope of convincing the reader that the porcine animal model has gained massively in importance in biomedical research during the last few years. The adduced examples are taken from the following fields of investigation: (a) the physiology of reproduction, where pig oocytes are being used to study chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy) in the adult human oocyte; (b) the generation of suitable organs for xenotransplantation using transgene expression in pig tissues; (c) the skin physiology and the treatment of skin defects using cell therapy-based approaches that take advantage of similarities between pig and human epidermis; and (d) neurotransplantation using porcine neural stem cells grafted into inbred miniature pigs as an alternative model to non-human primates xenografted with human cells.

  13. Improving biomedical journals' ethical policies: the case of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications.

  14. Research facility access & science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Teplitz, V.L. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Physics Dept.

    1994-10-01

    As Congress voted to terminate the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory in October of 1993, the Department of Energy was encouraged to maximize the benefits to the nation of approximately $2 billion which had already been expended to date on its evolution. Having been recruited to Texas from other intellectually challenging enclaves around the world, many regional scientists, especially physicists, of course, also began to look for viable ways to preserve some of the potentially short-lived gains made by Texas higher education in anticipation of {open_quotes}the SSC era.{close_quotes} In fact, by November, 1993, approximately 150 physicists and engineers from thirteen Texas universities and the SSC itself, had gathered on the SMU campus to discuss possible re-uses of the SSC assets. Participants at that meeting drew up a petition addressed to the state and federal governments requesting the creation of a joint Texas Facility for Science Education and Research. The idea was to create a facility, open to universities and industry alike, which would preserve the research and development infrastructure and continue the educational mission of the SSC.

  15. Life sciences biomedical research planning for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Michaud, Roger; Miller, Ladonna; Searcy, Jim; Dickey, Bernistine

    1987-01-01

    The Biomedical Research Project (BmRP), a major component of the NASA Life Sciences Space Station Program, incorporates a laboratory for the study of the effects of microgravity on the human body, and the development of techniques capable of modifying or counteracting these effects. Attention is presently given to a representative scenario of BmRP investigations and associated engineering analyses, together with an account of the evolutionary process by which the scenarios and the Space Station design requirements they entail are identified. Attention is given to a tether-implemented 'variable gravity centrifuge'.

  16. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  17. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips......One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered ‘emerging biotech’ locations. As a result, crosscontinental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal...... with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four ‘spheres...

  18. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  19. Art and science of authorship for biomedical research publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Harsoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Completion of research is logically followed by process of submission of the outcomes for publication. The objective of this article is to sensitise the young potential authors to improve their skill of writing so that the acceptance rate of publication is improved without significant comments and efforts of the editors of the journal. The article is based on the available literature combined with the experience of the author himself as reviewer and editor of biomedical journals. The treatment patterns of clinicians are moving towards evidence-based medical practice. Hence, a clinically relevant research question based on the contemporary knowledge gap is studied using appropriate research methodology. The writers are informed about the criteria to be fulfilled to claim authorship. Finally, emphasis is laid on the essentials of good medical writing necessary for publication. The writing for submission to biomedical journal is both an art and science in itself. A scientifically well-conducted study along with a sound knowledge of the mechanics of writing will enable the novices to achieve better acceptance rate for publication.

  20. Art and science of authorship for biomedical research publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsoor, S S

    2016-09-01

    Completion of research is logically followed by process of submission of the outcomes for publication. The objective of this article is to sensitise the young potential authors to improve their skill of writing so that the acceptance rate of publication is improved without significant comments and efforts of the editors of the journal. The article is based on the available literature combined with the experience of the author himself as reviewer and editor of biomedical journals. The treatment patterns of clinicians are moving towards evidence-based medical practice. Hence, a clinically relevant research question based on the contemporary knowledge gap is studied using appropriate research methodology. The writers are informed about the criteria to be fulfilled to claim authorship. Finally, emphasis is laid on the essentials of good medical writing necessary for publication. The writing for submission to biomedical journal is both an art and science in itself. A scientifically well-conducted study along with a sound knowledge of the mechanics of writing will enable the novices to achieve better acceptance rate for publication.

  1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ETHICS IN IRAN: CONFLICT OF PARADIGMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete relia...

  2. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  3. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret;

    2013-01-01

    with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four ‘spheres...... standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips......’ e deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction e as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges...

  4. Stockbridge Antenna Measurement and Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Stockbridge Antenna Measurement Facility is located 23 miles southwest of AFRL¹s Rome Research Site. This unique measurement facility is designed to evaluate the...

  5. Biomedical Engineer's Role in Improving the Management of Devices Used for Genomic Medicine Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, O.; B. Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    Today the biomedical engineers are very important in different health institutions around the world, yet the same impact has not been seen in research. All devices that are being used in biotechnology research have the same life cycle as in health care, so research units can learn from the biomedical engineers on how to improve the use of their instruments. The roles of biomedical engineers in the National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN) are: (1) establish policies and guidelines to e...

  6. Facile synthesis of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scano, A., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Pilloni, M., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Cabras, V., E-mail: alescano80@tiscali.it; Ennas, G. [Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche and Research Unit of the National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato- 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Vazquez-Vazquez, C. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Galicia (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2} NPs) for biomedical applications have been prepared by using a facile modified Stöber-synthesis. Potassium borohydride (KBH{sub 4}) has been introduced in the synthesis procedure in order to control NP size. Several samples have been prepared varying tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) concentration, and using different process conditions (temperature, reaction time and atmosphere). In order to study the influence of the process conditions on the NP size, morphology and properties, several characterization techniques were used. Size and morphology of the as-prepared SiO{sub 2} NPs have been studied by using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray powder diffraction. To investigate the SiO{sub 2} NP fluorescence emission properties the fluorescence spectroscopy was also used.

  7. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  8. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  9. NASA Ames Research Center R and D Services Directorate Biomedical Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, J.; Flynn, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate teams with NASA, other government agencies and/or industry investigators for the development, design, fabrication, manufacturing and qualification testing of space-flight and ground-based experiment hardware for biomedical and general aerospace applications. In recent years, biomedical research hardware and software has been developed to support space-flight and ground-based experiment needs including the E 132 Biotelemetry system for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), E 100 Neurolab neuro-vestibular investigation systems, the Autogenic Feedback Systems, and the Standard Interface Glove Box (SIGB) experiment workstation module. Centrifuges, motion simulators, habitat design, environmental control systems, and other unique experiment modules and fixtures have also been developed. A discussion of engineered systems and capabilities will be provided to promote understanding of possibilities for future system designs in biomedical applications. In addition, an overview of existing engineered products will be shown. Examples of hardware and literature that demonstrate the organization's capabilities will be displayed. The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate is available to support the development of new hardware and software systems or adaptation of existing systems to meet the needs of academic, commercial/industrial, and government research requirements. The Ames R&D Services Directorate can provide specialized support for: System concept definition and feasibility Mathematical modeling and simulation of system performance Prototype hardware development Hardware and software design Data acquisition systems Graphical user interface development Motion control design Hardware fabrication and high-fidelity machining Composite materials development and application design Electronic/electrical system design and fabrication System performance verification testing and qualification.

  10. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas

    2013-12-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved.

  11. Volunteers for biomedical research. Recruitment and screening of normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtasel, D L; Gur, R E; Mozley, P D; Richards, J; Taleff, M M; Heimberg, C; Gallacher, F; Gur, R C

    1991-11-01

    We examined the process of accruing healthy control subjects for biomedical research on brain function. Of 1670 responders to newspaper advertising, 23.1% were uninterested when learning more about the studies, and 50.9% of those remaining were found by structured telephone screening to meet exclusionary criteria for having a history of psychiatric, neurologic, or medical disease that might affect brain function. Of 312 volunteers passing the telephone screening who came to an in-person evaluation by a physician and agreed to participate, 49.7% were found to meet exclusionary criteria, and only 157 were admitted to the study. This underscores the importance of attending to the issue of screening and assessment of "normal volunteers." Alternative strategies should be considered for enriching the pool.

  12. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  13. Atomic force microscopy in biomedical research - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pier Carlo Braga and Davide Ricci are old friends not only for those researchers familiar with Atomic force microscopy (AFM but also for those beginners (like the undersigned that already enthusiastically welcomed their 2004 edition (for the same Humana press printing types of Atomic force microscopy: Biomedical methods and applications, eventhough I never had used the AFM. That book was much intended to overview the possible AFM applications for a wide range of readers so that they can be in some way stimulated toward the AFM use. In fact, the great majority of scientists is afraid both of the technology behind AFM (that is naturally thought highly demanding in term of concepts not so familiar to biologists and physicians and of the financial costs: both these two factors are conceived unapproachable by the medium range granted scientist usually not educated in terms of biophysics and electronic background....

  14. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  15. A beam optics study of the biomedical beam line at a proton therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chong Cheoul [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Sillim-dong, Gwanak, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Won [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Koyang, Kyonggi 410 769 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkim@ncc.re.kr

    2007-10-15

    A biomedical beam line has been designed for the experimental area of a proton therapy facility to deliver mm to sub-mm size beams in the energy range of 20-50 MeV using the TRANSPORT/TURTLE beam optics codes and a newly-written program. The proton therapy facility is equipped with a 230 MeV fixed-energy cyclotron and an energy selection system based on a degrader and slits, so that beam currents available for therapy decrease at lower energies in the therapeutic beam energy range of 70-230 MeV. The new beam line system is composed of an energy-degrader, two slits, and three quadrupole magnets. The minimum beam sizes achievable at the focal point are estimated for the two energies of 50 and 20 MeV. The focused FWHM beam size is approximately 0.3 mm with an expected beam current of 20 pA when the beam energy is reduced to 50 MeV from 100 MeV, and roughly 0.8 mm with a current of 10 pA for a 20 MeV beam.

  16. Knowledge of the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics Among Biomedical Researchers in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Daniel, Folasade; Ansa, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Responsibility for protection of research participants from harm and exploitation rests on Research Ethics Committees and principal investigators. The Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics defines responsibilities of stakeholders in research so its knowledge among researchers will likely aid ethical conduct of research. The levels of awareness and knowledge of the Code among biomedical researchers in southern Nigerian research institutions was assessed. Four institutions were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Research participants were selected by purposive sampling and completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A total of 102 biomedical researchers completed the questionnaires. Thirty percent of the participants were aware of the National Code though 64% had attended at least one training seminar in research ethics. Twenty-five percent had a fairly acceptable knowledge (scores 50%-74%) and 10% had excellent knowledge of the code (score ≥75%). Ninety-five percent expressed intentions to learn more about the National Code and agreed that it is highly relevant to the ethical conduct of research. Awareness and knowledge of the Code were found to be very limited among biomedical researchers in southern Nigeria. There is need to improve awareness and knowledge through ethics seminars and training. Use of existing Nigeria-specific online training resources is also encouraged.

  17. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center; Imagen molecular an investigation biomedica. La Unidad de Imagen Molecular del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-07-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. How Do Interaction Experiences Influence Doctoral Students' Academic Pursuits in Biomedical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Wathington, Heather D.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based…

  19. Biobank Graz: The Hub for Innovative Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Huppertz, Berthold; Bayer, Michaela; Macheiner, Tanja; Sargsyan, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Biobank Graz was established in 2007 as publicly funded, non-profit central research facility of Medical University of Graz, Austria. Biobank Graz is ISO 9001:2008 certified and stores about 7.5 million samples and their associated data, including formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and fresh frozen tissues plus fluid samples (serum, plasma, full blood, urine and cerebrospinal, follicular and seminal fluids, etc.) covering 30 years of collection. Samples are handled and stored in semi or ...

  20. The Impact of CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genomic Engineering on Biomedical Research and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, D E; Stottmann, R W

    2016-01-01

    There has been prolonged and significant interest in manipulating the genome for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. An existing challenge in realizing this potential has been the inability to precisely edit specific DNA sequences. Past efforts to generate targeted double stranded DNA cleavage have fused DNA-targeting elements such as zinc fingers and DNA-binding proteins to endonucleases. However, these approaches are limited by both design complexity and inefficient, costineffective operation. The discovery of CRISPR/Cas9, a branch of the bacterial adaptive immune system, as a potential genomic editing tool holds the promise of facile targeted cleavage. Its novelty lies in its RNA-guided endonuclease activity, which enhances its efficiency, scalability, and ease of use. The only necessary components are a Cas9 endonuclease protein and an RNA molecule tailored to the gene of interest. This lowbarrier of adoption has facilitated a plethora of advances in just the past three years since its discovery. In this review, we will discuss the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 on biomedical research and its potential implications in medicine.

  1. Chitosan: A Promising Marine Polysaccharide for Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins-which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster-is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field.

  2. Chitosan: A promising marine polysaccharide for biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Halleluyah Periayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins—which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster—is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field.

  3. Environmental Assessment Stockbridge Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    1Sllflg Drainage Ditches 42 Recreational Facilities 43 Stormwater Management Facilittcs 44_ Mining Activities 45 Repair of Uplands Damaged by...E lectronic Counter Measure (ECM) threat response on large airframes , including the B-52, KC-135, C-130 and B-B I Bs. Modifications included the

  4. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

    2010-06-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.

  5. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    population. This study suggests that minority status does not automatically indicate unwillingness to participate in genetic or medical research. Indian Americans were not skeptical about the potential benefits of biomedical research in comparison to other ethnic minority communities in the United States.

  6. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  7. Biomedical Engineering Bionanosystems Research at Louisiana Tech University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, James; Lvov, Yuri; Hegab, Hisham; Snow, Dale; Wilson, Chester; McDonald, John; Walker, Lynn; Pratt, Jon; Davis, Despina; Agarwal, Mangilal; DeCoster, Mark; Feng, June; Que, Long; O' Neal, Chad; Guilbeau, Eric; Zivanovic, Sandra; Dobbins, Tabbetha; Gold, Scott; Mainardi, Daniela; Gowda, Shathabish; Napper, Stan

    2010-03-25

    The nature of this project is to equip and support research in nanoengineered systems for biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Funds provided by the Department of Energy (DoE) under this Congressional Directive were used to support two ongoing research projects at Louisiana Tech University in biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Two major projects (Enzyme Immobilization for Large Scale Reactors to Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Costs, and Nanocatalysts for Coal and Biomass Conversion to Diesel Fuel) and to fund three to five additional seed projects were funded using the project budget. The project funds also allowed the purchase and repair of sophisticated research equipment that will support continued research in these areas for many years to come. Project funds also supported faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students, contributing to the development of a technically sophisticated work force in the region and the State. Descriptions of the technical accomplishments for each funded project are provided. Biofuels are an important part of the solution for sustainable transportation fuel and energy production for the future. Unfortunately, the country's appetite for fuel cannot be satisfied with traditional sugar crops such as sugar cane or corn. Emerging technologies are allowing cellulosic biomass (wood, grass, stalks, etc.) to also be converted into ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol does not compete with food production and it has the potential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 86% versus current fossil fuels (current techniques for corn ethanol only reduce greenhouse gases by 19%). Because of these advantages, the federal government has made cellulosic ethanol a high priority. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires a minimum production of at least 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol by 2022. Indeed, the Obama administration has signaled an ambitious commitment of achieving

  8. Guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Bolin, Susan

    2012-12-01

    This unit provides a general overview on topics related to the practical care and use of laboratory animals in biomedical research. These topics are briefly described and provide Web sites and/or research articles that can be accessed for more detailed information. While the primary focus is on the care and use of rats and mice bred for biomedical research, many of the Web sites listed provide information on other species used for this purpose.

  9. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  10. Fluorescent nanodiamonds and their use in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kelly, Lorena P.; Rampersaud, Isaac V.; Moritz, Charles E.; Campbell, Amanda R.; Hu, Zhiwei; Alkahtani, Masfer H.; Alghannam, Fahad S.; Hemmer, Phillip; Carson, William E.; Rampersaud, Arfaan A.

    2016-03-01

    Nanodiamonds containing color-centers produce non-quenching fluorescence that is easily detected. This makes them useful for cellular, proteomic and genomic applications. However, fluorescent nanodiamonds have yet to become popular in the biomedical research community as labeling reagents. We discuss production of nanodiamonds with distinct color-centers and assess their biocompatibility and techniques for bioconjugation. Fluorescent diamonds were fabricated by electron irradiation of high-pressure, high-temperature micron-sized diamonds which generated diamonds with vacancy-related defects (V). These diamonds were annealed to create nitrogen vacancy (NV)-centers then following a milling step were fractionated into nanoparticle sizes of 30, 60, and 95 nm. Optical characterization of Vand NV-center diamonds demonstrated fluorescence in two distinct green and red channels, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that these nanodiamonds are biocompatible and readily taken up by murine macrophage cells. Quantification of NV-center nanodiamond uptake by flow cytometry, showed that uptake was independent of nanodiamond size. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that NV-center nanodiamonds accumulate within the cytoplasm of these cells. NV-center nanodiamonds were then conjugated with streptavidin using a short polyethylene chain as linker. Conjugation was confirmed via a catalytic assay employing biotinylated-horseradish peroxidase. We present a technique for large-scale production of biocompatible conjugated V- or NV-center nanodiamonds. Functional testing is essential for standardization of fluorescent nanodiamond bioconjugates and quality control. Large-scale production of bioconjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds is crucial to their development as novel tools for biological and medical applications.

  11. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  12. Latino beliefs about biomedical research participation: a qualitative study on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Rachel M; Knerr, Sarah; Scott, Mary Alice; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Vilchis, Hugo; Thompson, Beti

    2014-10-01

    Latinos are under-represented in biomedical research conducted in the United States, impeding disease prevention and treatment efforts for this growing demographic group. We gathered perceptions of biomedical research and gauged willingness to participate through elicitation interviews and focus groups with Latinos living on the U.S.-Mexico border. Themes that emerged included a strong willingness to participate in biomedical studies and suggested that Latinos may be under-represented due to limited formal education and access to health information, not distrust. The conflation of research and clinical care was common and motivated participation. Outreach efforts and educational interventions to inform Latinos of participation opportunities and clarify harms and benefits associated with biomedical research participation will be essential to maintain trust within Latino communities.

  13. The Central Importance of Laboratories for Reducing Waste in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Nikolas

    2016-12-01

    The global biomedical research enterprise is driving substantial advances in medicine and healthcare. Yet it appears that the enterprise is rather wasteful, falling short of its true innovative potential. Suggested reasons are manifold and involve various stakeholders, such that there is no single remedy. In the present paper, I will argue that laboratories are the basic working units of the biomedical research enterprise and an important site of action for corrective intervention. Keeping laboratories relatively small will enable better training and mentoring of individual scientists, which in turn will yield better performance of the scientific workforce. The key premise of this argument is that people are at the heart of the successes and failures of biomedical research, yet the human dimension of science has been unduly neglected in practice. Renewed focus on the importance of laboratories and their constituent scientists is one promising approach to reducing waste and increasing efficiency within the biomedical research enterprise.

  14. Towards a 21st century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: Consensus report and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, govern...

  15. Biomedical Engineering: A Compendium of Research Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document was prepared to provide a comprehensive view of the programs in biomedical engineering in existence in 1969. These programs are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and are located at 18 universities. This compendium provides information as to the intent and content of these programs from data provided by…

  16. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  17. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  18. How Do Interaction Experiences Influence Doctoral Students’ Academic Pursuits in Biomedical Research?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, ac...

  19. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Lund, P Kay; Gammie, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce.

  20. New irradiation facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor thermal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Quintana, J; Ojeda, J; Langan, S; Thorp, S; Pozzi, E; Sztejnberg, M; Estryk, G; Nosal, R; Saire, E; Agrazar, H; Graiño, F

    2009-07-01

    A new irradiation facility has been developed in the RA-3 reactor in order to perform trials for the treatment of liver metastases using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). RA-3 is a production research reactor that works continuously five days a week. It had a thermal column with a small cross section access tunnel that was not accessible during operation. The objective of the work was to perform the necessary modifications to obtain a facility for irradiating a portion of the human liver. This irradiation facility must be operated without disrupting the normal reactor schedule and requires a highly thermalized neutron spectrum, a thermal flux of around 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1) that is as isotropic and uniform as possible, as well as on-line instrumentation. The main modifications consist of enlarging the access tunnel inside the thermal column to the suitable dimensions, reducing the gamma dose rate at the irradiation position, and constructing properly shielded entrance gates enabled by logical control to safely irradiate and withdraw samples with the reactor at full power. Activation foils and a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber were used for a preliminary in-air characterization of the irradiation site. The constructed facility is very practical and easy to use. Operational authorization was obtained from radioprotection personnel after confirming radiation levels did not significantly increase after the modification. A highly thermalized and homogenous irradiation field was obtained. Measurements in the empty cavity showed a thermal flux near 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1), a cadmium ratio of 4100 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate of approximately 5 Gy h(-1).

  1. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  2. Research to Develop Biomedical Applications of Free Electron Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    conventional endodontic treatment in patients with antibiotic resistant microflora. A Preliminary report. J Endodont , 2010; 36(9): 1463-1466. doi:10.1016...2008). 11. J. W. Goodman, "Some fundamental properties of speckle," Journal of the Optical Society of America 66, 1145-1150 (1976). 12. J. J...of human breast tissue using low coherence interferometry for fine needle aspiration breast biopsy." Journal of Biomedical Optics. 13(1): 014014

  3. Neil Armstrong At Lunar Landing Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, on July 20,1969, Neil Armstrong, shown here with NASA Langley Research Centers Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) Simulator, became the first human to walk on the moon after practicing with the simulator in May of 1969. Training with the simulator, part of Langleys Lunar Research Facility, allowed the Apollo astronauts to study and safely overcome problems that could have occurred during the final 150-foot descent to the surface of the moon. NASA needed such a facility in order to explore and develop techniques for landing the LEM on the moons surface, where gravity is only one-sixth as strong as on the Earth, as well as to determine the limits of human piloting capabilities in the new surroundings. This unique facility, completed in 1965 and now a National Historic Landmark, effectively canceled all but one-sixth of Earths gravitational force by using an overhead cable system.

  4. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  5. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  6. A new paradigm for graduate research and training in the biomedical sciences and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J D; Coté, G L; Walton, J R; Meininger, G A; Laine, G A

    2005-06-01

    98Emphasis on the individual investigator has fostered discovery for centuries, yet it is now recognized that the complexity of problems in the biomedical sciences and engineering requires collaborative efforts from individuals having diverse training and expertise. Various approaches can facilitate interdisciplinary interactions, but we submit that there is a critical need for a new educational paradigm for the way that we train biomedical engineers, life scientists, and mathematicians. We cannot continue to train graduate students in isolation within single disciplines, nor can we ask any one individual to learn all the essentials of biology, engineering, and mathematics. We must transform how students are trained and incorporate how real-world research and development are done-in diverse, interdisciplinary teams. Our fundamental vision is to create an innovative paradigm for graduate research and training that yields a new generation of biomedical engineers, life scientists, and mathematicians that is more diverse and that embraces and actively pursues a truly interdisciplinary, team-based approach to research based on a known benefit and mutual respect. In this paper, we describe our attempt to accomplish this via focused training in biomechanics, biomedical optics, mathematics, mechanobiology, and physiology. The overall approach is applicable, however, to most areas of biomedical research.

  7. Research Traceability using Provenance Services for Biomedical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anjum, Ashiq; Branson, Andrew; Habib, Irfan; McClatchey, Richard; Solomonides, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We outline the approach being developed in the neuGRID project to use provenance management techniques for the purposes of capturing and preserving the provenance data that emerges in the specification and execution of workflows in biomedical analyses. In the neuGRID project a provenance service has been designed and implemented that is intended to capture, store, retrieve and reconstruct the workflow information needed to facilitate users in conducting user analyses. We describe the architecture of the neuGRID provenance service and discuss how the CRISTAL system from CERN is being adapted to address the requirements of the project and then consider how a generalised approach for provenance management could emerge for more generic application to the (Health)Grid community.

  8. Nano-liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Mariana Roberto; Collins, Carol H; Bottoli, Carla B G

    2013-08-01

    Miniaturized separation techniques have emerged as environmentally friendly alternatives to available separation methods. Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC), microchip devices and nano-capillary electrophoresis are miniaturized methods that minimize reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, the low levels of analytes, especially in biological samples, promote the search for more highly sensitive techniques; coupled to mass spectrometry, nano-LC has great potential to become an indispensable tool for routine analysis of biomolecules. This short review presents the fundamental aspects of nano-LC analytical instrumentation, discussing practical considerations and the primary differences between miniaturized and conventional instrumentation. Some theoretical aspects are discussed to better explain both the potential and the principal limitations of nano-LC. Recent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of this separation technique are also presented to indicate the satisfactory performance for complex matrices, especially for proteomic analysis, that is obtained with nano-LC.

  9. A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on researchers as virtuous and caring physicians. This approach was in concordance with the paternalistic clinical practice of physicians outside of research settings during the same period. Period 2, starting from the late 1990s, was partly due to revealing of ethical flaws that occurred in biomedical research in Iran. The regulatory and funding bodies concluded that it was not sufficient to rely solely on the personal and professional virtues of researchers to safeguard human subjects' rights and welfare. The necessity for independent oversight, emphasized by international declarations, became obvious and undeniable. This paradigm shift led to the establishment of research ethics committees throughout the country, the establishment of academic research centers focusing on medical ethics (MEHR) and the compilation of the first set of national ethical guidelines on biomedical research-one of the first and most important projects conducted by and in the MEHR. Although not yet arrived, 'period 3' is on its way. It is predictable from the obvious trends toward performance of high-quality clinical research and the appearance of a highly educated new generation, especially among women.

  10. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  11. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research; Proteccion radiologica en la investigacion medica y biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la, E-mail: andres@orasen.co.cuES [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation.

  12. Hypercompetition in biomedical research evaluation and its impact on young scientist careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous changes in the modes of publication and dissemination of biomedical information, with the introduction of countless new publishers and publishing models, as well as alternative modes of research evaluation. In parallel, we are witnessing an unsustainable explosion in the amount of information generated by each individual scientist, at the same time as many countries' shrinking research budgets are greatly increasing the competition for research funding. In such a hypercompetitive environment, how does one measure excellence? This contribution will provide an overview of some of the ongoing changes in authorship practices in the biomedical sciences, and also the consequences of hypercompetition to the careers of young scientists, from the perspective of a tenured young faculty member in the biomedical sciences. It will also provide some suggestions as to alternate dissemination and evaluation practices that could reverse current trends. [Int Microbiol 18(4):253-261 (2015)].

  13. Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Peter H; Stave, Gregg M

    2003-01-01

    Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.

  14. Variable Gravity Research Facility - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Smith, Marcie A.; Synnestvedt, Robert G.; Keller, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    Is human exposure to artificial gravity necessary for Mars mission success, and if so, what is the optimum means of achieving artificial gravity? Answering these questions prior to the design of a Mars vehicle would require construction and operation of a dedicated spacecraft in low earth orbit. This paper summarizes the study results of a conceptual design and operations scenario for such a spacecraft, called the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF).

  15. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  16. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  17. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeten P.

    2014-01-01

    As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  18. [Metrology research on biomedical engineering publications from China in recent years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Su, Juan; Wang, Ying; Sha, Xianzheng

    2014-12-01

    The present paper is to evaluate the scientific research level and development trends of biomedical engineering in China using metrology analysis on Chinese biomedical engineering scientific literatures. Pubmed is used to search the biomedical engineering publications in recent 5 years which are indexed by Science Citation Index, and the number and cited times of these publications and the impact factor of the journals are analyzed. The results show that comparing with the world, although the number of the publication in China has increased in recent 5 years, there is still much room for improvement. Among Chinese mainland, Hongkong and Taiwan, Chinese mainland maintains the obvious advantage in this subject, but Hongkong has the highest average cited number. Shanghai and Beijing have better research ability than other areas in Chinese mainland.

  19. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  20. A roadmap for caGrid, an enterprise Grid architecture for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Chue Hong, Neil

    2008-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities.

  1. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  2. Management control in biomedical research and pharmaceutical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, Simon Willem Frederik

    1995-01-01

    This monograph concentrates on the research floor level, the research unit (the professors with their scientific, technical, analytical and administrative staff in universities, or the department heads with their staff in institutes), and the system of research units which together form the R&D proc

  3. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  4. Effects of an educational intervention on female biomedical scientists' research self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Lori L; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M; Ward, Earlise C; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a short-term research training program coupled with an efficacy enhancing intervention for novice female biomedical scientists of diverse racial backgrounds would increase their research self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-three female biomedical scientists were randomized into a control or intervention group and 15 men participated as a control group. Research self-efficacy significantly increased for women who participated in the self-efficacy intervention workshop. Research self-efficacy within each group also significantly increased following the short-term research training program, but cross-group comparisons were not significant. These findings suggest that educational interventions that target sources of self-efficacy and provide domain-specific learning experiences are effective at increasing research self-efficacy for women and men. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal outcomes of this effort.

  5. Facile preparation of multifunctional superparamagnetic PHBV microspheres containing SPIONs for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jan Zaloga; Ding, Yaping; Liu, Yufang; Janko, Christina; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Alexiou, Christoph; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-03-01

    The promising potential of magnetic polymer microspheres in various biomedical applications has been frequently reported. However, the surface hydrophilicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) usually leads to poor or even failed encapsulation of SPIONs in hydrophobic polymer microspheres using the emulsion method. In this study, the stability of SPIONs in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) solution was significantly increased after surface modification with lauric acid. As a result, magnetic PHBV microspheres with high encapsulation efficiencies (71.0-87.4%) were prepared using emulsion-solvent extraction/evaporation method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed significant contrast for the magnetic PHBV microspheres. The toxicity of these magnetic PHBV microspheres towards human T-lymphoma suspension cells and adherent colon carcinoma HT-29 cells was investigated using flow cytometry, and they were shown to be non-toxic in a broad concentration range. A model drug, tetracycline hydrochloride, was used to demonstrate the drug delivery capability and to investigate the drug release behavior of the magnetic PHBV microspheres. The drug was successfully loaded into the microspheres using lauric acid-coated SPIONs as drug carrier, and was released from the microspheres in a diffusion controlled manner. The developed magnetic PHBV microspheres are promising candidates for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and MRI.

  6. A New Voice in Science : Patient participation in decision-making on biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron-Flinterman, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    End-users are increasingly involved in decision-making concerning science and technology. This dissertation focuses on a specific kind of end-user participation: patient participation in decision-making on bio-medical research. Since patients can be considered relevant experts and stakeholders with

  7. Strategies for Disseminating Information on Biomedical Research on Autism to Hispanic Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajonchere, Clara M.; Wheeler, Barbara Y.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kreutzer, Cary; Munson, Aron; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Cruz, Roxana; Martinez, Irene; Schrager, Sheree M.; Schweitzer, Lisa; Chklovski, Tara; Hwang, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Low income Hispanic families experience multiple barriers to accessing evidence-based information on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study utilized a mixed-strategy intervention to create access to information in published bio-medical research articles on ASD by distilling the content into parent-friendly English- and Spanish-language ASD…

  8. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics.

  9. Biomedical engineering - A means to add new dimension to medicine and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is an evolving science that seeks to insert technically oriented and trained personnel to assist medical professionals in solving technological problems in the pursuit of innovations in the delivery of health care. Consequently, engineering solutions are brought to bear on problems that previously were outside the training of physicians and beyond the understanding or appreciation of the conventionally educated electrical or mechanical engineers. This physician/scientist/engineer team has a capability to extend medicine and research far beyond the capability of a single entity operating alone. How biomedical engineering has added a new dimension to medical science at the Kennedy Space Center is described.

  10. Governance of biomedical research in Singapore and the challenge of conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Calvin Wai Loon; De Castro, Leonardo D; Campbell, Alastair V

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the establishment of a governance framework for biomedical research in Singapore. It focuses on the work of the Bioethics Advisory Committee (BAC), which has been instrumental in institutionalizing a governance framework, through the provision of recommendations to the government, and through the coordination of efforts among government agencies. However, developing capabilities in biomedical sciences presents challenges that are qualitatively different from those of past technologies. The state has a greater role to play in balancing conflicting and potentially irreconcilable economic, social, and political goals. This article analyzes the various ways by which the BAC has facilitated this.

  11. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. W...

  12. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view--part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-10-01

    Most of the currently accepted western basic principles of ethics in research are consistent with the instructions of Islam. This statement may come as a surprise to some western researchers. In this article, I will discuss why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I will point out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; this would show clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago.

  13. NSTX: Facility/Research Highlights and Near Term Facility Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono

    2008-11-19

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a collaborative mega-ampere-class spherical torus research facility with high power heating and current drive systems and the state-of-the-art comprehensive diagnostics. For the 2008 experimental campaign, the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating efficiency in deuterium improved significantly with lithium evaporation and produced a record central Te of 5 keV. The HHFW heating of NBI-heated discharges was also demonstrated for the first time with lithium application. The EBW emission in H-mode was also improved dramatically with lithium which was shown to be attributable to reduced edge collisional absorption. Newly installed FIDA energetic particle diagnostic measured significant transport of energetic ions associated with TAE avalanche as well as n=1 kink activities. A full 75 channel poloidal CHERS system is now operational yielding tantalizing initial results. In the near term, major upgrade activities include a liquid-lithium divertor target to achieve lower collisionality regime, the HHFW antenna upgrades to double its power handling capability in H-mode, and a beam-emission spectroscopy diagnostic to extend the localized turbulence measurements toward the ion gyro-radius scale from the present concentration on the electron gyro-radius scale. For the longer term, a new center stack to significantly expand the plasma operating parameters is planned along with a second NBI system to double the NBI heating and CD power and provide current profile control. These upgrades will enable NSTX to explore fully non-inductive operations over a much expanded plasma parameter space in terms of higher plasma temperature and lower collisionality, thereby significantly reducing the physics parameter gap between the present NSTX and the projected next-step ST experiments.

  14. Chimpanzees in AIDS research: A biomedical and bioethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Akker (Ruud); M. Balls; J.W. Eichberg; J. Goodall; J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.M. Prince; I. Spruit

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present article represents a consensus view of the appropriate utilization of chimpanzees in AIDS research arrived at as a result of a meeting of a group of scientists involved in AIDS research with chimpanzees and bioethicists. The paper considers which types of studies are scientif

  15. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  16. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  17. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Sample Analysis Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, C.; Mason, N. J.; Davies, G. R.; Marty, B.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the third TNA: Planetary Sample Analysis Facilities. The modular infrastructure represents a major commitment of analytical instrumentation by three institutes and together forms a state-of-the-art analytical facility of unprecedented breadth. These centres perform research in the fields of geochemistry and cosmochemistry, studying fluids and rocks in order to better understand the keys cof the universe. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilities: Ion Probe facilities at CRPG and OU The Cameca 1270 Ion microprobe is a CNRS-INSU national facility. About a third of the useful analytical time of the ion probe (about 3 months each year) is allocated to the national community. French scientists have to submit their projects to a national committee for selection. The selected projects are allocated time in the following 6 months twice a year. About 15 to 20 projects are run each year. There are only two such instruments in Europe, with cosmochemistry only performed at CRPG. Different analyses can be performed on a routine basis, such as U-Pb dating on Zircon, Monazite or Pechblende, Li, B, C, O, Si isotopic ratios determination on different matrix, 26Al, 60Fe extinct radioactivity ages, light and trace elements contents . The NanoSIMS 50L - producing element or isotope maps with a spatial resolution down to ≈50nm. This is one of the cornerstone facilities of UKCAN, with 75% of available instrument time funded and

  18. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  19. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  20. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  1. Measuring the Outcome of Biomedical Research: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Frédérique Thonon; Rym Boulkedid; Tristan Delory; Sophie Rousseau; Mahasti Saghatchian; Wim van Harten; Claire O'Neill; Corinne Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases ...

  2. Biomedical informatics research network: building a national collaboratory to hasten the derivation of new understanding and treatment of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, Jeffrey S; Baru, Chaitan; Gupta, Amarnath; James, Mark; Ludaescher, Bertram; Martone, Maryann E; Papadopoulos, Philip M; Peltier, Steven T; Rajasekar, Arcot; Santini, Simone; Zaslavsky, Ilya N; Ellisman, Mark H

    2005-01-01

    Through support from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Research Resources, the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) is pioneering the use of advanced cyberinfrastructure for medical research. By synchronizing developments in advanced wide area networking, distributed computing, distributed database federation, and other emerging capabilities of e-science, the BIRN has created a collaborative environment that is paving the way for biomedical research and clinical information management. The BIRN Coordinating Center (BIRN-CC) is orchestrating the development and deployment of key infrastructure components for immediate and long-range support of biomedical and clinical research being pursued by domain scientists in three neuroimaging test beds.

  3. Identifying reasons for failure in biomedical research and publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bousfield

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The regular assessment of Brazilian scientific output means that individual university departments need to constantly improve the quantity and quality of their scientific output. A significant proportion of this output involves the work of Master’s and Doctoral students, but getting this work published in a suitable journal can often prove to be a challenge. Although students’ lack of fluency in English is a contributing factor, many of the problems observed have an early origin in the formulation of the research problem and its relevance to current research trends in the international literature. In short, more time needs to be spent in the library and less in the laboratory, and more effort needs to be made in teaching students basic research skills such as the effective use of bibliographic databases like PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus.

  4. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  5. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 – 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (19...

  6. Measuring the outcome of biomedical research: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Thonon

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1 to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2 enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points.We have searched 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science using the following keywords: [Research outcome* OR research output* OR bibliometric* OR scientometric* OR scientific production] AND [indicator* OR index* OR evaluation OR metrics]. We included articles presenting, discussing or evaluating indicators measuring the scientific production of an institution. The search was conducted by two independent authors using a standardised data extraction form. For each indicator we extracted its definition, calculation, its rationale and its positive and negative points. In order to reduce bias, data extraction and analysis was performed by two independent authors.We included 76 articles. A total of 57 indicators were identified. We have classified those indicators into 6 categories: 9 indicators of research activity, 24 indicators of scientific production and impact, 5 indicators of collaboration, 7 indicators of industrial production, 4 indicators of dissemination, 8 indicators of health service impact. The most widely discussed and described is the h-index with 31 articles discussing it.The majority of indicators found are bibliometric indicators of scientific production and impact. Several indicators have been developed to improve the h-index. This indicator has also inspired the creation of two indicators to measure industrial production and collaboration. Several articles propose indicators measuring research impact without detailing a methodology for calculating them. Many bibliometric indicators identified

  7. Accelerating Biomedical Research in Designing Diagnostic Assays, Drugs, and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    environmental samples. Advances Anders Wallqvist, Nela Zavaljevski, Ravi Vijaya Satya, Rajkumar Bondugula, Valmik Desai, Xin Hu, Kamal Kumar, Michael...Contact him at awallqvist@bioanalysis.org. nela Zavaljevski is a research scientist at US DoD Biotechnology HPC Software Applications Institute. CISE-12-5

  8. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau...

  9. Adverse reproduction outcomes among employees working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennborg, H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Stenbeck, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate reproductive outcomes such as birthweight, preterm births, and postterm births among women working in research laboratories while pregnant. Methods Female university personnel were identified from a source cohort of Swedish laboratory employees, ...

  10. Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Engineering makes multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. Communication training is important for students, who have a potential to develop Biomedical Engineering. Communication is not easy in a multidisciplinary research area, because each area has its own background of thinking. Because each nation has its own background of culture, on the other hand, international communication is not easy, either. A cross-cultural student program has been designed for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area. Students from a variety of backgrounds of research area and culture have joined in the program: mechanical engineering, material science, environmental engineering, science of nursing, dentist, pharmacy, electronics, and so on. The program works well for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area of biomedical engineering. Foreign language and digital data give students chance to study several things: how to make communication precisely, how to quote previous data. The experience in the program helps students not only understand new idea in the laboratory visit, but also make a presentation in the international research conference. The program relates to author's several experiences: the student internship abroad, the cross-cultural student camp, multi PhD theses, various affiliations, and the creation of the interdisciplinary department.

  11. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  12. Motivational factors for participation in biomedical research: evidence from a qualitative study of biomedical research participation in Blantyre District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Masiye, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining effective informed consent from research participants is a prerequisite to the conduct of an ethically sound research. Yet it is believed that obtaining quality informed consent is generally difficult in settings with low socioeconomic status. This is so because of the alleged undue inducements and therapeutic misconception among participants. However, there is a dearth of data on factors that motivate research participants to take part in research. Hence, this study was aimed at filling this gap in the Malawian context. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with community members in urban and rural communities of Blantyre in Malawi. Most participants reported that they accepted the invitation to participate in research because of better quality treatment during study also known as ancillary care, monetary and material incentives given to participants, and thorough medical diagnosis.

  13. Conceptualization and design of a variable-gravity research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The goal is to provide facilities for the study of the effects of variable-gravity levels in reducing the physiological stresses upon the humans of long-term stay time in zero-g. The designs studied include: twin-tethered two module system with a central despun module with docking port and winch gear; and rigid arm tube facility using shuttle external tanks. Topics examined included: despun central capsule configuration, docking clearances, EVA requirements, crew selection, crew scheduling, food supply and preparation, waste handling, leisure use, biomedical issues, and psycho-social issues.

  14. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  15. Directions in biomedical research: a plea for ideological pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2003-08-01

    Feinstein [A.R. Feinstein, Am. J. Med. 107 (1999) 461] complained that 'basic medical science' has overwhelmed 'pathophysiological medical science' during the past half century, and 'destroyed the bridge between bedside and bench'. We agree that a 'drastic reorientation' will be necessary to correct the overemphasis and imbalance. Re-examining the roots of his problem, we believe that a plea to restore a balance between the 'status' (esteem) of 'large research' and 'small research' in medical science brings back into question the decision of academic physiologists to invoke the framework of Physics in/of 1847 [P.F. Cranefield, J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 12 (1957) 407] (together with an absolutist 'Prime Mover'/Metaphysic which Einstein would delete from Physics in 1905). The current 'imbalance' arose when that Cartesian 'Prime Mover' was NOT deleted from the Biological frame. Feinstein felt that the 'privileged status' (esteem) in which fund-giving bodies hold 'Small' researches compared to 'Large' should be cancelled. Once Biology replaces its Cartesian absolutism with a relativist framework, redress will follow naturally when living-material has regained the status of cause as well as effect. Descartes' 'Great Watchmaker' is a Dead God in Biology: a non-metaphysical Biological Perspective would restore balance between 'large' and 'small' investigations. ('Pluralism' implies that no scientific perspective would be second-rate in a relativist framework.)

  16. Smart textile-based wearable biomedical systems: a transition plan for research to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmee; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    2010-01-01

    The field of smart textile-based wearable biomedical systems (ST-WBSs) has of late been generating a lot of interest in the research and business communities since its early beginnings in the mid-nineties. However, the technology is yet to enter the marketplace and realize its original goal of enhancing the quality of life for individuals through enhanced real-time biomedical monitoring. In this paper, we propose a framework for analyzing the transition of ST-WBS from research to reality. We begin with a look at the evolution of the field and describe the major components of an ST-WBS. We then analyze the key issues encompassing the technical, medical, economic, public policy, and business facets from the viewpoints of various stakeholders in the continuum. We conclude with a plan of action for transitioning ST-WBS from "research to reality."

  17. Biomedical scientists' perceptions of ethical and social implications: is there a role for research ethics consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B McCormick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research ethics consultation programs are being established with a goal of addressing the ethical, societal, and policy considerations associated with biomedical research. A number of these programs are modelled after clinical ethics consultation services that began to be institutionalized in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine biomedical science researchers' perceived need for and utility of research ethics consultation, through examination of their perceptions of whether they and their institutions faced ethical, social or policy issues (outside those mandated by regulation and examination of willingness to seek advice in addressing these issues. We conducted telephone interviews and focus groups in 2006 with researchers from Stanford University and a mailed survey in December 2006 to 7 research universities in the U.S. FINDINGS: A total of 16 researchers were interviewed (75% response rate, 29 participated in focus groups, and 856 responded to the survey (50% response rate. Approximately half of researchers surveyed (51% reported that they would find a research ethics consultation service at their institution moderately, very or extremely useful, while over a third (36% reported that such a service would be useful to them personally. Respondents conducting human subjects research were more likely to find such a service very to extremely useful to them personally than respondents not conducting human subjects research (20% vs 10%; chi(2 p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that biomedical researchers do encounter and anticipate encountering ethical and societal questions and concerns and a substantial proportion, especially clinical researchers, would likely use a consultation service if they were aware of it. These findings provide data to inform the development of such consultation programs in general.

  18. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  19. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  20. The misuse and abuse of statistics in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Arnold, Zachary C; Walker, Skyler D

    2015-01-01

    Statistics are the primary tools for assessing relationships and evaluating study questions. Unfortunately, these tools are often misused, either inadvertently because of ignorance or lack of planning, or conspicuously to achieve a specified result. Data abuses include the incorrect application of statistical tests, lack of transparency and disclosure about decisions that are made, incomplete or incorrect multivariate model building, or exclusion of outliers. Individually, each of these actions may completely invalidate a study, and often studies are victim to more than one offense. Increasingly there are tools and guidance for researchers to look to, including the development of an analysis plan and a series of study specific checklists, in order to prevent or mitigate these offenses.

  1. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Certa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  2. National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) JSC Summer Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Forrest Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This project optimized the calorie content in a breakfast meal replacement bar for the Advanced Food Technology group. Use of multivariable optimization yielded the highest weight savings possible while simultaneously matching NASA Human Standards nutritional guidelines. The scope of this research included the study of shelf-life indicators such as water activity, moisture content, and texture analysis. Key metrics indicate higher protein content, higher caloric density, and greater mass savings as a result of the reformulation process. The optimization performed for this study demonstrated wide application to other food bars in the Advanced Food Technology portfolio. Recommendations for future work include shelf life studies on bar hardening and overall acceptability data over increased time frames and temperature fluctuation scenarios.

  3. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-06-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  4. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E.; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  5. A national human neuroimaging collaboratory enabled by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David B; Grethe, J S; Marcus, D; Ozyurt, B; Gadde, S; Murphy, Sean; Pieper, S; Greve, D; Notestine, R; Bockholt, H J; Papadopoulos, P

    2008-03-01

    The aggregation of imaging, clinical, and behavioral data from multiple independent institutions and researchers presents both a great opportunity for biomedical research as well as a formidable challenge. Many research groups have well-established data collection and analysis procedures, as well as data and metadata format requirements that are particular to that group. Moreover, the types of data and metadata collected are quite diverse, including image, physiological, and behavioral data, as well as descriptions of experimental design, and preprocessing and analysis methods. Each of these types of data utilizes a variety of software tools for collection, storage, and processing. Furthermore sites are reluctant to release control over the distribution and access to the data and the tools. To address these needs, the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) has developed a federated and distributed infrastructure for the storage, retrieval, analysis, and documentation of biomedical imaging data. The infrastructure consists of distributed data collections hosted on dedicated storage and computational resources located at each participating site, a federated data management system and data integration environment, an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema for data exchange, and analysis pipelines, designed to leverage both the distributed data management environment and the available grid computing resources.

  6. Patient identity management for secondary use of biomedical research data in a distributed computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Schreier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with data from different source domains is of increasing importance in today's large scale biomedical research endeavours. Within the European Network for Cancer research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) a solution to share such data for secondary use will be established. In this paper the solution arising from the aims of the ENCCA project and regulatory requirements concerning data protection and privacy is presented. Since the details of secondary biomedical dataset utilisation are often not known in advance, data protection regulations are met with an identity management concept that facilitates context-specific pseudonymisation and a way of data aggregation using a hidden reference table later on. Phonetic hashing is proposed to prevent duplicated patient registration and re-identification of patients is possible via a trusted third party only. Finally, the solution architecture allows for implementation in a distributed computing environment, including cloud-based elements.

  7. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  8. Progress and Prospects for Genetic Modification of Nonhuman Primate Models in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest of modeling human diseases using genetically modified (transgenic) nonhuman primates (NHPs) is a direct result of NHPs (rhesus macaque, etc.) close relation to humans. NHPs share similar developmental paths with humans in their anatomy, physiology, genetics, and neural functions; and in their cognition, emotion, and social behavior. The NHP model within biomedical research has played an important role in the development of vaccines, assisted reproductive technologies, and...

  9. [The marmoset in biomedical research. Value of this primate model for cardiovascular studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J B; Mahouy, G

    1990-03-01

    Because of its small size, low cost of maintenance, breeding capabilities in captivity, the marmoset, a New World monkey, appears well suited for clinical and fundamental investigations. The contribution of this laboratory animal in the main areas of biomedical research is succinctly described: viral oncology, infections diseases, immunology, reproduction, toxicology and teratology, odontology, behaviour and neuro-psychopathology. Emphasis is put upon the exceptional interest of the use of marmoset as a biological model in cardiovascular studies.

  10. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo

    2002-07-01

    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks.

  11. How Large-Scale Research Facilities Connect to Global Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    research. However, based on data on publications produced in 2006–2009 at the Neutron Science Directorate of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee (United States), we find that internationalization of its collaborative research is restrained by coordination costs similar to those characterizing other......Policies for large-scale research facilities (LSRFs) often highlight their spillovers to industrial innovation and their contribution to the external connectivity of the regional innovation system hosting them. Arguably, the particular institutional features of LSRFs are conducive for collaborative...... institutional settings. Policies mandating LSRFs should consider that research prioritized on the basis of technological relevance limits the international reach of collaborations. Additionally, the propensity for international collaboration is lower for resident scientists than for those affiliated...

  12. Liberty to decide on dual use biomedical research: an acknowledged necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleyan, Emma

    2010-03-01

    Humanity entered the twenty-first century with revolutionary achievements in biomedical research. At the same time multiple "dual-use" results have been published. The battle against infectious diseases is meeting new challenges, with newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Both natural disaster epidemics, such as SARS, avian influenza, haemorrhagic fevers, XDR and MDR tuberculosis and many others, and the possibility of intentional mis-use, such as letters containing anthrax spores in USA, 2001, have raised awareness of the real threats. Many great men, including Goethe, Spinoza, J.B. Shaw, Fr. Engels, J.F. Kennedy and others, have recognized that liberty is also a responsibility. That is why the liberty to decide now represents an acknowledged necessity: biomedical research should be supported, conducted and published with appropriate measures to prevent potential "dual use". Biomedical scientists should work according to the ethical principles of their Code of Conduct, an analogue of Hippocrates Oath of doctors; and they should inform government, society and their juniors about the problem. National science consulting boards of experts should be created to prepare guidelines and control the problem at state level. An international board should develop minimum standards to be applicable by each country. Bio-preparedness is considered another key-measure.

  13. Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research: scientific and cultural exchange in undergraduate engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, Andrew D; Huang, Lixia; Hong, Bo; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    A model for an international undergraduate biomedical engineering research exchange program is outlined. In 2008, the Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Tsinghua University in Beijing, China established the Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research. Undergraduate biomedical engineering students from both universities are offered the opportunity to participate in research at the overseas institution. Programs such as these will not only provide research experiences for undergraduates but valuable cultural exchange and enrichment as well. Currently, strict course scheduling and rigorous curricula in most biomedical engineering programs may present obstacles for students to partake in study abroad opportunities. Universities are encouraged to harbor abroad opportunities for undergraduate engineering students, for which this particular program can serve as a model.

  14. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  15. Evolution of the use of ionizing radiation in biomedical research; Evolucion del uso de las radiaciones ionizantes en investigacion biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the evolution, as a change of process, with the use of radioactivity in biomedical research, showing the consume of radioisotopes during the las 20 years indicating the evidences of these changes. The radioisotopic techniques applied at the present are described, and the future use of the radioisotopes in biomedical research is proposed, emphasizing the importance that the Molecular Imaging Techniques will have in this scientific area. (Author) 56 refs.

  16. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  17. Imaging tissues for biomedical research using the high-resolution micro-tomography system nanotom® m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Schulz, Georg; Khimchenko, Anna; Bikis, Christos; Hieber, Simone E.; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; H öchel, Sebastian; Saxer, Till; Stalder, Anja K.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Thalmann, Peter; Buscema, Marzia; Rohr, Nadja; Holme, Margaret N.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (mCT) is well established in virtually all fields of biomedical research, allowing for the non-destructive volumetric visualization of tissue morphology. A variety of specimens can be investigated, ranging from soft to hard tissue to engineered structures like scaffolds. Similarly, the size of the objects of interest ranges from a fraction of a millimeter to several tens of centimeters. While synchrotron radiation-based μCT still offers unrivaled data quality, the ever-improving technology of cathodic tube-based machines offers a valuable and more accessible alternative. The Biomaterials Science Center of the University of Basel operates a nanotomOR m (phoenix|x-ray, GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany), with a 180 kV source and a minimal spot size of about 0.9 μm. Through the adjustable focus-specimen and focus-detector distances, the effective pixel size can be adjusted from below 500 nm to about 80 μm. On the high-resolution side, it is for example possible to visualize the tubular network in sub-millimeter thin dentin specimens. It is then possible to locally extract parameters such as tubule diameter, density, or alignment, giving information on cell movements during tooth formation. On the other side, with a horizontal shift of the 3,072 pixels x 2,400 pixels detector, specimens up to 35 cm in diameter can be scanned. It is possible, for example, to scan an entire human knee, albeit with inferior resolution. Lab source μCT machines are thus a powerful and flexible tool for the advancement of biomedical research, and a valuable and more accessible alternative to synchrotron radiation facilities.

  18. Towards government-funded special biomedical research programs to combat rare diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Liu, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    Rare diseases are rarely conditions that are often debilitating and even life-threatening, which was identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) with a prevalence of 0.65-1‰. 5,000-7,000 rare diseases are thought to exist, which account for around 10% of diseases for individuals worldwide. It is estimated that over 10 million people were patients with rare disease in China. During the past years, public awareness of rare diseases has in fact heightened with the launching of campaigns by patients' organizations and spontaneous efforts by members of the public, not only in developed countries and regions including United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and in Japan, but also in China. However, the features of missed or delayed diagnosis, shortage of effective drugs, and the high cost of currently available drugs for rare diseases make it an important public health issue and a challenge to medical care worldwide. To combat rare disease, the government should assume the responsibility of taking on the important task of promoting the sustained development of a system of medical care for and research into rare diseases. Government-funded special biomedical research programs in the USA, EU, and Japan may serve as a reference for China coping with rare diseases. The government-funded special biomedical research programs consisting of leading clinicians and researchers to enhance basic and applied research on rare diseases were expected to be launched in China.

  19. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  20. Use of enclosures with functional vertical space by captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) involved in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence, Wendy M; Scott, Jennifer P; Dorris, Michael C; Paré, Martin

    2006-09-01

    We assessed space use by 2 pairs of captive female rhesus monkeys recently transferred into 2 enclosures moderately larger than their former traditional research cages and providing elevated perches at or above human eye level for all monkeys. This new space did not affect the ongoing biomedical research in which these captive monkeys were involved, and we sought to determine whether they used the elevated positions preferentially, as do wild animals. The frequency and duration of visits at each of the 9 distinct regions within these enclosures was calculated during 30-min morning and evening sessions over 20 d. We found that the monkeys frequented all regions of their enclosures in a similar manner during both morning and evening sessions. However, the duration spent at each region varied significantly between morning and evening sessions, with high perches being chosen preferentially in the evenings. Overall, the monkeys spent the majority of their time at elevated positions. These results support the view that access to functional vertical space provides a preferred environment for species- specific behavior and is an option that should be considered by other research facilities.

  1. Perceptions of Chinese Biomedical Researchers Towards Academic Misconduct: A Comparison Between 2015 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing-Jiao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Bai, Yu; Eslick, Guy D; He, Xing-Xiang; Zhang, Shi-Bing; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; He, Hua

    2017-04-10

    Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman's rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% (446/9986) and 5.5% (832/15,127), respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% (39.8 ± 23.5% in 2010; 40.2 ± 24.5% in 2015) of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in

  2. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The STAR facility, within Sandia's Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a major shock-physics program. This is the only...

  3. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  4. Office of Chief Scientist, Integrated Research Facility (OCSIRF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Introduction The Integrated Research Facility (IRF) is part of the Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS) for the Division of Clinical Research in the NIAID Office of...

  5. Collaborative mining and interpretation of large-scale data for biomedical research insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Tsiliki

    Full Text Available Biomedical research becomes increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Researchers need to efficiently and effectively collaborate and make decisions by meaningfully assembling, mining and analyzing available large-scale volumes of complex multi-faceted data residing in different sources. In line with related research directives revealing that, in spite of the recent advances in data mining and computational analysis, humans can easily detect patterns which computer algorithms may have difficulty in finding, this paper reports on the practical use of an innovative web-based collaboration support platform in a biomedical research context. Arguing that dealing with data-intensive and cognitively complex settings is not a technical problem alone, the proposed platform adopts a hybrid approach that builds on the synergy between machine and human intelligence to facilitate the underlying sense-making and decision making processes. User experience shows that the platform enables more informed and quicker decisions, by displaying the aggregated information according to their needs, while also exploiting the associated human intelligence.

  6. Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

    2014-07-01

    While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking.

  7. Critically engaging: integrating the social and the biomedical in international microbicides research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Pool, Robert

    2011-09-27

    Randomized controlled trials and critical social theory are known not to be happy bedfellows. Such trials are embedded in a positivist view of the world, seeking definitive answers to testable questions; critical social theory questions the methods by which we deem the world knowable and may consider experiments in the biomedical sciences as social artifacts. Yet both of these epistemologically and methodologically divergent fields offer potentially important advances in HIV research. In this paper, we describe collaboration between social and biomedical researchers on a large, publicly funded programme to develop vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention. In terms of critical engagement, having integrated and qualitative social science components in the protocol meant potentially nesting alternative epistemologies at the heart of the randomized controlled trial. The social science research highlighted the fallibility and fragility of trial data by demonstrating inconsistencies in key behavioural measurements. It also foregrounded the disjuncture between biomedical conceptions of microbicides and the meanings and uses of the study gel in the context of users' everyday lives. These findings were communicated to the clinical and epidemiological members of the team on an ongoing basis via a feedback loop, through which new issues of concern could also be debated and, in theory, data collection adjusted to the changing needs of the programme. Although critical findings were taken on board by the trialists, a hierarchy of evidence nonetheless remained that limited the utility of some social science findings. This was in spite of mutual respect between clinical epidemiologists and social scientists, equal representation in management and coordination bodies, and equity in funding for the different disciplines. We discuss the positive role that social science integrated into an HIV prevention trial can play, but nonetheless highlight tensions that remain where a hierarchy

  8. Progress and prospects for genetic modification of nonhuman primate models in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest of modeling human diseases using genetically modified (transgenic) nonhuman primates (NHPs) is a direct result of NHPs (rhesus macaque, etc.) close relation to humans. NHPs share similar developmental paths with humans in their anatomy, physiology, genetics, and neural functions; and in their cognition, emotion, and social behavior. The NHP model within biomedical research has played an important role in the development of vaccines, assisted reproductive technologies, and new therapies for many diseases. Biomedical research has not been the primary role of NHPs. They have mainly been used for safety evaluation and pharmacokinetics studies, rather than determining therapeutic efficacy. The development of the first transgenic rhesus macaque (2001) revolutionized the role of NHP models in biomedicine. Development of the transgenic NHP model of Huntington's disease (2008), with distinctive clinical features, further suggested the uniqueness of the model system; and the potential role of the NHP model for human genetic disorders. Modeling human genetic diseases using NHPs will continue to thrive because of the latest advances in molecular, genetic, and embryo technologies. NHPs rising role in biomedical research, specifically pre-clinical studies, is foreseeable. The path toward the development of transgenic NHPs and the prospect of transgenic NHPs in their new role in future biomedicine needs to be reviewed. This article will focus on the advancement of transgenic NHPs in the past decade, including transgenic technologies and disease modeling. It will outline new technologies that may have significant impact in future NHP modeling and will conclude with a discussion of the future prospects of the transgenic NHP model.

  9. MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

    This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

  10. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.; Bigler, R.E.

    1978-09-30

    Progress is reported on biomedical studies using cyclotron-produced /sup 18/F, /sup 15/O, /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 52/Fe, /sup 38/K, /sup 206/Bi, /sup 73/Se, /sup 53/Co, and /sup 43/K. The following research projects are described: tumor detection and diagnosis; neurological studies; radiopharmaceutical development; /sup 38/K as an indicator of blood flow to the myocardium; dosimetry for internally deposited isotopes in animals and man; cyclotron development; positron tomographic imaging with the TOKIM System; and review of positron emission transaxial tomograph instruments. (HLW)

  11. Extending VIVO ontology to represent research and educational resources in an academic biomedical informatics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakikj, Drashko; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    The increasing need for interdisciplinary team sciences makes it vital for academic research departments to publicize their research and educational resources as part of "linked data" on the semantic web to facilitate research networking and recruitment. We extended an open-source ontology, VIVO, to represent the research and educational resources in an academic biomedical informatics department to enable ontology-based information storage and retrieval. Using participatory design methods, we surveyed representative types of visitors to the department web site to understand their information needs, and incorporated these needs into the ontology design. We added 114 classes and 186 properties to VIVO. Generalizability and scalability are the measures used in our theoretical evaluation.

  12. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  13. Biomedical informatics: development of a comprehensive data warehouse for clinical and genomic breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Brzeski, Henry; Hutchins, Joe; Ramaraj, Mohan; Qu, Long; Xiong, Richard; Kalathil, Surendran; Kato, Rand; Tenkillaya, Santhosh; Carney, Jerry; Redd, Rosann; Arkalgudvenkata, Sheshkumar; Shahzad, Kashif; Scott, Richard; Cheng, Hui; Meadow, Stephen; McMichael, John; Sheu, Shwu-Lin; Rosendale, David; Kvecher, Leonid; Ahern, Stephen; Yang, Song; Zhang, Yonghong; Jordan, Rick; Somiari, Stella B; Hooke, Jeffrey; Shriver, Craig D; Somiari, Richard I; Liebman, Michael N

    2004-10-01

    The Windber Research Institute is an integrated high-throughput research center employing clinical, genomic and proteomic platforms to produce terabyte levels of data. We use biomedical informatics technologies to integrate all of these operations. This report includes information on a multi-year, multi-phase hybrid data warehouse project currently under development in the Institute. The purpose of the warehouse is to host the terabyte-level of internal experimentally generated data as well as data from public sources. We have previously reported on the phase I development, which integrated limited internal data sources and selected public databases. Currently, we are completing phase II development, which integrates our internal automated data sources and develops visualization tools to query across these data types. This paper summarizes our clinical and experimental operations, the data warehouse development, and the challenges we have faced. In phase III we plan to federate additional manual internal and public data sources and then to develop and adapt more data analysis and mining tools. We expect that the final implementation of the data warehouse will greatly facilitate biomedical informatics research.

  14. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwema, Carrie L; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  15. Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiwa, Nina; Bailey, Jarrod; Clausing, Peter; Daneshian, Mardas; Eileraas, Marianne; Farkas, Sándor; Gyertyán, István; Hubrecht, Robert; Kobel, Werner; Krummenacher, Goran; Leist, Marcel; Lohi, Hannes; Miklósi, Adám; Ohl, Frauke; Olejniczak, Klaus; Schmitt, Georg; Sinnett-Smith, Patrick; Smith, David; Wagner, Kristina; Yager, James D; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use of dogs as laboratory animals. The report gives an overview on the use of dogs in biomedical research, safety assessment and the drug developmental process and reflects the discussion on the use of dogs as second (non-rodent)species in toxicity testing. Approximately 20,000 dogs are used in scientific procedures in Europe every year, and their distinct genetic, physiological and behavioral characteristics may support their use as models for e.g. behavioral analysis and genetic research. Advances in the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of experiments using dogs) are described, potential opportunities are discussed and recommendations for further progress in this area are made.

  16. Prediction of junior faculty success in biomedical research: comparison of metrics and effects of mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Houmanfar, Ramona; Candido, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Measuring and predicting the success of junior faculty is of considerable interest to faculty, academic institutions, funding agencies and faculty development and mentoring programs. Various metrics have been proposed to evaluate and predict research success and impact, such as the h-index, and modifications of this index, but they have not been evaluated and validated side-by-side in a rigorous empirical study. Our study provides a retrospective analysis of how well bibliographic metrics and formulas (numbers of total, first- and co-authored papers in the PubMed database, numbers of papers in high-impact journals) would have predicted the success of biomedical investigators (n = 40) affiliated with the University of Nevada, Reno, prior to, and after completion of significant mentoring and research support (through funded Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence, COBREs), or lack thereof (unfunded COBREs), in 2000-2014. The h-index and similar indices had little prognostic value. Publishing as mid- or even first author in only one high-impact journal was poorly correlated with future success. Remarkably, junior investigators with >6 first-author papers within 10 years were significantly (p COBRE-support increased the success rate of junior faculty approximately 3-fold, from 15% to 47%. Our work defines a previously neglected set of metrics that predicted the success of junior faculty with high fidelity-thus defining the pool of faculty that will benefit the most from faculty development programs such as COBREs.

  17. Credibility Assessment of Deterministic Computational Models and Simulations for Space Biomedical Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Human missions beyond low earth orbit to destinations, such as to Mars and asteroids will expose astronauts to novel operational conditions that may pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of health risk countermeasures for these missions. Consequently, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and implement computational models and simulations (M&S) to help predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. In order to effectively accomplish these goals, the DAP evaluates its models and simulations via a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment process to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to both inform research intended to mitigate potential risk as well as guide countermeasure development. In doing so, DAP works closely with end-users, such as space life science researchers, to establish appropriate M&S credibility thresholds. We will present and demonstrate the process the DAP uses to vet computational M&S for space biomedical analysis using real M&S examples. We will also provide recommendations on how the larger space biomedical community can employ these concepts to enhance the credibility of their M&S codes.

  18. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care.

  19. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care. PMID:26843812

  20. DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Operations Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities which are located in all regions of the United States. It gives brief descriptions of resources, activities, and capabilities of each field facility (sections III through V). These represent a cumulative capital investment of $12 billion and involve a work force of approximately 12,000 government (field) employees and approximately 100,000 contractor employees.

  1. MaPSeq, A Service-Oriented Architecture for Genomics Research within an Academic Biomedical Research Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Reilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics research presents technical, computational, and analytical challenges that are well recognized. Less recognized are the complex sociological, psychological, cultural, and political challenges that arise when genomics research takes place within a large, decentralized academic institution. In this paper, we describe a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA—MaPSeq—that was conceptualized and designed to meet the diverse and evolving computational workflow needs of genomics researchers at our large, hospital-affiliated, academic research institution. We present the institutional challenges that motivated the design of MaPSeq before describing the architecture and functionality of MaPSeq. We then discuss SOA solutions and conclude that approaches such as MaPSeq enable efficient and effective computational workflow execution for genomics research and for any type of academic biomedical research that requires complex, computationally-intense workflows.

  2. Glycan Arrays: From Basic Biochemical Research to Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissner, Andreas; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-06-01

    A major branch of glycobiology and glycan-focused biomedicine studies the interaction between carbohydrates and other biopolymers, most importantly, glycan-binding proteins. Today, this research into glycan-biopolymer interaction is unthinkable without glycan arrays, tools that enable high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate interaction partners. Glycan arrays offer many applications in basic biochemical research, for example, defining the specificity of glycosyltransferases and lectins such as immune receptors. Biomedical applications include the characterization and surveillance of influenza strains, identification of biomarkers for cancer and infection, and profiling of immune responses to vaccines. Here, we review major applications of glycan arrays both in basic and applied research. Given the dynamic nature of this rapidly developing field, we focus on recent findings.

  3. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  4. Assessing the impact of biomedical research in academic institutions of disparate sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzakis Angelos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of academic research performance is nowadays a priority issue. Bibliometric indicators such as the number of publications, total citation counts and h-index are an indispensable tool in this task but their inherent association with the size of the research output may result in rewarding high production when evaluating institutions of disparate sizes. The aim of this study is to propose an indicator that may facilitate the comparison of institutions of disparate sizes. Methods The Modified Impact Index (MII was defined as the ratio of the observed h-index (h of an institution over the h-index anticipated for that institution on average, given the number of publications (N it produces i.e. (α and β denote the intercept and the slope, respectively, of the line describing the dependence of the h-index on the number of publications in log10 scale. MII values higher than 1 indicate that an institution performs better than the average, in terms of its h-index. Data on scientific papers published during 2002–2006 and within 36 medical fields for 219 Academic Medical Institutions from 16 European countries were used to estimate α and β and to calculate the MII of their total and field-specific production. Results From our biomedical research data, the slope β governing the dependence of h-index on the number of publications in biomedical research was found to be similar to that estimated in other disciplines (≈0.4. The MII was positively associated with the average number of citations/publication (r = 0.653, p Conclusion The MII should complement the use of h-index when comparing the research output of institutions of disparate sizes. It has a conceptual interpretation and, with the data provided here, can be computed for the total research output as well as for field-specific publication sets of institutions in biomedicine.

  5. Integrating Contemplative Tools into Biomedical Science Education and Research Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic preparation of science researchers and/or human or veterinary medicine clinicians through the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM curriculum has usually focused on the students (1 acquiring increased disciplinary expertise, (2 learning needed methodologies and protocols, and (3 expanding their capacity for intense, persistent focus. Such educational training is effective until roadblocks or problems arise via this highly-learned approach. Then, the health science trainee may have few tools available for effective problem solving. Training to achieve flexibility, adaptability, and broadened perspectives using contemplative practices has been rare among biomedical education programs. To address this gap, a Cornell University-based program involving formal biomedical science coursework, and health science workshops has been developed to offer science students, researchers and health professionals a broader array of personal, contemplation-based, problem-solving tools. This STEM educational initiative includes first-person exercises designed to broaden perceptional awareness, decrease emotional drama, and mobilize whole-body strategies for creative problem solving. Self-calibration and journaling are used for students to evaluate the personal utility of each exercise. The educational goals are to increase student self-awareness and self-regulation and to provide trainees with value-added tools for career-long problem solving. Basic elements of this educational initiative are discussed using the framework of the Tree of Contemplative Practices.

  6. "Personality" in laboratory mice used for biomedical research: a way of understanding variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Zipser, Benjamin; Sachser, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    The mouse, including countless lines of transgenic and knockout mice, has become the most prominent model organism in biomedical research. Behavioral characterization is often conducted in batteries of short tests on locomotion, anxiety, learning and memory, etc. In such tests, any individual differences within groups are usually considered to be disturbing variance. In order to reduce variance in experimental animal research enormous efforts of standardization have been made. While a substantial reduction of variability has been reached compared to the earlier years of experimental animal studies a considerable amount of inter-individual differences still seems to escape standardization. This effect is demonstrated and evaluated by re-analyzing data from two experiments conducted in our laboratory with inbred mice. Interestingly, behavioral patterns of individual animals seem to be correlated across context and time. In evolutionary biology, "animal personalities" have been discussed recently to comprise such stable patterns. We argue here, that nonrandom behavioral correlations across contexts and time might underlie the variability commonly found in biomedical mouse studies.

  7. Developing an Open-Source Bibliometric Ranking Website Using Google Scholar Citation Profiles for Researchers in the Field of Biomedical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Lin, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    We developed the Biomedical Informatics Researchers ranking website (rank.informatics-review.com) to overcome many of the limitations of previous scientific productivity ranking strategies. The website is composed of four key components that work together to create an automatically updating ranking website: (1) list of biomedical informatics researchers, (2) Google Scholar scraper, (3) display page, and (4) updater. The site has been useful to other groups in evaluating researchers, such as tenure and promotions committees in interpreting the various citation statistics reported by candidates. Creation of the Biomedical Informatics Researchers ranking website highlights the vast differences in scholarly productivity among members of the biomedical informatics research community.

  8. Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility - Design and operating characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiner, Robert J.; Sullivan, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the full-mission flight simulation facility at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility (MVSRF) supports aeronautical human factors research and consists of two full-mission flight simulators and an air-traffic-control simulator. The facility is used for a broad range of human factors research in both conventional and advanced aviation systems. The objectives of the research are to improve the understanding of the causes and effects of human errors in aviation operations, and to limit their occurrence. The facility is used to: (1) develop fundamental analytical expressions of the functional performance characteristics of aircraft flight crews; (2) formulate principles and design criteria for aviation environments; (3) evaluate the integration of subsystems in contemporary flight and air traffic control scenarios; and (4) develop training and simulation technologies.

  9. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  10. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  11. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    outstanding scientists dedicated to using domestic animal models for agricultural and biomedical research, strong incentives for scientists to take advantage of training opportunities to write NIH grants, and greater NIH and USDA cooperation to sponsor the use of agricultural animals as dual-purpose animal models that benefit agriculture and biomedicine will also be necessary. In conclusion, the broad diversity of animal models needed for agricultural and biomedical research is at risk unless research priorities at the land grant universities are critically evaluated and financial support for such research is dramatically increased.

  12. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  13. Proposal for a data publication and citation framework when sharing biomedical research resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Ganzinger, Matthias; Hurdle, John F; Knaup, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Research data and biospecimen repositories are valuable resources for biomedical investigators. Sharing these resources has great potential benefits including efficient use of resources, avoiding duplicate experiments, gathering adequate sample sizes, and promoting collaboration. However, concerns from data producers about difficulties of getting proper acknowledgement for their data contributions are increasingly becoming obstacles for efficient and large-scale data sharing in reality. In this research project we analyzed the inadequacy of current policy-based solution for promoting data sharing. The recommendations in this paper emphasize data publication and citation. This project aims to promote the acknowledgement of data contributors with realizable informatics tools that augment informal policy-level strategies, and do so in a way that promotes data sharing.

  14. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  15. The Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN) Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, David D.; Ozyurt, I. Burak; Brown, Gregory G.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Liu, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI provides an accurate and reliable measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). A rapidly growing number of CBF measures are being collected both in clinical and research settings around the world, resulting in a large volume of data across a wide spectrum of study populations and health conditions. Here, we describe a central CBF data repository with integrated processing workflows, referred to as the Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN). The CBFBIRN provides an integrated framework for the analysis and comparison of CBF measures across studies and sites. In this work, we introduce the main capabilities of the CBFBIRN (data storage, processing and sharing), describe what types of data are available, explain how users can contribute to the data repository and access existing data from it, and discuss our long term plans for the CBFBIRN. PMID:26032887

  16. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity.

  17. Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Facility (Research Cell 22)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: RC22 is a continuous-flow, direct-connect supersonic-combustion research facility that is capable of simulating flight conditions from Mach 3.0 to Mach...

  18. Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) evaluates the performance of the thermal protection systems required to provide long-term storage (up to 10 years)...

  19. Research in intelligent biomedical clothing vs. realities in the European textile business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    In order to make intelligent biomedical clothing a market reality, a critical mass of scientific, technical and industrial capacities from various disciplines and industries must be successfully brought together. The textiles and clothing sector, i.e. the industry that transform natural or man-made fibres into yarns then with a myriad of processing options into complex tissues and finally into clothing, is undoubtedly a crucial element in such development. With Europe disposing of the world's most diverse, productive and innovative textiles and clothing industry, in addition to relevant expertise and resources in other scientific disciplines and industrial sectors, it could play a leading role in the advancement of the concept of intelligent biomedical clothing. In this process, a great number of challenges--firstly scientific and technical in nature--still need to be overcome and support from public funding programmes could constitute the necessary trigger for research and industrial efforts to be seriously undertaken. In view of the great benefits of such new products for the individual consumer, national health care systems and the society as a whole, a concerted effort in private-public partnership seems merited.

  20. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed

  1. An Examination of How Women and Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Experience Barriers in Biomedical Research and Medical Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    2013-01-01

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, &…

  2. Facilities Management research in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the short history of FM research in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, and presents current research topics and trends in these countries. It is based on information originally collected as part of the planning for the Danish research programme that led...

  3. CAS spearheads R&D program for research facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's capacity for indigenous S&T innovation is believed to have been hampered by its lack of home- grown research facilities. To address the problem, a pilot program for the research and development of major S&T facilities has been launched at CAS. The kick-off meeting was held on 28 March in the CAS Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry in Beijing.

  4. Research Facilities for Solar Astronomy at ARIES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Pant

    2006-06-01

    The solar observational facilities at ARIES (erstwhile U.P. State Observatory, UPSO), Nainital, began in the sixties with the acquisition of two moderate sized (25 cm, f/66 off-axis Skew Cassegrain and 15 cm, f/15 refractor) telescopes. Both these systems receive sunlight through a 45 cm and 25 cm coelostat respectively. The backend instruments to these systems comprised of a single pass grating spectrograph for spectroscopic study of the Sun and a Bernhard–Halle filter, coupled with a Robot recorder camera for solar patrolling in respectively. With the advancement in solar observing techniques with high temporal and spatial resolution in and other wavelengths, it became inevitable to acquire sophisticated instrumentation for data acquisition. In view of that, the above facilities were upgraded, owing to which the conventional photographic techniques were replaced by the CCD camera systems attached with two 15 cm, f/15 Coude refractor telescopes. These CCD systems include the Peltier cooled CCD camera and photometrics PXL high speed modular CCD camera which provide high temporal and spatial resolution of ∼ 25 ms and ∼ 1.3 arcsec respectively.

  5. Prediction of junior faculty success in biomedical research: comparison of metrics and effects of mentoring programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. von Bartheld

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and predicting the success of junior faculty is of considerable interest to faculty, academic institutions, funding agencies and faculty development and mentoring programs. Various metrics have been proposed to evaluate and predict research success and impact, such as the h-index, and modifications of this index, but they have not been evaluated and validated side-by-side in a rigorous empirical study. Our study provides a retrospective analysis of how well bibliographic metrics and formulas (numbers of total, first- and co-authored papers in the PubMed database, numbers of papers in high-impact journals would have predicted the success of biomedical investigators (n = 40 affiliated with the University of Nevada, Reno, prior to, and after completion of significant mentoring and research support (through funded Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence, COBREs, or lack thereof (unfunded COBREs, in 2000–2014. The h-index and similar indices had little prognostic value. Publishing as mid- or even first author in only one high-impact journal was poorly correlated with future success. Remarkably, junior investigators with >6 first-author papers within 10 years were significantly (p < 0.0001 more likely (93% to succeed than those with ≤6 first-author papers (4%, regardless of the journal’s impact factor. The benefit of COBRE-support increased the success rate of junior faculty approximately 3-fold, from 15% to 47%. Our work defines a previously neglected set of metrics that predicted the success of junior faculty with high fidelity—thus defining the pool of faculty that will benefit the most from faculty development programs such as COBREs.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  7. National facility for neutron beam research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Rao

    2004-07-01

    In this talk, the growth of neutron beam research (NBR) in India over the past five decades is traced beginning with research at Apsara. A range of problems in condensed matter physics could be studied at CIRUS, followed by sophisticated indegenous instrumentation and research at Dhruva. The talk ends with an overview of current scenario of NBR world-wide and future of Indian activities.

  8. Naval Research Laboratory Major Facilities 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Mexico seawater throughout the year. The tropical climate is ideally suited for marine exposure testing. There is minimal climatic variation and a...TW magnetically insulated inductive voltage adder ( IVA ). Mercury is a focal point of research for several areas, including IVA power-flow research...nuclear weapons effects simulation, and particle-beam source and transport research for various applications. DESCRIPTION: Mercury is a 6-stage IVA . The

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  10. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Aarkrog, A.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1998-04-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1997. The department`s research and development activities were organized in four research programmes: Reactor Safety, Radiation protection, Radioecology, and Radioanalytical Chemistry. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Treatment Plant, and the educational reactor DR1. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in national and international committees. (au) 11 tabs., 39 ills.; 74 refs.

  11. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjær, A.; Jensen, Per Hedemann

    2000-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1999. The department´s research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and"Radioecology and Tracer Studies". The nuclear...... facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR 3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Management Plant, and the educational reactor DR 1. Lists of staff and publications are includedtogether with a summary of the staff´s participation in national and international committees....

  12. Clinical research: making it work in the outpatient dialysis facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte; Fox, Rosemary; Moran, John

    2009-01-01

    Performing clinical research in the outpatient dialysis facility can be very challenging. Research protocols define time-specific and detailed procedures to be performed. In dialysis units where staff members are responsible for the delivery of life-sustaining therapy to an aging end stage renal disease patient population with multiple co-morbidities, these requirements can easily be considered too burdensome to be implemented successfully. In the authors'facility, clinical research has been successfully implemented with a close team approach supported by a dedicated research group and unit staff

  13. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E. [eds.

    2000-04-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1999. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR 3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Management Plant, and the educational reactor DR 1. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff's participation in national and international committees. (au)

  14. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Brodersen, K.; Damkjaer, A.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E

    1999-04-01

    The report present a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1998. The department`s research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: `Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety` and `Radioecology and Tracer Studies`. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Treatment plant, and the educational reactor DR1. Lsits of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in national and international committees. (au)

  15. The Benefits of Attending the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS): The Role of Research Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) is designed to support undergraduate students’ professional development as future scientists. Juniors, seniors, and postbaccalaureates who attended ABRCMS during 2008–2011 were emailed a link to an online questionnaire in which they reported their experiences at the conference. Attendees reported many ABRCMS-provided benefits. Frequency of attending or presenting at ABRCMS is positively related to science self-efficacy, research confidence, sense of belonging in science, and intentions to pursue a research degree in graduate school. Increased research confidence predicts graduate school plans and intentions for a research career in science; however, men were slightly more likely to intend to pursue a research career than women, likely due to higher research confidence. Although all attendees benefited from ABRCMS, underrepresented minority (URM) students had higher science self-efficacy and sense of belonging in science after attending ABRCMS than non-URM students. This finding demonstrates the effectiveness of ABRCMS as an intervention to increase the representation and success of URMs in science. Results highlight the importance of attending a minority-oriented research conference where URMs can develop their science self-efficacy, research confidence, and sense of belonging in science. However, changes to the conference and undergraduate research experiences may be necessary to reduce gender gaps. PMID:27562962

  16. The Benefits of Attending the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS): The Role of Research Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) is designed to support undergraduate students' professional development as future scientists. Juniors, seniors, and postbaccalaureates who attended ABRCMS during 2008-2011 were emailed a link to an online questionnaire in which they reported their experiences at the conference. Attendees reported many ABRCMS-provided benefits. Frequency of attending or presenting at ABRCMS is positively related to science self-efficacy, research confidence, sense of belonging in science, and intentions to pursue a research degree in graduate school. Increased research confidence predicts graduate school plans and intentions for a research career in science; however, men were slightly more likely to intend to pursue a research career than women, likely due to higher research confidence. Although all attendees benefited from ABRCMS, underrepresented minority (URM) students had higher science self-efficacy and sense of belonging in science after attending ABRCMS than non-URM students. This finding demonstrates the effectiveness of ABRCMS as an intervention to increase the representation and success of URMs in science. Results highlight the importance of attending a minority-oriented research conference where URMs can develop their science self-efficacy, research confidence, and sense of belonging in science. However, changes to the conference and undergraduate research experiences may be necessary to reduce gender gaps.

  17. Concept for linking de-identified biomedical research data using a study participant management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, Alexander; Bauer, Christian R K D; Schwanke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research projects show an increasing demand of large numbers of participants from different recruiting centers to achieve statistically significant results. The collected types of data are stored in distributed databases and are linked to the participant by different non-resolvable identifiers (layered pseudonyms) for de-identification. To ensure the quality of the gathered data, regular quality assurance analyses are required at each local center. Because of the distributed databases and layered pseudonyms the analyses can only be achieved manually. Therefore, the process is error-prone and laborious. The objective of this paper is to propose a solution concept to automate the manual process by using a local study participant management system. It orchestrates the process and enables the quality assurance analyses within a clinical data warehouse.

  18. The potential of microelectrode arrays and microelectronics for biomedical research and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian L; Livi, Paolo; Lewandowska, Marta K; Fiscella, Michele; Roscic, Branka; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are devices that can be used in biomedical and basic in vitro research to provide extracellular electrophysiological information about biological systems at high spatial and temporal resolution. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology with which MEAs can be produced on a microscale featuring high spatial resolution and excellent signal-to-noise characteristics. CMOS MEAs are specialized for the analysis of complete electrogenic cellular networks at the cellular or subcellular level in dissociated cultures, organotypic cultures, and acute tissue slices; they can also function as biosensors to detect biochemical events. Models of disease or the response of cellular networks to pharmacological compounds can be studied in vitro, allowing one to investigate pathologies, such as cardiac arrhythmias, memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, or vision impairment caused by ganglion cell degeneration in the retina.

  19. Recent Upgrades at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory; Stewart, Dean Andrew [Idaho National Laboratory; Loftus, Larry Shayne [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility operated by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). FSP researchers use the STAR facility to carry out experiments in tritium permeation and retention in various fusion materials, including wall armor tile materials. FSP researchers also perform other experimentation as well to support safety assessment in fusion development. This lab, in its present two-building configuration, has been in operation for over ten years. The main experiments at STAR are briefly described. This paper discusses recent work to enhance personnel safety at the facility. The STAR facility is a Department of Energy less than hazard category 3 facility; the personnel safety approach calls for ventilation and tritium monitoring for radiation protection. The tritium areas of STAR have about 4 to 12 air changes per hour, with air flow being once through and then routed to the facility vent stack. Additional radiation monitoring has been installed to read the laboratory room air where experiments with tritium are conducted. These ion chambers and bubblers are used to verify that no significant tritium concentrations are present in the experiment rooms. Standby electrical power has been added to the facility exhaust blower so that proper ventilation will now operate during commercial power outages as well as the real-time tritium air monitors.

  20. [Biomedical research practice and therapeutic practice: to whom does the human body belong?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaille-Nikodimov, Marie

    2006-02-01

    Who owns the human body? This issue has been formerly raised about the status of the slave. Today, it has become a prominent stake for when reflecting on biomedical research and healthcare practices. In our cultures, many answers may be given to this question : they are derived from philosophical or theological traditions ; they are borrowed from anthropological, sociological or psychological knowledge ; they may be formulated in a moral or political perspective. All of them give different insights and reveal one of the various dimensions of the question. When examining the status of the body and its relation to the human subject in the various stages of his/her life (including his/her death), one of the main difficulties is to deal with each of these answers and to understand how they meet and interact in the public debate. Another matter is related to the fact that law also plays a crucial role in the process of giving an answer to this question. In our book, A qui appartient le corps humain ? Médecine, politique et droit (Paris, Belles Lettres, 2004), Claire Crignon-De Oliveira and I have tried to deal with both difficulties. In this article, I focus on the meaning of the various law traditions. In western world, the laws are all derived, up to a certain extent, from the Roman tradition. Whether they have chosen to consider the human body as a property or to associate the body to the person, they have taken very different options. However, an examination of the ways laws are elaborated on this topic shows that these two conceptions can meet in unexpected manners and that lawmaking can give creative answers to both the problem of protecting the person and to the requirements of biomedical research and healthcare practices.

  1. Design, implementation, and evaluation of principles of writing biomedical research paper course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI AKBAR NEKOOEIAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Graduate (PhD students in medical sciences, who will form future faculties and investigators in Iran’s Universities of Medical Sciences, are not trained on scientific writing during their training. The present study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of Principles of Writing Biomedical Research Paper course. Methods: The course, prepared based on an extensive search of the literature and books on writing biomedical research papers, was offered as an elective course to PhD students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2011-2012 academic year. The structure and function of various sections of a paper and publication ethics were discussed in lecture and practical sessions over a period of 12 weeks. The course was then evaluated using a self-designed questionnaire. Results: The majority of students gave the highest score (20 to the content and implementation of all sessions of the course. Moreover, most of them believed that the allotted time to the course was not enough, and suggested that it should be increased to 32 hours (equal to two credits. Also, almost all the participants believed that overall the materials lectured were comprehensive, the practical sessions were important in learning the lectured materials, and the course was useful in advancing their abilities and skills to write papers. Conclusion: The evaluation of the present course showed that it was able to increase the participants’ knowledge of the structure of scientific papers, and enhanced their abilities and skills to write papers. The evaluation was used as a basis to modify the course.

  2. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. Method: The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. Results: The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. Conclusion: The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications. PMID:19048090

  3. A Survey of Research Performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K. E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) is a 240-ft-high gantry structure located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The facility was originally built in 1963 as a lunar landing simulator, allowing the Apollo astronauts to practice lunar landings under realistic conditions. The IDRF was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 based on its significant contributions to the Apollo Program. In 1972, the facility was converted to a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft. Since that time, the IDRF has been used to perform a wide variety of impact tests on full-scale aircraft and structural components in support of the General Aviation (GA) aircraft industry, the US Department of Defense, the rotorcraft industry, and NASA in-house aeronautics and space research programs. The objective of this paper is to describe most of the major full-scale crash test programs that were performed at this unique, world-class facility since 1974. The past research is divided into six sub-topics: the civil GA aircraft test program, transport aircraft test program, military test programs, space test programs, basic research, and crash modeling and simulation.

  4. Challenges facing academic research in commercializing event-detector implantable devices for an in-vivo biomedical subcutaneous device for biomedical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanola-Feliu, E.; Colomer-Farrarons, J.; Miribel-Català, P.; Samitier, J.; Valls-Pasola, J.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the welfare of the most advanced economies is at risk, and that the only way to tackle this situation is by controlling the knowledge economies and dealing with. To achieve this ambitious goal, we need to improve the performance of each dimension in the "knowledge triangle": education, research and innovation. Indeed, recent findings point to the importance of strategies of adding-value and marketing during R+D processes so as to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the market and so ensure the successful commercialization of new technology-based products. Moreover, in a global economy in which conventional manufacturing is dominated by developing economies, the future of industry in the most advanced economies must rely on its ability to innovate in those high-tech activities that can offer a differential added-value, rather than on improving existing technologies and products. It seems quite clear, therefore, that the combination of health (medicine) and nanotechnology in a new biomedical device is very capable of meeting these requisites. This work propose a generic CMOS Front-End Self-Powered In-Vivo Implantable Biomedical Device, based on a threeelectrode amperometric biosensor approach, capable of detecting threshold values for targeted concentrations of pathogens, ions, oxygen concentration, etc. Given the speed with which diabetes can spread, as diabetes is the fastest growing disease in the world, the nano-enabled implantable device for in-vivo biomedical analysis needs to be introduced into the global diabetes care devices market. In the case of glucose monitoring, the detection of a threshold decrease in the glucose level it is mandatory to avoid critic situations like the hypoglycemia. Although the case study reported in this paper is complex because it involves multiple organizations and sources of data, it contributes to extend experience to the best practices and models on nanotechnology applications and

  5. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  6. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department, creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European Union. Apart from Metropolitan France, the country contains overseas territories, remnants of its colonial past. Over the centuries, France has known several political systems, from Ancient History to the current Republic. According to Ernest Renan, the French nation is more an ideology than a reality, primarily based on “the desire of living together and the wish to highlight our legacy”(1. The tragic attacks of November 2015 and all the reactions over the next days illustrate this. Brazil, discovered by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares during the 16th century, is established on half of South America and is about 16 times bigger than France. This giant does not look to the past but is always moving forward. The concept of nation is really strong throughout the country, as shown by the enthusiasm of soccer players wearing the national auriverde jersey and the National Team supporters. Furthermore, they possess a strong culture of entrepreneurship defined by Stefan Zweig as the legacy of the early colonial era(2. Biomedical research is a human activity which aims to give expected solutions, and sometimes unexpected ones too, to a major and insoluble problem at a given time. This research is based on knowledge and will question it with a scientific approach, spread between what is known today and what will be known tomorrow. Ideally, the point of getting new knowledge is to improve a group of people or the entire population’s health. The researcher is a

  7. Integrating behavioral and biomedical research in HIV interventions: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Dianne M; Grossman, Cynthia I; Erbelding, Emily J

    2013-06-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated overwhelming success of biomedical tools to prevent the spread of HIV infection. However, the complex and somewhat disparate results of some of these trials have highlighted the need for effective integration of biomedical and behavioral sciences in the design and implementation of any future intervention trial. Integrating behavioral and biomedical sciences will require appropriate behavioral theories that can be used in the context of biomedical clinical trials and multidisciplinary teams working together from the earliest stages of trial design through to completion. It is also clear that integration of behavioral science will be necessary to implement prevention at the population level and reverse the HIV epidemic.

  8. Opening pathways for underrepresented high school students to biomedical research careers: the Emory University RISE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Margaret C; Corces, Victor G

    2011-12-01

    Increasing the college graduation rates of underrepresented minority students in science disciplines is essential to attain a diverse workforce for the 21st century. The Research Internship and Science Education (RISE) program attempts to motivate and prepare students from the Atlanta Public School system, where underrepresented minority (URM) students comprise a majority of the population, for biomedical science careers by offering the opportunity to participate in an original research project. Students work in a research laboratory from the summer of their sophomore year until graduation, mentored by undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral fellows (postdocs). In addition, they receive instruction in college-level biology, scholastic assessment test (SAT) preparation classes, and help with the college application process. During the last 4 yr, RISE students have succeeded in the identification and characterization of a series of proteins involved in the regulation of nuclear organization and transcription. All but 1 of 39 RISE students have continued on to 4-year college undergraduate studies and 61% of those students are currently enrolled in science-related majors. These results suggest that the use of research-based experiences at the high school level may contribute to the increased recruitment of underrepresented students into science-related careers.

  9. CollaborationViz: interactive visual exploration of biomedical research collaboration networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bian

    Full Text Available Social network analysis (SNA helps us understand patterns of interaction between social entities. A number of SNA studies have shed light on the characteristics of research collaboration networks (RCNs. Especially, in the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA community, SNA provides us a set of effective tools to quantitatively assess research collaborations and the impact of CTSA. However, descriptive network statistics are difficult for non-experts to understand. In this article, we present our experiences of building meaningful network visualizations to facilitate a series of visual analysis tasks. The basis of our design is multidimensional, visual aggregation of network dynamics. The resulting visualizations can help uncover hidden structures in the networks, elicit new observations of the network dynamics, compare different investigators and investigator groups, determine critical factors to the network evolution, and help direct further analyses. We applied our visualization techniques to explore the biomedical RCNs at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences--a CTSA institution. And, we created CollaborationViz, an open-source visual analytical tool to help network researchers and administration apprehend the network dynamics of research collaborations through interactive visualization.

  10. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  11. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  12. Radiation applications research and facilities in AECL research company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, S. L.

    In the 60's and 70's Atomic Energy of Canada had a very active R&D program to discover and develop applications of ionizing radiation. Out of this grew the technology underlying the company's current product line of industrial irradiators. With the commercial success of that product line the company turned its R&D attention to other activities. Presently, widespread interest in the use of radiation for food processing and the possibility of developing reliable and competitive machine sources of radiation hold out the promise of a major increase in industrial use of radiation. While many of the applications being considered are straightforward applications of existing knowledge, others depend on more subtle effects including combined effects of two or more agents. Further research is required in these areas. In March 1985 a new branch, Radiation Applications Research, began operations with the objective of working closely with industry to develop and assist the introduction of new uses of ionizing radiation. The Branch is equipped with appropriate analytical equipment including HPLC (high performance liquid chromatograph) and GC/MS (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer) as well as a Gammacell 220 and an I-10/1, one kilowatt 10 MeV electron accelerator. The accelerator is located in a specially designed facility equipped for experimental irradiation of test quantities of packaged products as well as solids, liquids and gases in various configurations. A conveyor system moves the packaged products from the receiving area, through a maze, past the electron beam at a controlled rate and finally to the shipping area. Other necessary capabilities, such as gamma and electron dosimetry and a microbiology laboratory, have also been developed. Initial projects in areas ranging from food through environmental and industrial applications have been assessed and the most promising have been selected for further work. As an example, the use of charcoal adsorbent beds to concentrate

  13. FAIR: The accelerator facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkov, Boris [FAIR JCR GSI, Darmstad (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation outlines the current status of the facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction of the accelerator modules in accordance with modularized start version are described. Outstanding research opportunities offered by the modularized start version for all scientific FAIR communities from early on will allow to bridge the time until FAIR's completion with a world-leading research program. The green paper outlining a realistic path to achieve this goal is discussed.

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  15. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, James J.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, André N.; Henein, Lucie; Mentink-Kane, Margaret M.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)–National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs), not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008. PMID:27764112

  16. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  17. Public Facilities Management and Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    Current work is the main product of a PhD study with the initial working title ‘Sustainable Facilities Management’ at Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research, DTU Management 1. December 2008 – 30. November 2011. Here the notion of Public Sustainable Facilities Management (FM) is ana...... practice inspired by the principles of FM. The bottom up change process had an employee perspective, and the work provides answers to the challenges of creating a culture allowing for critical reflections in relation to the impact of FM practice on societal sustainability.......Current work is the main product of a PhD study with the initial working title ‘Sustainable Facilities Management’ at Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research, DTU Management 1. December 2008 – 30. November 2011. Here the notion of Public Sustainable Facilities Management (FM......) is analysed in the light of a change process in a Danish Municipal Department of Public Property. Three years of Action Research has given a unique insight in the reality in a Municipal Department of Public Property, and as to how a facilitated change process can lead to a more holistic and sustainable...

  18. The impact of biomedical literature published in the province of Vojvodina on researchers in the world and in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, S

    2001-01-01

    This study uses bibliometric analysis to evaluate scientific biomedical literature published on the territory of Vojvodina and its impact on researchers in Yugoslavia and in the world. The study sample comprised 6.979 publications from the territory of Vojvodina published in the period 1986-1997. The following parameters were determined: productivity of authors and institutions where they were employed and some other bibliometric parameters. The impact of these publications on other researches was analyzed for the same period, by citation analysis of papers published in 3 most eminent medical journals in Yugoslavia (3.440 articles, 58.484 references) and in Science Citation Index. Results of the study revealed that production of biomedical literature on the territory of Vojvodina was at high level. Medical research presented in journals of Vojvodina, which are the carriers of current information and accomplishments in science, technique, and practice in biomedicine, was satisfactory. Biomedical articles published in Vojvodina showed a tendency towards increase in number of authors, whereas the greater number of publications were written by a small number of extremely productive authors and institutions. Biomedical researches in Yugoslavia usually cite only foreign literature, while domestic references are mostly self-citations or citations of older literature. The impact of publications published in Vojvodina on other researchers in Yugoslavia is evident, but it is greatest on the territory where they are published. In regard to biomedical journals from Vojvodina "Medical review" is the most cited journal in Yugoslavia and in SCI. Most of the cited references belong to a small number of authors. Thus, according to bibliometric criteria the impact of medical science and professional practice in Vojvodina on international scientific streems is negligible, as well as the impact of papers published in Vojvodina on researchers in the world. Only 0.4 works published in

  19. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  20. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  1. Analysis and Implementation of an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in a Biomedical Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Santiago; Dujardin, Gwendal; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Indacochea, Alberto; Inglés-Ferrándiz, Marta; Nadimpalli, Hima Priyanka; Collu, Nicola; Dublanche, Yann; De Mingo, Ismael; Camargo, David

    2016-01-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) will probably replace paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs) in academic research due to their advantages in data recording, sharing and security. Despite several reports describing technical characteristics of ELNs and their advantages over PLNs, no study has directly tested ELN performance among researchers. In addition, the usage of tablet-based devices or wearable technology as ELN complements has never been explored in the field. To implement an ELN in our biomedical research institute, here we first present a technical comparison of six ELNs using 42 parameters. Based on this, we chose two ELNs, which were tested by 28 scientists for a 3-month period and by 80 students via hands-on practical exercises. Second, we provide two survey-based studies aimed to compare these two ELNs (PerkinElmer Elements and Microsoft OneNote) and to analyze the use of tablet-based devices. We finally explore the advantages of using wearable technology as ELNs tools. Among the ELNs tested, we found that OneNote presents almost all parameters evaluated (39/42) and both surveyed groups preferred OneNote as an ELN solution. In addition, 80% of the surveyed scientists reported that tablet-based devices improved the use of ELNs in different respects. We also describe the advantages of using OneNote application for Apple Watch as an ELN wearable complement. This work defines essential features of ELNs that could be used to improve ELN implementation and software development.

  2. The tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Yang, E-B; Su, J-J; Li, Y; Chow, P

    2003-06-01

    The tree shrews are non-rodent, primate-like, small animals. There is increasing interest in using them to establish animal models for medical and biological research. This review focuses on the use of the tree shrews in in vivo studies on viral hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), myopia, and psychosocial stress. Because of the susceptibility of the tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and their hepatocytes to infection with human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vivo and in vitro, these animals have been used to establish human hepatitis virus-induced hepatitis and human HBV- and aflatoxin B1-associated HCC models. As these animals are phylogenetically close to primates in evolution and have a well-developed visual system and color vision in some species, they have been utilized to establish myopia models. Because dramatic behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine changes in subordinate male tree shrews are similar to those observed in depressed human patients, the tree shrews have been successfully employed to experimentally study psychosocial stress. However, the tree shrews holds significant promise as research models and great use could be made of these animals in biomedical research.

  3. The "Research Audit" Model: A Prototype for Data-Driven Discovery of Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interdisciplinarity of scientific research creates both challenges and opportunities for librarians. The liaison model may be inadequate for supporting campus research that represents multiple disciplines and geographically dispersed departments. The identification of units, researchers, and projects is a first step in planning and…

  4. Sandia National Laboratories shock thermodynamics applied research (STAR) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) Facility has recently consolidated three different guns and a variety of instrumentation capabilities into a single location. The guns available at the facility consist of a single-stage light gas gun, a single-stage propellant gun and a two-stage light gas gun, which cover a velocity range from 15 m/s to 8 km/s. Instrumentation available at the facility includes optical and microwave interferometry, time-resolved holography, fast x-radiography, framing and streak photography, fast multi-wavelength pyrometry, piezoelectric and piezoresistive gauges and computer data reduction. This report discusses the guns and instrumentation available at the facility and selected recent applications.

  5. An Update to Space Biomedical Research: Tissue Engineering in Microgravity Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barzegari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The severe need for constructing replacement tissues in organ transplantation has necessitated the development of tissue engineering approaches and bioreactors that can bring these approaches to reality. The inherent limitations of conventional bioreactors in generating realistic tissue constructs led to the devise of the microgravity tissue engineering that uses Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV bioreactors initially developed by NASA. Methods: In this review article, we intend to highlight some major advances and accomplishments in the rapidly-growing field of tissue engineering that could not be achieved without using microgravity. Results: Research is now focused on assembly of 3 dimensional (3D tissue fragments from various cell types in human body such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, hepatocytes and pancreas islet cells. Hepatocytes cultured under microgravity are now being used in extracorporeal bioartificial liver devices. Tissue constructs can be used not only in organ replacement therapy, but also in pharmaco-toxicology and food safety assessment. 3D models of various cancers may be used in studying cancer development and biology or in high-throughput screening of anticancer drug candidates. Finally, 3D heterogeneous assemblies from cancer/immune cells provide models for immunotherapy of cancer. Conclusion: Tissue engineering in (simulated microgravity has been one of the stunning impacts of space research on biomedical sciences and their applications on earth.

  6. Technical aspects of exposure to magnetic fields of extremely low frequencies (ELF in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiments on the electromagnetic field influence on organisms are an important part of biophysical studies. It is an interdisciplinary research spanning biology and medicine with the engineering in generation and measurement of electromagnetic fields. The aim of the study consists in the analysis of parameters estimations and measurements of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF as well as exposure systems parameters in biomedical research. Material and Methods: Experiments were performed on 2 most popular low magnetic field exposure systems: the solenoid and Helmholtz coils. A theoretical analysis and a measurement verification of the magnetic field distribution inside the systems were carried out to evaluate the homogeneity of the magnetic field. Additional factors, vibrations and temperature changes, affecting the assessment of the biological effects of magnetic field exposure were also examined. Results: Based on the study results, a comparative analysis of solenoids and Helmholtz coils as the magnetic field exposure systems was presented. Proposals for the description of magnetic field exposure were also formulated. Conclusions: The authors emphasize the importance of a conscious choice of exposure conditions and their explicit description. These are fundamental requirements for both the reproduction of experimental conditions and the verification of results. Med. Pr. 2015;66(2:185–197

  7. An Update to Space Biomedical Research: Tissue Engineering in Microgravity Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegari, Abolfazl; Saei, Amir Ata

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The severe need for constructing replacement tissues in organ transplanta-tion has necessitated the development of tissue engineering approaches and bioreactors that can bring these approaches to reality. The inherent limitations of conventional bioreactors in generating realistic tissue constructs led to the devise of the microgravity tissue engineering that uses Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors initially developed by NASA. Methods In this review article, we intend to highlight some major advances and accomplishments in the rapidly-growing field of tissue engineering that could not be achieved without using microgravity. Results Research is now focused on assembly of 3 dimensional (3D) tissue fragments from various cell types in human body such as chon-drocytes, osteoblasts, embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, hepatocytes and pancreas islet cells. Hepatocytes cultured under microgravity are now being used in extracorporeal bioartificial liver devices. Tissue constructs can be used not only in organ replacement therapy, but also in pharmaco-toxicology and food safety assessment. 3D models of vari-ous cancers may be used in studying cancer development and biology or in high-throughput screening of anticancer drug candidates. Finally, 3D heterogeneous assemblies from cancer/immune cells provide models for immunotherapy of cancer. Conclusion Tissue engineering in (simulated) microgravity has been one of the stunning impacts of space research on biomedical sciences and their applications on earth. PMID:23678438

  8. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2015-11-01

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  9. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-04-10

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  10. Lessons learned in the generation of biomedical research datasets using Semantic Open Data technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources. Such heterogeneity makes difficult not only the generation of research-oriented dataset but also its exploitation. In recent years, the Open Data paradigm has proposed new ways for making data available in ways that sharing and integration are facilitated. Open Data approaches may pursue the generation of content readable only by humans and by both humans and machines, which are the ones of interest in our work. The Semantic Web provides a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation and offers a range of technologies for generating not only Open Datasets but also Linked Datasets, that is, open datasets linked to other open datasets. According to the Berners-Lee's classification, each open dataset can be given a rating between one and five stars attending to can be given to each dataset. In the last years, we have developed and applied our SWIT tool, which automates the generation of semantic datasets from heterogeneous data sources. SWIT produces four stars datasets, given that fifth one can be obtained by being the dataset linked from external ones. In this paper, we describe how we have applied the tool in two projects related to health care records and orthology data, as well as the major lessons learned from such efforts.

  11. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E

    2011-06-01

    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  13. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates : a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to ens

  14. Research Support Facility (RSF): Leadership in Building Performance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This brochure/poster provides information on the features of the Research Support Facility including a detailed illustration of the facility with call outs of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Imagine an office building so energy efficient that its occupants consume only the amount of energy generated by renewable power on the building site. The building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) occupied by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employees, uses 50% less energy than if it were built to current commercial code and achieves the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED{reg_sign}) Platinum rating. With 19% of the primary energy in the U.S. consumed by commercial buildings, the RSF is changing the way commercial office buildings are designed and built.

  15. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  16. [The use of transgenic animals in biomedical research in Germany. Part 2: Ethical evaluation of the use of transgenic animals in biomedical research and perspectives for the changeover in research to research animal-free methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    As a rule, transgenic animals are being used in in vivo experiments to examine gene functions, their regulation or the contribution of genetic alterations to the development of diseases. Many transgenic animals already are affected in their wellbeing due to the genetic modification alone regardless of the procedures performed with them. Moreover, it is to be questioned whether the experimental use of transgenic animals led to results that were of such outstanding scientific relevance that they legitimated the suffering of the animals. In order to point to possible approaches to avoiding the use of transgenic animals in the areas of research identified, subsequent investigations aimed at collecting information on non-animal test methods that might be applied in pursuing the aforesaid questions. In particular, these were non-animal test methods that make use of genetic techniques. Amongst these are in vitro cell culture methods with genetically modified cells, such as the so called Transfected Cell Array, as well as in vitro test methods, in which specifically targeted genes can be turned on or off selectively for example by the so-called RNA interference technique or by antisense oligonucleotide genes. Since such technologies can also be applied to cell cultures with human cells, investigations with these methods enable direct information on the function of human genes. Even though a one to one replacement of animal experiments with transgenic animals by non-animal test methods is considered unlikely, from the point of view of animal welfare the broad spectrum of already available non animal test methods with which to study the function of genes and genetically caused pathophysiological reactions proves that waiving of animal tests with transgenic animals is possible without impeding biomedical research. Even if it cannot be totally excluded that some very specific questions linked to the respective animal experiment might not be pursued for the time being

  17. Geothermal research at the Puna Facility. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.

    1986-04-01

    This report consists of a summary of the experiments performed to date at the Puna Geothermal Research Facility on silica in the geothermal fluid from the HGP-A well. Also presented are some results of investigations in commercial applications of the precipitated silica. (ACR)

  18. The PIRATE Facility: at the crossroads of research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, U.

    2014-12-01

    I describe the Open University-owned 0.43m robotic observatory PIRATE, based in Mallorca. PIRATE is a cost-effective facility contributing to topical astrophysical research and an inspiring platform for distance education students to learn practical science.

  19. Thermal Testing Facilities and Efforts at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Andrew; Kostyk, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation provides the thermal testing panel discussion with an overview of the thermal test facilities at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) as well as highlights from the thermal test efforts of the past year. This presentation is a little more in-depth than the corresponding material in the center overview presentation.

  20. Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation.

  1. Biomedical research platforms and their influence on article submissions and journal rankings: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favalor, Emmanuel J; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    After being indexed in 2006 in EMBASE/Excerpta Medica and Scopus, and later in Science Citation Index Expanded and Journal Citation Reports/ Science Edition citation databases, Biochemia Medica launched a new web page and online manuscript submission system in 2010, and celebrated its first Impact Factor in the same year. Now, starting from the end of the 2011, the journal will also be indexed in PubMed/Medline, and this will contribute to increase the journal's exposure and accessibility worldwide. This is an important breakthrough, which is expected to further increase the popularity of the journal, as well as the submission rate and citations. Although several tools are currently available as Web resources to retrieve scientific articles, whose functioning and basic criteria are thought to be rather similar, the functionality, coverage, notoriety and prominence may differ widely. The recent indexing of Biochemia Medica in PubMed/Medline has thereby given us the opportunity to provide a timely update on biomedical research platforms, their relationship with article submissions and journal rankings.

  2. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to ...

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information February 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-10-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-06-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-04-19

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-08-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. Towards Multidisciplinary HIV-Cure Research: Integrating Social Science with Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Ross, Anna Laura; Auerbach, Judith D; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Tucker, Joseph D; Noseda, Veronica; Possas, Cristina; Rausch, Dianne M

    2016-01-01

    The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multidisciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV-cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community.

  15. Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis to Support Research Priority Setting in Biomedical Translational Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimon de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker’s preferences for certain criteria.

  16. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Maihle, Nita J; Rice, Treva K; Gonzalez, Juan E; Hess, Caryl A; Makala, Levi H; Jeffe, Donna B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Pace, Betty S; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants' perceptions of PRIDE's impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees' testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators.

  17. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  18. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain.

  19. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research Part 1: Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Research in the biomedical sciences at PNL is described. Activities reported include: inhaled plutonium in dogs; national radiobiology archives; statistical analysis of data from animal studies; genotoxicity of inhaled energy effluents; molecular events during tumor initiation; biochemistry of free radical induced DNA damage; radon hazards in homes; mechanisms of radon injury; genetics of radon induced lung cancer; and in vivo/in vitro radon induced cellular damage.

  1. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  2. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisco, Michele; Evers, Kathinka; Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    THE DIRECTIVE 2001/20/UE AND THE RESEARCH INVOLVING PATIENTS WITH DOCS: Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. THE PARTICULAR CASE OF INFORMED CONSENT FOR OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES OF NON-COMMUNICATIVE PATIENTS: The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. RELEVANCE OF THE SUGGESTED FORM: The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU) no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001/20/EU) and the release

  3. A Critical Look at Biomedical Journals’ Policies on Animal Research by Use of a Novel Tool: The EXEMPLAR Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Raquel; Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Biomedical journals have the responsibility to promote humane research. To gauge and evaluate journal policies on animal research, the EXEMPLAR—For “Excellence in Mandatory Policies on Animal Research”—scale is presented and applied to evaluate a sample of 170 biomedical journals, providing an overview of the current landscape of editorial policies on the ethical treatment of animals. Abstract Animal research is not only regulated by legislation but also by self-regulatory mechanisms within the scientific community, which include biomedical journals’ policies on animal use. For editorial policies to meaningfully impact attitudes and practice, they must not only be put into effect by editors and reviewers, but also be set to high standards. We present a novel tool to classify journals’ policies on animal use—the EXEMPLAR scale—as well as an analysis by this scale of 170 journals publishing studies on animal models of three human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Type-1 Diabetes and Tuberculosis. Results show a much greater focus of editorial policies on regulatory compliance than on other domains, suggesting a transfer of journals’ responsibilities to scientists, institutions and regulators. Scores were not found to vary with journals’ impact factor, country of origin or antiquity, but were, however, significantly higher for open access journals, which may be a result of their greater exposure and consequent higher public scrutiny. PMID:26479237

  4. The new large-scale international facility for antiproton and ion research in Europe, FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, Guenther [Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: FAIR is currently the largest project in nuclear and particle physics worldwide, with investment costs of 1.6B euro in its first phase. It has been founded by Finland, France, Germany, India, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia and Sweden in Oct. 2010. The facility will provide the international scientific community with a unique and technically innovative particle accelerator system to perform cutting-edge research in the sciences concerned with the basic structure of matter in: nuclear and particle physics, atomic and anti-matter physics, high density plasma physics, and applications in condensed matter physics, biology and the bio-medical sciences. The work horse of FAIR will be a 1.1 km circumference double ring of rapidly cycling 100 and 300 Tm synchrotrons, which will be used to produce high intensity secondary beams of anti-protons and very short-lived radioactive ions. A subsequent suite of cooler and storage rings will deliver anti-proton and heavy-ion beams of unprecedented quality regarding intensity and resolution. Large experimental facilities are presently being prototyped by the APPA, CBM, NuSTAR and PANDA Collaborations to be used by a global community of more than 3000 scientists from 2018. (author)

  5. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  6. ["Investigación Clínica": 50 years disseminating biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2010-06-01

    INVESTIGACION CLINICA was founded by the initiative of Américo Negrette, who became its first editor, and it has been published uninterruptedly since July 1960, with a quarterly frequency. The first issues consisted mainly of a collection of reviews of seminars held at the now called Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, its publisher. Very soon, original research results from this institution were included in the novel journal. In the 60's, papers on results obtained during the outbreaks of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis present in the area, were prominent. Originally, the journal published 3-4 papers, but due to the increased number of contributions, in 2001, its format changed from 1/16 to 1/8, and now each number includes 11 original articles. Currently, INVESTIGACION CLINICA publishes 44 papers a year, in Spanish or English on different biomedical topics, from contributors all around the world. Progressively it has been included in different renowned indexes, such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Excerpta Medica, Tropical Diseases Bulletin, Copernicus, Scopus, Periodica, and several others. Besides, it can be found in open access through www.Scielo.org.ve, www.freemedicaljournals.com and in our new Web page: https://sites. google.com/site/revistainvestigacionesclinicas/home. Most papers published in INVESTIGACION CLINICA have been cited in the regional or foreign literature accumulating more than 1200 citations by now. For this particular issue, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of INVESTIGACION CLINICA, we have invited some of our more recent referees or authors to contribute with Reviews in their respective areas of expertise.

  7. Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Niinomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nb, Ta and Zr are the favorable non-toxic alloying elements for titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Low rigidity titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements are getting much attention. The advantage of low rigidity titanium alloy for the healing of bone fracture and the remodeling of bone is successfully proved by fracture model made in tibia of rabbit. Ni-free super elastic and shape memory titanium alloys for biomedical applications are energetically developed. Titanium alloys for not only implants, but also dental products like crowns, dentures, etc. are also getting much attention in dentistry. Development of investment materials suitable for titanium alloys with high melting point is desired in dental precision castings. Bioactive surface modifications of titanium alloys for biomedical applications are very important for achieving further developed biocompatibility. Low cost titanium alloys for healthcare goods, like general wheel chairs, etc. has been recently proposed.

  8. International Space Station as Analog of Interplanetary Transit Vehicle For Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Astronaut missions lasting up to six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common with interplanetary flights, especially the outbound, Earth-to-Mars transit portion of a Mars mission. Utilization of ISS and other appropriate platforms to prepare for crewed expeditions to planetary destinations including Mars has been the work of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) since 2005. HRP is charged specifically to understand and reduced the risks to astronaut health and performance in space exploration missions: everything HRP does and has done is directly related to that responsibility. Two major categories of human research have capitalized on ISS capabilities. The first category centers on the biomedical aspects of long-duration exposure to spaceflight factors, including prolonged weightlessness, radiation exposure, isolation and confinement, and actual risk to life and limb. These studies contribute to astronaut safety, health and efficiency on any long-duration missions, whether in low Earth orbit (LEO) or beyond. Qualitatively, weightlessness is weightlessness, whether in LEO or en route to Mars. The HRP sponsors investigations into losses in muscle and bone integrity, cardiovascular function, sensory-motor capability, immune capacity and psychosocial health, and development and demonstration of appropriate treatments and preventative measures. The second category includes studies that are focused on planetary expeditions beyond LEO. For these, ISS offers a high fidelity analog to investigate the combined effects of spaceflight factors (described above) plus the isolation and autonomy associated with simulated increasing distance from Earth. Investigations address crew cohesion, performance and workload, and mission control performance. The behavioral health and performance and space human factors aspects of planetary missions dominate this category. Work has already begun on a new investigation in this category which will examine the

  9. Size and characteristics of the biomedical research workforce associated with U.S. National Institutes of Health extramural grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Lindsay R; Wagner, Robin M; Scott, Lindsey L; RoyChowdhury, Deepshikha; Berhane, Rediet; Wu, Charles; Pearson, Katrina; Sutton, Jennifer A; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) annually invests approximately $22 billion in biomedical research through its extramural grant programs. Since fiscal year (FY) 2010, all persons involved in research during the previous project year have been required to be listed on the annual grant progress report. These new data have enabled the production of the first-ever census of the NIH-funded extramural research workforce. Data were extracted from All Personnel Reports submitted for NIH grants funded in FY 2009, including position title, months of effort, academic degrees obtained, and personal identifiers. Data were de-duplicated to determine a unique person count. Person-years of effort (PYE) on NIH grants were computed. In FY 2009, NIH funded 50,885 grant projects, which created 313,049 full- and part-time positions spanning all job functions involved in biomedical research. These positions were staffed by 247,457 people at 2,604 institutions. These persons devoted 121,465 PYE to NIH grant-supported research. Research project grants each supported 6 full- or part-time positions, on average. Over 20% of positions were occupied by postdoctoral researchers and graduate and undergraduate students. These baseline data were used to project workforce estimates for FYs 2010-2014 and will serve as a foundation for future research.

  10. The challenges of implementing pathogen control strategies for fishes used in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.; Ennis, D.G.; Harper, C.; Kent, M.L.; Murray, K.; Sanders, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a number of fish species, including the zebrafish, medaka, and platyfish/swordtail, have become important models for human health and disease. Despite the increasing prevalence of these and other fish species in research, methods for health maintenance and the management of diseases in laboratory populations of these animals are underdeveloped. There is a growing realization that this trend must change, especially as the use of these species expands beyond developmental biology and more towards experimental applications where the presence of underlying disease may affect the physiology animals used in experiments and potentially compromise research results. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop, improve, and implement strategies for managing health and disease in aquatic research facilities. The purpose of this review is to report the proceedings of a workshop entitled "Animal Health and Disease Management in Research Animals" that was recently held at the 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease in September 2010 at Corvallis, Oregon to discuss the challenges involved with moving the field forward on this front. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recommendations for Health Monitoring and Reporting for Zebrafish Research Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Crim, Marcus J; Lieggi, Christine

    2016-07-01

    The presence of subclinical infection or clinical disease in laboratory zebrafish may have a significant impact on research results, animal health and welfare, and transfer of animals between institutions. As use of zebrafish as a model of disease increases, a harmonized method for monitoring and reporting the health status of animals will facilitate the transfer of animals, allow institutions to exclude diseases that may negatively impact their research programs, and improve animal health and welfare. All zebrafish facilities should implement a health monitoring program. In this study, we review important aspects of a health monitoring program, including choice of agents, samples for testing, available testing methodologies, housing and husbandry, cost, test subjects, and a harmonized method for reporting results. Facilities may use these recommendations to implement their own health monitoring program.

  12. Sustainability in facilities management: an overview of current research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; Ramskov Galamba, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Climate adaptation, energy efficiency, sustainable development and green growth are societal challenges for which the Facilities Management (FM) profession can develop solutions and make positive contributions on the organisational level and with societal-level effects. To base...... of environmental, social and economical impacts? How to improve the sustainability performance of buildings? What are the potentials for and barriers to integrating sustainability into FM on strategic, tactical and operational levels? Originality/value: The paper presents the most comprehensive literature study...... the emerging sub-discipline of sustainable facilities management (SFM) on research, an overview of current studies is needed. The purpose of this literature review is to provide exactly this overview. Design/methodology/approach: This article identifies and examines current research studies on SFM through...

  13. Basic Design of the Cold Neutron Research Facility in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. K. (and others)

    2005-09-15

    The HANARO Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) Project has been embarked in July 2003. The CNRF project has selected as one of the radiation technology development project by National Science and Technology Committee in June 2002. In this report, the output of the second project year is summarized as a basic design of cold neutron source and related systems, neutron guide, and neutron scattering instruments.

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  15. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  17. Japanese research and development on metallic biomedical, dental, and healthcare materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hanawa, Takao; Narushima, Takayuki

    2005-04-01

    There is considerable demand for metallic materials for use in medical and dental devices. Metals and alloys are widely used as biomedical materials and are indispensable in the medical field. In dentistry, metal is used for restorations, orthodontic wires, and dental implants. This article describes R&D on metallic biomaterials primarily conducted by the members of the Japan Institute of Metals.

  18. Overview of some biomedical research projects in tropical medicine conducted at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, E; Cesari, I; Escalante, A; Liprandi, F; O'Daly, J A; Perez, H; Takiff, H

    2000-01-01

    The Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) is a government-funded multidisciplinary academic institution dedicated to research, development and technology in many areas of knowledge. Biomedical projects and publications comprise about 40% of the total at IVIC. In this article, we present an overview of some selected research and development projects conducted at IVIC which we believe contain new and important aspects related to malaria, ancylostomiasis, dengue fever, leishmaniasis and tuberculosis. Other projects considered of interest in the general area of tropical medicine are briefly described. This article was prepared as a small contribution to honor and commemorate the centenary of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

  19. Overview of some biomedical research projects in tropical medicine conducted at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Egidio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC is a government-funded multidisciplinary academic institution dedicated to research, development and technology in many areas of knowledge. Biomedical projects and publications comprise about 40% of the total at IVIC. In this article, we present an overview of some selected research and development projects conducted at IVIC which we believe contain new and important aspects related to malaria, ancylostomiasis, dengue fever, leishmaniasis and tuberculosis. Other projects considered of interest in the general area of tropical medicine are briefly described. This article was prepared as a small contribution to honor and commemorate the centenary of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

  20. The Role of Scientific Communication Skills in Trainees' Intention to Pursue Biomedical Research Careers: A Social Cognitive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Lee, Hwa Young; Anderson, Cheryl; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Scientific communication (SciComm) skills are indispensable for success in biomedical research, but many trainees may not have fully considered the necessity of regular writing and speaking for research career progression. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between SciComm skill acquisition and research trainees' intentions to remain in research careers. We used social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to test a model of the relationship of SciComm skills to SciComm-related cognitive variables in explaining career intentions. A sample of 510 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at major academic health science centers in the Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas, were surveyed online. Results suggested that interest in performing SciComm tasks, SciComm outcome expectations (SCOEs), and SciComm productivity predicted intention to remain in a research career, while SciComm self-efficacy did not directly predict career intention. SCOEs also predicted interest in performing SciComm tasks. As in other SCCT studies, SciComm self-efficacy predicted SCOEs. We conclude that social cognitive factors of SciComm skill acquisition and SciComm productivity significantly predict biomedical trainees' intentions to pursue research careers whether within or outside academia. While further studies are needed, these findings may lead to evidence-based interventions to help trainees remain in their chosen career paths.

  1. Research and development of biomedical fiber%生物医学纤维的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云燕; 沈新元

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the sorts of biomedical fibers, collagenous fibers, chitin fibers polyactic acid(PLA) fibers, etc. , and their preparation,properties and application respectively, and suggest China to pay attention to the research and development of biomedical fiber.DATA SOURCES: Literatures from January 1993 to December 2001 were computer-searched in http://www.sciencedirect.com, http://worldscinet.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn, with the key words of "biomedical and polymer,fibre" and the language was limited to English.: Literatures from January 1999 to December 2004 were computer-searched in http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn,with the key words of "Biological, medical, polymer and Chitin Fibers" and the language was limited to Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: ①Chitin fibers②Collagenous fibers and PLA fibers③Alginic acid fibers④Polyglycolide fibers⑤β-hy droxybutanoic acid ester (PHB)⑥Polycaprolactone fiber. Exclusion criteria:① Obsolete literatures. ② Repeated study. DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 60 tests on biomedical fiber were collected, but only 15 literatures met the inclusion criteria. Altogether 45 literatures were excluded due to older and repeated study.DATA SYNTHESIS: ①The sorts of biomedical fibers: Classified according to the sources, biomedical fibers include metal ones (e.g. stainless steel wire), inorganic and nonmetal ones (e.g. alumina fibers) and macromolecular ones. Classified according to the interaction between living tissues and materials, they include bioinert fibers, bioactive fibers and bioabsobable fibers. Classified according to biomedical use, they include biomedical fibers compatible with hard tissues, biomedical fibers compatible with parenchyma, biomedical fibers compatible with blood and biomedical fibers used as medicine or for regulating the release of medicine ②The main biodegradable fibers include chitin fibers, collagenous fibers, PLA fibers and their copolymer fibers.CONCLUSION: As one of the important

  2. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  3. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  4. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1988. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  9. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  10. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  11. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future.

  12. A Tether-Based Variable-Gravity Research Facility Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The recent announcement of a return to the Moon and a mission to Mars has made the question of human response to lower levels of gravity more important. Recent advances in tether technology spurred by NASA s research in MXER tethers has led to a re-examination of the concept of a variable-gravity research facility (xGRF) for human research in low Earth orbit. Breakthroughs in simplified inertial tracking have made it possible to consider eliminating the despun section of previous designs. This, in turn, improves the prospect of a facility based entirely around a tether, with the human module on one end and a countermass on the other. With such a configuration, propellantless spinup and spindown is also possible based on the conservation of angular momentum from a gravity-gradient configuration to a spinning configuration. This not only saves large amounts of propellant but vastly simplifies crew and consumable resupply operations, since these can now be done in a microgravity configuration. The importance of the science to be obtained and the performance improvements in this new design argue strongly for further investigation.

  13. PIRATE: A Remotely Operable Telescope Facility for Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S.; Kolb, U.; Haswell, C. A.; Burwitz, V.; Lucas, R. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Rolfe, S. M.; Rostron, J.; Barker, J.

    2011-10-01

    We introduce PIRATE, a new remotely operable telescope facility for use in research and education, constructed from off-the-shelf hardware, operated by The Open University. We focus on the PIRATE Mark 1 operational phase, in which PIRATE was equipped with a widely used 0.35 m Schmidt-Cassegrain system (now replaced with a 0.425 m corrected Dall-Kirkham astrograph). Situated at the Observatori Astronòmic de Mallorca, PIRATE is currently used to follow up potential transiting extrasolar planet candidates produced by the SuperWASP North experiment, as well as to hunt for novae in M31 and other nearby galaxies. It is operated by a mixture of commercially available software and proprietary software developed at the Open University. We discuss problems associated with performing precision time-series photometry when using a German Equatorial Mount, investigating the overall performance of such off-the-shelf solutions in both research and teaching applications. We conclude that PIRATE is a cost-effective research facility, and it also provides exciting prospects for undergraduate astronomy. PIRATE has broken new ground in offering practical astronomy education to distance-learning students in their own homes.

  14. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  15. Cosmic Muon Flux Measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kalousis, L N; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  16. Strategies to Mitigate a Mycobacterium marinum Outbreak in a Zebrafish Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kathy; Mittge, Erika; Melancon, Ellie; Montgomery, Rebecca; McFadden, Marcie; Camoriano, Javier; Kent, Michael L.; Whipps, Christopher M.; Peirce, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the zebrafish research facility at the University of Oregon experienced an outbreak of Mycobacterium marinum that affected both research fish and facility staff. A thorough review of risks to personnel, the zebrafish veterinary care program, and zebrafish husbandry procedures at the research facility followed. In the years since 2011, changes have been implemented throughout the research facility to protect the personnel, the fish colony, and ultimately the continued success of the zebrafish model research program. In this study, we present the history of the outbreak, the changes we implemented, and recommendations to mitigate pathogen outbreaks in zebrafish research facilities. PMID:27351618

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  18. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  19. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future.

  20. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  1. Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics academy: Outcomes from 5 years of Immersing High-school Students into Informatics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Boone, David N

    2017-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biomedical Informatics and Division of Pathology Informatics created a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline in 2011 dedicated to providing cutting-edge informatics research and career preparatory experiences to a diverse group of highly motivated high-school students. In this third editorial installment describing the program, we provide a brief overview of the pipeline, report on achievements of the past scholars, and present results from self-reported assessments by the 2015 cohort of scholars. The pipeline continues to expand with the 2015 addition of the innovation internship, and the introduction of a program in 2016 aimed at offering first-time research experiences to undergraduates who are underrepresented in pathology and biomedical informatics. Achievements of program scholars include authorship of journal articles, symposium and summit presentations, and attendance at top 25 universities. All of our alumni matriculated into higher education and 90% remain in STEM majors. The 2015 high-school program had ten participating scholars who self-reported gains in confidence in their research abilities and understanding of what it means to be a scientist.

  2. AMF3 ARM's Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science And Aerosol Science For The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF-3 instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at AMF3 and the challenges of powering an Arctic site without the use of grid power.

  3. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  4. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, RA; Kehoe, KE; Sonntag, KL; Bahrmann, CP; Richardson, SJ; Christensen, SW; McCord, RA; Doty, DJ; Wagener, Richard [BNL; Eagan, RC; Lijegren, JC; Orr, BW; Sisterson, DL; Halter, TD; Keck, NN; Long, CN; Macduff, MC; Mather, JH; Perez, RC; Voyles, JW; Ivey, MD; Moore, ST; Nitschke, DL; Perkins, BD; Turner, DD

    2008-03-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and haracterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented.

  5. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which...... will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from...... derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products...

  6. CSU's MWV Observatory: A Facility for Research, Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, John; Carpenter, N. D.; McCarty, C. B.; Samford, J. H.; Johnson, M.; Puckett, A. W.; Williams, R. N.; Cruzen, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Mead Westvaco Observatory (MWVO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The MWVO has recently received funding to upgrade from a 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope to a PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. This and other technological upgrades will allow this observatory to stream live webcasts for astronomical events, allowing a worldwide public audience to become a part of the growing astronomical community. This poster will explain the upgrades that are currently in progress as well as the results from the current calibrations. The goal of these upgrades is to provide facilities capable of both research-class projects and widespread use in education and public outreach. We will present our initial calibration and tests of the observatory equipment, as well as its use in webcasts of astronomical events, in solar observing through the use of specialized piggy-backed telescopes, and in research into such topics as asteroids, planetary and nebula imaging. We will describe a pilot research project on asteroid orbit refinement and light curves, to be carried out by Columbus State University students. We will also outline many of the K-12 educational and public outreach activities we have designed for these facilities. Support and funding for the acquisition and installation of the new PlaneWave CDK 24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award.

  7. Cold Neutron Research Facility begins operating at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, E.J.

    1991-09-01

    Steady-state neutron beams are generally produced by fission in a nuclear reactor, whereas pulsed beams come from spallation neutron sources. Beams from a reactor have a distribution of wavelengths that is roughly Maxwellian, with a peak wavelength that depends on the temperature of the moderator that surrounds the fuel. Cold neutrons can be selected from the low-energy tail of the distribution, but the flux drops as 1/{lambda}{sup 4}. However, by shifting the whole spectrum to longer wavelengths one can dramatically increase the cold neutron flux. This is achieved by replacing part of the core moderator with a cold moderator, or cold source,' such as liquid deuterium (at about 30 K) or D{sub 2}O ice (at about 40 K). Neutrons lose energy to the moderator through collisions, producing a shifted spectrum from which one can select lower-energy neutrons with a roughly ten-fold improvement in the flux. Neutrons exhibit optical behavior such as refraction and total reflection. Thus one can use neutron guides - analogous to optical fibers - to conduct intense beams of neutrons from the reactor into a large experimental hall, dubbed a guide hall,' where background radiation is low. The Cold Neutron Research Facility was finally funded in 1987 and opened its doors this past June. CNRF is located at the 20-MW NIST research reactor, which began continuous operation in 1969. With some foresight, the designers of the original reactor allowed space for the addition of a cryogenic moderator, which is only now being exploited. NIST will develop 10 experimental stations for use by the research science community. Additional help in financing the facility comes from participating research teams made up of groups from industry, academe and government.

  8. Clustering cliques for graph-based summarization of the biomedical research literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Han; Fiszman, Marcelo; Shin, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Graph-based notions are increasingly used in biomedical data mining and knowledge discovery tasks. In this paper, we present a clique-clustering method to automatically summarize graphs of semantic predications produced from PubMed citations (titles and abstracts).Results: Sem......Rep is used to extract semantic predications from the citations returned by a PubMed search. Cliques were identified from frequently occurring predications with highly connected arguments filtered by degree centrality. Themes contained in the summary were identified with a hierarchical clustering algorithm...

  9. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1985 to develop information for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related radiation and chemicals with man. Our continuing emphasis on decreasing the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies supports the DOE goal of increasing and diversifying national energy resources and decreasing risks to human health. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic needs. The first section concerns evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include health effects of radiation and health effects of chemical mixtures. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  11. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  12. Discovery informatics in biological and biomedical sciences: research challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries in biological, biomedical and health sciences are increasingly being driven by our ability to acquire, share, integrate and analyze, and construct and simulate predictive models of biological systems. While much attention has focused on automating routine aspects of management and analysis of "big data", realizing the full potential of "big data" to accelerate discovery calls for automating many other aspects of the scientific process that have so far largely resisted automation: identifying gaps in the current state of knowledge; generating and prioritizing questions; designing studies; designing, prioritizing, planning, and executing experiments; interpreting results; forming hypotheses; drawing conclusions; replicating studies; validating claims; documenting studies; communicating results; reviewing results; and integrating results into the larger body of knowledge in a discipline. Against this background, the PSB workshop on Discovery Informatics in Biological and Biomedical Sciences explores the opportunities and challenges of automating discovery or assisting humans in discovery through advances (i) Understanding, formalization, and information processing accounts of, the entire scientific process; (ii) Design, development, and evaluation of the computational artifacts (representations, processes) that embody such understanding; and (iii) Application of the resulting artifacts and systems to advance science (by augmenting individual or collective human efforts, or by fully automating science).

  13. National facilities study. Volume 2: Task group on aeronautical research and development facilities report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Task Group on Aeronautics R&D Facilities examined the status and requirements for aeronautics facilities against the competitive need. Emphasis was placed on ground-based facilities for subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, and propulsion. Subsonic and transonic wind tunnels were judged to be most critical and of highest priority. Results of the study are presented.

  14. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... acquired by educational institutions. (a) Definitions. As used in this subsection— (1) Research facility... 31.3. (b) Policy. (1) Educational institutions are to furnish the facilities necessary to...

  15. 36 CFR 1253.8 - Are NARA research room facilities closed on Federal holidays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities closed on Federal holidays? 1253.8 Section 1253.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF RECORDS AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.8 Are NARA research room facilities closed on Federal holidays? NARA research room facilities...

  16. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  17. Mentoring Strategies and Outcomes of Two Federally Funded Cancer Research Training Programs for Underrepresented Students in the Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E; Abraham, Latecia M; Harrison, Anita L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Hazelton, Tonya R; Varner, Heidi; Cannady, Kimberly; Frichtel, Carla S; Bagasra, Omar; Davis, Leroy; Rivers, David E; Slaughter, Sabra C; Salley, Judith D

    2016-06-01

    The US is experiencing a severe shortage of underrepresented biomedical researchers. The purpose of this paper is to present two case examples of cancer research mentoring programs for underrepresented biomedical sciences students. The first case example is a National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI) P20 grant titled "South Carolina Cancer Disparities Research Center (SC CaDRe)" Training Program, contributing to an increase in the number of underrepresented students applying to graduate school by employing a triple-level mentoring strategy. Since 2011, three undergraduate and four graduate students have participated in the P20 SC CaDRe program. One graduate student published a peer-reviewed scientific paper. Two graduate students (50 %) have completed their master's degrees, and the other two graduate students will receive their degrees in spring 2015. Two undergraduate students (67 %) are enrolled in graduate or professional school (grad./prof. school), and the other graduate student is completing her final year of college. The second case example is a prostate cancer-focused Department of Defense grant titled "The SC Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program," providing 24 students training since 2009. Additionally, 47 students made scientific presentations, and two students have published peer-reviewed scientific papers. All 24 students took a GRE test preparation course; 15 (63 %) have applied to graduate school, and 11 of them (73 %) are enrolled in grad./prof. school. Thirteen remaining students (54 %) are applying to grad./prof. school. Leveraged funding provided research-training opportunities to an additional 201 National Conference on Health Disparities Student Forum participants and to 937 Ernest E. Just Research Symposium participants at the Medical University of South Carolina.

  18. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  20. Multi-Specimen Variable-G Facility for Life and Microgravity Sciences Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-specimen Variable-G Facility (MVF) is a single locker sized centrifuge facility for life and microgravity sciences research on the International Space...

  1. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  2. Gender Writ Small: Gender Enactments and Gendered Narratives about Lab Organization and Knowledge Transmission in a Biomedical Engineering Research Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kareen Ror; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Newstetter, Wendy

    This article presents qualitative data and offers some innovative theoretical approaches to frame the analysis of gender in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) settings. It begins with a theoretical discussion of a discursive approach to gender that captures how gender is lived "on the ground." The authors argue for a less individualistic approach to gender. Data for this research project was gathered from intensive interviews with lab members and ethnographic observations in a biomedical engineering lab. Data analysis relied on a mixed methodology involving qualitative approaches and dialogues with findings from other research traditions. Three themes are highlighted: lab dynamics in relation to issues of critical mass, the division of labor, and knowledge transmission. The data illustrate how gender is created in interactions and is inflected through forms of social organization.

  3. Designing a socio-economic assessment method for integrative biomedical research: the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Rainer; Stroetmann, Karl A; Stroetmann, Veli N; Viceconti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In integrative biomedical research, methods assessing the clinical or even socio-economic impact of more complex technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based tools for modelling and simulation of human physiology have rarely been applied. The EU funded Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human (VPHOP) research project, part of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) European initiative, will create a patient-specific hypermodel to predict the absolute risk of bone fracture much more accurately than predictions based on current clinical practice. The project has developed an innovative, multilevel generic methodological framework to assess the clinical and socio-economic impact of biocomputational models. The assessment framework consists of three components: a socio-economic cost benefit analysis, health economic analysis of care pathways, and disease cost simulation models. Through its holistic perspective, the method provides a tool to appraise the overall value of biocomputational models for society.

  4. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  5. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  6. Small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurn, T. W.; Chapelle, S.; Lupan, S. P.; Holland, L.; Homeyer, W. G.; Rawls, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A small-bore hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher laboratory research facility has been developed which has launched a 2-g projectile to a velocity in excess of 3.5 km/sec. This turn-key laboratory includes a 1 cm, square-bore railgun with a helium gas preaccelerator; a modular 328 kJ capacitor bank; a fiber-optically linked programmable logic control system with a graphical operator interface; a data acquisition system with current, magnetic, and projectile position diagnostics; and a flight range which provides in-flight velocity measurements and safely stops and contains the projectile. The control system fires the preaccelerator and, on receipt of an optical signal, fires the capacitor bank modules simultaneously or in a staggered mode. Armature separation and stalling limit the overall performance of the system. Changes in pulse shape and bore materials significantly improved performance. Attention is given to methods used to minimize armature separation and improve performance.

  7. The NIST NBSR and Cold Neutron Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, J.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Guthersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 20 MW Neutron Beam Split-Core Reactor (NBSR) has nine radial thermal beam tubes, and a large, highly accessible (35cm) cold source serving an extensive network of eight guide tubes. In operation or under construction are twenty-five neutron beam instruments (20 for neutron scattering) and about a dozen other facilities for neutron trace analysis, dosimetry and irradiation. The 6 x 15cm cold neutron guides are coated with {sup 58}Ni, and the last three being installed this fall are coated top and bottom with supermirrors for further increases in intensity. The new semi-spherical liquid hydrogen source will be described, along with the eight scattering instruments (reflectometry, SANS and high-resolution spectroscopy) which have, or will have, an extensive use in biological research. These instruments will likely provide the best overall capability in the U.S. for the next decade for a number of applications in biomolecular structure and dynamics.

  8. The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) for biomedical research and knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontier, Michel; Baker, Christopher Jo; Baran, Joachim; Callahan, Alison; Chepelev, Leonid; Cruz-Toledo, José; Del Rio, Nicholas R; Duck, Geraint; Furlong, Laura I; Keath, Nichealla; Klassen, Dana; McCusker, James P; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Samwald, Matthias; Villanueva-Rosales, Natalia; Wilkinson, Mark D; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2014-03-06

    The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) is an ontology to facilitate biomedical knowledge discovery. SIO features a simple upper level comprised of essential types and relations for the rich description of arbitrary (real, hypothesized, virtual, fictional) objects, processes and their attributes. SIO specifies simple design patterns to describe and associate qualities, capabilities, functions, quantities, and informational entities including textual, geometrical, and mathematical entities, and provides specific extensions in the domains of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics. SIO provides an ontological foundation for the Bio2RDF linked data for the life sciences project and is used for semantic integration and discovery for SADI-based semantic web services. SIO is freely available to all users under a creative commons by attribution license. See website for further information: http://sio.semanticscience.org.

  9. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  10. Research Progress of Biomedical Titanium Alloys%生物医用钛合金的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 雷霆; 方树铭; 黄光明

    2011-01-01

    钛合金具有较低的弹性模量、优异的耐腐蚀性能和生物相容性,是理想的生物医用材料.综述了医用钛合金的发展过程及新型医用β钛合金的研究现状,以及开发的新合金系列.目前开发的医用钛合金中,Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta和Ti-29Nb-13Ta-7.1Zr合金的弹性模量为55 GPa,与致密骨的弹性模量很接近,与人体骨有较好的力学相容性.%Titanium alloys offering lower elastic modulus,excellent corrosion resistance and enhanced bioeompatibility are ideal biomedical materials. The development history of medical titanium alloys and research status of new β-type titanium alloys and developed new alloy system are summarized. Among current developed biomedical titanium alloys, the modulus of elasticity of Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta and Ti-29Nb-13Ta-7. 1Zr alloys is 55GPa , very near the modulus of density bone , and have better mechanical compatibility with natural bone.

  11. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1981. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes research and development activities of the Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's Biomedical and Environmental Research program for the calendar year 1981. Individual reports describing the current status of projects have been entered individually into the data base.

  12. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  13. Anomalous radon concentration in a nuclear research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Radon monitoring in more than 60 selected points were part of surveillance radiation activities in the nuclear center of Mexico; three major facilities were inspected, the TRIGA Mark III research reactor, the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator and the Pelletron electron Accelerator. During a major maintenance activities in the research reactor, the air extraction system was not functioning for more than a month causing of a radon build up exhaled from the massive concrete of the building, reaching concentrations in some places up to 2.1 kb m{sup -3}. The irradiation room at the Tandem Accelerator presented high radon concentrations up to nearly 5 kb m{sup -3}, manly in the trenches were pipes and electric wires are located, the radon source was identified as originated from small caves under the floor. Low radon concentrations were found inside a similar building where a Pelletron accelerator is located. The reasons for the abnormal radon concentrations and the mitigation actions to remove any risk for the worker are discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  14. A Study of the Information Literacy of Biomedical Graduate Students: Based on the Thesis Topic Discovery Process in Molecular Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhao-Yen Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical information environment is in a state of constant and rapid change due to the increase in research data and rapid technological advances. In Taiwan, few research has investigated the information literacy of biomedical graduate students. This exploratory study examined the information literacy abilities and training of biomedical graduate students in Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews based on the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology were conducted with 20 molecular biological graduate students. The interview inquired about their information-seeking channels and information literacy education. The findings show that the biomedical graduate students developed a workable thesis topic with their advisors. Through various information-seeking channels and retrieval strategies, they obtained and critically evaluated information to address different information needs for their thesis research. Through seminars, annual conferences and papers, the interviewees were informed of current developments in their field. Subsequently, through written or oral communications, they were able to integrate and exchange the information. Most interviewees cared about the social, economic, legal, and ethical issues surrounding the use of information. College courses and labs were the main information literacy education environment for them to learn about research skills and knowledge. The study concludes four areas to address for the information literacy of biomedical graduate students, i.e., using professional information, using the current information, efficiency in assessing the domain information, and utilization of diverse information channels. Currently, the interviewees showed rather low usage of library resources, which is a concern for biomedical educators and libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Data federation in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network: tools for semantic annotation and query of distributed multiscale brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, William; Astahkov, Vadim; Boline, Jyl; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Kennedy, David N; Rubin, Daniel L; Sanders, Brian; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-11-06

    The broadly defined mission of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN, www.nbirn.net) is to better understand the causes human disease and the specific ways in which animal models inform that understanding. To construct the community-wide infrastructure for gathering, organizing and managing this knowledge, BIRN is developing a federated architecture for linking multiple databases across sites contributing data and knowledge. Navigating across these distributed data sources requires a shared semantic scheme and supporting software framework to actively link the disparate repositories. At the core of this knowledge organization is BIRNLex, a formally-represented ontology facilitating data exchange. Source curators enable database interoperability by mapping their schema and data to BIRNLex semantic classes thereby providing a means to cast BIRNLex-based queries against specific data sources in the federation. We will illustrate use of the source registration, term mapping, and query tools.

  16. Primates in biomedical research and their maintenance in captivity. I primati nella ricerca biomedica ed il loro allevamento in cattivita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaco, V.

    1983-01-01

    This conference is intended to provide to biologists, phychologists, zoologists etc., some criteria on use of non-human primates in biomedical research and to assess their value in procedures and tests of products by a pharmaceutical industry (i.e., poliomyelitis vaccine). After a review of scientific achievements during last decades and of the possibility of development of use of primates for medical experimentation, a numerical estimation of the subjects employed in different countries and of the basic needs as indicated by OMS and EEC is reported. In an attempt to promote a programme for production of primates in Italy, this communication describes the project of primates breeding by using areas near electro-nuclear power stations. 5 refs.

  17. Trust, protocol, gender, and power in interwar British biomedical research: Kathleen Chevassut and the "germ" of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Stephen T

    2011-04-01

    In March 1930, reports of the discovery of an organism causative of multiple sclerosis circulated in the British press. At the same time, news of a therapeutically efficacious vaccine also reached the ears of neurologists and patients afflicted with the debilitating degenerative disease. It was soon shown that no organism had been discovered. The events leading up to this ultimately painful episode reveal many of the central problems created when social conventions and a sense of decorum scripted received understanding of good scientific practice rather than actual regulatory frameworks. In the absence of such frameworks, few means were present to censor inappropriate scientific conduct. This story thus provides a window into an emergent world of state-sponsored biomedical research; a world where recrimination, gossip, misogyny, uncertainty, exaggeration, and dreams and delusions of scientific and therapeutic progress were collapsed together.

  18. Trust, Protocol, Gender, and Power in Interwar British Biomedical Research: Kathleen Chevassut and the “Germ” of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    In March 1930, reports of the discovery of an organism causative of multiple sclerosis circulated in the British press. At the same time, news of a therapeutically efficacious vaccine also reached the ears of neurologists and patients afflicted with the debilitating degenerative disease. It was soon shown that no organism had been discovered. The events leading up to this ultimately painful episode reveal many of the central problems created when social conventions and a sense of decorum scripted received understanding of good scientific practice rather than actual regulatory frameworks. In the absence of such frameworks, few means were present to censor inappropriate scientific conduct. This story thus provides a window into an emergent world of state-sponsored biomedical research; a world where recrimination, gossip, misogyny, uncertainty, exaggeration, and dreams and delusions of scientific and therapeutic progress were collapsed together. PMID:20478897

  19. Ethics in biomedical research La ética de la investigación biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Estrada

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The present article addresses some ethical and legal aspects of biomedical research. It analyzes the existing regulations and gives reasons for the need of precise guidelines to regulate experimentation in humans and animals at our institutions. Special attention is given to the importance of obtaining legal informed consent from the subjects of biomedical research and to the conformation and duties to be assigned to institutional review boards. Aspects related to the use of animals in experimentation are also discussed. A list of references is given for those who want to delve further into this subject.

    El presente artículo trata de algunos aspectos éticos y legales de la experimentación biomédica. Analiza las normas existentes y pone de presente la necesidad de códigos precisos que regulen la experimentación en humanos y en animales. Se da especial atención a los aspectos prácticos de la obtención del consentimiento legal de los individuos que van a ser sujetos de experimentación biomédica ya la conformación y responsabilidades de los comités institucionales para la ética en dicha investigación. Se incluye además una lista de referencias para aquéllos que quieran profundizar en el tema.

  20. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  1. Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cornelison, Charles J.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) at NASA Ames Research Center are described. These facilities have been in operation since the 1960s and have supported many NASA missions and technology development initiatives. The facilities have world-unique capabilities that enable experimental studies of real-gas aerothermal, gas dynamic, and kinetic phenomena of atmospheric entry.

  2. Integrating clinical medicine into biomedical graduate education to promote translational research: strategies from two new PhD programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn L; Jarrett, Marcia; Bierer, S Beth

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, a barrier has existed between research and clinical medicine, making it difficult for aspiring scientists to gain exposure to human pathophysiology and access to clinical/translational research mentors during their graduate training. In 2005, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute announced the Med Into Grad initiative to support graduate programs that integrate clinical knowledge into PhD biomedical training, with the goal of preparing a new cadre of translational researchers to work at the interface of the basic sciences and clinical medicine. Two institutions, Baylor College of Medicine and the Cleveland Clinic/Case Western Reserve University, developed new PhD programs in translational biology and/or molecular medicine. These programs teach the topics and skills that today's translational researchers must learn and expose students to clinical medicine. In this article, the authors compare and contrast the history, implementation, and evaluation of the Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine program at Baylor College of Medicine and the Molecular Medicine program at the Cleveland Clinic/Case Western Reserve University. The authors also demonstrate the feasibility of creating a multidisciplinary graduate program in molecular medicine that integrates pathophysiology and clinical medicine without extending training time. They conclude with a discussion of the similarities in training approaches that exist despite the fact that each program was independently developed and offer observations that emerged during their collaboration that may benefit others who are considering developing similar programs.

  3. A neutron tomography facility at a low power research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Körner, S; Von Tobel, P; Rauch, H

    2001-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) provides a very efficient tool in the field of non-destructive testing as well as for many applications in fundamental research. A neutron beam penetrating a specimen is attenuated by the sample material and detected by a two-dimensional (2D) imaging device. The image contains information about materials and structure inside the sample because neutrons are attenuated according to the basic law of radiation attenuation. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, as for example, hydrogen and boron, but penetrate many heavy materials. Therefore, NR can yield important information not obtainable by more traditional methods. Nevertheless, there are many aspects of structure, both quantitative and qualitative, that are not accessible from 2D transmission images. Hence, there is an interest in three-dimensional neutron imaging. At the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Atominstitut in Austria a neutron tomography facility has been installed. The neutron flux at ...

  4. Development of a Pilot Data Management Infrastructure for Biomedical Researchers at University of Manchester – Approach, Findings, Challenges and Outlook of the MaDAM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meik Poschen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Management and curation of digital data has been becoming ever more important in a higher education and research environment characterised by large and complex data, demand for more interdisciplinary and collaborative work, extended funder requirements and use of e-infrastructures to facilitate new research methods and paradigms. This paper presents the approach, technical infrastructure, findings, challenges and outlook (including future development within the successor project, MiSS of the ‘MaDAM: Pilot data management infrastructure for biomedical researchers at University of Manchester’ project funded under the infrastructure strand of the JISC Managing Research Data (JISCMRD programme. MaDAM developed a pilot research data management solution at the University of Manchester based on biomedical researchers’ requirements, which includes technical and governance components with the flexibility to meet future needs across multiple research groups and disciplines.

  5. An ontology-based approach for data integration - an application in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, I.; Marshall, M.S.; et al, not CWI; Cardoso, J.; et al, not CWI

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly stru

  6. The NASA Lewis Research Center Internal Fluid Mechanics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, A. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.; Andrews, T. B.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental facility specifically designed to investigate internal fluid duct flows is described. It is built in a modular fashion so that a variety of internal flow test hardware can be installed in the facility with minimal facility reconfiguration. The facility and test hardware interfaces are discussed along with design constraints of future test hardware. The plenum flow conditioning approach is also detailed. Available instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities are discussed. The incoming flow quality was documented over the current facility operating range. The incoming flow produces well behaved turbulent boundary layers with a uniform core. For the calibration duct used, the boundary layers approached 10 percent of the duct radius. Freestream turbulence levels at the various operating conditions varied from 0.64 to 0.69 percent of the average freestream velocity.

  7. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  8. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research. PMID:25574289

  9. Biases in grant proposal success rates, funding rates and award sizes affect the geographical distribution of funding for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Wayne P

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the United States to most efficiently make breakthroughs on the biology, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases requires that physicians and scientists in each state have equal access to federal research grants and grant dollars. However, despite legislative and administrative efforts to ensure equal access, the majority of funding for biomedical research is concentrated in a minority of states. To gain insight into the causes of such disparity, funding metrics were examined for all NIH research project grants (RPGs) from 2004 to 2013. State-by-state differences in per application success rates, per investigator funding rates, and average award size each contributed significantly to vast disparities (greater than 100-fold range) in per capita RPG funding to individual states. To the extent tested, there was no significant association overall between scientific productivity and per capita funding, suggesting that the unbalanced allocation of funding is unrelated to the quality of scientists in each state. These findings reveal key sources of bias in, and new insight into the accuracy of, the funding process. They also support evidence-based recommendations for how the NIH could better utilize the scientific talent and capacity that is present throughout the United States.

  10. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  11. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  12. Technology transfer from biomedical research to clinical practice: measuring innovation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, E Andrew; Elkin, Peter L

    2013-12-01

    Studies documented 17 years of transfer time from clinical trials to practice of care. Launched in 2002, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) translational research initiative needs to develop metrics for impact assessment. A recent White House report highlighted that research and development productivity is declining as a result of increased research spending while the new drugs output is flat. The goal of this study was to develop an expanded model of research-based innovation and performance thresholds of transfer from research to practice. Models for transfer of research to practice have been collected and reviewed. Subsequently, innovation pathways have been specified based on common characteristics. An integrated, intellectual property transfer model is described. The central but often disregarded role of research innovation disclosure is highlighted. Measures of research transfer and milestones of progress have been identified based on the Association of University Technology Managers 2012 performance reports. Numeric milestones of technology transfer are recommended at threshold (top 50%), target (top 25%), and stretch goal (top 10%) performance levels. Transfer measures and corresponding target levels include research spending to disclosure (0.81), patents to start-up (>0.1), patents to licenses (>2.25), and average per license income (>$48,000). Several limitations of measurement are described. Academic institutions should take strategic steps to bring innovation to the center of scholarly discussions. Research on research, particularly on pathways to disclosures, is needed to improve R&D productivity. Researchers should be informed about the technology transfer performance of their institution and regulations should better support innovators.

  13. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  14. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  15. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  16. Biomedical Research and the Animal Rights Movement: A Contrast in Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1993-01-01

    This article explains how animals are used in research in an effort to counteract animal rights literature. Reveals how medical professionals and others trained in scholarship have misquoted the scientific literature to bolster their claims against the utility of animal research. (PR)

  17. Demand for Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Physiology Research by Undergraduate Students in Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Kari L.; Hein, Patrick W.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Physiology as a discipline is uniquely positioned to engage undergraduate students in interdisciplinary research in response to the 2006-2011 National Science Foundation Strategic Plan call for innovative transformational research, which emphasizes multidisciplinary projects. To prepare undergraduates for careers that cross disciplinary…

  18. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  19. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  20. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  1. F1000Research: Tics welcomes you to 21st century biomedical publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Tics are repeated, usually suppressible movements or vocalizations. They are the defining features of tic disorders including Tourette syndrome, but many people have them for shorter durations at some point in childhood. This editorial marks the beginning of the F1000RESEARCH: Tics specialty section, an effort to provide a single portal to modern research on tics and tic disorders. Publications in F1000RESEARCH: Tics benefit from F1000RESEARCH's novel approach to publishing, in which articles can be published within days of submission. Peer review happens after publication and is fully open. When the submitted article or a revision is approved, it is promptly submitted to repositories including NIH's PubMed Central. In addition to research articles and reviews, F1000RESEARCH: Tics will publish study protocols, clinical practice articles, case reports, and data notes. The home page will also provide links to expert recommendations of articles that have appeared elsewhere, and to relevant posters from scientific meetings (http://f1000.com/posters/). F1000RESEARCH's approach is enabled by the capabilities of internet publication, including space to publish the full results of a study rather than just a few graphs selected from the data. Publishing methodologically sound studies without requiring subjective editorial judgments of novelty or broad appeal brings numerous advantages, including minimizing publication bias and shining the light of openness on peer review. To celebrate the launch of the Tics section, F1000RESEARCH is offering discounted article processing charges for manuscripts submitted by March 1st 2015. I have had good experiences publishing in F1000RESEARCH, and look forward to seeing a wide range of tic-related manuscripts submitted.

  2. The use of stem cells in biomedical research. Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On March 22, 1999, Carl B. Feldbaum, President of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), submitted comments to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee (NBAC) in response to their request for comments on stem cell research. In the statement submitted to Harold Shapiro, PhD (Chair, NBAC), Mr. Feldbaum made clear that BIO members want to ensure that the promise of new therapies and cures from research using stem cells is realized in a responsible and ethical way. In addition, all BIO members are committed to ensuring that every avenue of promising research can be responsibly explored to improve the health of individuals living with currently intractable diseases.

  3. Implementation Plans for a Systems Microbiology and Extremophile Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-04-20

    solve DOE problems. Recent advances in whole-genome sequencing for a variety of organisms and improvements in high-throughput instrumentation have contributed to a rapid transition of the biological research paradigm towards understanding biology at a systems level. As a result, biology is evolving from a descriptive to a quantitative, ultimately predictive science where the ability to collect and productively use large amounts of biological data is crucial. Understanding how the ensemble of proteins in cells gives rise to biological outcomes is fundamental to systems biology. These advances will require new technologies and approaches to measure and track the temporal and spatial disposition of proteins in cells and how networks of proteins and other regulatory molecules give rise to specific activities. The DOE has a strong interest in promoting the application of systems biology to understanding microbial function and this comprises a major focus of its Genomics:GTL program. A major problem in pursuing what has been termed “systems microbiology” is the lack of the facilities and infrastructure for conducting this new style of research. To solve this problem, the Genomics:GTL program has funded a number of large-scale research centers focused on either mission-oriented outcomes, such as bioenergy, or basic technologies, such as gene sequencing, high-throughput proteomics or the identification of protein complexes. Although these centers generate data that will be useful to the research community, their scientific goals are relatively narrow and are not designed to accommodate the general community need for advanced capabilities for systems microbiology research.

  4. The South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLAM BRC case register: development and descriptive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case registers have been used extensively in mental health research. Recent developments in electronic medical records, and in computer software to search and analyse these in anonymised format, have the potential to revolutionise this research tool. Methods We describe the development of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM Biomedical Research Centre (BRC Case Register Interactive Search tool (CRIS which allows research-accessible datasets to be derived from SLAM, the largest provider of secondary mental healthcare in Europe. All clinical data, including free text, are available for analysis in the form of anonymised datasets. Development involved both the building of the system and setting in place the necessary security (with both functional and procedural elements. Results Descriptive data are presented for the Register database as of October 2008. The database at that point included 122,440 cases, 35,396 of whom were receiving active case management under the Care Programme Approach. In terms of gender and ethnicity, the database was reasonably representative of the source population. The most common assigned primary diagnoses were within the ICD mood disorders (n = 12,756 category followed by schizophrenia and related disorders (8158, substance misuse (7749, neuroses (7105 and organic disorders (6414. Conclusion The SLAM BRC Case Register represents a 'new generation' of this research design, built on a long-running system of fully electronic clinical records and allowing in-depth secondary analysis of both numerical, string and free text data, whilst preserving anonymity through technical and procedural safeguards.

  5. [The role of bioethics committees in the systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-08-01

    Bioethics committees are along with ethic regulations and rules of law one of three main pillars in the system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants. Although principal directives for bioethics committees are established by international guidelines, detailed regulations may differ in particular states. The aim of this article was to compare two bioethic committees systems: French and Polish one. Historical beginnings of the bioethics committees system in France and in Poland are briefly mentioned, Subsequently, the networks of bioethics committees in both countries are compared. Although the number of bioethics committees (Research Ethic Committees) in both countries is comparable, the procedure of their establishment varies. French committees are based on administrative division of the country and divide on regional and interregional committees. In Poland, bioethics committees are established by medical universities, medical research and development units or regional chambers of physicians and dentists. In France there is no equivalent of Appeal Bioethics Committee, however one could appeal from the negative bioethics committee's opinion. The composition of French bioethics committees is more diverse and half of the members are not related to medical professions. Members of French committees are named on indefinite term by headmaster of Regional Health Agency after having been chosen in competition for the post. In Poland members are called on three-year-term but the rotation of members is not overwhelming since there is no limit of terms for one member. French legal solutions seems more secure for scientific bioethics research participants. For this reason, a detailed research on legislation in other countries is necessary before introducing any new regulations in Polish law.

  6. [First South american network of biomedical research. Education and biotechnology for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Marcelo J; Velázquez, Graciela; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Chamorro, Gustavo; Coluchi, Norma; Pirmez, Claude; Savino, Wilson; Barbeito, Luis; Arzt, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is in our interest, in this brief manuscript, to report the creation of the first program of regional integration of a network of research institutes in Biomedicine belonging to members of the MERCOSUR countries. We discuss some of the foundations that gave sustenance to its creation and its objectives in the medium and long term. In addition, we consider the potential of the results of this program in the fields of applied medical research, education and biotechnology.

  7. Research enrichment: evaluation of structured research in the curriculum for dental medicine students as part of the vertical and horizontal integration of biomedical training and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Tanis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research programs within medical and dental schools are important vehicles for biomedical and clinical discovery, serving as effective teaching and learning tools by providing situations in which predoctoral students develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. Although research programs at many medical and dental schools are well-established, they may not be well integrated into the predoctoral curriculum to effectively support the learning objectives for their students. Methods A series of structured seminars, incorporating faculty research, was designed for first-year dental students at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine to reinforce and support the concepts and skills taught in concurrent courses. A structured research enrichment period was also created to facilitate student engagement in active research using faculty and student curricular release time. Course evaluations and surveys were administered to gauge student perceptions of the curricular integration of research, the impact of these seminars on recruitment to the research program, and overall levels of student satisfaction with research enrichment. Results The analysis of course surveys revealed that students perceived the research-containing seminars effectively illustrated concepts, were logically sequenced, and were well-integrated into their curriculum. In addition, analysis of surveys revealed that the Integration Seminar courses motivated students to engage in research enrichment. Finally, this analysis provided evidence that students were very satisfied with their overall learning experience during research enrichment. Conclusion Curricular integration is one method of improving the teaching and learning of complicated and inter-related concepts, providing an opportunity to incorporate research training and objectives into traditionally separate didactic courses. Despite the benefits of curricular integration, finding

  8. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  9. Understanding the relative valuation of research impact: a best–worst scaling experiment of the general public and biomedical and health researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alexandra; Potoglou, Dimitris; Patil, Sunil; Burge, Peter; Guthrie, Susan; King, Suzanne; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To test the use of best–worst scaling (BWS) experiments in valuing different types of biomedical and health research impact, and (2) to explore how different types of research impact are valued by different stakeholder groups. Design Survey-based BWS experiment and discrete choice modelling. Setting The UK. Participants Current and recent UK Medical Research Council grant holders and a representative sample of the general public recruited from an online panel. Results In relation to the study's 2 objectives: (1) we demonstrate the application of BWS methodology in the quantitative assessment and valuation of research impact. (2) The general public and researchers provided similar valuations for research impacts such as improved life expectancy, job creation and reduced health costs, but there was less agreement between the groups on other impacts, including commercial capacity development, training and dissemination. Conclusions This is the second time that a discrete choice experiment has been used to assess how the general public and researchers value different types of research impact, and the first time that BWS has been used to elicit these choices. While the 2 groups value different research impacts in different ways, we note that where they agree, this is generally about matters that are seemingly more important and associated with wider social benefit, rather than impacts occurring within the research system. These findings are a first step in exploring how the beneficiaries and producers of research value different kinds of impact, an important consideration given the growing emphasis on funding and assessing research on the basis of (potential) impact. Future research should refine and replicate both the current study and that of Miller et al in other countries and disciplines. PMID:27540096

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research - Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs.

  11. Poor antibody validation is a challenge in biomedical research: a case study for detection of c-FLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Pennarun, Bodvael; Stancu, Andreea Lucia; Nadler, Monica; Muraru, Maria Sinziana; Bertomeu, Thierry; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2013-10-01

    Successful translation of findings derived from preclinical studies into effective therapies is critical in biomedical research. Lack of robustness and reproducibility of the preclinical data, due to insufficient number of repeats, inadequate cell-based and mouse models contribute to the poor success rate. Antibodies are widely used in preclinical research, notably to determine the expression of potential therapeutic targets in tissues of interest, including tumors, but also to identify disease and/or treatment response biomarkers. We sought to determine whether the current antibody characterization standards in preclinical research are sufficient to ensure reliability of the data found in peer-reviewed publications. To address this issue, we used detection of the protein c-FLIP, a major factor of resistance to apoptosis, as a proof of concept. Accurate detection of endogenous c-FLIP levels in the preclinical settings is imperative since it is considered as a potential theranostic biomarker. Several sources of c-FLIP antibodies validated by their manufacturer and recommended for western blotting were therefore rigorously tested. We found a wide divergence in immune recognition properties. While these antibodies have been used in many publications, our results show that several of them failed to detect endogenous c-FLIP protein by Western blotting. Our results suggest that antibody validation standards are inadequate, and that systematic use of genetic knockdowns and/or knockouts to establish proof of specificity is critical, even for antibodies previously used in the scientific literature. Because antibodies are fundamental tools in both preclinical and clinical research, ensuring their specificity is crucial.

  12. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine.

  13. A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S. V.; Anderson, C. B.; Jakovljevic, J.; Khan, T.; McCullough, L. B.; Wray, N. P.; Brody, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS

  14. Research of Road Traffic Facilities System Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Jian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the labor efficiency and economic benefit of road traffic facilities system and reduce resource waste, a scheme of road traffic facilities system based on GIS is provided in this paper. In the new scheme, firstly, we proposed Visual C++ embedding MapX component to program for the visualization of data and function analysis of space, and constructed core table in database and established property database and space database to improve efficiency; then we put forward the system function of traditional traffic facilities such as data collection, construction and management of engineering and so on. The results show that the system can ensure the safety and smooth of traffic than ever.

  15. Biomedical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    Biomedical libraries are discussed as a distinct and specialized group of special libraries and their unique services and user interactions are described. The move toward professional standards, as evidenced by the Medical Library Association's new certification program, and the current state of development for a new section of IFLA established…

  16. Ethics of open access to biomedical research: Just a special case of ethics of open access to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnad Stevan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ethical case for Open Access (OA (free online access to research findings is especially salient when it is public health that is being compromised by needless access restrictions. But the ethical imperative for OA is far more general: It applies to all scientific and scholarly research findings published in peer-reviewed journals. And peer-to-peer access is far more important than direct public access. Most research is funded so as to be conducted and published, by researchers, in order to be taken up, used, and built upon in further research and applications, again by researchers (pure and applied, including practitioners, for the benefit of the public that funded it – not in order to generate revenue for the peer-reviewed journal publishing industry (nor even because there is a burning public desire to read much of it. Hence OA needs to be mandated, by researchers' institutions and funders, for all research.

  17. Ethics of open access to biomedical research: just a special case of ethics of open access to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnad, Stevan

    2007-12-07

    The ethical case for Open Access (OA) (free online access) to research findings is especially salient when it is public health that is being compromised by needless access restrictions. But the ethical imperative for OA is far more general: It applies to all scientific and scholarly research findings published in peer-reviewed journals. And peer-to-peer access is far more important than direct public access. Most research is funded so as to be conducted and published, by researchers, in order to be taken up, used, and built upon in further research and applications, again by researchers (pure and applied, including practitioners), for the benefit of the public that funded it - not in order to generate revenue for the peer-reviewed journal publishing industry (nor even because there is a burning public desire to read much of it). Hence OA needs to be mandated, by researchers' institutions and funders, for all research.

  18. BioMedBridges: Mapping and registry of biomedical science research infrastructure standards

    OpenAIRE

    McMurry, Julie; Parkinson, Helen; Gormanns, Philipp; Muilu, Juha; Sariyar, Murat; Swertz, Morris; Hendriksen, Dennis; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; Pang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The development of a prototype data model registry is the objective of BioMedBridges Deliverable 3.2, with contributions from project partners and in collaboration with BBMRI. The overall aim is to promote FAIR principles for data (Find, Access, Integrate and Reuse), therefore the Meta Models and Mappings Registry is designed to make it easier for researchers, data stewards and tools producers to find, compare, and choose existing data models, formats, and guidelines, and in particular to pro...

  19. Splicing-Sensitive DNA-Microarrays: Peculiarities and Application in Biomedical Research (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (АS) provides a variety of protein and mature mRNA isoforms encoded by a single gene, and is the essential component of cell and tissue differentiation and functioning. DNA-microarrays are highly productive transcriptome research technique both at the level of total gene expression assessment and alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms exploration. The study of AS patterns requires thorough probe design to achieve appropriate accuracy of the analysis. There are tw...

  20. Splicing-Sensitive DNA-Microarrays: Peculiarities and Applicationin Biomedical Research (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (АS) provides a variety of protein and mature mRNA isoforms encoded by a single gene, and is the essential component of cell and tissue differentiation and functioning. DNA-microarrays are highly productive transcriptome research technique both at the level of total gene expression assessment and alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms exploration. The study of AS patterns requires thorough probe design to achieve appropriate accuracy of the analysis. There are two types ...