Sample records for biomedical optical imaging

  1. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  2. Optomechatronics for Biomedical Optical Imaging: An Overview


    Cho Hyungsuck


    The use of optomechatronic technology, particularly in biomedical optical imaging, is becoming pronounced and ever increasing due to its synergistic effect of the integration of optics and mechatronics. The background of this trend is that the biomedical optical imaging for example in-vivo imaging related to retraction of tissues, diagnosis, and surgical operations have a variety of challenges due to complexity in internal structure and properties of biological body and the resulting optical ...

  3. Optomechatronics for Biomedical Optical Imaging: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyungsuck


    Full Text Available The use of optomechatronic technology, particularly in biomedical optical imaging, is becoming pronounced and ever increasing due to its synergistic effect of the integration of optics and mechatronics. The background of this trend is that the biomedical optical imaging for example in-vivo imaging related to retraction of tissues, diagnosis, and surgical operations have a variety of challenges due to complexity in internal structure and properties of biological body and the resulting optical phenomena. This paper addresses the technical issues related to tissue imaging, visualization of interior surfaces of organs, laparoscopic and endoscopic imaging and imaging of neuronal activities and structures. Within such problem domains the paper overviews the states of the art technology focused on how optical components are fused together with those of mechatronics to create the functionalities required for the imaging systems. Future perspective of the optical imaging in biomedical field is presented in short.

  4. Fluorescent quantum dots: synthesis, biomedical optical imaging, and biosafety assessment. (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyuan; Peng, Fei; Zhong, Yiling; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao


    The marriage of nanomaterials with biology has significantly promoted advancement of biological techniques, profoundly facilitating basic research and practical applications in biological and biomedical fields. Taking advantages of unique optical properties (e.g., strong fluorescence, robust photostability, size-tunable emission wavelengths, etc.), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), appearing as high-performance biological fluorescent nanoprobes, have been extensively explored for a variety of biomedical optical imaging applications. In this review, we present representative synthetic strategies for preparation of QDs and their applications in biomedical optical imaging, as well as risk assessments in vitro and in vivo. Briefly, we first summarize recent progress in fabrication of QDs via two rudimentary approaches, i.e., organometallic route and aqueous synthesis. Next we present representative achievement in QDs-based in vitro and in vivo biomedical optical imaging applications. We further discuss the toxicity assessment of QDs, ranging from cell studies to animal models. In the final section, we discuss challenges and perspectives for the QDs-relative bioapplications in the future.

  5. Computational optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, Sarhan M


    Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging in Personal Care Studies; Guojin Zhang, Roger L. McMullen, Richard Mendelsohn, and Osama M. MusaFluorescence Bioimaging with Applications to Chemistry; Ufana Riaz and S.M. AshrafNew Trends in Immunohistochemical, Genome, and Metabolomics Imaging; G. Livanos, Aditi Deshpande, C. Narayan, Ying Na, T. Quang, T. Farrahi, R. Koglin, Suman Shrestha, M. Zervakis, and George C. GiakosDeveloping a Comprehensive Taxonomy for Human Cell Types; Richard Conroy and Vinay PaiFunctional Near-Infrared S

  6. Proceedings of the international society for optical engineering biomedical image processing 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovik, A.G.; Howard, V.


    This book contains the proceedings of biomedical image processing. Topics covered include: Filtering and reconstruction of biomedical images; analysis, classification and recognition of biomedical images; and 3-D microscopy.

  7. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A


    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  8. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A


    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  9. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David


    to conventional piezoelectric transducers. These kind of sensors, made of biocompatible polymers, are good candidates for the sensing element in an optoacoustic endoscope because of its high sensitivity, its shape and its non-brittle and non-electric nature. The acoustic sensitivity of the intrinsic fiber optic......We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. In this work we compare experimentally the intrinsic ultrasonic sensitivities of a PMMA mPOF with other three optical fibers: a singlemode silica optical fiber, a single-mode polymer optical fiber and a multimode graded...

  10. Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs (United States)

    Turchin, I. V.


    Optical bioimaging methods have a wide range of applications in the life sciences, most notably including the molecular resolution study of subcellular structures, small animal molecular imaging, and structural and functional clinical diagnostics of tissue layers and organs. We review fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent macroscopy, optical coherence tomography, optoacoustic tomography, and optical diffuse spectroscopy and tomography from the standpoint of physical fundamentals, applications, and progress.

  11. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D


    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  12. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  13. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  14. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  15. Imaging, scattering, and spectroscopic systems for biomedical optics: Tools for bench top and clinical applications (United States)

    Cottrell, William J.

    Optical advances have had a profound impact on biology and medicine. The capabilities range from sensing biological analytes to whole animal and subcellular imaging and clinical therapies. The work presented in this thesis describes three independent and multifunctional optical systems, which explore clinical therapy at the tissue level, biological structure at the cell/organelle level, and the function of underlying fundamental cellular processes. First, we present a portable clinical instrument for delivering delta-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) while performing noninvasive spectroscopic monitoring in vivo. Using an off-surface probe, the instrument delivered the treatment beam to a user-defined field on the skin and performed reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies at two regions within this field. The instrument was used to monitor photosensitizer fluorescence photobleaching, fluorescent photoproduct kinetics, and blood oxygen saturation during a clinical ALA-PDT trial on superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Protoporphyrin IX and photoproduct fluorescence excited by the 632.8 nm PDT treatment laser was collected between 665 and 775 nm. During a series of brief treatment interruptions at programmable time points, white-light reflectance spectra between 475 and 775 nm were acquired. Fluorescence spectra were corrected for the effects of absorption and scattering, informed by the reflectance measurements, and then decomposed into known fluorophore contributions in real time using a robust singular-value decomposition fitting routine. Reflectance spectra additionally provided information on hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We next describe the incorporation of this instrument into clinical trials at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY). In this trial we examined the effects of light irradiance on photodynamic efficiency and pain. The rate of singlet-oxygen production depends on the product of irradiance and photosensitizer and oxygen

  16. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner


    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  17. Identification and elimination of reflection artifacts in biomedical photoacoustic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun


    Photoacoustic (PA) or optoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that acoustically detects optical absorption contrast via the PA effect, a physical phenomenon that converts absorbed optical energy into acoustic energy. PA imaging is one of the fastest growing fields in biomedical optics, and

  18. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools.  It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.

  19. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  20. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin


    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  1. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan


    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  2. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J


    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  3. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei


    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  4. Optical nanoparticles: synthesis and biomedical application (United States)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Chu, Viet Ha; Huan Le, Quang; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thanh Nguyen, Lai; Pham, Duc Minh; Thuan Tong, Kim; Hoa Do, Quang; Vu, Duong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Tan Pham, Minh; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Son Vu, Van; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Tran, Anh Duc; Thuong Trinh, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thai An


    This paper presents a summary of our results on studies of synthesis and biomedical application of optical nanoparticles. Gold, dye-doped silica based and core-shell multifunctional multilayer (SiO2/Au, Fe3O4/SiO2, Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) water-monodispersed nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical route and surface modified with proteins and biocompatible chemical reagents. The particles were conjugated with antibody or aptamer for specific detecting and imaging bacteria and cancer cells. The photothermal effects of gold nanoshells (SiO2/Au and Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) on cells and tissues were investigated. The nano silver substrates were developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to detect melamine.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel


    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  6. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul


    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  7. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.

  8. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin;


    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...... wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  9. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College


    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  10. Envisioning the Future (Biomedical Imaging) (United States)

    ... imaging era? Dr. Zerhouni : We've seen an explosion of new ideas. For example, at NIH, Dr. ... triggered by ultrasound or other techniques, such as heat. MedlinePlus : Imaging technologies aren't cheap. Will NIH ...

  11. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan


    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  12. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging. (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yueping; Liu, Yu; Fu, Weiling; Luo, Yang


    Terahertz (THz=10(12)Hz) radiation has attracted wide attention for its unprecedented sensing ability and its noninvasive and nonionizing properties. Tremendous strides in THz instrumentation have prompted impressive breakthroughs in THz biomedical research. Here, we review the current state of THz spectroscopy and imaging in various biomedical applications ranging from biomolecules, including DNA/RNA, amino acids/peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, to cells and tissues. We also address the potential biological effects of THz radiation during its biological applications and propose future prospects for this cutting-edge technology.

  13. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization. (United States)

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea


    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

  14. Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering)

    CERN Document Server


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is emerging as a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue. This book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from biomedical and clinical perspectives. The chapters are written by leading research groups, in a style comprehensible to a broad audience.

  15. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe


    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  16. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio


    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  17. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer. (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I


    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage "classical" biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods involved are applicable to other areas of biomedical optics and optoelectronics, such as microscopic imaging, spectroscopy, spectral imaging, opto-acoustic tomography, fluorescence imaging etc., all of which are with potential biomedical application. Although all described methods are novel and important, the emphasis of this review has been placed on three technologies introduced in the 1990's and still undergoing vigorous development: Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and polarization-sensitive retinal scanning.

  18. Multiple energy synchrotron biomedical imaging system (United States)

    Bassey, B.; Martinson, M.; Samadi, N.; Belev, G.; Karanfil, C.; Qi, P.; Chapman, D.


    A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The imaging system is made up of a cylindrically bent Laue single silicon (5,1,1) crystal monochromator, scanning and positioning stages for the subjects, flat panel (area) detector, and a data acquisition and control system. Depending on the crystal’s bent radius, reflection type, and the horizontal beam width of the filtered synchrotron radiation (20-50 keV) used, the size and spectral energy range of the focused beam prepared varied. For example, with a bent radius of 95 cm, a (1,1,1) type reflection and a 50 mm wide beam, a 0.5 mm wide focused beam of spectral energy range 27 keV-43 keV was obtained. This spectral energy range covers the K-edges of iodine (33.17 keV), xenon (34.56 keV), cesium (35.99 keV), and barium (37.44 keV) some of these elements are used as biomedical and clinical contrast agents. Using the developed imaging system, a test subject composed of iodine, xenon, cesium, and barium along with water and bone were imaged and their projected concentrations successfully extracted. The estimated dose rate to test subjects imaged at a ring current of 200 mA is 8.7 mGy s-1, corresponding to a cumulative dose of 1.3 Gy and a dose of 26.1 mGy per image. Potential biomedical applications of the imaging system will include projection imaging that requires any of the extracted elements as a contrast agent and multi-contrast K-edge imaging.

  19. Biomedical Image Analysis by Program "Vision Assistant" and "Labview"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak


    Full Text Available This paper introduces application in image analysis of biomedical images. General task is focused on analysis and diagnosis biomedical images obtained from program ImageJ. There are described methods which can be used for images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on particle analysis, pattern matching techniques. For this task was chosensophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  20. Carbon nanotubes as optical biomedical sensors. (United States)

    Kruss, Sebastian; Hilmer, Andrew J; Zhang, Jingqing; Reuel, Nigel F; Mu, Bin; Strano, Michael S


    Biosensors are important tools in biomedical research. Moreover, they are becoming an essential part of modern healthcare. In the future, biosensor development will become even more crucial due to the demand for personalized-medicine, point-of care devices and cheaper diagnostic tools. Substantial advances in sensor technology are often fueled by the advent of new materials. Therefore, nanomaterials have motivated a large body of research and such materials have been implemented into biosensor devices. Among these new materials carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are especially promising building blocks for biosensors due to their unique electronic and optical properties. Carbon nanotubes are rolled-up cylinders of carbon monolayers (graphene). They can be chemically modified in such a way that biologically relevant molecules can be detected with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this review article we will discuss how carbon nanotubes can be used to create biosensors. We review the latest advancements of optical carbon nanotube based biosensors with a special focus on near-infrared (NIR)-fluorescence, Raman-scattering and fluorescence quenching.

  1. A Multimodal Nanocomposite for Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Wu, Aiguo; Paunesku, Tatjana; Zhang, Zhuoli; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jörg; Yaghmai, Vahid; Li, Debiao; Omary, Reed A.; Woloschak, Gayle E.


    A multimodal nanocomposite was designed, synthesized with super-paramagnetic core (CoFe2O4), noble metal corona (Au), and semiconductor shell (TiO2). The sizes of core, core-corona, and core-corona-shell particles were determined by TEM. This multimodal nanocrystal showed promise as a contrast agent for two of the most widely used biomedical imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT). Finally, these nanocomposites were coated with a peptide SN-50. This led to their ready uptake by the cultured cells and targeted the nanocomposites to the pores of nuclear membrane. Inside cells, this nanocomposite retained its integrity as shown by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Inside cells imaged by XFM we found the complex elemental signature of nanoconjugates (Ti-Co-Fe-Au) always co-registered in the 2D elemental map of the cell. PMID:24817775

  2. The OPFOS microscopy family: High-resolution optical-sectioning of biomedical specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, Jan A N; Adriaens, Dominique; Dirckx, Joris J J


    We report on the recently emerging (Laser) Light Sheet based Fluorescence Microscopy field (LSFM). The techniques used in this field allow to study and visualize biomedical objects non-destructively in high-resolution through virtual optical sectioning with sheets of laser light. Fluorescence originating in the cross section of the sheet and sample is recorded orthogonally with a camera. In this paper, the first implementation of LSFM to image biomedical tissue in three dimensions - Orthogonal-Plane Fluorescence Optical Sectioning microscopy (OPFOS) - is discussed. Since then many similar and derived methods have surfaced (SPIM, Ultramicroscopy, HR-OPFOS, mSPIM, DSLM, TSLIM...) which we all briefly discuss. All these optical sectioning methods create images showing histological detail. We illustrate the applicability of LSFM on several specimen types with application in biomedical and life sciences.

  3. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Creating Biomedical Technologies to Improve Health En Español | Site Map | ... 2016 VIEW MORE NEWS AND HIGHLIGHTS Design by Biomedical Undergraduate Teams Challenge RSS LISTSERV YOUTUBE FACEBOOK TWITTER ...

  4. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room...

  5. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Manana Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  6. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering,...

  7. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer


    Gramatikov, Boris I


    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage “classical” biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods invo...

  8. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences. (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas


    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  9. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek


    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  10. Nonlinear Polarimetric Microscopy for Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Samim, Masood

    A framework for the nonlinear optical polarimetry and polarimetric microscopy is developed. Mathematical equations are derived in terms of linear and nonlinear Stokes Mueller formalism, which comprehensively characterize the polarization properties of the incoming and outgoing radiations, and provide structural information about the organization of the investigated materials. The algebraic formalism developed in this thesis simplifies many predictions for a nonlinear polarimetry study and provides an intuitive understanding of various polarization properties for radiations and the intervening medium. For polarimetric microscopy experiments, a custom fast-scanning differential polarization microscope is developed, which is also capable of real-time three-dimensional imaging. The setup is equipped with a pair of high-speed resonant and galvanometric scanning mirrors, and supplemented by advanced adaptive optics and data acquisition modules. The scanning mirrors when combined with the adaptive optics deformable mirror enable fast 3D imaging. Deformable membrane mirrors and genetic algorithm optimization routines are employed to improve the imaging conditions including correcting the optical aberrations, maximizing signal intensities, and minimizing point-spread-functions of the focal volume. A field-programmable-gate array (FPGA) chip is exploited to rapidly acquire and process the multidimensional data. Using the nonlinear optical polarimetry framework and the home-built polarization microscope, a few biologically important tissues are measured and analyzed to gain insight as to their structure and dynamics. The structure and distribution of muscle sarcomere myosins, connective tissue collagen, carbohydrate-rich starch, and fruit fly eye retinal molecules are characterized with revealing polarization studies. In each case, using the theoretical framework, polarization sensitive data are analyzed to decipher the molecular orientations and nonlinear optical

  11. Non-contact biomedical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Rousseau, Guy; Gauthier, Bruno; Blouin, Alain; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre


    The detection of ultrasound in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) usually relies on ultrasonic transducers in contact with the biological tissue through a coupling medium. This is a major drawback for important potential applications such as surgery. Here we report the use of a remote optical method, derived from industrial laser-ultrasonics, to detect ultrasound in tissues. This approach enables non-contact PAT (NCPAT) without exceeding laser exposure safety limits. The sensitivity of the method is based on the use of suitably shaped detection laser pulses and a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer in differential configuration. Reliable image reconstruction is obtained by measuring remotely the surface profile of the tissue with an optical coherence tomography system. The proposed method also allows non-contact ultrasound imaging (US) by applying a second reconstruction algorithm to the data acquired for NCPAT. Endogenous and exogenous inclusions exhibiting optical and acoustic contrasts were detected ex vivo in chicken breast and calf brain specimens. Inclusions down to 0.3 mm in size were detected at depths exceeding 1 cm. The method could expand the scope of photoacoustic and US to in-vivo biomedical applications where contact is impractical.

  12. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd


    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  13. Optical image encryption topology. (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen


    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  14. Review of biomedical optical imaging—a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis (United States)

    Balas, Costas


    This paper reviews the recent developments in the field of biomedical optical imaging, emphasizing technologies that have been moved from 'bench top to bedside'. Important new developments in this field allow for unprecedented visualization of the tissue microstructure and enable quantitative mapping of disease-specific endogenous and exogenous substances. With these advances, optical imaging technologies are becoming powerful clinical tools for non-invasive and objective diagnosis, guided treatment and monitoring therapies. Recent developments in visible and infrared diffuse spectroscopy and imaging, spectral imaging, optical coherence tomography, confocal imaging, molecular imaging and dynamic spectral imaging are presented together with their derivative medical devices. Their perspectives and challenges are discussed.

  15. Biomedical images texture detail denoising based on PDE (United States)

    Chen, Guan-nan; Pan, Jian-ji; Li, Chao; Chen, Rong; Lin, Ju-qiang; Yan, Kun-tao; Huang, Zu-fang


    Biomedical images denosing based on Partial Differential Equation are well-known for their good processing results. General denosing methods based on PDE can remove the noises of images with gentle changes and preserve more structure details of edges, but have a poor effectiveness on the denosing of biomedical images with many texture details. This paper attempts to make an overview of biomedical images texture detail denosing based on PDE. Subsequently, Three kinds of important image denosing schemes are introduced in this paper: one is image denosing based on the adaptive parameter estimation total variation model, which denosing the images based on region energy distribution; the second is using G norm on the perception scale, which provides a more intuitive understanding of this norm; the final is multi-scale denosing decomposition. The above methods involved can preserve more structures of biomedical images texture detail. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the applications of those three methods. In the end, the future trend of biomedical images texture detail denosing Based on PDE is pointed out.

  16. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J


    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  17. Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications. (United States)

    Telenkov, Sergey; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas; Worthington, Arthur


    We report the development of a frequency-domain biomedical photoacoustic imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection, and processing coupled with a beam-forming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Sensitivity to optical contrast was demonstrated using tissue-mimicking phantoms and in-vivo tissue samples.

  18. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte


    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  19. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Shah, R Y; Agrawal, Y K


    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and biomedical field and extending the use of the same in pharmaceutical industry as probes in quality control and dosage form analysis.

  20. A robust pointer segmentation in biomedical images toward building a visual ontology for biomedical article retrieval (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Simpson, Matthew; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.


    Pointers (arrows and symbols) are frequently used in biomedical images to highlight specific image regions of interest (ROIs) that are mentioned in figure captions and/or text discussion. Detection of pointers is the first step toward extracting relevant visual features from ROIs and combining them with textual descriptions for a multimodal (text and image) biomedical article retrieval system. Recently we developed a pointer recognition algorithm based on an edge-based pointer segmentation method, and subsequently reported improvements made on our initial approach involving the use of Active Shape Models (ASM) for pointer recognition and region growing-based method for pointer segmentation. These methods contributed to improving the recall of pointer recognition but not much to the precision. The method discussed in this article is our recent effort to improve the precision rate. Evaluation performed on two datasets and compared with other pointer segmentation methods show significantly improved precision and the highest F1 score.

  1. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications




    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produ...

  2. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing


    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  3. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho


    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  4. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Iacoviello, Daniela


    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  5. The Hidden Beauty in Biomedical Imaging. (United States)

    Barker, Norman; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine


    Caretakers, researchers and photographers working in a busy academic settings, every day are faced with images that are awe-inspiring for their beauty and for the terror they may represent to patients suffering from disease. Beauty in this context is a relative term. It may be seen as the delicate lacework of cells within the normal human brain reminiscent of a Jackson Pollack masterpiece, or the multitude of colors and textures formed by fungal organisms in a microbiology lab. Herein lies the juxtaposition image makers seek to represent. When contemplated in isolation, each represents a visually interesting image. However, when viewed with an awareness of the context in which the image was obtained, each image takes on the ability to evoke an alternative human emotion.

  6. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  7. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume


    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  8. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  9. Biomedical signals and sensors II linking acoustic and optic biosignals and biomedical sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus


    The book set develops a bridge between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. While the first volume is focused on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and the resultant biosignals, this second volume is devoted to the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. That is, in the first volume, the physiologic mechanisms determining biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level. This second volume, considers the genesis of acoustic and optic biosignals and the associated sensing technology from a strategic point of view. As a novelty, this book discusses heterogeneous biosignals within a common frame. This frame comprises both the biosignal formation path from the biosignal source at the physiological level to biosignal propagation in the body, and the biosignal sensing path from the biosignal transmission in the sensor applied on the body up to its conversion to a, usually electric, signal. Some biosignals arise in the co...

  10. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang


    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  11. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis (United States)


    fluorescent nanoparticles . Generally, Noiseux et al. teach injecting multiple fluorescent nanoparticle dyes into the food sample, imaging the sample a...example, AIDS, malaria , cholera, lymphoma, and typhoid. The present disclosure can be used to capture and count microscopic cells for application as...Base plate 214 is sealed against cover 204 by the adhesive 210. Base plate 214 can have a thickness 216 of, for example, about 100 µm. At least a

  12. Going digital: image preparation for biomedical publishing. (United States)

    Schenk, M P; Manning, R J; Paalman, M H


    Authors are more often being held responsible for readying their own data figures for digital publication by scanning them at the proper resolution and preparing them for presentation in both print and on-line journals. In this manner, the visuals can be printed at the highest quality the publisher can provide and be ready for rapid electronic distribution on the Internet. Therefore, authors must become knowledgeable in the visual preparation process in order to generate electronic images that will be as true a representation of the original image as possible. Perfecting this procedure can be a learning experience and often requires some experimentation. When accomplished, the author will have more control of exactly how the images will look before they are published. In addition to the scan resolution, the type of digital scanner and software applications used are very important, and instruction manuals should be followed closely so as to understand the full potential of the digitizing equipment. Anat Rec (New Anat): 257:128-136, 1999.

  13. High sensitivity and high selectivity terahertz biomedical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongsin M. Kim; William Baughman; David S. Wilbert; Lee Butler; Michael Bolus; Soner Balci; Patrick Kung


    We demonstrate two distinct emerging terahertz (THz) biomedical imaging techniques. One is based on the use of a new single frequency THz quantum cascade laser and the other is based on broadband THz time domain spectrocopy. The first method is employed to derive a metastasis lung tissue imaging at 3.7 THz with clear contrast between cancerous and healthy areas. The second approach is used to study an osseous tissue under several imaging modalities and achieve full THz spectroscopic imaging based on the frequency domain or on a fixed THz propagation time-delay. Sufficient contrast is achieved which facilitated the identification of regions with different cellular types and density compositions.%Terahertz (THz) imaging is a non-destructive,nonionizing imaging technology with potential applications in medicine,dentistry,pharmaceuticals,and homeland security[1-5].In these applications,THz biomedical imaging has become a particularly important and active field of research because of the potential for safer early screening of a disease.This will benefit the medical community tremendously and create considerable sociological impact.

  14. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Smith


    Full Text Available Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as "cell" or "image" or "tissue" or "microscope" that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data.

  15. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho


    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  16. Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges. (United States)

    Li, Qingli; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Dongrong; Guo, Fangmin


    Spectral imaging is a technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to get both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although this technology was originally developed for remote sensing, it has been extended to the biomedical engineering field as a powerful analytical tool for biological and biomedical research. This review introduces the basics of spectral imaging, imaging methods, current equipment, and recent advances in biomedical applications. The performance and analytical capabilities of spectral imaging systems for biological and biomedical imaging are discussed. In particular, the current achievements and limitations of this technology in biomedical engineering are presented. The benefits and development trends of biomedical spectral imaging are highlighted to provide the reader with an insight into the current technological advances and its potential for biomedical research.

  17. Biomedical nanomaterials for imaging-guided cancer therapy (United States)

    Huang, Yuran; He, Sha; Cao, Weipeng; Cai, Kaiyong; Liang, Xing-Jie


    To date, even though various kinds of nanomaterials have been evaluated over the years in order to develop effective cancer therapy, there is still significant challenges in the improvement of the capabilities of nano-carriers. Developing a new theranostic nanomedicine platform for imaging-guided, visualized cancer therapy is currently a promising way to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. Firstly, conventional imaging technologies are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Then, advanced biomedical materials for multimodal imaging are illustrated in detail, including representative examples for various dual-modalities and triple-modalities. Besides conventional cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), current biomaterials are also summarized for novel cancer therapy based on hyperthermia, photothermal, photodynamic effects, and clinical imaging-guided surgery. In conclusion, biomedical materials for imaging-guided therapy are becoming one of the mainstream treatments for cancer in the future. It is hoped that this review might provide new impetus to understand nanotechnology and nanomaterials employed for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  18. Application of ceramic phosphors for near infrared biomedical imaging technologies (United States)

    Soga, Kohei; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro


    Near infrared wavelength region between 0.8 and 2 μm is an attractive region for biomedical imaging due to the low loss in biomedical objects in the region. Rare-earth doped ceramic phosphors are known to emit efficient fluorescence in the same wavelength region. The authors have developed micro fluorescence bioimaging system for cellular or tissue imaging and macro one for in vivo imaging. This paper will review the materials synthesis for the near infrared fluorescence probes as well as the system development and demonstrative works. Er-doped or Yb/Er-doped ceramic phosphors were synthesized with required particle size. The phosphors were partly modified with polyethylene glycol to give dispersion and controlled interaction with the biological objects. By using the micro imaging system, nematodes, mouse tissue and M1 cells were observed by detecting 1.5 μm emission from Er doped in the ceramic phosphor. in vivo imaging with the same fluorescence scheme was also performed for the digestive organs of live mouse.

  19. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms for calibration of biomedical optical devices (United States)

    Zhao, Zuhua; Zhou, Ximing; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Yuan, Li; Meng, Yuquan; Lv, Xiang; Shao, Pengfei; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald X.


    Clinical utility of many biomedical optical devices is limited by the lack of effective and traceable calibration methods. Optical phantoms that simulate biological tissues used for optical device calibration have been explored. However, these phantoms can hardly simulate both structural and optical properties of multi-layered biological tissue. To address this limitation, we develop a 3D printing production line that integrates spin coating, light-cured 3D printing and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms with mechanical and optical heterogeneities. With the gel wax Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and colorless light-curable ink as matrix materials, titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as the scattering ingredient, graphite powder and black carbon as the absorption ingredient, a multilayer phantom with high-precision is fabricated. The absorption and scattering coefficients of each layer are measured by a double integrating sphere system. The results demonstrate that the system has the potential to fabricate reliable tissue-simulating phantoms to calibrate optical imaging devices.

  20. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S


    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope.

  1. Multi-atlas segmentation of biomedical images: A survey. (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert R


    Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS), first introduced and popularized by the pioneering work of Rohlfing, et al. (2004), Klein, et al. (2005), and Heckemann, et al. (2006), is becoming one of the most widely-used and successful image segmentation techniques in biomedical applications. By manipulating and utilizing the entire dataset of "atlases" (training images that have been previously labeled, e.g., manually by an expert), rather than some model-based average representation, MAS has the flexibility to better capture anatomical variation, thus offering superior segmentation accuracy. This benefit, however, typically comes at a high computational cost. Recent advancements in computer hardware and image processing software have been instrumental in addressing this challenge and facilitated the wide adoption of MAS. Today, MAS has come a long way and the approach includes a wide array of sophisticated algorithms that employ ideas from machine learning, probabilistic modeling, optimization, and computer vision, among other fields. This paper presents a survey of published MAS algorithms and studies that have applied these methods to various biomedical problems. In writing this survey, we have three distinct aims. Our primary goal is to document how MAS was originally conceived, later evolved, and now relates to alternative methods. Second, this paper is intended to be a detailed reference of past research activity in MAS, which now spans over a decade (2003-2014) and entails novel methodological developments and application-specific solutions. Finally, our goal is to also present a perspective on the future of MAS, which, we believe, will be one of the dominant approaches in biomedical image segmentation.

  2. Recommending images of user interests from the biomedical literature (United States)

    Clukey, Steven; Xu, Songhua


    Every year hundreds of thousands of biomedical images are published in journals and conferences. Consequently, finding images relevant to one's interests becomes an ever daunting task. This vast amount of literature creates a need for intelligent and easy-to-use tools that can help researchers effectively navigate through the content corpus and conveniently locate materials of their interests. Traditionally, literature search tools allow users to query content using topic keywords. However, manual query composition is often time and energy consuming. A better system would be one that can automatically deliver relevant content to a researcher without having the end user manually manifest one's search intent and interests via search queries. Such a computer-aided assistance for information access can be provided by a system that first determines a researcher's interests automatically and then recommends images relevant to the person's interests accordingly. The technology can greatly improve a researcher's ability to stay up to date in their fields of study by allowing them to efficiently browse images and documents matching their needs and interests among the vast amount of the biomedical literature. A prototype system implementation of the technology can be accessed via

  3. Selection of Quantum Dot Wavelengths for Biomedical Assays and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Taik Lim


    Full Text Available Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon yield should be proportional to the integral of the broadband absorption. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue scatter and absorbance can sometimes offset increasing QD absorption at bluer wavelengths, and counteract this potential advantage. By using a previously validated mathematical model, we explored the effects of tissue absorbance, tissue scatter, wavelength dependence of the scatter, water-to- hemoglobin ratio, and tissue thickness on QD performance. We conclude that when embedded in biological fluids and tissues, QD excitation wavelengths will often be quite constrained, and that excitation and emission wavelengths should be selected carefully based on the particular application. Based on our results, we produced near-infrared QDs optimized for imaging surface vasculature with white light excitation and a silicon CCD camera, and used them to image the coronary vasculature in vivo. Taken together, our data should prove useful in designing fluorescent QD contrast agents optimized for specific biomedical applications.

  4. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)


    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  5. New optical tomographic & topographic techniques for biomedical applications (United States)

    Buytaert, Jan

    The mammalian middle ear contains the eardrum and the three auditory ossicles, and forms an impedance match between sound in air and pressure waves in the fluid of the inner ear. Without this intermediate system, with its unsurpassed efficiency and dynamic range, we would be practically deaf. Physics-based modeling of this extremely complex mechanical system is necessary to help our basic understanding of the functioning of hearing. Highly realistic models will make it possible to predict the outcome of surgical interventions and to optimize design of ossicle prostheses and active middle ear implants. To obtain such models and with realistic output, basic input data is still missing. In this dissertation I developed and used two new optical techniques to obtain two essential sets of data: accurate three-dimensional morphology of the middle ear structures, and elasticity parameters of the eardrum. The first technique is a new method for optical tomography of macroscopic biomedical objects, which makes it possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the middle ear ossicles and soft tissues which are connecting and suspending them. I made a new and high-resolution version of this orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning method, to obtain micrometer resolution in macroscopic specimens. The result is thus a complete 3-D model of the middle (and inner) ear of gerbil in unprecedented quality. On top of high-resolution morphological models of the middle ear structures, I applied the technique in other fields of research as well. The second device works according to a new optical profilometry technique which allows to measure shape and deformations of the eardrum and other membranes or objects. The approach is called projection moire profilometry, and creates moire interference fringes which contain the height information. I developed a setup which uses liquid crystal panels for grid projection and optical demodulation. Hence no moving parts are present and

  6. Acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; François, Ramaz


    We present a photon noise and diffraction limited imaging method combining the imaging laser and ultrasonic waves. The laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique is an ultrasensitive imaging method for imaging objects through or embedded within a scattering medium. However, LOFI performances are dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In this work, we have tagged the ballistic photons by an acousto-optic effect in order to filter the parasitic feedback effect and to reach the theoretical and ultimate sensitivity of the LOFI technique. We present the principle and the experimental setup of the acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging (AO-LOFI) technique, and we demonstrate the suppression of the parasitic feedback.

  7. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.


    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  8. Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging: Fundamentals of Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Soo Choi


    Full Text Available Because of their large size compared to small molecules and their multifunctionality, nanoparticles (NPs hold promise as biomedical imaging, diagnostic, and theragnostic agents. However, the key to their success hinges on a detailed understanding of their behavior after administration into the body. NP biodistribution, target binding, and clearance are complex functions of their physicochemical properties in serum, which include hydrodynamic diameter, solubility, stability, shape and flexibility, surface charge, composition, and formulation. Moreover, many materials used to construct NPs have real or potential toxicity or may interfere with other medical tests. In this review, we discuss the design considerations that mediate NP behavior in the body and the fundamental principles that govern clinical translation. By analyzing those nanomaterials that have already received regulatory approval, most of which are actually therapeutic agents, we attempt to predict which types of NPs hold potential as diagnostic agents for biomedical imaging. Finally, using quantum dots as an example, we provide a framework for deciding whether an NP-based agent is the best choice for a particular clinical application.

  9. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramatikov Boris


    Full Text Available Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback, 787 pages

  10. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam


    Gramatikov Boris


    Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback), 787 pages

  11. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A


    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  12. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine. (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J


    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  13. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Arabandi, Sivaram; Brochhausen, Mathias; Calhoun, Michael; Ciccarese, Paolo; Doyle, Scott; Gibaud, Bernard; Goldberg, Ilya; Kahn, Charles E.; Overton, James; Tomaszewski, John; Gurcan, Metin


    Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical definitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data. PMID:26167381

  14. A collaborative biomedical image mining framework: application on the image analysis of microscopic kidney biopsies. (United States)

    Goudas, T; Doukas, C; Chatziioannou, A; Maglogiannis, I


    The analysis and characterization of biomedical image data is a complex procedure involving several processing phases, like data acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The proper combination and parameterization of the utilized methods are heavily relying on the given image data set and experiment type. They may thus necessitate advanced image processing and classification knowledge and skills from the side of the biomedical expert. In this work, an application, exploiting web services and applying ontological modeling, is presented, to enable the intelligent creation of image mining workflows. The described tool can be directly integrated to the RapidMiner, Taverna or similar workflow management platforms. A case study dealing with the creation of a sample workflow for the analysis of kidney biopsy microscopy images is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed framework.

  15. Omni-tomography: Next-generation Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ge; Vannier, Michael W


    Omni-tomography is enabled by interior tomography that has been developed over the past five years. By omni-tomography, we envision that the next stage of biomedical imaging will be the grand fusion of many tomographic modalities into a single gantry (all in one) for simultaneous data acquisition of numerous complementary features (all at once). This integration has great synergistic potential for development of systems biology, personalized and preventive medicine, because many physiological processes are dynamic and complicated, and must be observed promptly, comprehensively, sensitively, specifically, and non-invasively. In this perspective, we first present the background for and power of omni-tomography, then discuss its important applications in vulnerable plaque characterization and intratumor heterogeneity evaluation, review its enabling theory and technology, explain for the first time the feasibility of the CT-MRI scanner as an example, and finally suggest exciting research opportunities.

  16. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, March 14, 2011, 6 p.m. to March 16, 2011, 12...

  17. Fiber optic sensing and imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

  18. Minimize the Percentage of Noise in Biomedical Images Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar


    Full Text Available The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET.

  19. Minimize the percentage of noise in biomedical images using neural networks. (United States)

    Saudagar, Abdul Khader Jilani


    The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET).

  20. Modality prediction of biomedical literature images using multimodal feature representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelka, Obioma


    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling approaches performed to automatically predict the modality of images found in biomedical literature. Various state-of-the-art visual features such as Bag-of-Keypoints computed with dense SIFT descriptors, texture features and Joint Composite Descriptors were used for visual image representation. Text representation was obtained by vector quantisation on a Bag-of-Words dictionary generated using attribute importance derived from a χ-test. Computing the principal components separately on each feature, dimension reduction as well as computational load reduction was achieved. Various multiple feature fusions were adopted to supplement visual image information with corresponding text information. The improvement obtained when using multimodal features vs. visual or text features was detected, analysed and evaluated. Random Forest models with 100 to 500 deep trees grown by resampling, a multi class linear kernel SVM with C=0.05 and a late fusion of the two classifiers were used for modality prediction. A Random Forest classifier achieved a higher accuracy and computed Bag-of-Keypoints with dense SIFT descriptors proved to be a better approach than with Lowe SIFT.

  1. Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R


    In this Letter, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging. An optical multiple random phase mask encoding system is applied, and one of the phase-only masks is selected and laterally translated along a preset direction during the encryption process. For image decryption, a phase retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract a high-quality plaintext. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new strategy instead of conventional interference methods, and it may open up a new research perspective for optical image encryption.

  2. Optical and opto-acoustic imaging. (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel


     Since the inception of the microscope, optical imaging is serving the biological discovery for more than four centuries. With the recent emergence of methods appropriate for in vivo staining, such as bioluminescence, fluorescent molecular probes, and proteins, as well as nanoparticle-based targeted agents, significant attention has been shifted toward in vivo interrogations of different dynamic biological processes at the molecular level. This progress has been largely supported by the development of advanced optical tomographic imaging technologies suitable for obtaining volumetric visualization of biomarker distributions in small animals at a whole-body or whole-organ scale, an imaging frontier that is not accessible by the existing tissue-sectioning microscopic techniques due to intensive light scattering beyond the depth of a few hundred microns. Biomedical optoacoustics has also emerged in the recent decade as a powerful tool for high-resolution visualization of optical contrast, overcoming a variety of longstanding limitations imposed by light scattering in deep tissues. By detecting tiny sound vibrations, resulting from selective absorption of light at multiple wavelengths, multispectral optoacoustic tomography methods can now "hear color" in three dimensions, i.e., deliver volumetric spectrally enriched (color) images from deep living tissues at high spatial resolution and in real time. These new-found imaging abilities directly relate to preclinical screening applications in animal models and are foreseen to significantly impact clinical decision making as well.

  3. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Haiyan


    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produced and applied for labeling breast cancer marker HER2 proteins on MCF-7 cells. For the purpose of single molecule tracking using QDs as fluorescent probes, we use small affibodies instead of antibodies to produce QD-affibody probes. Smaller QD-target protein complexes are obtained using a direct immunofluorescence approach. These QD-affibody probes are developed to study the dynamic motion of single HER2 proteins on A431 cell membranes. Fluorescence blinking in single QDs is harmful for dynamic tracking due to information loss. We have experimentally studied the blinking phenomenon and the mechanism behind. We have discovered an emission bunching effect that two nearby QDs tend to emit light synchronously. The long-range Coulomb potential induced by the negative charge on the QD surface is found to be the major cause for the single QD blinking and the emission bunching in QD pairs. We have studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The QDs treatment increases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential. The protein expression levels indicate that the mitochondria apoptosis is the main cause of HUVCEs apoptosis induced by CdTe QDs. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are scattering probes due to their tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced scattering spectrum. In order to control the yield and morphology of GNRs, we have systematically studied the effects of composition

  4. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction. (United States)

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Gbur, Gregory J; Hanson, Steen G; Lee, Tim; Miyamoto, Yoko; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Wyant, James C


    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers.

  5. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Gbur, Gregory J.;


    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers. (C)...

  6. Optical coherence tomography-based micro-particle image velocimetry. (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Hammer, Daniel X; Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin; Legner, Hartmut


    We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), widely used in biomedical imaging, to flow analysis in near-wall hydrodynamics for marine research. This unique capability, called OCT micro-particle image velocimetry, provides a high-resolution view of microscopic flow phenomena and measurement of flow statistics within the first millimeter of a boundary layer. The technique is demonstrated in a small flow cuvette and in a water tunnel.

  7. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong


    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  8. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perchoux


    Full Text Available Optical feedback interferometry (OFI sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications.

  9. Mid-infrared (MIR) photonics: MIR passive and active fiberoptics chemical and biomedical, sensing and imaging (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.


    The case for new, portable, real-time mid-infrared (MIR) molecular sensing and imaging is discussed. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum (SC) generated light 1.4-13.3 μm in a specially engineered, step-index MIR optical fiber of high numerical aperture. This was the first experimental demonstration truly to reveal the potential of MIR fibers to emit across the MIR molecular "fingerprint spectral region" and a key first step towards bright, portable, broadband MIR sources for chemical and biomedical, molecular sensing and imaging in real-time. Potential applications are in the healthcare, security, energy, environmental monitoring, chemical-processing, manufacturing and the agriculture sectors. MIR narrow-line fiber lasers are now required to pump the fiber MIR-SC for a compact all-fiber solution. Rare-earth-ion (RE-) doped MIR fiber lasers are not yet demonstrated >=4 μm wavelength. We have fabricated small-core RE-fiber with photoluminescence across 3.5-6 μm, and long excited-state lifetimes. MIR-RE-fiber lasers are also applicable as discrete MIR fiber sensors in their own right, for applications including: ship-to-ship free-space communications, aircraft counter-measures, coherent MIR imaging, MIR-optical coherent tomography, laser-cutting/ patterning of soft materials and new wavelengths for fiber laser medical surgery.

  10. Image processing for optical mapping. (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Gupta, Aditya


    Optical Mapping is an established single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, which has been used to gain a comprehensive understanding of genomic structure and to study structural variation of complex genomes. A critical component of Optical Mapping system is the image processing module, which extracts single molecule restriction maps from image datasets of immobilized, restriction digested and fluorescently stained large DNA molecules. In this review, we describe robust and efficient image processing techniques to process these massive datasets and extract accurate restriction maps in the presence of noise, ambiguity and confounding artifacts. We also highlight a few applications of the Optical Mapping system.

  11. Optical imaging probes in oncology. (United States)

    Martelli, Cristina; Lo Dico, Alessia; Diceglie, Cecilia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa


    Cancer is a complex disease, characterized by alteration of different physiological molecular processes and cellular features. Keeping this in mind, the possibility of early identification and detection of specific tumor biomarkers by non-invasive approaches could improve early diagnosis and patient management.Different molecular imaging procedures provide powerful tools for detection and non-invasive characterization of oncological lesions. Clinical studies are mainly based on the use of computed tomography, nuclear-based imaging techniques and magnetic resonance imaging. Preclinical imaging in small animal models entails the use of dedicated instruments, and beyond the already cited imaging techniques, it includes also optical imaging studies. Optical imaging strategies are based on the use of luminescent or fluorescent reporter genes or injectable fluorescent or luminescent probes that provide the possibility to study tumor features even by means of fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Currently, most of these probes are used only in animal models, but the possibility of applying some of them also in the clinics is under evaluation.The importance of tumor imaging, the ease of use of optical imaging instruments, the commercial availability of a wide range of probes as well as the continuous description of newly developed probes, demonstrate the significance of these applications. The aim of this review is providing a complete description of the possible optical imaging procedures available for the non-invasive assessment of tumor features in oncological murine models. In particular, the characteristics of both commercially available and newly developed probes will be outlined and discussed.

  12. Optical depth sectioning in self-mixing lasers for biomedical applications


    Cabedo Bru, Josep


    Illumination in scattering media provides a general means to provide optical diagnosis in a noninvasive, painless and low cost approach, which has pushed forward the interest of the field both in biomedical and industrial applications. Several biophotonics techniques are based on the use of the therapeutic window of skin, where diffusion of light is dominant and the classical geometrical optics approach gets lost, with only radiometric methods being valid in practice. A comparable analysis is...

  13. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging. (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K


    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  14. Optical and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cristobal, Gabriel; Thienpont, Hugo


    In recent years, Moore's law has fostered the steady growth of the field of digital image processing, though the computational complexity remains a problem for most of the digital image processing applications. In parallel, the research domain of optical image processing has matured, potentially bypassing the problems digital approaches were suffering and bringing new applications. The advancement of technology calls for applications and knowledge at the intersection of both areas but there is a clear knowledge gap between the digital signal processing and the optical processing communities. T

  15. Micro-optics for imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Robert R.


    This project investigates the fundamental imaging capability of an optic with a physical thickness substantially less than 1 mm. The analysis assumes that post-processing can overcome certain restrictions such as detector pixel size and image degradation due to aberrations. A first order optical analysis quickly reveals the limitations of even an ideal thin lens to provide sufficient image resolution and provides the justification for pursuing an annular design. Some straightforward examples clearly show the potential of this approach. The tradeoffs associated with annular designs, specifically field of view limitations and reduced mid-level spatial frequencies, are discussed and their impact on the imaging performance evaluated using several imaging examples. Additionally, issues such as detector acceptance angle and the need to balance aberrations with resolution are included in the analysis. With these restrictions, the final results present an excellent approximation of the expected performance of the lens designs presented.

  16. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices. (United States)

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert


    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  17. The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis. (United States)

    Schindelin, Johannes; Rueden, Curtis T; Hiner, Mark C; Eliceiri, Kevin W


    Technology in microscopy advances rapidly, enabling increasingly affordable, faster, and more precise quantitative biomedical imaging, which necessitates correspondingly more-advanced image processing and analysis techniques. A wide range of software is available-from commercial to academic, special-purpose to Swiss army knife, small to large-but a key characteristic of software that is suitable for scientific inquiry is its accessibility. Open-source software is ideal for scientific endeavors because it can be freely inspected, modified, and redistributed; in particular, the open-software platform ImageJ has had a huge impact on the life sciences, and continues to do so. From its inception, ImageJ has grown significantly due largely to being freely available and its vibrant and helpful user community. Scientists as diverse as interested hobbyists, technical assistants, students, scientific staff, and advanced biology researchers use ImageJ on a daily basis, and exchange knowledge via its dedicated mailing list. Uses of ImageJ range from data visualization and teaching to advanced image processing and statistical analysis. The software's extensibility continues to attract biologists at all career stages as well as computer scientists who wish to effectively implement specific image-processing algorithms. In this review, we use the ImageJ project as a case study of how open-source software fosters its suites of software tools, making multitudes of image-analysis technology easily accessible to the scientific community. We specifically explore what makes ImageJ so popular, how it impacts the life sciences, how it inspires other projects, and how it is self-influenced by coevolving projects within the ImageJ ecosystem.

  18. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  19. Biomedical Image Processing Using FCM Algorithm Based on the Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yu-hua; WANG Hui-min; LI Shi-pu


    An effective processing method for biomedical images and the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm based on the wavelet transform are investigated.By using hierarchical wavelet decomposition, an original image could be decomposed into one lower image and several detail images. The segmentation started at the lowest resolution with the FCM clustering algorithm and the texture feature extracted from various sub-bands. With the improvement of the FCM algorithm, FCM alternation frequency was decreased and the accuracy of segmentation was advanced.

  20. Characterizing and imaging magnetic nanoparticles by optical magnetometry (United States)

    Weis, A.; Colombo, S.; Dolgovskiy, V.; Grujić, Z. D.; Lebedev, V.; Zhang, J.


    We review our ongoing work on deploying optical (atomic) magnetometry for measuring the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, yielding MNP size distributions, and other sample parameters like Néel relaxation time τ, saturation magnetisation Ms , anisotropy constant K and magnetic susceptibility χ. We address magnetorelaxation (MRX) signals, in which the decaying magnetisation M(t) following a magnetising pulse is recorded by a single atomic magnetometer or by a novel magnetic source imaging camera (MSIC) allowing spatially resolved MRX studies of distributed MNP samples. We further show that optical magnetometers can be used for a direct measurement of the M(H) and dM/dH(H) dependencies of MNP samples, the latter forming the basis for an optical magnetometer implementation of the MPI (Magnetic Particle Imaging) method. All experiments are in view of developing biomedical imaging modalities.

  1. A novel lossless robust watermarking method for copyright protection of biomedical image. (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohong; Zeng, Feng; Liu, Huiwen; Chen, Liang


    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology promotes the development of biomedical imaging devices, more and more valuable biomedical images are transmitted through the open network, and their copyright suffers a major challenge. This paper proposes a new lossless robust watermarking method to realize biomedical image's copyright protection. For high-resolution biomedical images, the redundant theory and histogram shifting method based on image block's difference are utilized to repeatedly embed copyright watermark into different color channels. In the extracting procedure, each layer's watermark information can be extracted from watermarked image respectively, and the final watermark is judged by the voting theory. The redundant scheme and voting theory guarantees the watermark can resist against random noise's attack well. Besides, in order to reduce the watermark overhead in embedding procedure, the histogram narrowing down technique is used to tackle with those image blocks would overflows and underflows. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed the existing semi-fragile reversible watermarking scheme and provided a great robustness against moderate JPEG compression and salt-pepper and Gaussian noise.

  2. Simulations of optical microscope images (United States)

    Germer, Thomas A.; Marx, Egon


    The resolution of an optical microscope is limited by the optical wavelengths used. However, there is no fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a microscope to small differences in any of a feature's dimensions. That is, those limits are determined by such things as the sensitivity of the detector array, the quality of the optical system, and the stability of the light source. The potential for using this nearly unbounded sensitivity has sparked interest in extending optical microscopy to the characterization of sub-wavelength structures created by photolithography and using that characterization for process control. In this paper, an analysis of the imaging of a semiconductor grating structure with an optical microscope will be presented. The analysis includes the effects of partial coherence in the illumination system, aberrations of both the illumination and the collection optics, non-uniformities in the illumination, and polarization. It can thus model just about any illumination configuration imaginable, including Koehler illumination, focused (confocal) illumination, or dark-field illumination. By propagating Jones matrices throughout the system, polarization control at the back focal planes of both illumination and collection can be investigated. Given a detailed characterization of the microscope (including aberrations), images can be calculated and compared to real data, allowing details of the grating structure to be determined, in a manner similar to that found in scatterometry.

  3. Bio-medical X-ray imaging with spectroscopic pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Tipples, R; Cook, N; Watts, R; Meyer, J; Bell, A J; Melzer, T R; Butler, P H


    The aim of this study is to review the clinical potential of spectroscopic X-ray detectors and to undertake a feasibility study using a novel detector in a clinical hospital setting. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allowing for routine use of spectroscopic bio-medical imaging. We have coined the term MARS (Medipix All Resolution System) for bio-medical images that provide spatial, temporal, and energy information. The full clinical significance of spectroscopic X-ray imaging is difficult to predict but insights can be gained by examining both image reconstruction artifacts and the current uses of dual-energy techniques. This paper reviews the known uses of energy information in vascular imaging and mammography, clinically important fields. It then presents initial results from using Medipix-2, to image human tissues within a clinical radiology department. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allo...

  4. Toolkits and Software for Developing Biomedical Image Processing and Analysis Applications (United States)

    Wolf, Ivo

    Solutions in biomedical image processing and analysis usually consist of much more than a single method. Typically, a whole pipeline of algorithms is necessary, combined with visualization components to display and verify the results as well as possibilities to interact with the data. Therefore, successful research in biomedical image processing and analysis requires a solid base to start from. This is the case regardless whether the goal is the development of a new method (e.g., for segmentation) or to solve a specific task (e.g., computer-assisted planning of surgery).

  5. Biomedical image analysis recipes in Matlab for life scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos


    As its title suggests, this innovative book has been written for life scientists needing to analyse their data sets, and programmers, wanting a better understanding of the types of experimental images life scientists investigate on a regular basis. Each chapter presents one self-contained biomedical experiment to be analysed. Part I of the book presents its two basic ingredients: essential concepts of image analysis and Matlab. In Part II, algorithms and techniques are shown as series of 'recipes' or solved examples that show how specific techniques are applied to a biomedical experiments like

  6. Like a bolt from the blue: phthalocyanines in biomedical optics. (United States)

    Sekkat, Nawal; van den Bergh, Hubert; Nyokong, Tebello; Lange, Norbert


    The purpose of this review is to compile preclinical and clinical results on phthalocyanines (Pcs) as photosensitizers (PS) for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and contrast agents for fluorescence imaging. Indeed, Pcs are excellent candidates in these fields due to their strong absorbance in the NIR region and high chemical and photo-stability. In particular, this is mostly relevant for their in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most Pcs present two major limitations, i.e., a strong tendency to aggregate and a low water-solubility. In order to overcome these issues, both chemical tuning and pharmaceutical formulation combined with tumor targeting strategies were applied. These aspects will be developed in this review for the most extensively studied Pcs during the last 25 years, i.e., aluminium-, zinc- and silicon-based Pcs.

  7. A Self-Referenced Optical Intensity Sensor Network Using POFBGs for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tapetado Moraleda


    Full Text Available This work bridges the gap between the remote interrogation of multiple optical sensors and the advantages of using inherently biocompatible low-cost polymer optical fiber (POF-based photonic sensing. A novel hybrid sensor network combining both silica fiber Bragg gratings (FBG and polymer FBGs (POFBG is analyzed. The topology is compatible with WDM networks so multiple remote sensors can be addressed providing high scalability. A central monitoring unit with virtual data processing is implemented, which could be remotely located up to units of km away. The feasibility of the proposed solution for potential medical environments and biomedical applications is shown.

  8. Digital histologic images: practical pointers for successful electronic submission to biomedical journals. (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N; Sun, Y


    The advent of digital imaging and online submission of manuscripts has created new challenges for authors using histological images. Digital images are used routinely in today's histology research lab and authors must prepare illustrations that meet standards for resolution, color modes, image size, and digital file types for successful online submission to biomedical journals. Because authors may not be familiar with these requirements, our objective here is to present practical guidelines and information for successful image submission online. Ethical issues related to digital imaging and other current topics also are discussed with reference to available online resources.

  9. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Lecture: Thermophotonic and Photoacoustic Radar Imaging Methods for Biomedical and Dental Imaging (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas


    In the first part of this presentation I will introduce thermophotonic radar imaging principles and techniques using chirped or binary-phase-coded modulation, methods which can break through the maximum detection depth/depth resolution limitations of conventional photothermal waves. Using matched-filter principles, a methodology enabling parabolic diffusion-wave energy fields to exhibit energy localization akin to propagating hyperbolic wave-fields has been developed. It allows for deconvolution of individual responses of superposed axially discrete sources, opening a new field: depth-resolved thermal coherence tomography. Several examples from dental enamel caries diagnostic imaging to metal subsurface defect thermographic imaging will be discussed. The second part will introduce the field of photoacoustic radar (or sonar) biomedical imaging. I will report the development of a novel biomedical imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection and processing coupled with a beamforming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Utilization of specific chirped modulation waveforms (``waveform engineering'') achieves dramatic signal-to-noise-ratio increase and improved axial resolution over pulsed laser photoacoustics. The talk will conclude with aspects of instrumental sensitivity of the PA Radar to optical contrast using cancerous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast enhancement agents and in-vivo tissue samples.

  10. Biomedical applications of nanodiamonds in imaging and therapy. (United States)

    Perevedentseva, Elena; Lin, Yu-Chung; Jani, Mona; Cheng, Chia-Liang


    Nanodiamonds have attracted remarkable scientific attention for bioimaging and therapeutic applications owing to their low toxicity with many cell lines, convenient surface properties and stable fluorescence without photobleaching. Newer techniques are being applied to enhance fluorescence. Interest is also growing in exploring the possibilities for modifying the nanodiamond surface and functionalities by attaching various biomolecules of interest for interaction with the targets. The potential of Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence properties of nanodiamonds has been explored for bioimaging and drug delivery tracing. The interest in nanodiamonds' biological/medical application appears to be continuing with enhanced focus. In this review an attempt is made to capture the scope, spirit and recent developments in the field of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

  11. National Institute of Standards and Technology measurement service of the optical properties of biomedical phantoms: current status (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Cooksey, Catherine C.; Levine, Zachary H.; Pintar, Adam L.; Hwang, Jeeseong; Allen, David W.


    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use. To address this need, a double-integrating sphere based instrument has been installed to measure the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The basic system and methods have been described in previous papers. An important attribute in establishing a viable calibration service is the estimation of measurement uncertainties. The use of custom models and comparisons with other established scales enabled uncertainty measurements. Here, we describe the continuation of those efforts to advance the understanding of the uncertainties through two independent measurements: the bidirectional reflectance distribution function and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function of a commercially available solid biomedical phantom. A Monte Carlo-based model is used and the resulting optical properties are compared to the values provided by the phantom manufacturer.

  12. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.


    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  13. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design (United States)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.


    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  14. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature. (United States)

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M


    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at

  15. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth


    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  16. Directional binary wavelet patterns for biomedical image indexing and retrieval. (United States)

    Murala, Subrahmanyam; Maheshwari, R P; Balasubramanian, R


    A new algorithm for medical image retrieval is presented in the paper. An 8-bit grayscale image is divided into eight binary bit-planes, and then binary wavelet transform (BWT) which is similar to the lifting scheme in real wavelet transform (RWT) is performed on each bitplane to extract the multi-resolution binary images. The local binary pattern (LBP) features are extracted from the resultant BWT sub-bands. Three experiments have been carried out for proving the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Out of which two are meant for medical image retrieval and one for face retrieval. It is further mentioned that the database considered for three experiments are OASIS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database, NEMA computer tomography (CT) database and PolyU-NIRFD face database. The results after investigation shows a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and LBP with Gabor transform.

  17. The first demonstration of laser computed tomography achieved by Coherent Detection Imaging method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Masahiro; Ichimura, Tsutomu (Research Development Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Sendai (Japan). Inaba Biophoton Project); Inaba, Humio


    The first successful imaging by laser absorption computed tomography of in vitro specimens has been achieved by means of the Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) method realized with the optical heterodyne detection technique and image reconstruction from back projection of the data obtained via optical absorption measurements in a parallel beam geometry. (author).

  18. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks. (United States)

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter


    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs.

  19. Progress of MEMS Scanning Micromirrors for Optical Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih Y. Lin


    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS have an unmatched ability to incorporate numerous functionalities into ultra-compact devices, and due to their versatility and miniaturization, MEMS have become an important cornerstone in biomedical and endoscopic imaging research. To incorporate MEMS into such applications, it is critical to understand underlying architectures involving choices in actuation mechanism, including the more common electrothermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric approaches, reviewed in this paper. Each has benefits and tradeoffs and is better suited for particular applications or imaging schemes due to achievable scan ranges, power requirements, speed, and size. Many of these characteristics are fabrication-process dependent, and this paper discusses various fabrication flows developed to integrate additional optical functionality beyond simple lateral scanning, enabling dynamic control of the focus or mirror surface. Out of this provided MEMS flexibility arises some challenges when obtaining high resolution images: due to scanning non-linearities, calibration of MEMS scanners may become critical, and inherent image artifacts or distortions during scanning can degrade image quality. Several reviewed methods and algorithms have been proposed to address these complications from MEMS scanning. Given their impact and promise, great effort and progress have been made toward integrating MEMS and biomedical imaging.

  20. Fundamental and applied studies in nanoparticle biomedical imaging, stabilization, and processing (United States)

    Pansare, Vikram J.

    Nanoparticle carrier systems are gaining importance in the rapidly expanding field of biomedical whole animal imaging where they provide long circulating, real time imaging capability. This thesis presents a new paradigm in imaging whereby long wavelength fluorescent or photoacoustically active contrast agents are embedded in the hydrophobic core of nanocarriers formed by Flash NanoPrecipitation. The long wavelength allows for improved optical penetration depth. Compared to traditional contrast agents where fluorophores are placed on the surface, this allows for improved signal, increased stability, and molecular targeting capabilities. Several types of long wavelength hydrophobic dyes based on acene, cyanine, and bacteriochlorin scaffolds are utilized and animal results obtained for nanocarrier systems used in both fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging modes. Photoacoustic imaging is particularly promising due to its high resolution, excellent penetration depth, and ability to provide real-time functional information. Fundamental studies in nanoparticle stabilization are also presented for two systems: model alumina nanoparticles and charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles. Motivated by the need for stable suspensions of alumina-based nanocrystals for security printing applications, results are presented for the adsorption of various small molecule charged hydrophobes onto the surface of alumina nanoparticles. Results are also presented for the production of charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles via Flash NanoPrecipitation, allowing for the independent control of polymer molecular weight and nanoparticle size, which is not possible by traditional emulsion polymerization routes. Lastly, methods for processing nanoparticle systems are explored. The increasing use of nanoparticle therapeutics in the pharmaceutical industry has necessitated the development of scalable, industrially relevant processing methods. Ultrafiltration is particularly well suited for

  1. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C Means Algorithm for Effective Biomedical Image Segmentation (United States)

    Rajendran, Arunkumar; Balakrishnan, Nagaraj; Varatharaj, Mithya


    The traditional way of clustering plays an effective role in the field of segmentation which was developed to be more effective and also in the recent development the extraction of contextual information can be processed with ease. This paper presents a modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm that provides the better segmentation in the contour grayscale regions of the biomedical images where effective cluster is needed. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C-Means (M-FLMCM) is the proposed algorithm, proposed to overcome the disadvantage of the traditional FCM method in which the convergence time requirement is more, lack of ability to remove the noise, and the inability to cluster the contour region such as images. M-FLMCM shows promising results in the experiment with real-world biomedical images. The experiment results, with 96 % accuracy compared to the other algorithms.

  2. Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for biomedical imaging and drug delivery. (United States)

    Della Rocca, Joseph; Liu, Demin; Lin, Wenbin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of hybrid materials formed by the self-assembly of polydentate bridging ligands and metal-connecting points, have been studied for a variety of applications. Recently, these materials have been scaled down to nanometer sizes, and this Account details the development of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) for biomedical applications. NMOFs possess several potential advantages over conventional nanomedicines such as their structural and chemical diversity, their high loading capacity, and their intrinsic biodegradability. Under relatively mild conditions, NMOFs can be obtained as either crystalline or amorphous materials. The particle composition, size, and morphology can be easily tuned to optimize the final particle properties. Researchers have employed two general strategies to deliver active agents using NMOFs: by incorporating active agents into the frameworks or by loading active agents into the pores and channels of the NMOFs. The modification of NMOF surfaces with either silica coatings or organic polymers improves NMOF stability, fine-tunes their properties, and imparts additional functionality. Preliminary biomedical applications of NMOFs have focused on their use as delivery vehicles for imaging contrast agents and molecular therapeutics. Because NMOFs can carry large amounts of paramagnetic metal ions, they have been extensively explored as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Both Gd(3+)- and Mn(2+)-containing NMOFs have shown excellent efficacy as T(1)-weighted contrast agents with large per metal- and per particle-based MR relaxivities. Fe(3+)-containing NMOFs have demonstrated excellent T(2)-weighted contrast enhancement. Upon intravenous injection of iron carboxylate NMOFs in Wistar rats, researchers observed negative signal enhancement in the liver and spleen, which dissipated over time, indicating the degradation and clearance of the NMOF. Through the incorporation of luminescent or high

  3. Robust model-based vasculature detection in noisy biomedical images. (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Narasimha-Iyer, Harihar; Roysam, Badrinath; Tanenbaum, Howard L


    This paper presents a set of algorithms for robust detection of vasculature in noisy retinal video images. Three methods are studied for effective handling of outliers. The first method is based on Huber's censored likelihood ratio test. The second is based on the use of a alpha-trimmed test statistic. The third is based on robust model selection algorithms. All of these algorithms rely on a mathematical model for the vasculature that accounts for the expected variations in intensity/texture profile, width, orientation, scale, and imaging noise. These unknown parameters are estimated implicitly within a robust detection and estimation framework. The proposed algorithms are also useful as nonlinear vessel enhancement filters. The proposed algorithms were evaluated over carefully constructed phantom images, where the ground truth is known a priori, as well as clinically recorded images for which the ground truth was manually compiled. A comparative evaluation of the proposed approaches is presented. Collectively, these methods outperformed prior approaches based on Chaudhuri et al. (1989) matched filtering, as well as the verification methods used by prior exploratory tracing algorithms, such as the work of Can et aL (1999). The Huber censored likelihood test yielded the best overall improvement, with a 145.7% improvement over the exploratory tracing algorithm, and a 43.7% improvement in detection rates over the matched filter.

  4. A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.


    An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

  5. Review of fiber-optic pressure sensors for biomedical and biomechanical applications (United States)

    Roriz, Paulo; Frazão, Orlando; Lobo-Ribeiro, António B.; Santos, José L.; Simões, José A.


    As optical fibers revolutionize the way data is carried in telecommunications, the same is happening in the world of sensing. Fiber-optic sensors (FOS) rely on the principle of changing the properties of light that propagate in the fiber due to the effect of a specific physical or chemical parameter. We demonstrate the potentialities of this sensing concept to assess pressure in biomedical and biomechanical applications. FOSs are introduced after an overview of conventional sensors that are being used in the field. Pointing out their limitations, particularly as minimally invasive sensors, is also the starting point to argue FOSs are an alternative or a substitution technology. Even so, this technology will be more or less effective depending on the efforts to present more affordable turnkey solutions and peer-reviewed papers reporting in vivo experiments and clinical trials.

  6. Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Anderson, R. Rox; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf; Berns, Michael W.; Parrish, John A.; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela


    Despite widespread government and public interest, there are significant barriers to translating basic science discoveries into clinical practice. Biophotonics and biomedical optics technologies can be used to overcome many of these hurdles, due, in part, to offering new portable, bedside, and accessible devices. The current JBO special issue highlights promising activities and examples of translational biophotonics from leading laboratories around the world. We identify common essential features of successful clinical translation by examining the origins and activities of three major international academic affiliated centers with beginnings traceable to the mid-late 1970s: The Wellman Center for Photomedicine (Mass General Hospital, USA), the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (University of California, Irvine, USA), and the Medical Laser Center Lübeck at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Major factors driving the success of these programs include visionary founders and leadership, multidisciplinary research and training activities in light-based therapies and diagnostics, diverse funding portfolios, and a thriving entrepreneurial culture that tolerates risk. We provide a brief review of how these three programs emerged and highlight critical phases and lessons learned. Based on these observations, we identify pathways for encouraging the growth and formation of similar programs in order to more rapidly and effectively expand the impact of biophotonics and biomedical optics on human health.

  7. Annotating image ROIs with text descriptions for multimodal biomedical document retrieval (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Simpson, Matthew; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.


    Regions of interest (ROIs) that are pointed to by overlaid markers (arrows, asterisks, etc.) in biomedical images are expected to contain more important and relevant information than other regions for biomedical article indexing and retrieval. We have developed several algorithms that localize and extract the ROIs by recognizing markers on images. Cropped ROIs then need to be annotated with contents describing them best. In most cases accurate textual descriptions of the ROIs can be found from figure captions, and these need to be combined with image ROIs for annotation. The annotated ROIs can then be used to, for example, train classifiers that separate ROIs into known categories (medical concepts), or to build visual ontologies, for indexing and retrieval of biomedical articles. We propose an algorithm that pairs visual and textual ROIs that are extracted from images and figure captions, respectively. This algorithm based on dynamic time warping (DTW) clusters recognized pointers into groups, each of which contains pointers with identical visual properties (shape, size, color, etc.). Then a rule-based matching algorithm finds the best matching group for each textual ROI mention. Our method yields a precision and recall of 96% and 79%, respectively, when ground truth textual ROI data is used.

  8. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement]. (United States)

    Breitsameter, C


    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  9. An efficient sampling algorithm for uncertain abnormal data detection in biomedical image processing and disease prediction. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xi; Jia, Yan


    In this paper, we propose a computer information processing algorithm that can be used for biomedical image processing and disease prediction. A biomedical image is considered a data object in a multi-dimensional space. Each dimension is a feature that can be used for disease diagnosis. We introduce a new concept of the top (k1,k2) outlier. It can be used to detect abnormal data objects in the multi-dimensional space. This technique focuses on uncertain space, where each data object has several possible instances with distinct probabilities. We design an efficient sampling algorithm for the top (k1,k2) outlier in uncertain space. Some improvement techniques are used for acceleration. Experiments show our methods' high accuracy and high efficiency.

  10. Near-Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bwambok, David [Louisiana State University; El-Zahab, Bilal [Lousianna State University; Challa, Santhosh [Louisiana State University; Li, Min [Lousianna State University; Chandler, Lin [Horiba Jobin Yvon Inc.; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Warner, Isiah M [ORNL


    Herein, we report on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS.

  11. Graphene-Based Optical Biosensors and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhiwen; He, Shijiang; Pei, Hao; Du, Dan; Fan, Chunhai; Lin, Yuehe


    This chapter focuses on the design, fabrication and application of graphene based optical nanobiosensors. The emerging graphene based optical nanobiosensors demonstrated the promising bioassay and biomedical applications thanking to the unique optical features of graphene. According to the different applications, the graphene can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitter or efficient fluorescence quencher. The exceptional electronic feature of graphene makes it a powerful platform for fabricating the SPR and SERS biosensors. Today the graphene based optical biosensors have been constructed to detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This chapter reviews the recent progress in graphene-based optical biosensors and discusses the opportunities and challenges in this field.

  12. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  13. Local mesh patterns versus local binary patterns: biomedical image indexing and retrieval. (United States)

    Murala, Subrahmanyam; Wu, Q M Jonathan


    In this paper, a new image indexing and retrieval algorithm using local mesh patterns are proposed for biomedical image retrieval application. The standard local binary pattern encodes the relationship between the referenced pixel and its surrounding neighbors, whereas the proposed method encodes the relationship among the surrounding neighbors for a given referenced pixel in an image. The possible relationships among the surrounding neighbors are depending on the number of neighbors, P. In addition, the effectiveness of our algorithm is confirmed by combining it with the Gabor transform. To prove the effectiveness of our algorithm, three experiments have been carried out on three different biomedical image databases. Out of which two are meant for computer tomography (CT) and one for magnetic resonance (MR) image retrieval. It is further mentioned that the database considered for three experiments are OASIS-MRI database, NEMA-CT database, and VIA/I-ELCAP database which includes region of interest CT images. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP, LBP with Gabor transform, and other spatial and transform domain methods.

  14. Study on microscope hyperspectral medical imaging method for biomedical quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QingLi; XUE YongQi; XIAO GongHai; ZHANG JingFa


    A microscopic pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was developed based on the microscopic technology and spectral imaging technology according to the principle of spectral imager in remote sensing. The basic principle and key technologies of this system were presented and the system per-formance was also analyzed. Some methods and algorithms were proposed to preprocess and nor-malize the microscopic hyperspectral data and retrieve the transmittance spectrum of samples. As a case study, the microscopic hyperspectral imaging system was used to image the retina sections of different rats and get some significant results. Experiment results show that the system can be used for the quantitative assessment and evaluating the effect of medication in biomedical research.

  15. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model. (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice


    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  16. Biomedical Probes Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles for Electrochemical and Optical Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadee Yakoh


    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles usually provide novel and unique physical properties as their size approaches nanometer scale dimensions. The unique physical and optical properties of nanoparticles may lead to applications in a variety of areas, including biomedical detection. Therefore, current research is now increasingly focused on the use of the high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoparticles to fabricate superb chemical- or biosensors for various detection applications. This article highlights various kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, including metal nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and semiconductor nanoparticles that can be perceived as useful materials for biomedical probes and points to the outstanding results arising from their use in such probes. The progress in the use of inorganic nanoparticle-based electrochemical, colorimetric and spectrophotometric detection in recent applications, especially bioanalysis, and the main functions of inorganic nanoparticles in detection are reviewed. The article begins with a conceptual discussion of nanoparticles according to types, followed by numerous applications to analytes including biomolecules, disease markers, and pharmaceutical substances. Most of the references cited herein, dating from 2010 to 2015, generally mention one or more of the following characteristics: a low detection limit, good signal amplification and simultaneous detection capabilities.

  17. Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gomez, Ariel [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    Building on previous work, a phase-preserving bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator was developed with the capability of performing live animal phase contrast dynamic imaging at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called ‘magic condition’ that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used.

  18. Effect of surface coating of KYb2F7:Tm3+ on optical properties and biomedical applications (United States)

    Pedraza, Francisco J.; Avalos, Julio C.; Yust, Brian G.; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj K.


    This project aims to provide an insight on the effects of biocompatible polymers on the optical properties and the nanoparticle-cell interaction of KYb2F7:Tm3+ nanocrystals that exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) fluorescence. KYb2F7:Tm3+ nanocrystals were synthesized with a diameter of 20-30 nm and surface modified with poly(ethylene glycol), Pluronic® F-127, and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone), due to the associated advantages. Some of these include biocompatibility and biodistribution in the instance of agglomeration and hydrophobicity as well as the addition of a targeting agent and drug loading by further functionalization. Despite the decrease in fluorescence intensity induced by the surface modification, thulium’s emission fingerprint was easily detected. Moreover, surface modified KYb2F7:Tm3+ nanocrystals failed to induce a toxic response on endothelial cells following a 24 h uptake period up to concentrations of 100 μg ml-1. In vitro toxicity and confocal imaging have demonstrated the versatility of these NIR fluorescence nanocrystals in biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy.

  19. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E


    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  20. Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging of an optical antenna with a single diamond NV center. (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Smith, Dallas; Johnson, Timothy W; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Novotny, Lukas; Vamivakas, A Nick


    Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter, we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna.

  1. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging (United States)

    Everbach, E. Carr


    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  2. Optical coherence tomography—current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  3. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  4. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncton, David E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Khaykovich, Boris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  5. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server


    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  6. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques (United States)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua


    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  7. NAOMI: nanoparticle-assisted optical molecular imaging (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.


    We present our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using biodegradable nanoparticles. Our focus is on using optical coherence tomography(OCT) as the imaging modality. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with carefully selected dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. Moreover, we perform a qualitative pilot study using these biodegradable nanoparticles, measuring their optical properties which are found to be in line with theoretical predictions.

  8. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshitij Thorat


    We present the radio-optical imaging of ATLBS, a sensitive radio survey (Subrahmanyan et al. 2010). The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio sources. We give here details of the imaging of the radio data and optical data for the ATLBS survey.

  9. Molecular imaging by optically-detected electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancies in nanodiamond

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, Alex


    Molecular imaging refers to a class of noninvasive biomedical imaging techniques with the sensitivity and specificity to image biochemical variations in-vivo. An ideal molecular imaging technique visualizes a biochemical target according to a range of criteria, including high spatial and temporal resolution, high contrast relative to non-targeted tissues, depth-independent penetration into tissue, lack of harm to the organism under study, and low cost. Because no existing molecular imaging modality is ideal for all purposes, new imaging approaches are needed. Here we demonstrate a novel molecular imaging approach, called nanodiamond imaging, that uses nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers as an imaging agent, and image nanodiamond targets in pieces of chicken breast. Nanodiamonds can be tagged with biologically active molecules so they bind to specific receptors; their distribution can then be quantified in-vivo via optically-detected magnetic resonance of the NVs. In effect, we are demo...

  10. Nanohybrids Near-Field Optical Microscopy: From Image Shift to Biosensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayla El-Kork


    Full Text Available Near-Field Optical Microscopy is a valuable tool for the optical and topographic study of objects at a nanometric scale. Nanoparticles constitute important candidates for such type of investigations, as they bear an important weight for medical, biomedical, and biosensing applications. One, however, has to be careful as artifacts can be easily reproduced. In this study, we examined hybrid nanoparticles (or nanohybrids in the near-field, while in solution and attached to gold nanoplots. We found out that they can be used for wavelength modulable near-field biosensors within conditions of artifact free imaging. In detail, we refer to the use of topographic/optical image shift and the imaging of Local Surface Plasmon hot spots to validate the genuineness of the obtained images. In summary, this study demonstrates a new way of using simple easily achievable comparative methods to prove the authenticity of near-field images and presents nanohybrid biosensors as an application.

  11. Single-shot optical imaging through scattering medium using digital in-line holography

    CERN Document Server

    R., Vinu; Somkuwar, Atul S; Park, YongKeun; Singh, Rakesh Kumar


    Non-invasive and single-shot holographic imaging through complex media is technically challenging due to random light scattering which significantly scrambles optical information. Recently, several methods have been presented to address this issue. However, they require complicated measurements of optical transmission matrices, or existing techniques do only retrieve intensity information. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a holographic approach for single-shot imaging through a scattering layer based on digital in-line holography in combination with the autocorrelation of the speckle intensity. Using a simple optical configuration and experimental procedure, the proposed method enables to retrieve the complex amplitude image of an object located at arbitrary planes behind scattering media. The technique has potential applications in biomedical imaging, deep tissue microscopy, and 3D imaging through turbid media.

  12. Classification of visual signs in abdominal CT image figures in biomedical literature (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.


    "Imaging signs" are a critical part of radiology's language. They not only are important for conveying diagnosis, but may also aid in indexing radiology literature and retrieving relevant cases and images. Here we report our work towards representing and categorizing imaging signs of abdominal abnormalities in figures in the radiology literature. Given a region-of-interest (ROI) from a figure, our goal was to assign a correct imaging sign label to that ROI from the following seven: accordion, comb, ring, sandwich, small bowel feces, target, or whirl. As training and test data, we created our own "gold standard" dataset of regions containing imaging signs. We computed 2997 feature attributes to represent imaging sign characteristics for each ROI in training and test sets. Following feature selection they were reduced to 70 attributes and were input to a Support Vector Machine classifier. We applied image-enhancement methods to compensate for variable quality of the images in radiology articles. In particular we developed a method for automatic detection and removal of pointers/markers (arrows, arrowheads, and asterisk symbols) on the images. These pointers/markers are valuable for approximately locating ROIs; however, they degrade the classification because they are often (partially) included in the training ROIs. On a test set of 283 ROIs, our method achieved an overall accuracy of 70% in labeling the seven signs, which we believe is a promising result for using imaging signs to search/retrieve radiology literature. This work is also potentially valuable for the creation of a visual ontology of biomedical imaging entities.

  13. Space-based optical image encryption. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong


    In this paper, we propose a new method based on a three-dimensional (3D) space-based strategy for the optical image encryption. The two-dimensional (2D) processing of a plaintext in the conventional optical encryption methods is extended to a 3D space-based processing. Each pixel of the plaintext is considered as one particle in the proposed space-based optical image encryption, and the diffraction of all particles forms an object wave in the phase-shifting digital holography. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new optical encryption strategy instead of the conventional 2D processing, and may open up a new research perspective for the optical image encryption.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foram Gala


    Full Text Available Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies.

  15. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for retina imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Shi; Yun Dai; Ling Wang; Zhihua Ding; Xuejun Rao; Yudong Zhang


    When optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for human retina imaging, its transverse resolution is limited by the aberrations of human eyes. To overcome this disadvantage, a high resolution imaging system for living human retina, which consists of a time domain OCT system and a 37-elements adaptive optics (AO) system, has been developed. The AO closed loop rate is 20 frames per second, and the OCT has a 6.7-μm axial resolution. In this paper, this system is introduced and the high resolution imaging results for retina are presented.

  16. Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong


    Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

  17. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina. (United States)

    Battu, Rajani; Dabir, Supriya; Khanna, Anjani; Kumar, Anupama Kiran; Roy, Abhijit Sinha


    Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  18. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  19. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Xiaona; Chen, Wei R.


    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,


    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  1. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  2. A beam optics study of the biomedical beam line at a proton therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chong Cheoul [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Sillim-dong, Gwanak, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Won [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Koyang, Kyonggi 410 769 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    A biomedical beam line has been designed for the experimental area of a proton therapy facility to deliver mm to sub-mm size beams in the energy range of 20-50 MeV using the TRANSPORT/TURTLE beam optics codes and a newly-written program. The proton therapy facility is equipped with a 230 MeV fixed-energy cyclotron and an energy selection system based on a degrader and slits, so that beam currents available for therapy decrease at lower energies in the therapeutic beam energy range of 70-230 MeV. The new beam line system is composed of an energy-degrader, two slits, and three quadrupole magnets. The minimum beam sizes achievable at the focal point are estimated for the two energies of 50 and 20 MeV. The focused FWHM beam size is approximately 0.3 mm with an expected beam current of 20 pA when the beam energy is reduced to 50 MeV from 100 MeV, and roughly 0.8 mm with a current of 10 pA for a 20 MeV beam.

  3. Optical medical imaging: from glass to man (United States)

    Bradley, Mark


    A formidable challenge in modern respiratory healthcare is the accurate and timely diagnosis of lung infection and inflammation. The EPSRC Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration (IRC) `Proteus' seeks to address this challenge by developing an optical fibre based healthcare technology platform that combines physiological sensing with multiplexed optical molecular imaging. This technology will enable in situ measurements deep in the human lung allowing the assessment of tissue function and characterization of the unique signatures of pulmonary disease and is illustrated here with our in-man application of Optical Imaging SmartProbes and our first device Versicolour.

  4. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many three-dimensional (3D images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily.

  5. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.


    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  6. Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging (United States)

    Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab


    Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

  7. Optical imaging of fast, dynamic neurophysiological function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, D. M. (David M.); Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Yao, X. (Xincheng); George, J. S. (John S.)


    Fast evoked responses were imaged from rat dorsal medulla and whisker barrel cortex. To investigate the biophysical mechanisms involved, fast optical responses associated with isolated crustacean nerve stimulation were recorded using birefringence and scattered light. Such studies allow optimization of non-invasive imaging techniques being developed for use in humans.

  8. Combining calcium imaging with other optical techniques. (United States)

    Canepari, Marco; Zecevic, Dejan; Vogt, Kaspar E; Ogden, David; De Waard, Michel


    Ca(2+) imaging is a commonly used approach for measuring Ca(2+) signals at high spatial resolution. The method is often combined with electrode recordings to correlate electrical and chemical signals or to investigate Ca(2+) signals following an electrical stimulation. To obtain information on electrical activity at the same spatial resolution, Ca(2+) imaging must be combined with membrane potential imaging. Similarly, stimulation of subcellular compartments requires photostimulation. Thus, combining Ca(2+) imaging with an additional optical technique facilitates the study of a number of physiological questions. The aim of this article is to introduce some basic principles regarding the combination of Ca(2+) imaging with other optical techniques. We discuss the design of the optics, the design of experimental protocols, the optical characteristics of Ca(2+) indicators used in combination with an optical probe, and the affinity of the Ca(2+) indicator in relation to the type of measurement. This information will enable the reader to devise an optimal strategy for combined optical experiments.

  9. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers. (United States)

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David


    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data.

  10. Optical Digital Image Storage System (United States)


    This could be accomplished even if the files were artificially determined. " Super files," composed of a number of files, could be artificially order to expedite transfer through the scanning process. These " super files" could later be broken down into their actual component files. Another...hesitant about implementing an optical disk system. While Sandra Napier believed it "looks promising," she felt an optical disk replacement of microfilm

  11. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.


    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects in the indi......An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects...... in the indicator film and unevenness of light, as well as additive signals from detector bias, external light sources, etc. When properly corrected a better measurement of the local magnetic field can be made, even in the case of heavily damaged films. For superconductors the magnetic field distributions may...

  12. NAOMI: nanoparticle assisted optical molecular imaging (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Graf, Christina; van Leeuwen, Ton G.


    Our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using OCT as the imaging modality are presented. We derive an expression to estimate the sensitivity of this technique. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with suitable dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. This report presents preliminary results of our investigation on the use of nanoshells to serve as contrast agents We injected nanoshells with specific contrast features in the 800 nm wavelength region in excised porcine eyes. The nanoshells showed up as bright reflecting structures in the OCT images, which confirm their potential as contrast agents.

  13. Optical encryption for large-sized images (United States)

    Sanpei, Takuho; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi


    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  14. Full-angle optical imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes implanted in small animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Hu; Junjie Yao; Jing Bai


    To provide a valuable experimental platform for in vivo biomedical research of small animal model with fluorescence mediated approach, we developed a whole-body near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging system as described in this paper. This system is based on a sensitive CCD camera and has the ability to achieve 360° full-angle source illuminations and projections capture of the targets to obtain the dense sampling by performing rotational scan. The measurement accuracy is validated from cylinder phantom experiments by the comparison between the experimental data and theoretical predictions. Finally, we also present typical in vivo images of fluorescent tube implanted into the mouse body. The results are promising and have proved the system imaging performance for macroscopic optical biomedical research.

  15. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.


    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  16. All-optically integrated multimodality imaging system: combined photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da


    We have developed a multimodality imaging system by optically integrating all-optical photoacoustic microscopy (AOPAM), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FLM) to provide complementary information including optical absorption, optical back-scattering and fluorescence contrast of biological tissue. By sharing the same low-coherence Michelson interferometer, AOPAM and OCT could be organically optically combined to obtain the absorption and scattering information of the biological tissues. Also, owing to using the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence signals are obtained to present the radiative and nonradiative transition process of absorption. Simultaneously photoacoustic angiography, tissue structure and fluorescence molecular in vivo images of mouse ear were acquired to demonstrate the capabilities of the optically integrated trimodality imaging system, which can present more information to study tumor angiogenesis, vasculature, anatomical structure and microenvironments in vivo.

  17. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.


    performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  18. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' (United States)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.


    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  19. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi


    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  20. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis


    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  1. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.


    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  2. Synthesis and Ligand-Exchange Reactions of a Tri-Tungsten Cluster with Applications in Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Noey, Elizabeth; Curtis, Jeff C.; Tam, Sylvia; Pham, David M.; Jones, Ella F.


    In this experiment students are exposed to concepts in inorganic synthesis and various spectroscopies as applied to a tri-tungsten cluster with applications in biomedical imaging. The tungsten-acetate cluster, Na[W[superscript 3](mu-O)[subscript 2](CH[superscript 3]COO)[superscript 9

  3. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics. (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F


    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  4. Hessian-based norm regularization for image restoration with biomedical applications. (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Bourquard, Aurélien; Unser, Michael


    We present nonquadratic Hessian-based regularization methods that can be effectively used for image restoration problems in a variational framework. Motivated by the great success of the total-variation (TV) functional, we extend it to also include second-order differential operators. Specifically, we derive second-order regularizers that involve matrix norms of the Hessian operator. The definition of these functionals is based on an alternative interpretation of TV that relies on mixed norms of directional derivatives. We show that the resulting regularizers retain some of the most favorable properties of TV, i.e., convexity, homogeneity, rotation, and translation invariance, while dealing effectively with the staircase effect. We further develop an efficient minimization scheme for the corresponding objective functions. The proposed algorithm is of the iteratively reweighted least-square type and results from a majorization-minimization approach. It relies on a problem-specific preconditioned conjugate gradient method, which makes the overall minimization scheme very attractive since it can be applied effectively to large images in a reasonable computational time. We validate the overall proposed regularization framework through deblurring experiments under additive Gaussian noise on standard and biomedical images.

  5. Real-time three-dimensional digital image correlation for biomedical applications (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Wu, Hua; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng


    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been successfully applied for evaluating the mechanical behavior of biological tissues. A three-dimensional (3-D) DIC system has been developed and applied to examining the motion of bones in the human foot. To achieve accurate, real-time displacement measurements, an algorithm including matching between sequential images and image pairs has been developed. The system was used to monitor the movement of markers which were attached to a precisely motorized stage. The accuracy of the proposed technique for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements was found to be -0.25% and 1.17%, respectively. Two biomedical applications were presented. In the experiment involving the foot arch, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to vertical compressive loads up to 700 N at a rate of 10 N/s and the 3-D motions of bones in the foot were monitored in real time. In the experiment involving distal tibio fibular syndesmosis, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to a monotonic rotational torque up to 5 Nm at a speed of 5 deg per min and the relative displacements of the tibia and fibula were monitored in real time. Results showed that the system could reach a frequency of up to 16 Hz with 6 points measured simultaneously. This technique sheds new lights on measuring 3-D motion of bones in biomechanical studies.

  6. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells (United States)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille


    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  7. Holography In Biomedical Sciences (United States)

    von Bally, G.


    Today not only physicists and engineers but also biological and medical scientists are exploring the potentials of holographic methods in their special field of work. Most of the underlying physical principles such as coherence, interference, diffraction and polarization as well as general features of holography e.g. storage and retrieval of amplitude and phase of a wavefront, 3-d-imaging, large field of depth, redundant storage of information, spatial filtering, high-resolving, non-contactive, 3-d form and motion analysis are explained in detail in other contributions to this book. Therefore, this article is confined to the applications of holography in biomedical sciences. Because of the great number of contributions and the variety of applications [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] in this review the investigations can only be mentioned briefly and the survey has to be confined to some examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review of biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and their utilization are not mentioned. As will be demonstrated by selected examples the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare like biomedical research [9]. This fact is actually characterized and stressed by the expression "Star Wars Medicine", which becomes increasingly common as popular description for laser applications (including holography) in medicine [10]. Thus, the consequence - even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography - have to be discussed.

  8. MR imaging of optic chiasmatic glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Sook; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ryu, Meung Sun; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Ra, Young Shin; Khang, Shin Kwang [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the MR findings of optic chiasmatic glioma (OCG). MR images were reviewed in 14 patients with histologically proven OCGs and one with neurofibromatosis type 1 (male: female=8:7, mean age=8.5 years.) Tumors were evaluated retrospectively with respect to their size, involvement of the optic pathway, transverse/vertical diameter ratio based on the coronal plane, signal intensities, enhancement pattern, and the presence of a cyst or calcification. Tumors was measured 1.7-5.5 (mean, 3.3) cm in maximum diameter. In ten patients, the optic tracts were involved, and in three, the optic nerves. In 12 patients, tumors had a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of over one, and showed iso (n=5) or low signal intensity (n=10) compared with gray matter at T1-weighted imaging and high signal intensity (n=15) at T2-weighted imaging. Cyst formations were ween in eight patients, and tumors were enhanced strongly and homogeneously in nine and peripherally in four. In seven three was associated hydrocephalus, and in one, calcification. OCG is a suprasellar tumor which can extend into the optic pathway, has a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of more than one, and shows strong and homogeneous enhancement. These MR imaging findings are useful for the differentiation of OCG from other suprasellar tumors.

  9. Factors Affecting Image Quality in Near-field Ultra-wideband Radar Imaging for Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Curtis, Charlotte

    Near-field ultra-wideband radar imaging has potential as a new breast imaging modality. While a number of reconstruction algorithms have been published with the goal of reducing undesired responses or clutter, an in-depth analysis of the dominant sources of clutter has not been conducted. In this thesis, time domain radar image reconstruction is demonstrated to be equivalent to frequency domain synthetic aperture radar. This reveals several assumptions inherent to the reconstruction algorithm related to radial spreading, point source antennas, and the independent summation of point scatterers. Each of these assumptions is examined in turn to determine which has the greatest impact on the resulting image quality and interpretation. In addition, issues related to heterogeneous and dispersive media are addressed. Variations in imaging parameters are tested by observing their influence on the system point spread function. Results are then confirmed by testing on simple and detailed simulation models, followed by data acquired from human volunteers. Recommended parameters are combined into a new imaging operator that is demonstrated to generate results comparable to a more accurate signal model, but with a 50 fold improvement in computational efficiency. Finally, the most significant factor affecting image quality is determined to be the estimate of tissue properties used to form the image.

  10. Silver and Gold Nanostructures: Engineering their Optical Properties for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Xia, Younan


    We have focused on shape-controlled synthesis of silver and gold nanostructures. While the synthetic methodology mainly involves solution-phase redox chemistry, we have been working diligently to understand the complex physics behind the simple chemistry -- that is, the nucleation and growth mechanisms leading to the formation of nanostructures with a specific shape. Polyol synthesis of silver nanostructures provides a good example to illustrate this concept. We discovered that the shape of silver nanostructures were dictated by both the crystallinity and shape of nanocrystallite seeds, which were, in turn, controlled by factors such as reduction rate, oxidative etching, and surface capping. We also exploited the galvanic replacement reaction between silver and chloroauric acid to transform silver nanocubes into gold nanocages with controlled void size, wall thickness, and wall porosity. We were able to engineer the optical properties of resulting gold nanocages with optical resonance peaks ranging from the blue (400 nm) to the near infrared (1200 nm) simply by controlling the molar ratio of silver to chloroauric acid. Thanks to their exceptionally large scattering and absorption coefficients in the transparent window for soft tissues, this novel class of gold nanostructures has great potential emerging as both a contrast agent for optical imaging in early-stage tumor detection, and a therapeutic agent for photothermal cancer treatment.

  11. 3D integral imaging with optical processing (United States)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram


    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  12. Optical-thermal light-tissue interactions during photoacoustic imaging (United States)

    Gould, Taylor; Wang, Quanzeng; Pfefer, T. Joshua


    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has grown rapidly as a biomedical imaging technique in recent years, with key applications in cancer diagnosis and oximetry. In spite of these advances, the literature provides little insight into thermal tissue interactions involved in PAI. To elucidate these basic phenomena, we have developed, validated, and implemented a three-dimensional numerical model of tissue photothermal (PT) response to repetitive laser pulses. The model calculates energy deposition, fluence distributions, transient temperature and damage profiles in breast tissue with blood vessels and generalized perfusion. A parametric evaluation of these outputs vs. vessel diameter and depth, optical beam diameter, wavelength, and irradiance, was performed. For a constant radiant exposure level, increasing beam diameter led to a significant increase in subsurface heat generation rate. Increasing vessel diameter resulted in two competing effects - reduced mean energy deposition in the vessel due to light attenuation and greater thermal superpositioning due to reduced thermal relaxation. Maximum temperatures occurred either at the surface or in subsurface regions of the dermis, depending on vessel geometry and position. Results are discussed in terms of established exposure limits and levels used in prior studies. While additional experimental and numerical study is needed, numerical modeling represents a powerful tool for elucidating the effect of PA imaging devices on biological tissue.

  13. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel


    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  14. Deformable image registration between pathological images and MR image via an optical macro image. (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yuka; Tanaka, Toru; Tanaka, Takuya; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Batchelor, Tracy T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Taylor, Jennie W; Snuderl, Matija; Yagi, Yukako


    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have been widely used for visualizing the inside of the human body. However, in many cases, pathological diagnosis is conducted through a biopsy or resection of an organ to evaluate the condition of tissues as definitive diagnosis. To provide more advanced information onto CT or MR image, it is necessary to reveal the relationship between tissue information and image signals. We propose a registration scheme for a set of PT images of divided specimens and a 3D-MR image by reference to an optical macro image (OM image) captured by an optical camera. We conducted a fundamental study using a resected human brain after the death of a brain cancer patient. We constructed two kinds of registration processes using the OM image as the base for both registrations to make conversion parameters between the PT and MR images. The aligned PT images had shapes similar to the OM image. On the other hand, the extracted cross-sectional MR image was similar to the OM image. From these resultant conversion parameters, the corresponding region on the PT image could be searched and displayed when an arbitrary pixel on the MR image was selected. The relationship between the PT and MR images of the whole brain can be analyzed using the proposed method. We confirmed that same regions between the PT and MR images could be searched and displayed using resultant information obtained by the proposed method. In terms of the accuracy of proposed method, the TREs were 0.56±0.39mm and 0.87±0.42mm. We can analyze the relationship between tissue information and MR signals using the proposed method.

  15. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  16. Biomedical nanotechnology. (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J


    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  17. Label-free biomedical imaging of lipids by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prasanna V; Mutlu, Ayse Sena; Wang, Meng C


    Advances in modern optical microscopy have provided unparalleled tools to study intracellular structure and function, yet visualizing lipid molecules within a cell remains challenging. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy is a recently developed imaging modality that addresses this challenge. By selectively imaging the vibration of chemical moieties enriched in lipids, this technique allows for rapid imaging of lipid molecules in vivo without the need for perturbative extrinsic labels. SRS microscopy has been effectively employed in the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. This unit provides a brief introduction to the principle of SRS microscopy, and describes methods for its use in imaging lipids in cells, tissues, and whole organisms.

  18. Novel Polysaccharide Based Polymers and Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Shalviri, Alireza

    controlled delivery applications of larger molecular size compounds. The starch based hydrogels, polymers and nanoparticles developed in this work have shown great potentials for controlled drug delivery and biomedical imaging applications.

  19. Multiband optics for imaging systems (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Gibson, Daniel J.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Nguyen, Vinh Q.; Kotov, Mikhail; McClain, Collin


    There is a strong desire to reduce size and weight of single and multiband IR imaging systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations on hand-held, helmet mounted or airborne platforms. NRL is developing new IR glasses that expand the glass map and provide compact solutions to multispectral imaging systems. These glasses were specifically designed to have comparable glass molding temperatures and thermal properties to enable lamination and co-molding of the optics which leads to a reduction in the number of air-glass interfaces (lower Fresnel reflection losses). Our multispectral optics designs using these new materials demonstrate reduced size, complexity and improved performance. This presentation will cover discussions on the new optical materials, multispectral designs, as well fabrication and characterization of new optics. Additionally, graded index (GRIN) optics offer further potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 µm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional materials. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations will be presented in this talk.

  20. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging. (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T


    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Han; Ce Wang


    Over the last couple of years molecular imaging has been rapidly developed to study physiological and pathological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular levels. Among molecular imaging modalities, optical imaging stands out for its unique advantages, especially performance and cost-effectiveness. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is an emerging optical imaging mode with promising biomedical advantages. In this survey paper, we explain the biomedical significance of BLT, summarize theoretical results on the analysis and numerical solution of a diffusion based BLT model, and comment on a few extensions for the study of BLT.

  2. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola


    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy.

  3. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton


    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  4. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server


    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  5. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cely Barroso, Regina [Laboratory of Applied Physics on Biomedical Sciences, Physics Department, Rio de Janeiro State University, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)


    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography ({mu}CT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-{mu}CT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  6. Fourier optics of image formation in LEEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, A B; Altman, M S [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Mueller, Th; Bauer, Ernst [Physikalisches Institute, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    A Fourier optics calculation of image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) is presented. The adaptation of the existing theory for transmission electron microscopy to the treatment of LEEM and other forms of cathode lens electron microscopy is explained. The calculation incorporates imaging errors that are caused by the objective lens (aberrations), contrast aperture (diffraction), imperfect source characteristics, and voltage and current instabilities. It is used to evaluate the appearance of image features that arise from phase objects such as surface steps and amplitude objects that produce what is alternatively called amplitude, reflectivity or diffraction contrast in LEEM. This formalism can be used after appropriate modification to treat image formation in other emission microscopies. Implications for image formation in the latest aberration-corrected instruments are also discussed.

  7. Cloned images and the optical unconscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    ). The hypothesis is that images embody power not only through scientific visualisations, marketing campaigns, celebrity culture or visualisation of ideological messages, but also through the specific visual codes they produce. These codes can be transferred to other images as a 'hidden algorithm', which can later...... the modernist artworks, where bodies and the ground blend from one part-object to another, leading to the experience of formlessness. In my own research I am employing both of these concepts, with an added focus: a codified arrangement of the image (a structure, or gesture, placement of the figures) can...... be stored in a memory of an observer – and later recognised as a pattern (structure) in the another image. The associative process that takes place is usually hidden from the observer, thus the use of the term optical unconscious. As the image gets disseminated via electronic media – 'cloned' is the term...

  8. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)


    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  9. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging (United States)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.


    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  10. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  11. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.


    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  12. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosrow Behbehani


    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  13. Multi-Beam Interference Advances and Applications: Nano-Electronics, Photonic Crystals, Metamaterials, Subwavelength Structures, Optical Trapping, and Biomedical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Gaylord


    Full Text Available Research in recent years has greatly advanced the understanding and capabilities of multi-beam interference (MBI. With this technology it is now possible to generate a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions at the micro- and nano-scale over a large length/area/volume. These patterns may be used directly or recorded in photo-sensitive materials using multi-beam interference lithography (MBIL to accomplish subwavelength patterning. Advances in MBI and MBIL and a very wide range of applications areas including nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterials, subwavelength structures, optical trapping, and biomedical structures are reviewed and put into a unified perspective.

  14. Image Distortion of Optical Coherence Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安源; 姚建铨


    A kind of image distortion in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) resulted from average refractive index changes between structures of bio-tissue is discussed for the first time.Analysis is given on following situations:1) Exact refraction index changes between microstructures;2)The gradient of average refractive index change between different tissue layers is parallel to the probe beam;3) The gradient of average refractive index change is vertical to the probe beam.The results show that the image distortion of situation 1) is usually negligible;in situation 2) there is a spread or shrink effect without relative location error; however,in situation 3) there is a significant image error inducing relative location displacement between different structures.Preliminary design to eliminate the distortion is presented,the method of which mainly based on the image classification and pixel array re-arrangement.

  15. Adaptive optics for in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks (United States)

    Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Mugnier, Laurent M.; Michau, Vincent; Cossart, Rosa; Malvache, Arnaud


    The landscape of biomedical research in neuroscience has changed dramatically in recent years as a result of spectacular progress in dynamic microscopy. However, the optical accessibility of deep brain structures or deeper regions of the surgically exposed hippocampus (a few 100 microns typically) remains limited, due to volumic aberrations created by the sample inhomogeneities. Adaptive optics can correct for these aberrations. Our goal is to realize a novel adaptive optics module dedicated to in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of the hippocampus. The key issue in adaptive optics is the ability to perform an accurate and reliable wavefront sensing. In two- photon microscopy indirect methods are required. Two families of approaches have been proposed so far, the modal sensorless technique and a method based on pupil segmentation. We present here a formal comparison of these approaches, in particular as a function of the amount of aberrations.

  16. Evaluation of illumination system uniformity for wide-field biomedical hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Sawyer, Travis W.; Siri Luthman, A.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems collect both spatial (morphological) and spectral (chemical) information from a sample. HSI can provide sensitive analysis for biological and medical applications, for example, simultaneously measuring reflectance and fluorescence properties of a tissue, which together with structural information could improve early cancer detection and tumour characterisation. Illumination uniformity is a critical pre-condition for quantitative data extraction from an HSI system. Non-uniformity can cause glare, specular reflection and unwanted shading, which negatively impact statistical analysis procedures used to extract abundance of different chemical species. Here, we model and evaluate several illumination systems frequently used in wide-field biomedical imaging to test their potential for HSI. We use the software LightTools and FRED. The analysed systems include: a fibre ring light; a light emitting diode (LED) ring; and a diffuse scattering dome. Each system is characterised for spectral, spatial, and angular uniformity, as well as transfer efficiency. Furthermore, an approach to measure uniformity using the Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD) is introduced. The KLD is generalisable to arbitrary illumination shapes, making it an attractive approach for characterising illumination distributions. Although the systems are quite comparable in their spatial and spectral uniformity, the most uniform angular distribution is achieved using a diffuse scattering dome, yielding a contrast of 0.503 and average deviation of 0.303 over a ±60° field of view with a 3.9% model error in the angular domain. Our results suggest that conventional illumination sources can be applied in HSI, but in the case of low light levels, bespoke illumination sources may offer improved performance.

  17. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server


    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  18. Studies on thermo-optic property of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG complex: a direction for devices for biomedical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nidhi Nigam; Santosh Kumar; Pradip Kumar Dutta; Tamal Ghosh


    The optical parameters including the refractive index () and thermo-optic coefficient, TOC (d/d), the dielectric constant () and its variation with temperature, and the thermal volume expansion coefficient () and its variation with temperature of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG (CS–AY GG) complex were examined. The dn/dT and - values for the polymer derivative were in the range −2.5 × 10−4 to 1.2 × 10−4° C−1 and 2.2 to 2.3, respectively. The dn/dT values were larger than that of inorganic glasses such as zinc silicate glass (5.5 × 10−6° C−1) and borosilicate glass (4.1 × 10−6° C−1) and were larger than that of organic polymers such as polystyrene (−1.23 × 10−4 ° C−1) and PMMA (−1.20 × 10−4 ° C−1). The -values are lower than optically estimated -values of conventional polymer (3.00), aliphatic polyimide (2.5) and semi-aromatic polyamide (2.83). The obtained results of chitosan derivative are expected to be useful for optical switching and optical waveguide areas for devices of biomedical applications.

  19. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin


    techniques. Scattering forces from beams actuated via efficient phase-only efficient modulation has been adopted. This has lowered the required power for sorting cells to a tenth of our previous approach, and also makes the cell sorter safer for use in clinical settings. With the versatility of dynamically...... programmable phase spatial light modulators, a plurality of light shaping techniques, including hybrid approaches, can be utilized in cell sorting....... healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...

  20. Novel optical system for neonatal brain imaging (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Shuoming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton; Anday, Endla; Ravishankar, Sudha; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria


    A highly portable, fast, safe and affordable imaging system that provides interpretable images of brain function in full- and pre-term neonates within a few seconds has been applied to neonates with normal and pathological states. We have used a uniquely sensitive optical tomography system, termed phased array, which has revealed significant functional responses, particularly to parietal stimulation in neonate brain. This system can indicate the blood concentration and oxygenation change during the parietal brain activation in full- and pre-term neonates. The preliminary clinical results, especially a longitudinal study of a cardiac arrest neonate, suggest a variety of future applications.

  1. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)


    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  2. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter


    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  3. Design and preparation of film for microsphere based optical super-resolution imaging (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Du, Chunlei; Qiu, Qi; Yin, Shaoyun; Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling


    In this paper, a novel thin film was proposed for optical super-resolution imaging, which contains a layer of closely-arranged barium titanate glass microsphere with diameter about 30-100μm embedded in a transparent polydimethylsiloxane soft mold. Then the imaging mechanism was analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and spectrum analysis method. Finally, the thin film was prepared and used to image the sample with sub-wavelength feature to confirm the capability of super-resolution imaging. The experimental result shows that an irresolvable Blu-ray DVD disk with feature size of 300nm can be resolved by placing a thin-film on its surface and then look through it with a conventional microscope. The thin film presented here is flexible, lightweight, easy to carry and can be used in the nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, and biomedical imaging areas.

  4. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R


    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  5. Magneto-optical imaging of exotic superconductors (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Losco, J.; Konczykowski, M.; Pari, P.; Shibauchi, T.; Shishido, H.; Matsuda, Y.


    We have constructed a novel compact cryostat for optical measurements at temperatures below 2 K. The desktop cryostat, small enough to be placed under the objective of a standard commercial polarized light microscope, functions in a single shot mode, with a five hour autonomy at 1.5 K. Central to its conception are four charcoal pumps for adsorption and desorption of He contained in a closed circuit, and novel thermal switches allowing for thermalization of the pumps and of the two 1 K pots. The latter are connected to the 1" diameter sample holder through braids. Sample access is immediate, through the simple removal of the optical windows. In this contribution, we shall present first results on magneto-optical imaging of flux penetration in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5.

  6. IOT Overview: Optical Spectro-Imagers (United States)

    Patat, F.

    Taking the FORS instruments as a representative case, I review the Calibration Plan for optical spectro-imagers currently offered at ESO, discussing various aspects related both to the scientific outcome and the instrument/site monitoring. I also describe ongoing and future calibration projects planned by the Instrument Operations Teams, trying to give an objective view on the limitations of the Calibration Plans currently implemented at ESO for this class of instruments.

  7. Automated hexahedral mesh generation from biomedical image data: applications in limb prosthetics. (United States)

    Zachariah, S G; Sanders, J E; Turkiyyah, G M


    A general method to generate hexahedral meshes for finite element analysis of residual limbs and similar biomedical geometries is presented. The method utilizes skeleton-based subdivision of cross-sectional domains to produce simple subdomains in which structured meshes are easily generated. Application to a below-knee residual limb and external prosthetic socket is described. The residual limb was modeled as consisting of bones, soft tissue, and skin. The prosthetic socket model comprised a socket wall with an inner liner. The geometries of these structures were defined using axial cross-sectional contour data from X-ray computed tomography, optical scanning, and mechanical surface digitization. A tubular surface representation, using B-splines to define the directrix and generator, is shown to be convenient for definition of the structure geometries. Conversion of cross-sectional data to the compact tubular surface representation is direct, and the analytical representation simplifies geometric querying and numerical optimization within the mesh generation algorithms. The element meshes remain geometrically accurate since boundary nodes are constrained to lie on the tubular surfaces. Several element meshes of increasing mesh density were generated for two residual limbs and prosthetic sockets. Convergence testing demonstrated that approximately 19 elements are required along a circumference of the residual limb surface for a simple linear elastic model. A model with the fibula absent compared with the same geometry with the fibula present showed differences suggesting higher distal stresses in the absence of the fibula. Automated hexahedral mesh generation algorithms for sliced data represent an advancement in prosthetic stress analysis since they allow rapid modeling of any given residual limb and optimization of mesh parameters.

  8. Computational optical sensing and imaging: introduction to feature issue. (United States)

    Gerwe, David R; Harvey, Andrew; Gehm, Michael E


    The 2012 Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) conference of the Optical Society of America was one of six colocated meetings composing the Imaging and Applied Optics Congress held in Monterey, California, 24-28 June. COSI, together with the Imaging Systems and Applications, Optical Sensors, Applied Industrial Optics, and Optical Remote Sensing of the Environment conferences, brought together a diverse group of scientists and engineers sharing a common interest in measuring and processing of information carried by optical fields. This special feature includes several papers based on presentations given at the 2012 COSI conference as well as independent contributions, which together highlight several important trends.

  9. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892,(Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review...: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imagin and... Avenue, Chicago, IL. Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute...

  10. A learning-based similarity fusion and filtering approach for biomedical image retrieval using SVM classification and relevance feedback. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Thoma, George R


    This paper presents a classification-driven biomedical image retrieval framework based on image filtering and similarity fusion by employing supervised learning techniques. In this framework, the probabilistic outputs of a multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier as category prediction of query and database images are exploited at first to filter out irrelevant images, thereby reducing the search space for similarity matching. Images are classified at a global level according to their modalities based on different low-level, concept, and keypoint-based features. It is difficult to find a unique feature to compare images effectively for all types of queries. Hence, a query-specific adaptive linear combination of similarity matching approach is proposed by relying on the image classification and feedback information from users. Based on the prediction of a query image category, individual precomputed weights of different features are adjusted online. The prediction of the classifier may be inaccurate in some cases and a user might have a different semantic interpretation about retrieved images. Hence, the weights are finally determined by considering both precision and rank order information of each individual feature representation by considering top retrieved relevant images as judged by the users. As a result, the system can adapt itself to individual searches to produce query-specific results. Experiment is performed in a diverse collection of 5 000 biomedical images of different modalities, body parts, and orientations. It demonstrates the efficiency (about half computation time compared to search on entire collection) and effectiveness (about 10%-15% improvement in precision at each recall level) of the retrieval approach.

  11. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Banzhaf


    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods: Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA, respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results: The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion: Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies.

  12. Luminescent probes for optical in vivo imaging (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Josserand, Veronique; Garanger, Elisabeth; Razkin, Jesus; Jin, Zhaohui; Dumy, Pascal; Favrot, Marie; Boturyn, Didier; Coll, Jean-Luc


    Going along with instrumental development for small animal fluorescence in vivo imaging, we are developing molecular fluorescent probes, especially for tumor targeting. Several criteria have to be taken into account for the optimization of the luminescent label. It should be adapted to the in vivo imaging optical conditions : red-shifted absorption and emission, limited overlap between absorption and emission for a good signal filtering, optimized luminescence quantum yield, limited photo-bleaching. Moreover, the whole probe should fulfill the biological requirements for in vivo labeling : adapted blood-time circulation, biological conditions compatibility, low toxicity. We here demonstrate the ability of the imaging fluorescence set-up developed in LETI to image the bio-distribution of molecular probes on short times after injection. Targeting with Cy5 labeled holo-transferrin of subcutaneous TS/Apc (angiogenic murine breast carcinoma model) or IGROV1 (human ovarian cancer) tumors was achieved. Differences in the kinetics of the protein uptake by the tumors were evidenced. IGROV1 internal metastatic nodes implanted in the peritoneal cavity could be detected in nude mice. However, targeted metastatic nodes in lung cancer could only be imaged after dissection of the mouse. These results validate our fluorescence imaging set-up and the use of Cy5 as a luminescent label. New fluorescent probes based on this dye and a molecular delivery template (the RAFT molecule) can thus be envisioned.

  13. Compressive optical image watermarking using joint Fresnel transform correlator architecture (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhong, Ting; Dai, Xiaofang; Yang, Chanxia; Li, Rong; Tang, Zhilie


    A new optical image watermarking technique based on compressive sensing using joint Fresnel transform correlator architecture has been presented. A secret scene or image is first embedded into a host image to perform optical image watermarking by use of joint Fresnel transform correlator architecture. Then, the watermarked image is compressed to much smaller signal data using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in optical domain. At the received terminal, the watermarked image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory and a specified holographic reconstruction algorithm. The preliminary numerical simulations show that it is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in the coming absolutely optical network for the reason of the completely optical implementation and largely decreased holograms data volume.

  14. Optical Brain Imaging: A Powerful Tool for Neuroscience. (United States)

    Zhu, Xinpei; Xia, Yanfang; Wang, Xuecen; Si, Ke; Gong, Wei


    As the control center of organisms, the brain remains little understood due to its complexity. Taking advantage of imaging methods, scientists have found an accessible approach to unraveling the mystery of neuroscience. Among these methods, optical imaging techniques are widely used due to their high molecular specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we overview several optical imaging techniques in neuroscience of recent years, including brain clearing, the micro-optical sectioning tomography system, and deep tissue imaging.

  15. Performance of laser based optical imaging system (United States)

    Shah, Dhrupesh S.; Banerjee, Arup; Vora, Anup; Biswas, Amiya; Patel, Naimesh; Kurulkar, Amit; Dutt, Ashutosh


    Day night imaging application requires high dynamic range optical imaging system to detect targets of interest covering mid-day (>32000 Lux)[1], and moonless night ( 1mLux)[1] under clear sky- (visibility of >10km, atmospheric loss of 500m, atmospheric loss of >15dB/Km) conditions. Major governing factors for development of such camera systems are (i) covert imaging with ability to identify the target, (ii) imaging irrespective to the scene background, (iii) reliable operation , (iv) imaging capabilities in inclement weather conditions, (v) resource requirement vs availability power & mass, (vi) real-time data processing, (vii) self-calibration, and (viii) cost. Identification of optimum spectral band of interest is most important to meet these requirements. Conventional detection systems sensing in MWIR and LWIR band has certain draw backs in terms of target detection capabilities, susceptibility to background and huge thermo-mechanical resource requirement. Alternatively, range gated imaging camera system sensing in NIR/SWIR spectrum has shown significant potential to detect wide dynamic range targets. ToF Camera configured in NIR band has certain advantages in terms of Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) development with large format detectors and thermo-mechanical resource requirement compared to SWIR band camera configuration. In past, ToF camera systems were successfully configured in NIR spectrum using silicon based Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), Intensifier CCD (ICCD) along with Gating device and pulsed laser source having emission in between 800nm to 900nm. However, these systems have a very low dynamic range and not suitable for clear sky mid-day conditions. Recently silicon based scientific grade CMOS image sensors have shown significant improvement in terms of high NIR responsivity and available in bigger formats (5MP or more), adequate Full well capacity for day time imaging (>30Ke), very low readout noise (<2e) required for night imaging and higher frame

  16. Nanoscale optical imaging of semiconductor nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmler, Miriam; Hartschuh, Achim [Department Chemie, CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Myalitsin, Anton; Mews, Alf [Department Chemie, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)


    Inorganic semiconducting nanowires (NWs) feature size-related optical properties which make them interesting for a wide range of applications, e.g. nanoscale optoelectronics, sensors, and photovoltaics. Their relevant length scales that are determined by nanowire diameter and exciton Bohr radius, however, can not be resolved by conventional diffraction limited methods. We illustrate the prospects of tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM) as a method to investigate single nanowires. In TENOM a sharp metallic tip acts as optical antenna thereby enhancing the detected signal and increasing the optical resolution to about 15 nm. We present our investigations of CdSe NWs which have been grown by the wet chemical solution liquid solid technique. Here, TENOM provides the possibility to simultaneously image photoluminescence (PL) as well as Raman scattering of individual NWs with nanoscale resolution. We observe spatial variations of the PL intensity and energy on a length scale of about 15 nm indicating crystal phase transitions and diameter fluctuations.

  17. Poly(ethylene oxide)-silica hybrids entrapping sensitive dyes for biomedical optical pH sensors: Molecular dynamics and optical response (United States)

    Fabbri, Paola; Pilati, Francesco; Rovati, Luigi; McKenzie, Ruel; Mijovic, Jovan


    Polymer-silica hybrid nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel process based on triethoxisilane-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) chains and tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor, doped with organic pH sensitive dyes, have been prepared and their suitability for use as sensors coupled with plastic optic fibers has been evaluated. Sensors were prepared by immobilizing a drop of the hybrid materials onto the tip of a multi-mode poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber. The performance of the optical sensor in terms of sensitivity and response time was tested in different experimental conditions, and was found to be markedly higher than analogous sensors present on the market. The very fast kinetic of the hybrid's optical response was supported by studies performed at the molecular level by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), investigated over a wide range of frequency and temperature, showing that poly(ethylene oxide) chains maintain their dynamics even when covalently bonded to silica domains, which decrease the self-association interactions and promote motions of polymer chain segments. Due to the fast response kinetic observed, these pH optical sensors result suitable for the fast-detection of biomedical parameters, i.e. fast esophageous pH-metry.

  18. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, Anthony B.; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: [Air Force Research Laboratory, Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate (United States)


    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.Graphical Abstract.

  19. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  20. Design parameters for wearable optical imagers (United States)

    Akin, Ata; Kim, Sanghyun; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Chance, Britton; Nioka, Shoko


    This paper summarizes the design steps that are followed during the development of the portable optical imager for breast cancer screening. The design steps considered the parameters such as total power consumption versus battery weight and size, speed of data acquisition versus cost and complexity of the design (functionality), graphical display versus operating system choice. We have used a single board computer system that uses Windows CE as the real time operating system. This choice was preferred since our graphical display requirements can only be carried out with the CE environment's GUI kernels.

  1. Optical and opto-acoustic interventional imaging. (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Beziere, Nicolas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis


    Many clinical interventional procedures, such as surgery or endoscopy, are today still guided by human vision and perception. Human vision however is not sensitive or accurate in detecting a large range of disease biomarkers, for example cellular or molecular processes characteristic of disease. For this reason advanced optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) methods are considered for enabling a more versatile, sensitive and accurate detection of disease biomarkers and complement human vision in clinical decision making during interventions. Herein, we outline developments in emerging fluorescence and opto-acoustic sensing and imaging techniques that can lead to practical implementations toward improving interventional vision.

  2. Signal and Image Processing of Optical Coherence Tomography at 1310 nm Wavelength for Non Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Rao


    Full Text Available OCT is a recently developed optical interferometric technique for non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging in vivo; the most sensitive optical imaging modality.OCT finds its application in ophthalmology, blood flow estimation and cancer diagnosis along with many non biomedical applications. The main advantage of OCT is its high resolution which is in µm range and depth of penetration in mm range. Unlike other techniques like X rays and CT scan, OCT does not comprise any x ray source and therefore no radiations are involved. This research work discusses the basics of spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT, experimental setup, data acquisition and signal processing involved in OCT systems. Simulation of OCT involving modelling and signal processing, carried out on Lab VIEW platform has been discussed. Using the experimental setup, some of the non biomedical samples have been scanned. The signal processing and image processing of the scanned data was carried out in MATLAB and Lab VIEW, some of the results thus obtained have been discussed in the end.

  3. Development of a bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Belev, George [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lewis, Rob [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aulakh, Gurpreet [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    A bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator was developed and tested at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The expander will reduce scanning time for micro-computed tomography and allow dynamic imaging that has not previously been possible at this beamline. The Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline at the Canadian Light Source has produced some excellent biological imaging data. However, the disadvantage of a small vertical beam limits its usability in some applications. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging requires multiple scans to produce a full projection, and certain dynamic imaging experiments are not possible. A larger vertical beam is desirable. It was cost-prohibitive to build a longer beamline that would have produced a large vertical beam. Instead, it was proposed to develop a beam expander that would create a beam appearing to originate at a source much farther away. This was accomplished using a bent Laue double-crystal monochromator in a non-dispersive divergent geometry. The design and implementation of this beam expander is presented along with results from the micro-CT and dynamic imaging tests conducted with this beam. Flux (photons per unit area per unit time) has been measured and found to be comparable with the existing flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator in use at BMIT. This increase in overall photon count is due to the enhanced bandwidth of the bent Laue configuration. Whilst the expanded beam quality is suitable for dynamic imaging and micro-CT, further work is required to improve its phase and coherence properties.

  4. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.


    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  5. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas; Sarbort, Martin; Bering, Klaus


    We investigate imaging by spherically symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive a number of properties of such devices, present a general method for designing them and use this method to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically homogeneous region and having a moderate refractive index range.

  6. Synthesis of bifunctional Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals and their applications in biomedical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕利; 徐贤柱; 李倩兰; 阳如春; 丁海新; 肖强


    Ultrafine Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals were successfully prepared by a simple reverse microemulsion method and subsequent calcination. Their structural, optical and magnetic properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmis-sion electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic property measurement system (MPMS). The amorphous Gd2(CO3)3:Eu3+colloidal spheres were proved as an intermediate product, and gradually transformed into crystallized Gd2O3:Eu3+with average diameter less than 100 nm. The paramagnetic property of the synthesized Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals were confirmed with its linear hysteresis plot (M-H). And Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals showed high contrast T1-enhancing modality due to the presence of the Gd3+ ions onto the particle surface. In addition, the application of the Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals as biotag for cell labeling was reported, red fluorescence from Eu3+ions observed by fluorescence micros-copy showed that the nanocrystals could permeate the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity studies of the Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals showed no adverse effect on cell viability, evidencing their high biological compatibility. Therefore, the nanoprobe formed from Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals provided the dual modality of optical and magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet


    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  8. WebMedSA: a web-based framework for segmenting and annotating medical images using biomedical ontologies (United States)

    Vega, Francisco; Pérez, Wilson; Tello, Andrés.; Saquicela, Victor; Espinoza, Mauricio; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Vidal, Maria-Esther; La Cruz, Alexandra


    Advances in medical imaging have fostered medical diagnosis based on digital images. Consequently, the number of studies by medical images diagnosis increases, thus, collaborative work and tele-radiology systems are required to effectively scale up to this diagnosis trend. We tackle the problem of the collaborative access of medical images, and present WebMedSA, a framework to manage large datasets of medical images. WebMedSA relies on a PACS and supports the ontological annotation, as well as segmentation and visualization of the images based on their semantic description. Ontological annotations can be performed directly on the volumetric image or at different image planes (e.g., axial, coronal, or sagittal); furthermore, annotations can be complemented after applying a segmentation technique. WebMedSA is based on three main steps: (1) RDF-ization process for extracting, anonymizing, and serializing metadata comprised in DICOM medical images into RDF/XML; (2) Integration of different biomedical ontologies (using L-MOM library), making this approach ontology independent; and (3) segmentation and visualization of annotated data which is further used to generate new annotations according to expert knowledge, and validation. Initial user evaluations suggest that WebMedSA facilitates the exchange of knowledge between radiologists, and provides the basis for collaborative work among them.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging (United States)

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    Recently, there has been growing interest in using OCT for brain imaging. A feasibility study of OCT for guiding deep brain probes has found that OCT can differentiate the white matter and gray matter because the white matter tends to have a higher peak reflectivity and steeper attenuation rate compared to gray matter. In vivo 3D visualization of the layered organization of a rat olfactory bulb with OCT has been demonstrated. OCT has been used for single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling. The refractive index in the rat somatosensory cortex has also been measured with OCT. In addition, functional extension of OCT, such as Doppler-OCT (D-OCT), polarization sensitive-OCT (PS-OCT), and phase-resolved-OCT (PR-OCT), can image and quantify physiological parameters in addition to the morphological structure image. Based on the scattering changes during neural activity, OCT has been used to measure the functional activation in neuronal tissues. PS-OCT, which combines polarization sensitive detection with OCT to determine tissue birefringence, has been used for the localization of nerve fiber bundles and the mapping of micrometer-scale fiber pathways in the brain. D-OCT, also named optical Doppler tomography (ODT), combines the Doppler principle with OCT to obtain high resolution tomographic images of moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. D-OCT has been successfully used to image cortical blood flow and map the blood vessel network for brain research. In this chapter, the principle and technology of OCT and D-OCT are reviewed and examples of potential applications are described.

  10. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Harris, James; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vuckovic, Jelena


    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Our sensor can detect both gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and can be utilized for molecular sensing applications in biomedicine.

  11. Picosecond optical MCPI-based imagers (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Guyton, Robert L.; Ross, Patrick W.


    We present the desired performance specifications for an advanced optical imager, which borrows practical concepts in high-speed microchannel plate (MCP) intensified x-ray stripline imagers and time-dilation techniques. With a four-fold speed improvement in state-of-the-art high-voltage impulse drivers, and novel atomic-layer deposition MCPs, we tender a design capable of 5 ps optical gating without the use of magnetic field confinement of the photoelectrons. We analyze the electron dispersion effects in the MCP and their implications for gating pulses shorter than the MCP transit time. We present a wideband design printed-circuit version of the Series Transmission Line Transformer (STLT) that makes use of 50-ohm coaxial 1.0 mm (110 GHz) and 1.85 mm (65 GHz) hermetically sealed vacuum feedthroughs and low-dispersion Teflon/Kapton circuit materials without the use of any vias. The STLT matches impedance at all interfaces with a 16:1 impedance (4:1 voltage) reduction, and delivers a dispersion-limited sharp impulse to the MCP strip. A comparison of microstrip design calculations is given, showing variances between method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element methods for broad, low-impedance traces. Prototype performance measurements are forthcoming.

  12. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R


    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  13. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems. (United States)

    Kaur, Randeep; Badea, Ildiko


    Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.

  14. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide (United States)

    Liang, Bao-Lai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Simmonds, Paul J.; Wang, Zhao-Qi


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons.

  15. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek


    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  16. Optical Image Classification Using Optical/digital Hybrid Image Processing Systems. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang


    Offering parallel and real-time operations, optical image classification is becoming a general technique in the solution of real-life image classification problems. This thesis investigates several algorithms for optical realization. Compared to other statistical pattern recognition algorithms, the Kittler-Young transform can provide more discriminative feature spaces for image classification. We shall apply the Kittler-Young transform to image classification and implement it on optical systems. A feature selection criterion is designed for the application of the Kittler -Young transform to image classification. The realizations of the Kittler-Young transform on both a joint transform correlator and a matrix multiplier are successively conducted. Experiments of applying this technique to two-category and three-category problems are demonstrated. To combine the advantages of the statistical pattern recognition algorithms and the neural network models, processes using the two methods are studied. The Karhunen-Loeve Hopfield model is developed for image classification. This model has significant improvement in the system capacity and the capability of using image structures for more discriminative classification processes. As another such hybrid process, we propose the feature extraction perceptron. The application of feature extraction techniques to the perceptron shortens its learning time. An improved activation function of neurons (dynamic activation function), its design and updating rule for fast learning process and high space-bandwidth product image classification are also proposed. We have shortened by two-thirds the learning time on the feature extraction perceptron as compared with the original perceptron. By using this architecture, we have shown that the classification performs better than both the Kittler-Young transform and the original perceptron.

  17. Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, Wilfried; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; Lacot, Eric


    We propose a novel technique of microscopy to overcome the effects of both scattering and limitation of the accessible depth due to the objective working distance. By combining Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) with Acoustic Photon Taging (APT) and Synthetic Aperture (SA) refocusing we demonstrate an ultimate shot noise sensitivity at low power (required to preserve the tissues) and a high resolution beyond the microscope working distance. More precisely, with a laser power of 10mW, we obtain images with a micrometric resolution over ~8 transport mean free paths, corresponding to 1.3 times the microscope working distance. Various applications such as biomedical diagnosis, research and development of new drugs and therapies can benefit from our imaging setup.

  18. Impact of non-stationary optical illumination on image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Yang; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A


    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source. When performing three-dimensional imaging of large objects, such as a female human breast, it can be difficult to achieve a relatively uniform coverage of light fluence within the volume of interest when the position of the laser source is fixed. To circumvent this, researchers have proposed illumination schemes in which the relative position of the laser source and ultrasound probe is fixed, and bo...

  19. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun


    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  20. Optical design and testing: introduction. (United States)

    Fang, Yi Chin; Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Wang, Yongtian; Zavisian, James M


    Optical design and testing have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and bio-medical settings. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, displays, and solar energy systems to novel imaging modalities from deep UV to infrared spectral imaging, a systems perspective to imaging, as well as optical measurement. In addition, new concepts and trends for optics and further optical systems will be especially highlighted in this special issue.

  1. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  2. Self-referenced, microdegree, optical rotation polarimeter for biomedical applications: an analysis (United States)

    Weissman, Zeev; Goldberg, Doron


    We comprehensively analyze the performance of a type of optical rotation (OR) polarimeter, which has been designed from the outset to fit the special requirements of two major applications: general chiral detection during the separation of optical isomers by high-pressure liquid chromatography systems in the pharmaceutical industry, and monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid of diabetics by a fully implanted long-term optical sensor. Both very demanding applications call for an OR polarimeter that can be miniaturized while maintaining high resolution and accuracy in the microdegree range in the face of considerable noise from various sources. These two characteristics-miniature size and immunity to noise-set this polarimeter apart from the traditional OR polarimeters currently in use, which are both bulky and very susceptible to noise. The following detailed analysis demonstrates the advantages of this polarimeter and its potential as an analytic and diagnostic tool.

  3. Reconstruction of Optical Thickness from Hoffman Modulation Contrast Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Holm; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;


    Hoffman microscopy imaging systems are part of numerous fertility clinics world-wide. We discuss the physics of the Hoffman imaging system from optical thickness to image intensity, implement a simple, yet fast, reconstruction algorithm using Fast Fourier Transformation and discuss the usability...... of the method on a number of cells from a human embryo. Novelty is identifying the non-linearity of a typical Hoffman imaging system, and the application of Fourier Transformation to reconstruct the optical thickness....

  4. Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications


    Wang, Lin


    Classical imaging optics has been developed over centuries in many areas, such as its paraxial imaging theory and practical design methods like multi-parametric optimization techniques. Although these imaging optical design methods can provide elegant solutions to many traditional optical problems, there are more and more new design problems, like solar concentrator, illumination system, ultra-compact camera, etc., that require maximum energy transfer efficiency, or ultra-compact optical stru...

  5. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  6. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging. (United States)

    Poon, Ting-Chung


    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging.

  7. Nanodiamond-Based Composite Structures for Biomedical Imaging and Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M; Vlasov, Igor I; Burikov, Sergey A; Dolenko, Tatiana A; Shenderova, Olga A


    Nanodiamond particles are widely recognized candidates for biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, bright photoluminescence based on color centers and outstanding photostability. Recently, more complex architectures with a nanodiamond core and an external shell or nanostructure which provides synergistic benefits have been developed, and their feasibility for biomedical applications has been demonstrated. This review is aimed at summarizing recent achievements in the fabrication and functional demonstrations of nanodiamond-based composite structures, along with critical considerations that should be taken into account in the design of such structures from a biomedical point of view. A particular focus of the review is core/shell structures of nanodiamond surrounded by porous silica shells, which demonstrate a remarkable increase in drug loading efficiency; as well as nanodiamonds decorated with carbon dots, which have excellent potential as bioimaging probes. Other combinations are also considered, relying on the discussed inherent properties of the inorganic materials being integrated in a way to advance inorganic nanomedicine in the quest for better health-related nanotechnology.

  8. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail:; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  9. Multi-scale volumetric cell and tissue imaging based on optical projection tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Cho, Nam Hyun; Ryu, Yongjae; Jung, Sunwoo; Vavilin, Andrey; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu


    Optical projection tomography is a new optical imaging method for visualizing small biological specimens in three dimension. The most important advantage of OPT is to fill the gap between MRI and confocal microscope for the specimen having the range of 1-10 mm. Thus, it has been mainly used for whole-mount small animals and developmental study since this imaging modality was developed. The ability of OPT delivering anatomical and functional information of relatively large tissue in 3D has made it a promising platform in biomedical research. Recently, the potential of OPT spans its coverage to cellular scale. Even though there are increasing demand to obtain better understanding of cellular dynamics, only few studies to visualize cellular structure, shape, size and functional morphology over tissue has been investigated in existing OPT system due to its limited field of view. In this study, we develop a novel optical imaging system for 3D cellular imaging with OPT integrated with dynamic focusing technique. Our tomographic setup has great potential to be used for identifying cell characteristic in tissue because it can provide selective contrast on dynamic focal plane allowing for fluorescence as well as absorption. While the dominant contrast of optical imaging technique is to use the fluorescence for detecting certain target only, the newly developed OPT system will offer considerable advantages over currently available method when imaging cellar molecular dynamics by permitting contrast variation. By achieving multi-contrast, it is expected for this new imaging system to play an important role in delivering better cytological information to pathologist.

  10. Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging. (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren


    We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results.

  11. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems. (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others


    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  12. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor


    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  13. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song


    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  14. Retrieving biomedical images through content-based learning from examples using fine granularity (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Xu, Songhua; Lau, Francis C. M.


    Traditional content-based image retrieval methods based on learning from examples analyze and attempt to understand high-level semantics of an image as a whole. They typically apply certain case-based reasoning technique to interpret and retrieve images through measuring the semantic similarity or relatedness between example images and search candidate images. The drawback of such a traditional content-based image retrieval paradigm is that the summation of imagery contents in an image tends to lead to tremendous variation from image to image. Hence, semantically related images may only exhibit a small pocket of common elements, if at all. Such variability in image visual composition poses great challenges to content-based image retrieval methods that operate at the granularity of entire images. In this study, we explore a new content-based image retrieval algorithm that mines visual patterns of finer granularities inside a whole image to identify visual instances which can more reliably and generically represent a given search concept. We performed preliminary experiments to validate our new idea for content-based image retrieval and obtained very encouraging results.

  15. Modern Trends in Imaging XI: Impedance Measurements in the Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick D. Coffman


    Full Text Available Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  16. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.


    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  17. Implementation Of A Prototype Digital Optical Cellular Image Processor (DOCIP) (United States)

    Huang, K. S.; Sawchuk, A. A.; Jenkins, B. K.; Chavel, P.; Wang, J. M.; Weber, A. G.; Wang, C. H.; Glaser, I.


    A processing element of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP) is implemented to demonstrate a particular parallel computing and interconnection architecture. This experimental digital optical computing system consists of a 2-D array of 54 optical logic gates, a 2-D array of 53 subholograms to provide interconnections between gates, and electronic input/output interfaces. The multi-facet interconnection hologram used in this system is fabricated by a computer-controlled optical system to offer very flexible interconnections.

  18. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H


    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  19. NeuroTerrain – a client-server system for browsing 3D biomedical image data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissanov Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three dimensional biomedical image sets are becoming ubiquitous, along with the canonical atlases providing the necessary spatial context for analysis. To make full use of these 3D image sets, one must be able to present views for 2D display, either surface renderings or 2D cross-sections through the data. Typical display software is limited to presentations along one of the three orthogonal anatomical axes (coronal, horizontal, or sagittal. However, data sets precisely oriented along the major axes are rare. To make fullest use of these datasets, one must reasonably match the atlas' orientation; this involves resampling the atlas in planes matched to the data set. Traditionally, this requires the atlas and browser reside on the user's desktop; unfortunately, in addition to being monolithic programs, these tools often require substantial local resources. In this article, we describe a network-capable, client-server framework to slice and visualize 3D atlases at off-axis angles, along with an open client architecture and development kit to support integration into complex data analysis environments. Results Here we describe the basic architecture of a client-server 3D visualization system, consisting of a thin Java client built on a development kit, and a computationally robust, high-performance server written in ANSI C++. The Java client components (NetOStat support arbitrary-angle viewing and run on readily available desktop computers running Mac OS X, Windows XP, or Linux as a downloadable Java Application. Using the NeuroTerrain Software Development Kit (NT-SDK, sophisticated atlas browsing can be added to any Java-compatible application requiring as little as 50 lines of Java glue code, thus making it eminently re-useable and much more accessible to programmers building more complex, biomedical data analysis tools. The NT-SDK separates the interactive GUI components from the server control and monitoring, so as to support


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  1. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging (United States)

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang


    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  2. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  3. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics. (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Fu, Qiang; Amata, Hadi; Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang


    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging.

  4. A simple multipurpose double-beam optical image analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Popowicz, Adam


    In the paper we present a low cost optical device which splits the light in the focal plane into two separate optical paths and collimates it back into a single image plane, and where a selective information processing ca be carried out. The optical system is straightforward and easy implementable as it consists of only three lens and two mirrors. The system is dedicated for imaging in low-light-level conditions in which widely used optical devices, based on beam-splitters or dichroic mirrors, suffer from light loss. We expose examples of applications of our device, using a prototype model. The proposed optical system may be employed for: monitoring the objects located in different distances from observer (1), creating regions of different magnification within a single image plane (2), high dynamic range photometry (3), or imaging in two wavelength bands simultaneously (4).

  5. A simple multipurpose double-beam optical image analyzer (United States)

    Popowicz, A.; Blachowicz, T.


    In the paper we present a low cost optical device which splits the light in the focal plane into two separate optical paths and collimates it back into a single image plane, and where a selective information processing can be carried out. The optical system is straightforward and easily implementable as it consists of only three lenses and two mirrors. The system is dedicated for imaging in low-light-level conditions in which widely used optical devices, based on beam splitters or dichroic mirrors, suffer from light loss. We expose examples of applications of our device, using a prototype model. The proposed optical system may be employed for: monitoring the objects located at different distances from observer (1), creating regions of different magnification within a single image plane (2), high dynamic range photometry (3), or imaging in two wavelength bands simultaneously (4).

  6. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan


    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging.

  7. New approach to optical imaging of tumors (United States)

    Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan


    Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

  8. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging


    Poon, Ting-Chung


    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Three dimensional reconstruction of conventional stereo optic disc image. (United States)

    Kong, H J; Kim, S K; Seo, J M; Park, K H; Chung, H; Park, K S; Kim, H C


    Stereo disc photograph was analyzed and reconstructed as 3 dimensional contour image to evaluate the status of the optic nerve head for the early detection of glaucoma and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatment. Stepwise preprocessing was introduced to detect the edge of the optic nerve head and retinal vessels and reduce noises. Paired images were registered by power cepstrum method and zero-mean normalized cross-correlation. After Gaussian blurring, median filter application and disparity pair searching, depth information in the 3 dimensionally reconstructed image was calculated by the simple triangulation formula. Calculated depth maps were smoothed through cubic B-spline interpolation and retinal vessels were visualized more clearly by adding reference image. Resulted 3 dimensional contour image showed optic cups, retinal vessels and the notching of the neural rim of the optic disc clearly and intuitively, helping physicians in understanding and interpreting the stereo disc photograph.

  10. Optical-digital hybrid image search system in cloud environment (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko; Watanabe, Eriko


    To improve the versatility and usability of optical correlators, we developed an optical-digital hybrid image search system consisting of digital servers and an optical correlator that can be used to perform image searches in the cloud environment via a web browser. This hybrid system employs a simple method to obtain correlation signals and has a distributed network design. The correlation signals are acquired by using an encoder timing signal generated by a rotating disk, and the distributed network design facilitates the replacement and combination of the digital correlation server and the optical correlator.

  11. Optimizing the optical wavelength for the photoacoustic imaging of inflammatory arthritis (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Xu, Guan; Hu, Jack; Francis, Sheeja; Marquardt, April; Yuan, Jie; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding


    With the capability of assessing high resolution optical information in soft tissues at imaging depth up to several centimeters, innovative biomedical photoacoustic imaging (PAI) offers benefits to diagnosis and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis, particularly in combination with more established ultrasonography (US). In this work, a PAI and US dual-modality system facilitating both imaging functions in a real-time fashion was developed and initially tested for its clinical performance on patients with active inflammatory arthritis. Photoacoustic (PA) images of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were acquired at 580-nm wavelength that provides a desired balance between optical absorption of blood and attenuation in background tissue. The results from six patients and six normal volunteers used as a control demonstrated the satisfactory sensitivity of PAI in assessing the physiological changes in the joints, specifically enhanced blood flow as a result of active synovitis. This preliminary study suggests that PAI, by revealing vascular features suggestive of joint inflammation, could be a valuable supplement to musculoskeletal US for rheumatology clinic.

  12. Living Brain Optical Imaging: Technology, Methods and Applications (United States)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Bernardelli, Chad; Maslov, Konstantin I.


    Within the last few decades, optical imaging methods have yielded revolutionary results when applied to all parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to analyze research possibilities and limitations of several novel imaging techniques and show some of the most interesting achievements obtained by these methods. Here we covered intrinsic optical imaging, voltage-sensitive dye, photoacoustic, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy and some other techniques. All of them are mainly applicable for experimental neuroscience but some of them also suitable for the clinical studies.

  13. Optical color-image encryption and synthesis using coherent diffractive imaging in the Fresnel domain. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R


    We propose a new method using coherent diffractive imaging for optical color-image encryption and synthesis in the Fresnel domain. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encryption system is applied, and a strategy based on lateral translations of a phase-only mask is employed during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract high-quality decrypted color images from diffraction intensity maps (i.e., ciphertexts). In addition, optical color-image synthesis is also investigated based on coherent diffractive imaging. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with conventional interference methods, coherent diffractive imaging approach may open up a new research perspective or can provide an effective alternative for optical color-image encryption and synthesis.

  14. Optical molecular imaging for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadhi Thekkek; Sharmila Anandasabapathy; Rebecca Richards-Kortum


    Recent advancements in the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus can be used to probe a wide range of optical properties that are altered with neoplastic progression.This review summarizes relevant changes in optical properties as well as imaging approaches that measures those changes.Wide-field imaging approaches include narrow-band imaging that measures changes in light scattering and absorption,and autofluorescence imaging that measure changes in endogenous fluorophores.High-resolution imaging approaches include optical coherence tomography,endocytoscopy,confocal microendoscopy,and high-resolution microendoscopy.These technologies,some coupled with an appropriate contrast agent,can measure differences in glandular morphology,nuclear morphology,or vascular alterations associated with neoplasia.Advances in targeted contrast agents are further discussed.Studies that have explored these technologies are highlighted;as are the advantages and limitations of each.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of luxury perfusion of the optic nerve head in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (United States)

    Yovel, Oren S; Katz, Miriam; Leiba, Hana


    A 49-year-old woman with painless reduction in visual acuity in her left eye was found to have nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Fluorescein angiography revealed optic disc capillary leakage consistent with "luxury perfusion." Contrast-enhanced FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed marked enhancement of the left optic disc. Resolution of the optic disc edema and the MRI abnormalities followed a similar time course. This report appears unique in documenting the MRI findings of luxury perfusion in NAION.

  16. Performance Evaluation of DWT Compared to DCT for Compression Biomedical Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beladgham Mohammed


    Full Text Available The image compression has for objective to reduce the volume of data required by the encoding of image, for applications of transmission or saving. For this we use the redundancies which exists within an image (a pixel has a good chance of having a luminance close to those of its neighbors or between successive images in a sequence. We limit ourselves to the exploitation of redundancies within an image and we will work on gray level images of size 512x512. For image coding we chose an encoder based on progressive coding of data, coder is EZW (EMBEDDED WAVELET ZeroTree ENCODING, Shapiro 1993, the basis of this encoder a comparison is made between two types of transforms DWT (DISCREET WAVELETS TRANSFORM and DCT (DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM just to have the type of transformation that allows us to have a better visual quality of the image after decomposition. . Visual quality image is judged by two important devaluation parameters PSNR and MSSIM.

  17. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  18. Mitigation Approaches for Optical Imaging through Clouds and Fog (United States)


    communications, remote sensing, and imaging. The advantages of performing imaging in the optical band are manifold. Modern Lidar and Ladar systems are preferred...image, the area search rate is low for this approach. This method is widely used in LIDAR applications in clear weather conditions. One intermediate...the average. This can be done by forcing the expectation of the Froebenius norm of H to 1. The resulting receiving image at the photodetectors can be

  19. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Hector; Pons, Amparo [Department of Optics. University of Valencia. Calle Doctor Moliner 50, E46 100, Burjassot (Spain); Javidi, Bahram [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1157 (United States)], E-mail:


    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  20. Sub-diffraction-Limit Imaging in Optical Hyperlens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ji-Gang; WANG Pei; LU Yong-Hua; MING Hai; CHEN Chun-Chong; CHEN Jun-Xue


    @@ Sub-diffraction-limit imaging in the optical hyperlens based on cylindrical metamaterials is studied. Some param-eters of hyperlens, such as the dispersive relation and the divergence angle of imaging, are numerically analysed with the ray trajectory method and effective medium theory. The dependence of imaging properties on dielectric constant is discussed. As a result, a 0° divergence angle is obtained for the best imaging effect. This work will be helpful for the design, structure fabrication and resolution improvement of the optical hyperlens.

  1. Adaptive optics technology for high-resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe


    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.

  2. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lombardo


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.

  3. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  4. Single Molecule Imaging in Living Cell with Optical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Significance, difficult, international developing actuality and our completed works for single molecules imaging in living cell with optical method are described respectively. Additionally we give out some suggestions for the technology development further.

  5. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.


    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  6. A General System for Automatic Biomedical Image Segmentation Using Intensity Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available Image segmentation is important with applications to several problems in biology and medicine. While extensively researched, generally, current segmentation methods perform adequately in the applications for which they were designed, but often require extensive modifications or calibrations before being used in a different application. We describe an approach that, with few modifications, can be used in a variety of image segmentation problems. The approach is based on a supervised learning strategy that utilizes intensity neighborhoods to assign each pixel in a test image its correct class based on training data. We describe methods for modeling rotations and variations in scales as well as a subset selection for training the classifiers. We show that the performance of our approach in tissue segmentation tasks in magnetic resonance and histopathology microscopy images, as well as nuclei segmentation from fluorescence microscopy images, is similar to or better than several algorithms specifically designed for each of these applications.

  7. Parallel Processing and Bio-inspired Computing for Biomedical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu


    Full Text Available Image Registration (IR is an optimization problem computing optimal parameters of a geometric transform used to overlay one or more source images to a given model by maximizing a similarity measure. In this paper the use of bio-inspired optimization algorithms in image registration is analyzed. Results obtained by means of three different algorithms are compared: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA. Depending on the images type, the registration may be: area based, which is slow but more precise, and features based, which is faster. In this paper a feature based approach based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is proposed. Finally, results obtained using sequential and parallel implementations on multi-core systems for area based and features based image registration are compared.

  8. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases (United States)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing

  9. Nonlinear optical imaging and Raman microspectrometry of the cell nucleus throughout the cell cycle. (United States)

    Pliss, Artem; Kuzmin, Andrey N; Kachynski, Aliaksandr V; Prasad, Paras N


    Fundamental understanding of cellular processes at molecular level is of considerable importance in cell biology as well as in biomedical disciplines for early diagnosis of infection and cancer diseases, and for developing new molecular medicine-based therapies. Modern biophotonics offers exclusive capabilities to obtain information on molecular composition, organization, and dynamics in a cell by utilizing a combination of optical spectroscopy and optical imaging. We introduce here a combination of Raman microspectrometry, together with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) nonlinear optical microscopy, to study macromolecular organization of the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. Site-specific concentrations of proteins, DNA, RNA, and lipids were determined in nucleoli, nucleoplasmic transcription sites, nuclear speckles, constitutive heterochromatin domains, mitotic chromosomes, and extrachromosomal regions of mitotic cells by quantitative confocal Raman microspectrometry. A surprising finding, obtained in our study, is that the local concentration of proteins does not increase during DNA compaction. We also demonstrate that postmitotic DNA decondensation is a gradual process, continuing for several hours. The quantitative Raman spectroscopic analysis was corroborated with CARS/TPEF multimodal imaging to visualize the distribution of protein, DNA, RNA, and lipid macromolecules throughout the cell cycle.

  10. Plenoptic microscope based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, W; Jacquin, O; de Chatellus, H Guillet; Lacot, E


    We present an overview of the performances of a plenoptic microscope which combines the high sensitivity of a laser optical feedback imaging setup , the high resolution of optical synthetic aperture and a shot noise limited signal to noise ratio by using acoustic photon tagging. By using an adapted phase filtering, this microscope allows phase drift correction and numerical aberration compensation (defocusing, coma, astigmatism ...). This new kind of microscope seems to be well adapted to make deep imaging through scattering and heterogeneous media.

  11. Imaging of acoustic fields using optical feedback interferometry. (United States)

    Bertling, Karl; Perchoux, Julien; Taimre, Thomas; Malkin, Robert; Robert, Daniel; Rakić, Aleksandar D; Bosch, Thierry


    This study introduces optical feedback interferometry as a simple and effective technique for the two-dimensional visualisation of acoustic fields. We present imaging results for several pressure distributions including those for progressive waves, standing waves, as well as the diffraction and interference patterns of the acoustic waves. The proposed solution has the distinct advantage of extreme optical simplicity and robustness thus opening the way to a low cost acoustic field imaging system based on mass produced laser diodes.

  12. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten;


    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical......-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue....

  13. Direct optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials. (United States)

    Grigorev, A M


    A method for optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials is proposed, based on the differences in the optical properties of the structural inhomogeneity and the homogeneous material near the fundamental absorption edge of the crystalline material. The method can be used to detect defects in both semiconductors and insulators.

  14. Statistics in biomedical research


    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen


    The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new p...

  15. WE-B-210-02: The Advent of Ultrafast Imaging in Biomedical Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanter, M. [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique (France)


    In the last fifteen years, the introduction of plane or diverging wave transmissions rather than line by line scanning focused beams has broken the conventional barriers of ultrasound imaging. By using such large field of view transmissions, the frame rate reaches the theoretical limit of physics dictated by the ultrasound speed and an ultrasonic map can be provided typically in tens of micro-seconds (several thousands of frames per second). Interestingly, this leap in frame rate is not only a technological breakthrough but it permits the advent of completely new ultrasound imaging modes, including shear wave elastography, electromechanical wave imaging, ultrafast doppler, ultrafast contrast imaging, and even functional ultrasound imaging of brain activity (fUltrasound) introducing Ultrasound as an emerging full-fledged neuroimaging modality. At ultrafast frame rates, it becomes possible to track in real time the transient vibrations – known as shear waves – propagating through organs. Such “human body seismology” provides quantitative maps of local tissue stiffness whose added value for diagnosis has been recently demonstrated in many fields of radiology (breast, prostate and liver cancer, cardiovascular imaging, …). Today, Supersonic Imagine company is commercializing the first clinical ultrafast ultrasound scanner, Aixplorer with real time Shear Wave Elastography. This is the first example of an ultrafast Ultrasound approach surpassing the research phase and now widely spread in the clinical medical ultrasound community with an installed base of more than 1000 Aixplorer systems in 54 countries worldwide. For blood flow imaging, ultrafast Doppler permits high-precision characterization of complex vascular and cardiac flows. It also gives ultrasound the ability to detect very subtle blood flow in very small vessels. In the brain, such ultrasensitive Doppler paves the way for fUltrasound (functional ultrasound imaging) of brain activity with unprecedented

  16. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H


    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  17. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke


    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  18. Sagittal laser optical tomography for imaging of rheumatoid finger joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hielscher, Andreas H [Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Klose, Alexander D [Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Scheel, Alexander K [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Moa-Anderson, Bryte [Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Backhaus, Marina [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Netz, Uwe [Institute for Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Beuthan, Juergen [Institute for Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)


    We present a novel optical tomographic imaging system that was designed to determine two-dimensional spatial distribution of optical properties in a sagittal plane through finger joints. The system incorporates a single laser diode and a single silicon photodetector into a scanning device that records spatially resolved light intensities as they are transmitted through a finger. These data are input to a model-based iterative image reconstruction (MOBIIR) scheme, which uses the equation of radiative transfer (ERT) as a forward model for light propagation through tissue. We have used this system to obtain tomographic images of six proximal interphalangeal finger joints from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The optical images were compared to clinical symptoms and ultrasound images.

  19. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  20. New variational image decomposition model for simultaneously denoising and segmenting optical coherence tomography images. (United States)

    Duan, Jinming; Tench, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene; Proudlock, Frank; Bai, Li


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the human retina. Automated analysis of optical coherence tomography images is a challenging task as the images are inherently noisy. In this paper, a novel variational image decomposition model is proposed to decompose an OCT image into three components: the first component is the original image but with the noise completely removed; the second contains the set of edges representing the retinal layer boundaries present in the image; and the third is an image of noise, or in image decomposition terms, the texture, or oscillatory patterns of the original image. In addition, a fast Fourier transform based split Bregman algorithm is developed to improve computational efficiency of solving the proposed model. Extensive experiments are conducted on both synthesised and real OCT images to demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art speckle noise reduction methods and leads to accurate retinal layer segmentation.

  1. A Novel Light Source Design for Spectral Tuning in Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Chandrajit; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard


    We propose a novel architecture with a remote phosphor based modular and compact light source in a non-contact dermoscope prototype for skin cancer screening. The spectrum and color temperature of the output light can easily and significantly be changed depending on spectral absorption characteristics of the tissues being imaged. The new system has several advantages compared to state-of-the-art phosphor converted ultra-bright white LEDs, used in a wide range of medical imaging devices, which have a fixed spectrum and color temperature at a given operating point. In particular, the system can more easily be adapted to the requirements originating from different tissues in the human body which have wavelength dependent absorption and reflectivity. This leads to improved contrast for different kinds of imaged tissue components. The concept of such a lighting architecture can be vastly utilized in many other medical imaging devices including endoscopic systems.

  2. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems. (United States)

    Downie, J D; Goodman, J W


    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by measuring and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The necessary control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time, which adds to the residual error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper investigates this possibility by studying the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for adaptive optics use.

  3. Cyanine polyene reactivity: scope and biomedical applications. (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Schnermann, Martin J


    Cyanines are indispensable fluorophores that form the chemical basis of many fluorescence-based applications. A feature that distinguishes cyanines from other common fluorophores is an exposed polyene linker that is both crucial to absorption and emission and subject to covalent reactions that dramatically alter these optical properties. Over the past decade, reactions involving the cyanine polyene have been used as foundational elements for a range of biomedical techniques. These include the optical sensing of biological analytes, super-resolution imaging, and near-IR light-initiated uncaging. This review surveys the chemical reactivity of the cyanine polyene and the biomedical methods enabled by these reactions. The overarching goal is to highlight the multifaceted nature of cyanine chemistry and biology, as well as to point out the key role of reactivity-based insights in this promising area.

  4. Advances in biomedical imaging using THz technology with applications to burn-wound assessment (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin; Sung, Jun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.


    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing and image has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of applications where current hydration sensing techniques are insufficient. THz medical imaging is an expanding field of research and tissue hydration plays a key role in the contrast observed in THz tissue reflectance and absorbance maps. This paper outlines the most recent results in burn and corneal imaging where hydration maps were used to assess tissue status. A 3 day study was carried out in rat models where a THz imaging system was used to assess the severity and extent of burn throughout the first day of injury and at the 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. Marked difference in tissue reflectance were observed between the partial and full thickness burns and image features were identified that may be used as diagnostic markers for burn severity. Companion histological analysis performed on tissue excised on Day 3 confirms hypothesized burn severity. The results of these preliminary animal trials suggest that THz imaging may be useful in burn wound assessment where current clinical modalities have resolution and/or sensitivity insufficient for accurate diagnostics.

  5. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan


    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  6. Review on Matching Infrared Face Images to Optical Face Images using LBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakhaya Argulewar


    Full Text Available In biometric research and many security areas, it is very difficult task to match the images which is captured by different devices. Large gap exist between them because they relates with different classes. Matching optical face images to infrared face images is one of the difficult task in face biometric. Large difference exists between infrared and optical face images because they belong to multiple classes. Converting the samples of multimodality into common feature space is the main objective of this project. Different class of images is relating by coordinating separate feature for classes .It is mainly used in heterogeneous face recognition. The new method has been developing for identification of heterogeneous face identification. Training set contains the images from different modalities. Initially the infrared image is preprocessed by applying Gaussian filter, difference of Gaussian and CSDN filters are apply on infrared face image. After preprocessing next step to extracting the feature by using LBP(local binary pattern feature extraction then relevance machine classifier is used to identify the best matching optical image from the corresponding infrared images from the optical images dataset. By processing this technique our system efficiently match the infrared and optical face images.

  7. New imaging technique using degree of polarization for the study of polarimetric properties for non-invasive biomedical diagnostic (United States)

    Buscemi, Isabella C.; Guyot, Steve; Lemoine, Jacques


    This research proposes a new imaging technique for near real time multispectral acquisition using CCD RGB cameras of the so called "Degree Of Polarization" (DOP) in polarimetry for future clinical investigation. The aim of exploiting the DOP as the contrast element is to demonstrate that the elliptical DOP provides more information characterizing complex medium than the more traditional linear and circular ones. The system considers an incoherent input white light beam and opportunely calibrated nematic crystals (LCVR), so no mechanical tools are necessary. The particular features of the system indicate it to be the perfect candidate for a new imaging system considering in-vivo (as well as ex-vivo) non invasive superficial diagnostic for medical application as dermatologic diagnostics, since no type of sample preparation is necessary, i.e. tissue biopsy, radiation or contrast agent injection. Thus the biomedical application of this method suggests a simple, direct, fast and also easily exploitable future employment, as a desirable mean for clinical investigation but also for digital recognition in biometrics. Further new elements to improve the model of light scattering and matter-light interaction will be acquired, in particular considering a very complete characterization of the system response using latex microspheres suspension to simulate turbid media with different concentration.

  8. A General Epipolar-Line Model between Optical and SAR Images and Used in Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xing


    Full Text Available The search space and strategy are important for optical and SAR image matching. In this paper a general epipolar-line model has been proposed between linear array push-broom optical and SAR images. Then a dynamic approximate epipolar-line constraint model (DAELCM has been constructed and used to construct a new image matching algorithm with Harris operator and CRA. Experimental results have shown that the general epipolar-line model is valid and successfully used in optical and SAR image matching, and effectively limits the search space and decreased computation.

  9. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research (United States)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan


    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  10. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.


    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  11. Comparison of no-prior and soft-prior regularization in biomedical microwave imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Golnabi


    Full Text Available Microwave imaging for medical applications is attractive because the range of dielectric properties of different soft tissues can be substantial. Breast cancer detection and monitoring of treatment response are areas where this technology could be important because of the contrast between normal and malignant tissue. Unfortunately, the technique is unable to achieve the high spatial resolution at depth in tissue which is available from other conventional modalities such as x-ray computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We have incorporated a soft-prior regularization strategy within our microwave reconstruction algorithm and compared it with the images obtained with traditional no-prior (Levenberg-Marquardt regularization. Initial simulation and phantom results show a significant improvement of the recovered electrical properties. Specifically, errors in the microwave property estimates were improved by as much as 95%. The effects of a false-inclusion region were also evaluated and the results show that a small residual property bias of 6% in permittivity and 15% in conductivity can occur that does not otherwise degrade the property recovery accuracy of inclusions that actually exist. The work sets the stage for integrating microwave imaging with MR for improved resolution and functional imaging of the breast in the future.

  12. Compensating focusing for space hyper spectral imager's fore optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicha Zhang; Wei Liu


    @@ The performance of space hyper spectral imager is severely affected by turbulent orbit temperature. Turbulence results in a defocus in the fore optical system of the imager. To address this problem, a focusing system is added. A number of simulation methods are applied on the fore optical system to study the relationship between temperature and focusing. In addition, this process is conducted to obtain a practical reference for focusing while the imager is flying on orbit. The obtained correlation between focusing and temperature is proven effective based on ground imaging and simulation testing.%The performance of space hyper spectral imager is severely affected by turbulent orbit temperature. Turbulence results in a defocus in the fore optical system of the imager. To address this problem, a focusing system is added. A number of simulation methods are applied on the fore optical system to study the relationship between temperature and focusing. In addition, this process is conducted to obtain a practical reference for focusing while the imager is flying on orbit. The obtained correlation between focusing and temperature is proven effective based on ground imaging and simulation testing.

  13. MICADO : The E-ELT adaptive optics imaging camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Richard; Ageorges, N.; Barl, L.; Bedin, L. R.; Bender, R.; Bernardi, P.; Chapron, F.; Clenet, Y.; Deep, A.; Deul, E.; Drost, M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Falomo, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Gratadour, D.; Greggio, L.; Grupp, F.; Held, E.; Herbst, T.; Hess, H.-J.; Hubert, Z.; Jahnke, K.; Kuijken, K.; Lutz, D.; Magrin, D.; Muschielok, B.; Navarro, R.; Noyola, E.; Paumard, T.; Piotto, G.; Ragazzoni, R.; Renzini, A.; Rousset, G.; Rix, H.-W.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L.; Thiel, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Trippe, S.; Tromp, N.; Valentijn, E. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Wegner, M.; McLean, I.S.; Ramsay, S.K.; Takami, H.


    MICADO is the adaptive optics imaging camera for the E-ELT. It has been designed and optimised to be mounted to the LGS-MCAO system MAORY, and will provide diffraction limited imaging over a wide (~1 arcmin) field of view. For initial operations, it can also be used with its own simpler AO module th

  14. A Multimodality Hybrid Gamma-Optical Camera for Intraoperative Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lees


    Full Text Available The development of low profile gamma-ray detectors has encouraged the production of small field of view (SFOV hand-held imaging devices for use at the patient bedside and in operating theatres. Early development of these SFOV cameras was focussed on a single modality—gamma ray imaging. Recently, a hybrid system—gamma plus optical imaging—has been developed. This combination of optical and gamma cameras enables high spatial resolution multi-modal imaging, giving a superimposed scintigraphic and optical image. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as sentinel node detection. The hybrid camera concept can be extended to a multimodal detector design which can offer stereoscopic images, depth estimation of gamma-emitting sources, and simultaneous gamma and fluorescence imaging. Recent improvements to the hybrid camera have been used to produce dual-modality images in both laboratory simulations and in the clinic. Hybrid imaging of a patient who underwent thyroid scintigraphy is reported. In addition, we present data which shows that the hybrid camera concept can be extended to estimate the position and depth of radionuclide distribution within an object and also report the first combined gamma and Near-Infrared (NIR fluorescence images.

  15. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.


    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  16. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging. (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V


    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  17. Perfect imaging in the optical domain using dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Lucas H; Lipson, Michal


    The promise of perfect imaging in the optical domain, where light can be imaged without aberrations and with ultra-high resolution, could revolutionize technology and nanofabrication [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Recently it has been shown theoretically that perfect imaging can be achieved in a dielectric medium with spatially varying refractive index [7, 8]. The lens geometry is defined using transformation optics [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15] for projecting a spherical space onto a real plane space, forming Maxwells fish eye [16, 17, 18, 19]. Most transformation optics demonstrations have been achieved for Euclidean spaces and in the microwave regime, due to ease of fabrication. Here we demonstrate a transformation to a non-Euclidean space [20] in the optical regime using silicon nanophotonic structures.

  18. AFM Imaging of Natural Optical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva


    Full Text Available The research in this field is focused to the investigation of biological structures with superior optical features. The study presents atomic force microscopy of biological optical structures on butterfly wings. The bright blue and dark black color scales exhibit the different topography. These scales were compared to the visually the same color scales of other two species of butterflies. The histograms of heights distribution are presented and show similar results for the scales of one color for different species.

  19. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: Studies on image contrast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Divakar Rao; H S Patel; B Jain; P K Gupta


    In this paper, we report the development of experimental set-up for timegated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated images show that for a given optical thickness, the image contrast is better for sample with lower scattering coefficient and higher physical thickness, and that the contrast improves with decreasing value of anisotropy parameters of the scatterers. These results are consistent with time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Digital image compression for a 2f multiplexing optical setup (United States)

    Vargas, J.; Amaya, D.; Rueda, E.


    In this work a virtual 2f multiplexing system was implemented in combination with digital image compression techniques and redundant information elimination. Depending on the image type to be multiplexed, a memory-usage saving of as much as 99% was obtained. The feasibility of the system was tested using three types of images, binary characters, QR codes, and grey level images. A multiplexing step was implemented digitally, while a demultiplexing step was implemented in a virtual 2f optical setup following real experimental parameters. To avoid cross-talk noise, each image was codified with a specially designed phase diffraction carrier that would allow the separation and relocation of the multiplexed images on the observation plane by simple light propagation. A description of the system is presented together with simulations that corroborate the method. The present work may allow future experimental implementations that will make use of all the parallel processing capabilities of optical systems.

  1. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weersink, Robert A., E-mail: [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Shah, Duoaud [Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Lindsay, Patricia E. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada)


    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  2. MR imaging of optic neuritis using short TI IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kohichi; Uehara, Masako; Ashikaga, Ryuichirou; Inoue, Masaaki; Shindou, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu (Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)


    We evaluated the ability of MRI using short TI inversion recovery (STIR) to diagnose optic neuritis. Eleven patients with previous or recent attack of optic neuritis were studied with MRI at 0.5 tesla. STIR images revealed high signal regions in 7 of 12 symptomatic and 5 of 10 asymptomatic nerves. Three of five asymptomatic nerves with high intensity were pertinent to the cases with past attack and seemed to reflect the demyelinating change. The other two nerves were pertinent to the cases without past attack and seemed to show occult lesions. We consider that STIR is useful in detection of optic nerve lesions associated with optic neuritis. (author).

  3. Digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP) - Experimental implementation (United States)

    Huang, K.-S.; Sawchuk, A. A.; Jenkins, B. K.; Chavel, P.; Wang, J.-M.; Weber, A. G.; Wang, C.-H.; Glaser, I.


    We demonstrate experimentally the concept of the digital optical cellular image processor architecture by implementing one processing element of a prototype optical computer that includes a 54-gate processor, an instruction decoder, and electronic input-output interfaces. The processor consists of a two-dimensional (2-D) array of 54 optical logic gates implemented by use of a liquid-crystal light valve and a 2-D array of 53 subholograms to provide interconnections between gates. The interconnection hologram is fabricated by a computer-controlled optical system.

  4. Impact of nonstationary optical illumination on image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography. (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Wang, Kun; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A


    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source. When performing three-dimensional imaging of large objects, such as a female human breast, it can be difficult to achieve a relatively uniform coverage of light fluence within the volume of interest when the position of the laser source is fixed. To circumvent this, researchers have proposed illumination schemes in which the relative position of the laser source and ultrasound probe is fixed, and both are rotated together to acquire a tomographic dataset. A problem with this rotating-illumination scheme is that the tomographic data are inconsistent; namely, the acoustic data recorded at each tomographic view angle (i.e., probe position) are produced by a distinct object function. In this work, the impact of this data inconsistency on image reconstruction accuracy is investigated systematically. This is accomplished by use of computer-simulation studies and application of mathematical results from the theory of microlocal analysis. These studies specify the set of image discontinuities that can be stably reconstructed with a nonstationary optical illumination setup. The study also includes a comparison of the ability of iterative and analytic image reconstruction methods to mitigate artifacts attributable to the data inconsistency.

  5. Optical image hiding based on computational ghost imaging (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan; Chen, Hanwu


    Imaging hiding schemes play important roles in now big data times. They provide copyright protections of digital images. In the paper, we propose a novel image hiding scheme based on computational ghost imaging to have strong robustness and high security. The watermark is encrypted with the configuration of a computational ghost imaging system, and the random speckle patterns compose a secret key. Least significant bit algorithm is adopted to embed the watermark and both the second-order correlation algorithm and the compressed sensing (CS) algorithm are used to extract the watermark. The experimental and simulation results show that the authorized users can get the watermark with the secret key. The watermark image could not be retrieved when the eavesdropping ratio is less than 45% with the second-order correlation algorithm, whereas it is less than 20% with the TVAL3 CS reconstructed algorithm. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust against the 'salt and pepper' noise and image cropping degradations.

  6. Imaging photothermal microscopy for absorption measurements of optical coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxian Tao; Yuanan Zhao; Hongbo He; Dawei Li; Jianda Shao; Zhengxiu Fan


    @@ For absorption measurement of large-aperture optical coatings, a novel method of imaging photothermal microscopy based on image lock-in technique is presented.Detailed theoretical analysis and numerical calculation are made based on the image photothermal technique.The feasibility of this imaging method is proved through the coincidence between the theoretical results of single spot method and multi-channel method.The measuring speed of this imaging method can be increased hundreds of times compared with that of the raster scanning.This technique can expand the applications of photothermal technique.

  7. 78 FR 76843 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) Announcement of Requirements... (United States)


    ... Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) DEBUT Challenge is open to teams of undergraduate students working on... working in teams, identifying unmet clinical needs, and designing, building and debugging solutions for... students who are studying in the United States on a visa are eligible to be part of the competing...

  8. Stochastic Optics: A Scattering Mitigation Framework for Radio Interferometric Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael D


    Just as turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere can severely limit the angular resolution of optical telescopes, turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium fundamentally limits the resolution of radio telescopes. We present a scattering mitigation framework for radio imaging with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) that partially overcomes this limitation. Our framework, "stochastic optics," derives from a simplification of strong interstellar scattering to separate small-scale ("diffractive") effects from large-scale ("refractive") effects, thereby separating deterministic and random contributions to the scattering. Stochastic optics extends traditional synthesis imaging by simultaneously reconstructing an unscattered image and its refractive perturbations. Its advantages over direct imaging come from utilizing the many deterministic properties of the scattering -- such as the time-averaged "blurring," polarization independence, and the deterministic evolution in frequency and time -- while still accoun...

  9. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)


    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  10. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems (United States)

    Downie, John D.


    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  11. Ultrathin Optics for Low-Profile Innocuous Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Robert R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystems Technologies; Brady, Gregory Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystems Technologies; Nelson, Cynthia Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Engineering I; Briggs, Ronald D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Integrated Microdevice Systems; Jared, Bradley Howell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Prototyping S& T; Warren, Mial E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsystems Partnerships


    This project demonstrates the feasibility of a novel imager with a thickness measured in microns rather than inches. Traditional imaging systems, i.e. cameras, cannot provide both the necessary resolution and innocuous form factor required in many data acquisition applications. Designing an imaging system with an extremely thin form factor (less than 1 mm) immediately presents several technical challenges. For instance, the thickness of the optical lens must be reduced drastically from currently available lenses. Additionally, the image circle is reduced by a factor equal to the reduction in focal length. This translates to fewer detector pixels across the image. To reduce the optical total track requires the use of specialized micro-optics and the required resolution necessitates the use of a new imaging modality. While a single thin imager will not produce the desired output, several thin imagers can be multiplexed and their low resolution (LR) outputs used together in post-processing to produce a high resolution (HR) image. The utility of an Iterative Back Projection (IBP) algorithm has been successfully demonstrated for performing the required post-processing. Advanced fabrication of a thin lens was also demonstrated and experimental results using this lens as well as commercially available lenses are presented.

  12. Chemical shift selective magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J;


    Optic neuritis is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixteen patients with acute optic neuritis and one patient with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, using a chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence. In 3...... were only shown in 3/16 (19%) of the patients with optic neuritis. Nevertheless, the presented chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence may be of great value for detection of retrobulbar lesions....

  13. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center; Imagen molecular an investigation biomedica. La Unidad de Imagen Molecular del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.


    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. An improved image reconstruction method for optical intensity correlation Imaging (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Feng, Lingjie; Li, Xiyu


    The intensity correlation imaging method is a novel kind of interference imaging and it has favorable prospects in deep space recognition. However, restricted by the low detecting signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it's usually very difficult to obtain high-quality image of deep space object like high-Earth-orbit (HEO) satellite with existing phase retrieval methods. In this paper, based on the priori intensity statistical distribution model of the object and characteristics of measurement noise distribution, an improved method of Prior Information Optimization (PIO) is proposed to reduce the ambiguous images and accelerate the phase retrieval procedure thus realizing fine image reconstruction. As the simulations and experiments show, compared to previous methods, our method could acquire higher-resolution images with less error in low SNR condition.

  15. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.


    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  16. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.


    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  17. Improving resolution of optical coherence tomography for imaging of microstructures (United States)

    Shen, Kai; Lu, Hui; Wang, James H.; Wang, Michael R.


    Multi-frame superresolution technique has been used to improve the lateral resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for imaging of 3D microstructures. By adjusting the voltages applied to ? and ? galvanometer scanners in the measurement arm, small lateral imaging positional shifts have been introduced among different C-scans. Utilizing the extracted ?-? plane en face image frames from these specially offset C-scan image sets at the same axial position, we have reconstructed the lateral high resolution image by the efficient multi-frame superresolution technique. To further improve the image quality, we applied the latest K-SVD and bilateral total variation denoising algorithms to the raw SD-OCT lateral images before and along with the superresolution processing, respectively. The performance of the SD-OCT of improved lateral resolution is demonstrated by 3D imaging a microstructure fabricated by photolithography and a double-layer microfluidic device.

  18. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.


    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  19. AFM imaging of natural optical structures (United States)

    Dallaeva, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Kaspar, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.; Škarvada, Pavel


    The colors of some living organisms assosiated with the surface structure. Irridesence butterfly wings is an example of such coloration. Optical effects such as interference, diffraction, polarization are responsible for physical colors appearance. Alongside with amazing beauty this structure represent interest for design of optical devices. Here we report the results of morphology investigation by atomic force microscopy. The difference in surface structure of black and blue wings areas is clearly observed. It explains the angle dependence of the wing blue color, since these micrometer and sub-micrometer quasiperiodical structures could control the light propagation, absorption and reflection.

  20. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system (United States)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang


    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  1. Optical and Digital Microscopic Imaging Techniques and Applications in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen


    Full Text Available The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  2. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan


    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  3. Analog signal processing for optical coherence imaging systems (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) are non-invasive optical coherence imaging techniques, which enable micron-scale resolution, depth resolved imaging capability. Both OCT and OCM are based on Michelson interferometer theory. They are widely used in ophthalmology, gastroenterology and dermatology, because of their high resolution, safety and low cost. OCT creates cross sectional images whereas OCM obtains en face images. In this dissertation, the design and development of three increasingly complicated analog signal processing (ASP) solutions for optical coherence imaging are presented. The first ASP solution was implemented for a time domain OCT system with a Rapid Scanning Optical Delay line (RSOD)-based optical signal modulation and logarithmic amplifier (Log amp) based demodulation. This OCT system can acquire up to 1600 A-scans per second. The measured dynamic range is 106dB at 200A-scan per second. This OCT signal processing electronics includes an off-the-shelf filter box with a Log amp circuit implemented on a PCB board. The second ASP solution was developed for an OCM system with synchronized modulation and demodulation and compensation for interferometer phase drift. This OCM acquired micron-scale resolution, high dynamic range images at acquisition speeds up to 45,000 pixels/second. This OCM ASP solution is fully custom designed on a perforated circuit board. The third ASP solution was implemented on a single 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. This design is expandable to a multiple channel OCT system. A single on-chip CMOS photodetector and ASP channel was used for coherent demodulation in a time domain OCT system. Cross-sectional images were acquired with a dynamic range of 76dB (limited by photodetector responsivity). When incorporated with a bump-bonded InGaAs photodiode with higher responsivity, the expected dynamic range is close to 100dB.

  4. Optical double-image cryptography based on diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R


    In this paper, we propose a method using structured-illumination-based diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating for optical double-image cryptography. An optical cryptosystem is designed, and multiple random phase-only masks are placed in the optical path. When a phase grating is laterally translated just before the plaintexts, several diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) can be correspondingly obtained. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is developed to extract plaintexts from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical simulation results.

  5. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing


    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  6. Driving micro-optical imaging systems towards miniature camera applications (United States)

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Leitel, Robert; Bräuer, Andreas


    Up to now, multi channel imaging systems have been increasingly studied and approached from various directions in the academic domain due to their promising large field of view at small system thickness. However, specific drawbacks of each of the solutions prevented the diffusion into corresponding markets so far. Most severe problems are a low image resolution and a low sensitivity compared to a conventional single aperture lens besides the lack of a cost-efficient method of fabrication and assembly. We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated modules achieve a VGA resolution with 700x550 pixels within an optical package of 6.8mm x 5.2mm and a total track length of 1.4mm. The partial images that are separately recorded within different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. These software tools allow to correct the distortion of the individual partial images so that the final image is also free of distortion. The so-called electronic cluster eyes are realized by state-of-the-art microoptical fabrication techniques and offer a resolution and sensitivity potential that makes them suitable for consumer, machine vision and medical imaging applications.

  7. Biomedical imaging and therapy with physically and physiologically tailored magnetic nanoparticles (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit Praful

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) are emerging imaging and therapy approaches that have the potential to improve diagnostic safety and disease management of heart disease and cancer - the number 1 and 2 leading causes of deaths in the United States. MPI promises real-time, tomographic and quantitative imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) tracers distributed in vivo, and is targeted to offer a safer angiography alternative for its first clinical application. MFH uses ac-fields to dissipate heat from SPIONs that can be delivered locally to promote hyperthermia therapy (~42°C) in cancer cells. Both technologies use safe radiofrequency magnetic fields to exploit the fundamental magnetic relaxation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which must be tailored for optimal imaging in the case of MPI, and maximum hyperthermia potency in the case of MFH. Furthermore, the magnetic core and shell of SPIONs are both central to the optimization process; the shell, in particular, bridges the translational gap between the optimized core and its safe and effective use in the physiological environment. Unfortunately, existing SPIONs that were originally designed as MRI contrast agents lack the basic physical properties that enable the clinical translation of MPI and MFH. In this work, the core and shell of monodisperse SPIONs were optimized in concert to accomplish two equally important objectives: (1) biocompatibility, and (2) MPI and MFH efficacy of SPIONs in physiological environments. Critically, it was found that the physical and physiological responses of SPIONs are coupled, and impacting one can have consequences on the other. It was shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based shell when properly optimized reduced protein adsorption to SPION surface and phagocytic uptake in macrophages - both prerequisites for designing long-circulating SPIONs. In MPI, tailoring the surface coating

  8. Acoustic-optical imaging without immersion (United States)

    Liu, H.


    System using membraneous end wall of Bragg cell to separate test specimen from acoustic transmission medium, operates in real time and uses readily available optical components. System can be easily set up and maintained by people with little or no training in holography.

  9. Design and manufacture of imaging time-of-propagation optics (United States)

    Albrecht, Mike; Fast, James; Schwartz, Alan


    There are several challenges associated with the design and manufacture of the optics required for the imaging time-of- propagation detector constructed for the Belle II particle physics experiment. This detector uses Cherenkov light radiated in quartz bars to identify subatomic particles: pions, kaons, and protons. The optics are physically large (125 cm x 45 cm x 2 cm bars and 45 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm prisms), all surfaces are optically polished, and there is very little allowance for chamfers or surface defects. In addition to the optical challenges, there are several logistical and handling challenges associated with measuring, assembling, cleaning, packaging, and shipping these delicate precision optics. This paper describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the University of Cincinnati, and ZYGO Corporation for the design and manufacture of 48 fused silica optics (30 bars and 18 prisms) for the iTOP Detector. Details of the iTOP detector design that drove the challenging optical requirements are provided, along with material selection considerations. Since the optics are so large, precise, and delicate, special care had to be given to the selection of a manufacturing process capable of achieving the challenging optical and surface defect requirements on such large and high-aspect-ratio (66:1) components. A brief update on the current status and performance of these optics is also provided.

  10. Elucidation of the mechanisms of optical clearing in collagen tissue with multiphoton imaging (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Shean-Jen; Kim, Chang-Seok; Dong, Chen-Yuan


    Optical clearing (OC) is a promising method to overcome limitations in biomedical depth-resolved optical studies. Mechanisms of OC in purified bovine Achilles tendon, chicken skin, and chicken tendon were studied using time-lapsed, three-dimensional second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence microscopic imaging. Quantified nonlinear optical measurements allowed temporal separation of two processes in collagen OC with glycerol. The first one is a fast process of tissue dehydration accompanied with collagen shrinkage and the second relatively slow process is glycerol penetration into the interfibrillar space of collagen alongside with CF swelling. The use of 50% glycerol induced less-expressed OC via partial substitution of water molecules with glycerol molecules. We also found that phosphate-buffered saline- and glycerol-treatments were reversible, and fiber morphology and SHG signal intensity were recovered after the removal of immersion agents. It was shown that tissue OC was a dynamic process and elucidation of its physical mechanisms may help choose optimal diagnostic, treatment, and modification regimes for collagen-based as well as other types of biomaterials.

  11. Elucidation of the mechanisms of optical clearing in collagen tissue with multiphoton imaging. (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Shean-Jen; Kim, Chang-Seok; Dong, Chen-Yuan


    Optical clearing (OC) is a promising method to overcome limitations in biomedical depth-resolved optical studies. Mechanisms of OC in purified bovine Achilles tendon, chicken skin, and chicken tendon were studied using time-lapsed, three-dimensional second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence microscopic imaging. Quantified nonlinear optical measurements allowed temporal separation of two processes in collagen OC with glycerol. The first one is a fast process of tissue dehydration accompanied with collagen shrinkage and the second relatively slow process is glycerol penetration into the interfibrillar space of collagen alongside with CF swelling. The use of 50% glycerol induced less-expressed OC via partial substitution of water molecules with glycerol molecules. We also found that phosphate-buffered saline- and glycerol-treatments were reversible, and fiber morphology and SHG signal intensity were recovered after the removal of immersion agents. It was shown that tissue OC was a dynamic process and elucidation of its physical mechanisms may help choose optimal diagnostic, treatment, and modification regimes for collagen-based as well as other types of biomaterials.

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.


    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. Integrated structural and functional optical imaging combining spectral-domain optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vinegoni, C; Luo, W; Marks, D L; Ralston, T; Tan, W


    An integrated microscope that combines different optical techniques for simultaneous imaging is demonstrated. The microscope enables spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy based on optical backscatter, and multi-photon microscopy for the detection of two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The unique configuration of this integrated microscope allows for the simultaneous acquisition of both anatomical (structural) and functional imaging information with particular emphasis for applications in the fields of tissue engineering and cell biology. In addition, the contemporary analysis of the spectroscopic features can enhance contrast by differentiating among different tissue components.

  14. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C


    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  15. Optical asymmetric image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform (United States)

    Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.


    In this paper, we propose a new optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform to secure a fully phase image, based on amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. The gyrator wavelet transform constitutes four basic parameters; gyrator transform order, type and level of mother wavelet, and position of different frequency bands. These parameters are used as encryption keys in addition to the random phase codes to the optical cryptosystem. This tool has also been applied for simultaneous compression and encryption of an image. The system's performance and its sensitivity to the encryption parameters, such as, gyrator transform order, and robustness has also been analyzed. It is expected that this tool will not only update current optical security systems, but may also shed some light on future developments. The computer simulation results demonstrate the abilities of the gyrator wavelet transform as an effective tool, which can be used in various optical information processing applications, including image encryption, and image compression. Also this tool can be applied for securing the color image, multispectral, and three-dimensional images.

  16. Imaging vascular implants with optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Dal Ponte, Donny B.; Williams, Stuart K.; Ford, Bridget K.; Descour, Michael R.


    Vascular stents and grafts have many proven and promising clinical applications, but also a large number of complications. A focus of current research is the development of biocompatible implants. Evaluation of these devices generally requires a large number of animals due to the need for explanation and histological evaluation of the implant at several time intervals. It would be desirable to use instead a high resolution, in situ assessment method. An in vitro study was performed to determine if OCT could image cell proliferation and thrombus formation on vascular stents and grafts. First, images were taken of explanted stents. The implants were locate din peripheral vessels of a porcine model of atherosclerosis. The images clearly show the vessel response to initial damage, the materials of the implant, extent of intimal cell hyper proliferation, and small platelet aggregates. Next, a tissue engineered graft, which had been sodded with smooth muscle cells and incubated in a bioreactor, was evaluated. Cross-section images showed the pores of the polymer material and the layer of smooth muscle cells beginning to invade the graft material. For comparison, in vitro 20 MHz IVUS images of the same grafts were obtained. A catheter was designed for intravascular imaging. The 2.3 mm diameter catheter contains a fiber with GRIN lens and right angle prism, a monorail guidewire, and a novel positioning wire that can be protruded to push the catheter against the vessel wall, potentially eliminating the need for saline flush. Preliminary in vitro results with this catheter are encouraging.

  17. Evaluation of Fingerprint Images Captured by Optical Fingerprint Scanner (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Kuwayama, Kiyoaki; Umezaki, Taizo

    In this paper, we propose the way to evaluate fingerprint image-quality and how to discriminate remnants from captured images. First, we investigate evaluating fingerprint image-quality. Fingerprint image-quality can be digitized using the "measure" we proposed. We simulate using the dataset consists of 1425 fingerprint images captured from 57 people in Feb, which contains a lot of faded images. In the simulation using all our database, recognition rate is 95.6% while type II error is 0.01%. Recognition rate is improved to 98.1%, with rejecting 3.7% faded images evaluated by our measure from the database. Recognition rate is improved to 99.6%, rejecting 14.2% faded images. And we investigate the way to apply the measure of image-quality to fingerprint verification device with customer’s satisfaction in real world. Next we propose the way to discriminate between remnants and fingerprint images captured from optical scanner by using frequency analysis. We can perfectly prevent the fingerprint verification device from malfunctioning caused by remnant, when strong flashlight or direct sunlight slant in optical scanner in real world.

  18. All-optical scanhead for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging-Imaging mode switching by dichroic filtering. (United States)

    Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L Jay; Li, Pai-Chi


    Ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) multimodality imaging has the advantage of combining good acoustic resolution with high optical contrast. The use of an all-optical scanhead for both imaging modalities can simplify integration of the two systems and miniaturize the imaging scanhead. Herein we propose and demonstrate an all-optical US/PA scanhead using a thin plate for optoacoustic generation in US imaging, a polymer microring resonator for acoustic detection, and a dichroic filter to switch between the two imaging modes by changing the laser wavelength. A synthetic-aperture focusing technique is used to improve the resolution and contrast. Phantom images demonstrate the feasibility of this design, and show that axial and lateral resolutions of 125 μm and 2.52°, respectively, are possible.

  19. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)


    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  20. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram


    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  1. Synthesis of Disparate Optical Imaging Data for Space Domain Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Michael D


    We present a Bayesian algorithm to combine optical imaging of unresolved objects from distinct epochs and observation platforms for orbit determination and tracking. By propagating the non-Gaussian uncertainties we are able to optimally combine imaging of arbitrary signal-to-noise ratios, allowing the integration of data from low-cost sensors. Our Bayesian approach to image characterization also allows large compression of imaging data without loss of statistical information. With a computationally efficient algorithm to combine multiple observation epochs and multiple telescopes, we show statistically optimal orbit inferences.

  2. Optical imaging of absorption and distribution of RITC-SiO2 nanoparticles after oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CM


    Full Text Available Chang-Moon Lee,1 Tai Kyoung Lee,2–5 Dae-Ik Kim,1,6 Yu-Ri Kim,7 Meyoung-Kon Kim,7 Hwan-Jeong Jeong,2–5 Myung-Hee Sohn,2–5 Seok Tae Lim2–5 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 3Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 5Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 6School of Electrical, Electronic Communication, and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seounbuk-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: In this study, we investigated the absorption and distribution of rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC-incorporated silica oxide nanoparticles(SiNPs (RITC-SiNPs after oral exposure, by conducting optical imaging, with a focus on tracking the movement of RITC-SiNPs of different particle size and surface charge. Methods: RITC-SiNPs (20 or 100 nm; positively or negatively charged were used to avoid the dissociation of a fluorescent dye from nanoparticles via spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed reactions in vivo. The changes in the nanoparticle sizes and shapes were investigated in an HCl solution for 6 hours. RITC-SiNPs were orally administered to healthy nude mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Optical imaging studies were performed at 2, 4, and 6 hours after oral administration. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours post-administration, and ex vivo imaging studies were performed

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research. (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E


    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  4. All-optical photoacoustic imaging system using fiber ultrasound probe and hollow optical fiber bundle. (United States)

    Miida, Yusuke; Matsuura, Yuji


    An all-optical 3D photoacoustic imaging probe that consists of an optical fiber probe for ultrasound detection and a bundle of hollow optical fibers for excitation of photoacoustic waves was developed. The fiber probe for ultrasound is based on a single-mode optical fiber with a thin polymer film attached to the output end surface that works as a Fabry Perot etalon. The input end of the hollow fiber bundle is aligned so that each fiber in the bundle is sequentially excited. A thin and flexible probe can be obtained because the probe system does not have a scanning mechanism at the distal end.

  5. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo


    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  6. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  7. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))


    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  8. Biomedical photoacoustics: fundamentals, instrumentation and perspectives on nanomedicine. (United States)

    Zou, Chunpeng; Wu, Beibei; Dong, Yanyan; Song, Zhangwei; Zhao, Yaping; Ni, Xianwei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an integrated biomedical imaging modality which combines the advantages of acoustic deep penetration and optical high sensitivity. It can provide functional and structural images with satisfactory resolution and contrast which could provide abundant pathological information for disease-oriented diagnosis. Therefore, it has found vast applications so far and become a powerful tool of precision nanomedicine. However, the investigation of PAI-based imaging nanomaterials is still in its infancy. This perspective article aims to summarize the developments in photoacoustic technologies and instrumentations in the past years, and more importantly, present a bright outlook for advanced PAI-based imaging nanomaterials as well as their emerging biomedical applications in nanomedicine. Current challenges and bottleneck issues have also been discussed and elucidated in this article to bring them to the attention of the readership.

  9. Biomedical photoacoustics: fundamentals, instrumentation and perspectives on nanomedicine (United States)

    Zou, Chunpeng; Wu, Beibei; Dong, Yanyan; Song, Zhangwei; Zhao, Yaping; Ni, Xianwei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe


    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an integrated biomedical imaging modality which combines the advantages of acoustic deep penetration and optical high sensitivity. It can provide functional and structural images with satisfactory resolution and contrast which could provide abundant pathological information for disease-oriented diagnosis. Therefore, it has found vast applications so far and become a powerful tool of precision nanomedicine. However, the investigation of PAI-based imaging nanomaterials is still in its infancy. This perspective article aims to summarize the developments in photoacoustic technologies and instrumentations in the past years, and more importantly, present a bright outlook for advanced PAI-based imaging nanomaterials as well as their emerging biomedical applications in nanomedicine. Current challenges and bottleneck issues have also been discussed and elucidated in this article to bring them to the attention of the readership. PMID:28053532

  10. Fast optical measurements and imaging of flow mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff;

    in combustion enhancement can be also obtained. The infrared camera was also used together with special endoscope optics for fast thermal imaging of a coal-straw flame in an industrial boiler. Obtained time-resolved infrared images provided useful information for the diagnostics of the flame and fuel......Project is focused on fast time-resolved infrared measurements of gas temperature and fast IR-imagining of flames in various combustion environments. The infrared spectrometer system was developed in the project for fast infrared spectral measurements on industrial scale using IR-fibre- optics...

  11. New approach to imaging spectroscopy using diffractive optics (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Massie, Mark A.


    Over the past several years, Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed several hyperspectral imagers using diffractive optics as the dispersive media. This new approach has been patented and demonstrated in numerous field tests. PAT has developed hyperspectral cameras in the visible, mid-wave IR and is currently under contrast to the Air Force to develop a dual band hyperspectral lens for simultaneous spectral imaging in both the mid-wave and long- wave IR. The development of these cameras over the years have been sponsored by internal research and development, contracts from the Air Force Phillips Lab., Air Force Wright Labs Armament Division, BMDO and by the Office of Naval Research. Numerous papers have been presented in the past describing the performance of these various hyperspectral cameras. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theory behind the image multi-spectral sensing (IMSS) used in these hyperspectral cameras. IMSS utilizes a very simple optical design that enables a robust and low cost hyper-spectral imaging instrument. The IMSS is a dispersive spectrometer using a single diffractive optical element for both imaging and dispersion. The lens is tuned for a single wavelength giving maximum diffraction efficiency at that wavelength and high efficiency throughout the spectral band-pass of the camera. The diffractive optics disperse the light along the optical axis as opposed to perpendicular to the axis in conventional dispersive spectrometers. A detector array is used as the sensing medium and the spectral images are rad out electronically. POst processing is used to reduce spectral cross talk and to spatially sharpen the spectral images.

  12. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct (United States)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay


    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan


    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  14. Change detection in very high resolution multisensor optical images (United States)

    Solano Correa, Yady T.; Bovolo, Francesca; Bruzzone, Lorenzo


    This work aims at developing an approach to the detection of changes in multisensor multitemporal VHR optical images. The main steps of the proposed method are: i) multisensor data homogenization; and ii) change detection in multisensor multitemporal VHR optical images. The proposed approach takes advantage of: the conversion to physical quantities suggested by Pacifici et. al.1 , the framework for the design of systems for change detection in VHR images presented by Bruzzone and Bovolo2 and the framework for unsupervised change detection presented by Bovolo and Bruzzone3. Multisensor data homogenization is achieved during pre-processing by taking into account differences in both radiometric and geometric dimensions. Whereas change detection was approached by extracting proper features from multisensor images such that they result to be comparable (at a given level of abstraction) even if extracted from images acquired by different sensors. In order to illustrate the results, a data set made up of a QuickBird and a WorldView-2 images - acquired in 2006 and 2010 respectively - over an area located in the Trentino region of Italy were used. However, the proposed approach is thought to be exportable to multitemporal images coming from passive sensors other than the two mentioned above. The experimental results obtained on the QuickBird and WorlView-2 image pair are accurate. Thus opening to further experiments on multitemporal images acquired by other sensors.

  15. High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging


    Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; Boer; Iftimia, N. V.; Bouma, B. E.


    We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of −110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 µm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, rep...

  16. High-speed image matching with coaxial holographic optical correlator (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko


    A computation speed of more than 100 Gbps is experimentally demonstrated using our developed ultrahigh-speed optical correlator. To verify this high computation speed practically, the computation speeds of our optical correlator and conventional digital image matching are quantitatively compared. We use a population count function that achieves the fastest calculation speed when calculating binary matching by a central processing unit (CPU). The calculation speed of the optical correlator is dramatically faster than that using a CPU (2.40 GHz × 4) and 16 GB of random access memory, especially when the calculation data are large-scale.

  17. The Subaru Deep Field: The Optical Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kashikawa, N; Yasuda, N; Ajiki, M; Akiyama, M; Ando, H; Aoki, K; Doi, M; Fujita, S S; Furusawa, H; Hayashino, T; Iwamuro, F; Iye, M; Karoji, H; Kobayashi, N; Kodaira, K; Kodama, T; Komiyama, Yu; Matsuda, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mizumoto, Y; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Murayama, T; Nagao, T; Nariai, K; Ohta, K; Okamura, S; Ouchi, M; Sasaki, T; Sato, Y; Sekiguchi, K; Shioya, Y; Tamura, H; Taniguchi, Y; Umemura, M; Yamada, T; Yoshida, M


    The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) project is a program of Subaru Observatory to carry out a deep galaxy survey over a blank field as large as 34'x27'. The program consists of very deep multi-band optical imaging, near infrared imaging for smaller portions of the field and follow-up optical spectroscopy. Major scientific goals of the project are to construct large samples of Lyman-break galaxies at z~4-5 and Lyman alpha emitters at z~5.7 and 6.6, and to make detailed studies these very high-redshift galaxy populations. In this paper, we describe the optical imaging observations and data reduction, presenting mosaicked images and object catalogs in seven bandpasses.The optical imaging was made through five broad-band filters, B, V, R, i', z', and two narrow-band filters, NB816 (lambda_c=8150A) and NB921 (lambda_c=9196A) with almost 10 hours long integrations for each band. The limiting magnitudes measured at 3-sigma on a 2" aperture are B=28.45, V=27.74, R=27.80, i'=27.43, z'=26.62, NB816=26.63, and NB921=26.54 in th...

  18. Broadband Incoherent Imaging Using Multiple Aperture Optics (United States)


    objects was by Galileo Galilei in the fall of 1609 (3:30). From that day on, the drive has been to improve upon the quality of the received image...increased diameter. (11:763) A second major drawback is the sheer weight of the mirror. Even Galileo realized that there is a limit to the size of a mirror

  19. Table-top diffuse optical imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturgeon, K.A.; Bakker, L.P.


    This report describes the work done during a six months internshipat Philips Research for a Masters in Electronic and Electrical Engineering. An existing table-top tomography system for measuring lightin phantom breasts was restored. Updated software control and image reconstruction software was cr

  20. Optical imaging of individual biomolecules in densely packed clusters (United States)

    Dai, Mingjie; Jungmann, Ralf; Yin, Peng


    Recent advances in fluorescence super-resolution microscopy have allowed subcellular features and synthetic nanostructures down to 10-20 nm in size to be imaged. However, the direct optical observation of individual molecular targets (∼5 nm) in a densely packed biomolecular cluster remains a challenge. Here, we show that such discrete molecular imaging is possible using DNA-PAINT (points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography)—a super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that exploits programmable transient oligonucleotide hybridization—on synthetic DNA nanostructures. We examined the effects of a high photon count, high blinking statistics and an appropriate blinking duty cycle on imaging quality, and developed a software-based drift correction method that achieves optical nanodisplay with 5 × 5 nm pixel size and three distinct colours with <1 nm cross-channel registration accuracy.

  1. Automated Localization of Optic Disc in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali A.Godse


    Full Text Available An efficient detection of optic disc (OD in colour retinal images is a significant task in an automated retinal image analysis system. Most of the algorithms developed for OD detection are especially applicable to normal and healthy retinal images. It is a challenging task to detect OD in all types of retinal images, that is, normal, healthy images as well as abnormal, that is, images affected due to disease. This paper presents an automated system to locate an OD and its centre in all types of retinal images. The ensemble of steps based on different criteria produces more accurate results. The proposed algorithm gives excellent results and avoids false OD detection. The technique is developed and tested on standard databases provided for researchers on internet, Diaretdb0 (130 images, Diaretdb1 (89 images, Drive (40 images and local database (194 images. The local database images are collected from ophthalmic clinics. It is able to locate OD and its centre in 98.45% of all tested cases. The results achieved by different algorithms can be compared when algorithms are applied on same standard databases. This comparison is also discussed in this paper which shows that the proposed algorithm is more efficient.

  2. Closed-loop optical stabilization and digital image registration in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Nozato, Koji; Saito, Kenichi; Williams, David R; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan A


    Eye motion is a major impediment to the efficient acquisition of high resolution retinal images with the adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Here we demonstrate a solution to this problem by implementing both optical stabilization and digital image registration in an AOSLO. We replaced the slow scanning mirror with a two-axis tip/tilt mirror for the dual functions of slow scanning and optical stabilization. Closed-loop optical stabilization reduced the amplitude of eye-movement related-image motion by a factor of 10-15. The residual RMS error after optical stabilization alone was on the order of the size of foveal cones: ~1.66-2.56 μm or ~0.34-0.53 arcmin with typical fixational eye motion for normal observers. The full implementation, with real-time digital image registration, corrected the residual eye motion after optical stabilization with an accuracy of ~0.20-0.25 μm or ~0.04-0.05 arcmin RMS, which to our knowledge is more accurate than any method previously reported.

  3. Stable phantom materials for ultrasound and optical imaging (United States)

    Cabrelli, Luciana C.; Pelissari, Pedro I. B. G. B.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Pavan, Theo Z.


    Phantoms mimicking the specific properties of biological tissues are essential to fully characterize medical devices. Water-based materials are commonly used to manufacture phantoms for ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. However, these materials have disadvantages, such as easy degradation and low temporal stability. In this study, we propose an oil-based new tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound and optical imaging, with the advantage of presenting low temporal degradation. A styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymer in mineral oil samples was made varying the SEBS concentration between 5%-15%, and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) between 0%-9%. Acoustic properties, such as the speed of sound and the attenuation coefficient, were obtained using frequencies ranging from 1-10 MHz, and were consistent with that of soft tissues. These properties were controlled varying SEBS and LDPE concentration. To characterize the optical properties of the samples, the diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured. Scattering and absorption coefficients ranging from 400 nm-1200 nm were calculated for each compound. SEBS gels are a translucent material presenting low optical absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible region of the spectrum, but the presence of LDPE increased the turbidity. Adding LDPE increased the absorption and scattering of the phantom materials. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images of a heterogeneous phantom made of LDPE/SEBS containing a spherical inclusion were obtained. Annatto dye was added to the inclusion to enhance the optical absorbance. The results suggest that copolymer gels are promising for ultrasound and optical imaging, making them also potentially useful for photoacoustic imaging.

  4. Synergizing superresolution optical fluctuation imaging with single molecule localization microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Schidorsky, Shachar; Razvag, Yair; Golan, Yonatan; Weiss, Shimon; Sherman, Eilon


    Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) techniques enable imaging biological samples well beyond the diffraction limit of light, but they vary significantly in their spatial and temporal resolutions. High-order statistical analysis of temporal fluctuations as in superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) also enable imaging beyond diffraction limit, but usually at a lower resolution as compared to SMLM. Since the same data format is acquired for both methods, their algorithms can be applied to the same data set, and thus may be combined synergistically to improve overall imaging performance. Here, we find that SOFI converges much faster than SMLM, provides additive information to SMLM, and can efficiently reject background. We then show how SOFI-assisted SMLM imaging can improve SMLM image reconstruction by rejecting common sources of background, especially under low signal-to-background conditions. The performance of our approach was evaluated using a realistic simulation of fluorescence imagi...

  5. 4F-based optical phase imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to 4F-based optical phase imaging system and in particular to reconstructing quantitative phase information of an object when using such systems. The invention applies a two-dimensional, complex spatial light modulator (SLM) to impress a complex spatial synthesized modulation...... in addition to the complex spatial modulation impressed by the object. This SLM is arranged so that the synthesized modulation is superimposed with the object modulation and is thus placed at an input plane to the phase imaging system. By evaluating output images from the phase imaging system, the synthesized...... modulation is selected to optimize parameters in the output image which improves the reconstruction of qualitative and quantitative object phase information from the resulting output images....

  6. The optics of microscope image formation. (United States)

    Wolf, David E


    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion.

  7. Optical Picosecond MCPI-Based Imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckles, R. A.; guyton, R. L.; Ross, P. W.


    We report on the design, construction, and initial test results of a custom MCPI design which incorporates a wideband strip transmission line drive structure. A special 16:1 series transmission-line-transformer (STLT) is utilized to distribute the drive signal from a 50-ohm, 1.85 mm coaxial vacuum feedthrough to a 3-ohm strip across the MCP. Transformer circuit material is a flexible Teflon/Kapton laminate for minimal loss and dispersion. A novel vialess multilayer structure composed of embedded, symmetrical strips, preserves ideal impulse response. Impedance matched interfaces and transitions are designed with method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element analysis. Millimeter-wave time-domain reflectometer and vector network analyzer measurements are presented, with comparison to time-domain and swept frequency 3D finite element simulation. Gain compression is expected to produce a 20 ps optical impulse response, dominated by the leaded MCP glass dielectric dispersion. Follow-on work will complete the optical impulse response tests, and extrapolation to more expensive silicon MCP and 1-mm feedthroughs promises an impulse response of 5 ps.

  8. Functional Doppler optical coherence tomography for cortical blood flow imaging (United States)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Nguyen, Elaine; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping


    Optical methods have been widely used in basic neuroscience research to study the cerebral blood flow dynamics in order to overcome the low spatial resolution associated with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Although laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle imaging can map out en face cortical hemodynamics and columns, depth resolution is not available. Two-photon microscopy has been used for mapping cortical activity. However, flow measurement requires fluorescent dye injection, which can be problematic. The noninvasive and high resolution tomographic capabilities of optical coherence tomography make it a promising technique for mapping depth resolved cortical blood flow. Here, we present a functional Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for quantitative evaluation of cortical blood flow in a mouse model. Fast, repeated, Doppler OCT scans across a vessel of interest were performed to record flow dynamic information with a high temporal resolution of the cardiac cycles. Spectral Doppler analysis of continuous Doppler images demonstrates how the velocity components and longitudinally projected flow-volume-rate change over time, thereby providing complementary temporal flow information to the spatially distributed flow information of Doppler OCT. The proposed functional Doppler OCT imaging modality can be used to diagnose vessel stenosis/blockage or monitor blood flow changes due to pharmacological agents/neuronal activities. Non-invasive in-vivo mice experiments were performed to verify the capabilities of function Doppler OCT.

  9. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina


    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  10. Establishing Information Security Systems via Optical Imaging (United States)


    Laser Object Computer Fig. 5. A schematic setup for the proposed method using holography: BSC, Beam splitter cube; CCD, Charge-coupled device. The...SLM Object~~~, ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laser CCD DJ Fig. 9. A schematic for computational ghost imaging: BD, bucket detector...polarization. (c) Since the sophisticated optoelectronic devices and systems should be analyzed before the retrieval, any hostile hacker will need to

  11. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe J.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  12. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F. [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, L.K. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia)


    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity.

  13. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in optic nerve lesions with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Adachi, Emiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerve was performed in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) pulse sequences, and the results were compared with the visual evoked potentials (VEP). The 10 patients had optic neuritis in the chronic or remitting phase together with additional symptoms or signs allowing a diagnosis of clinically definite or probable MS. Sixteen optic nerves were clinically affected and 4 were unaffected. MRI was performed using a 0.5 tesla supeconducting unit, and multiple continuous 5 mm coronal and axial STIR images were obtained. A lesion was judged to be present if a focal or diffuse area of increased signal intensity was detectd in the optic nerve. In VEP, a delay in peak latency or no P 100 component was judged to be abnormal. With regard to the clinically affected optic nerves, MRI revealed a region of increased signal intensity in 14/16 (88%) and the VEP was abnormal in 16/16 (100%). In the clinically unaffected optic nerves, MRI revealed an increased signal intensity in 2/4 (50%). One of these nerves had an abnormal VEP and the other had a VEP latency at the upper limit of normal. The VEP was abnormal in 1/4 (25%). In the clinically affected optic nerves, the degree of loss of visual acuity was not associated with the longitudinal extent of the lesions shown by MRI. The mean length was 17.5 mm in optic nerves with a slight disturbance of visual acuity and 15.0 mm in nerves with severe visual loss. MRI using STIR pulse sequences was found to be almost as sensitive as VEP in detecting both clinically affected and unaffected optic nerve lesions in patients with MS, and was useful in visualizing the location or size of the lesions. (author).

  15. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.


    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  16. Endocular ophthalmoscope: miniaturization and optical imaging quality (United States)

    Rol, Pascal O.; Beck, Dominik; Niederer, Peter F.


    Endoscopy is a novel method of observation in ocular surgery. It allows a direct viewing of certain internal structures of the eye which can not be seen through conventional slit lamp/microscope arrangements like the back side of the iris, the posterior chamber or the fixation area of an IOL. In addition such an instrument is useful in exploratory orbital surgery because it allows for examination of the scleral wall, the 6 motor muscles and the optic nerve sheet with minimal trauma to the eye. An endoscopic system can therefore be helpful to check regions which can not be reached easily during surgery, such as the ciliary body or the pars plana. When a transparent structure of the eye becomes turbid, e.g., a hazy cornea, observation is impaired and endoscopy could also provide a solution though it is an invasive method.

  17. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.


    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  18. Gen-2 hand-held optical imager towards cancer imaging: reflectance and transillumination phantom studies. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha


    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1-5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies.

  19. Automated interpretation of optic nerve images: a data mining framework for glaucoma diagnostic support. (United States)

    Abidi, Syed S R; Artes, Paul H; Yun, Sanjan; Yu, Jin


    Confocal Scanning Laser Tomography (CSLT) techniques capture high-quality images of the optic disc (the retinal region where the optic nerve exits the eye) that are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. We present a hybrid framework, combining image processing and data mining methods, to support the interpretation of CSLT optic nerve images. Our framework features (a) Zernike moment methods to derive shape information from optic disc images; (b) classification of optic disc images, based on shape information, to distinguish between healthy and glaucomatous optic discs. We apply Multi Layer Perceptrons, Support Vector Machines and Bayesian Networks for feature sub-set selection and image classification; and (c) clustering of optic disc images, based on shape information, using Self-Organizing Maps to visualize sub-types of glaucomatous optic disc damage. Our framework offers an automated and objective analysis of optic nerve images that can potentially support both diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma.

  20. Visible-Light Tomography Using an Optical Imaging-System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingesson, L. C.; Koning, J. J.; Donne, A. J. H.; D.C. Schram,


    A system for tomography in the wavelength range 200-1 100 nm has been designed for the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP). The plasma is viewed from five directions in one poloidal plane with a total of 80 detectors. An optical imaging system consisting of two spherical mirrors for each viewing direct

  1. Optical design of microlens array for CMOS image sensors (United States)

    Zhang, Rongzhu; Lai, Liping


    The optical crosstalk between the pixel units can influence the image quality of CMOS image sensor. In the meantime, the duty ratio of CMOS is low because of its pixel structure. These two factors cause the low detection sensitivity of CMOS. In order to reduce the optical crosstalk and improve the fill factor of CMOS image sensor, a microlens array has been designed and integrated with CMOS. The initial parameters of the microlens array have been calculated according to the structure of a CMOS. Then the parameters have been optimized by using ZEMAX and the microlens arrays with different substrate thicknesses have been compared. The results show that in order to obtain the best imaging quality, when the effect of optical crosstalk for CMOS is the minimum, the best distance between microlens array and CMOS is about 19.3 μm. When incident light successively passes through microlens array and the distance, obtaining the minimum facula is around 0.347 um in the active area. In addition, when the incident angle of the light is 0o 22o, the microlens array has obvious inhibitory effect on the optical crosstalk. And the anti-crosstalk distance between microlens array and CMOS is 0 μm 162 μm.

  2. Polymer Optical Fibre Sensors for Endoscopic Opto-Acoustic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet;


    in existing publications. A great advantage can be obtained for endoscopy due to a small size and array potential to provide discrete imaging speed improvements. Optical fibre exhibits numerous advantages over conventional piezo-electric transducers, such as immunity from electromagnetic interference...

  3. Quantitative contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.H. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Rubinstein, D. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Brown, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Yuh, W. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Birch-Iensen, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Szumowski, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Stears, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States)


    During the acute stages of optic neuritis damage to the blood-optic nerve barrier can be detected using i.v. paramagnetic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Quantification of the enhancement pattern of the optic nerve, intraorbital fat and muscle was determined in 15 normal subjects using 3 fat-suppression MR imaging methods: T1-weighted spin-echo and spoiled gradient-echo sequences preceded by a flat-frequency selective pulse (FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR, respectively) and a pulse sequence combining CHOPPER fat suppression with a fat-frequency selective preparation pulse (HYBRID). Pre- and postcontrast-enhanced studies were acquired for FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR. There was no significant enhancement of the optic nerve by either method (mean increase of 0.96% and 5.3%, respectively), while there was significant enhancement in muscle (mean 118.2% and 108.2%, respectively; p<0.005) and fat (mean increase of 13% and 37%, respectively; p<0.05). Postcontrast optic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratios (mean, SD) were 0.51 (0.07), 0.58 (0.05) and 0.75 (0.05) for FATSAT+SE, FATSAT+SPGR and HYBRID, respectively. These results suggest a practical methodology and range of values for normal signal intensity increases and ratios of tissue signal that can be used as objective measures of optic neuritis for natural history studies and treatment trials. (orig.).

  4. Alternative optical concept for electron cyclotron emission imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. X., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Milbourne, T. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dominguez, A.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hill, K. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Kung, C.; Pablant, N. A.; Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Kubota, S. [Department of Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kasparek, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Lu, J. [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Park, H. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)


    The implementation of advanced electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems on tokamak experiments has revolutionized the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities and improved our understanding of instabilities, which lead to disruptions. It is therefore desirable to have an ECEI system on the ITER tokamak. However, the large size of optical components in presently used ECEI systems have, up to now, precluded the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER. This paper describes a new optical ECEI concept that employs a single spherical mirror as the only optical component and exploits the astigmatism of such a mirror to produce an image with one-dimensional spatial resolution on the detector. Since this alternative approach would only require a thin slit as the viewing port to the plasma, it would make the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER feasible. The results obtained from proof-of-principle experiments with a 125 GHz microwave system are presented.

  5. Nanodiamond Landmarks for Subcellular Multimodal Optical and Electron Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zurbuchen, Mark A; Kohan, Sirus A; Leung, Belinda; Bouchard, Louis-S


    There is a growing need for biolabels that can be used in both optical and electron microscopies, are non-cytotoxic, and do not photobleach. Such biolabels could enable targeted nanoscale imaging of sub-cellular structures, and help to establish correlations between conjugation-delivered biomolecules and function. Here we demonstrate a subcellular multi-modal imaging methodology that enables localization of inert particulate probes, consisting of nanodiamonds having fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers. These are functionalized to target specific structures, and are observable by both optical and electron microscopies. Nanodiamonds targeted to the nuclear pore complex are rapidly localized in electron-microscopy diffraction mode to enable "zooming-in" to regions of interest for detailed structural investigations. Optical microscopies reveal nanodiamonds for in-vitro tracking or uptake-confirmation. The approach is general, works down to the single nanodiamond level, and can leverage the unique capabilities of...

  6. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal physiology: a review (United States)

    Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Benquan


    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging promises to be a noninvasive method for high-resolution examination of retinal physiology, which can advance the study and diagnosis of eye diseases. While specialized optical instruments are desirable for functional IOS imaging of retinal physiology, in depth understanding of multiple IOS sources in the complex retinal neural network is essential for optimizing instrument designs. We provide a brief overview of IOS studies and relationships in rod outer segment suspensions, isolated retinas, and intact eyes. Recent developments of line-scan confocal and functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments have allowed in vivo IOS mapping of photoreceptor physiology. Further improvements of the line-scan confocal and functional OCT systems may provide a feasible solution to pursue functional IOS mapping of human photoreceptors. Some interesting IOSs have already been detected in inner retinal layers, but better development of the IOS instruments and software algorithms is required to achieve optimal physiological assessment of inner retinal neurons.

  7. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager (United States)

    Luo, Qingming


    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography in Cancer Imaging (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun Stephanie; Vakoc, Benjamin; Blauvelt, David; Chico-Calero, Isabel

    Investigations into the biology of cancer and novel cancer therapies rely on preclinical mouse models and traditional histological endpoints. Drawbacks of this approach include a limit in the number of time points for evaluation and an increased number of animals per study. This has motivated the use of intravital microscopy, which can provide longitudinal imaging of critical tumor parameters. Here, the capabilities of OCT as an intravital microscopy of the tumor microenvironment are summarized, and the state of OCT adoption into cancer research is summarized.

  9. Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Ducros, Mathieu G.; Marsack, Jason D.; Rylander, H. Grady; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Milner, Thomas E.


    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is applied to determine the depth-resolved polarization state of light backreflected from the eye. The birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was observed and measured from PSOCT images recorded postmortem in a Rhesus monkey. An image-processing algorithm was developed to identify birefringent regions in acquired PSOCT retinal images and automatically determine the thickness of the RNFL. Values of the RNFL thickness determined from histology and PSOCT were compared. PSOCT may provide a new method to determine RNFL thickness and birefringence for glaucoma diagnostics.

  10. In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue (United States)

    Sun, Ju; Shilagard, Tuya; Bell, Brent; Motamedi, Massoud; Vargas, Gracie


    We present a multimodal nonlinear imaging approach to elucidate microstructures and spectroscopic features of oral mucosa and submucosa in vivo. The hamster buccal pouch was imaged using 3-D high resolution multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy. The multimodal imaging approach enables colocalization and differentiation of prominent known spectroscopic and structural features such as keratin, epithelial cells, and submucosal collagen at various depths in tissue. Visualization of cellular morphology and epithelial thickness are in excellent agreement with histological observations. These results suggest that multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy can be an effective tool for studying the physiology and pathology of mucosal tissue.

  11. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.


    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  12. Optical imaging system-based real-time image saliency extraction method (United States)

    Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun


    Saliency extraction has become a popular topic in imaging science. One of the challenges in image saliency extraction is to detect the saliency content efficiently with a full-resolution saliency map. Traditional methods only involve computer calculation and thus result in limitations in computational speed. An optical imaging system-based visual saliency extraction method is developed to solve this problem. The optical system is built by effectively implementing an optical Fourier process with a Fourier lens to form two frequency planes for further operation. The proposed method combines optical components and computer calculations and mainly relies on frequency selection with precise pinholes on the frequency planes to efficiently produce a saliency map. Comparison shows that the method is suitable for extracting salient information and operates in real time to generate a full-resolution saliency map with good boundaries.

  13. On the importance of image formation optics in the design of infrared spectroscopic imaging systems. (United States)

    Mayerich, David; van Dijk, Thomas; Walsh, Michael J; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Carney, P Scott; Bhargava, Rohit


    Infrared spectroscopic imaging provides micron-scale spatial resolution with molecular contrast. While recent work demonstrates that sample morphology affects the recorded spectrum, considerably less attention has been focused on the effects of the optics, including the condenser and objective. This analysis is extremely important, since it will be possible to understand effects on recorded data and provides insight for reducing optical effects through rigorous microscope design. Here, we present a theoretical description and experimental results that demonstrate the effects of commonly-employed cassegranian optics on recorded spectra. We first combine an explicit model of image formation and a method for quantifying and visualizing the deviations in recorded spectra as a function of microscope optics. We then verify these simulations with measurements obtained from spatially heterogeneous samples. The deviation of the computed spectrum from the ideal case is quantified via a map which we call a deviation map. The deviation map is obtained as a function of optical elements by systematic simulations. Examination of deviation maps demonstrates that the optimal optical configuration for minimal deviation is contrary to prevailing practice in which throughput is maximized for an instrument without a sample. This report should be helpful for understanding recorded spectra as a function of the optics, the analytical limits of recorded data determined by the optical design, and potential routes for optimization of imaging systems.

  14. a Novel Image Registration Algorithm for SAR and Optical Images Based on Virtual Points (United States)

    Ai, C.; Feng, T.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S.


    Optical image is rich in spectral information, while SAR instrument can work in both day and night and obtain images through fog and clouds. Combination of these two types of complementary images shows the great advantages of better image interpretation. Image registration is an inevitable and critical problem for the applications of multi-source remote sensing images, such as image fusion, pattern recognition and change detection. However, the different characteristics between SAR and optical images, which are due to the difference in imaging mechanism and the speckle noises in SAR image, bring great challenges to the multi-source image registration. Therefore, a novel image registration algorithm based on the virtual points, derived from the corresponding region features, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, image classification methods are adopted to extract closed regions from SAR and optical images respectively. Secondly, corresponding region features are matched by constructing cost function with rotate invariant region descriptors such as area, perimeter, and the length of major and minor axes. Thirdly, virtual points derived from corresponding region features, such as the centroids, endpoints and cross points of major and minor axes, are used to calculate initial registration parameters. Finally, the parameters are corrected by an iterative calculation, which will be terminated when the overlap of corresponding region features reaches its maximum. In the experiment, WordView-2 and Radasat-2 with 0.5 m and 4.7 m spatial resolution respectively, obtained in August 2010 in Suzhou, are used to test the registration method. It is shown that the multi-source image registration algorithm presented above is effective, and the accuracy of registration is up to pixel level.

  15. Perceptual image quality in normalized LOG domain for Adaptive Optics image post-processing (United States)

    Guo, Shiping; Zhang, Rongzhi; Li, Jisheng; Zou, Jianhua; Liu, Changhai; Gao, Weizhe


    Adaptive Optics together with subsequent post-processing techniques obviously improve the resolution of turbulencedegraded images in ground-based space objects detection and identification. The most common method for frame selection and stopping iteration in post-processing has always been subjective viewing of the images due to a lack of widely agreed-upon objective quality metric. Full reference metrics are not applicable for assessing the field data, no-reference metrics tend to perform poor sensitivity for Adaptive Optics images. In the present work, based on the Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) local contrast feature, a nonlinear normalization is applied to transform the input image into a normalized LOG domain; a quantitative index is then extracted in this domain to assess the perceptual image quality. Experiments show this no-reference quality index is highly consistent with the subjective evaluation of input images for different blur degree and different iteration number.

  16. Evaluation of tissue optical properties from light distribution images (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Chang, Ming; Hsieh, Jui-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Fong; Chou, Yi-Sheong


    Images of light distribution in biological soft tissue we used to study the optical characteristics of tissue. The light distribution image was taken under a microscope with light injected through a pinhole close to the edge of the top surface. Images taken on skin, fat, and muscle tissues were compared to study the effect of cellular structure and temperature on the light intensity distribution. Monte Carlo simulation with the same conditions was also performed to simulate the light intensity distribution in tissue for comparison. The anisotropy scattering of light in tissue is affected by the tissue microscopic structure, such as the direction of muscle tissue fibers. The change in optical properties of fat and muscle tissue with temperature was observed. The two-dimensional light distribution images offer more information than general reflectance and transmission measurements. By matching the simulated light intensity distribution with the light distribution image, the optical properties of biological tissue could be estimated. This method might be applied in tissue engineering as an economic way for evaluating the microscopic structure of tissue.

  17. Optical imaging for stem cell differentiation to neuronal lineage. (United States)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo


    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy holds great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell- or tissue-specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating into a neuronal lineage. The detection limit of weak promoters or reporter genes can be greatly enhanced by adopting a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously.

  18. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  19. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously.

  20. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging. (United States)

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N


    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy.

  1. Stellar Intensity Interferometry: Prospects for sub-milliarcsecond optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; Jensen, Hannes; Nuñez, Paul D


    Using kilometric arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, intensity interferometry may increase the spatial resolution in optical astronomy by an order of magnitude, enabling images of rapidly rotating stars with structures in their circumstellar disks and winds, or mapping out patterns of nonradial pulsations across stellar surfaces. Intensity interferometry (pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss) connects telescopes only electronically, and is practically insensitive to atmospheric turbulence and optical imperfections, permitting observations over long baselines and through large airmasses, also at short optical wavelengths. The required large telescopes with very fast detectors are becoming available as arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, distributed over a few square km. Digital signal handling enables very many baselines to be synthesized, while stars are tracked with electronic time delays, thus synthesizing an optical interferometer in software. Simulated observations indicate limiting magnitudes around m(v)...

  2. A minimal optical trapping and imaging microscopy system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available We report the construction and testing of a simple and versatile optical trapping apparatus, suitable for visualizing individual microtubules (∼25 nm in diameter and performing single-molecule studies, using a minimal set of components. This design is based on a conventional, inverted microscope, operating under plain bright field illumination. A single laser beam enables standard optical trapping and the measurement of molecular displacements and forces, whereas digital image processing affords real-time sample visualization with reduced noise and enhanced contrast. We have tested our trapping and imaging instrument by measuring the persistence length of individual double-stranded DNA molecules, and by following the stepping of single kinesin motor proteins along clearly imaged microtubules. The approach presented here provides a straightforward alternative for studies of biomaterials and individual biomolecules.

  3. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.


    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  4. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.


    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  5. TV-L1 Optical Flow for Vector Valued Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Roholm, Lars; Nielsen, Mads;


    a generalized algorithm that works on vector valued images, by means of a generalized projection step. We give examples of calculations of flows for a number of multi- dimensional constancy assumptions, e.g. gradient and RGB, and show how the developed methodology expands to any kind of vector valued images......The variational TV-L1 framework has become one of the most popular and successful approaches for calculating optical flow. One reason for the popularity is the very appealing properties of the two terms in the energy formulation of the problem, the robust L1-norm of the data fidelity term combined...... with the total variation (TV) regular- ization that smoothes the flow, but preserve strong discontinuities such as edges. Specifically the approach of Zach et al. [1] has provided a very clean and efficient algorithm for calculating TV-L1 optical flows between grayscale images. In this paper we propose...

  6. Image enhancement of optical images for binary system of melanocytes and keratinocytes (United States)

    Takanezawa, S.; Baba, A.; Sako, Y.; Ozaki, Y.; Date, A.; Toyama, K.; Morita, S.


    Automatic determination of the cell shapes of large numbers of melanocytes based on optical images of human skin models have been largely unsuccessful (the complexities introduced by dendrites and the melanin pigmentation over the keratinocytes to give unclear outlines). Here, we present an image enhancement procedure for enhancing the contrast of images with removing the non-uniformity of background. The brightness is normalized also for the non-uniform population density of melanocytes.

  7. Building 3D aerial image in photoresist with reconstructed mask image acquired with optical microscope (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; Tang, Y. P.; Chu, F. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.


    Calibration of mask images on wafer becomes more important as features shrink. Two major types of metrology have been commonly adopted. One is to measure the mask image with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain the contours on mask and then simulate the wafer image with optical simulator. The other is to use an optical imaging tool Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) to emulate the image on wafer. However, the SEM method is indirect. It just gathers planar contours on a mask with no consideration of optical characteristics such as 3D topography structures. Hence, the image on wafer is not predicted precisely. Though the AIMSTM method can be used to directly measure the intensity at the near field of a mask but the image measured this way is not quite the same as that on the wafer due to reflections and refractions in the films on wafer. Here, a new approach is proposed to emulate the image on wafer more precisely. The behavior of plane waves with different oblique angles is well known inside and between planar film stacks. In an optical microscope imaging system, plane waves can be extracted from the pupil plane with a coherent point source of illumination. Once plane waves with a specific coherent illumination are analyzed, the partially coherent component of waves could be reconstructed with a proper transfer function, which includes lens aberration, polarization, reflection and refraction in films. It is a new method that we can transfer near light field of a mask into an image on wafer without the disadvantages of indirect SEM measurement such as neglecting effects of mask topography, reflections and refractions in the wafer film stacks. Furthermore, with this precise latent image, a separated resist model also becomes more achievable.

  8. Optical slicing of large scenes by synthetic aperture integral imaging (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Molina, Ainhoa; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Javidi, Bahram


    Integral imaging (InI) technology was created with the aim of providing the binocular observers of monitors, or matrix display devices, with auto-stereoscopic images of 3D scenes. However, along the last few years the inventiveness of researches has allowed to find many other interesting applications of integral imaging. Examples of this are the application of InI in object recognition, the mapping of 3D polarization distributions, or the elimination of occluding signals. One of the most interesting applications of integral imaging is the production of views focused at different depths of the 3D scene. This application is the natural result of the ability of InI to create focal stacks from a single input image. In this contribution we present new algorithm for this optical slicing application, and show that it is possible the 3D reconstruction with improved lateral resolution.

  9. Nonlinear optical imaging characteristics in rat tail tendon (United States)

    Liu, N. R.; Zhang, X. Z.; Qiu, Y. S.; Chen, R.


    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers in tail tendons, explore the content of intrinsic components at different depths and ascertain the optimum excitation wavelength, which will help to establish a relationship between diagnosis and therapy and the tendon injury. A multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve the images and spectra via an imaging mode and a Lambda mode, respectively. This work demonstrates that the skeletal muscle fibers of the tail tendon are in good order. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals originating from certain intrinsic components are varied with depth, and the SHG/TPEF intensity ratios are varied at different excitation wavelengths. Below 800 nm is the optimum for cell TPEF, while above 800 nm is the optimum for SHG. With the development of imaging techniques, a nonlinear optical imaging system will be helpful to represent the functional behaviors of tissue related to tendon injury.

  10. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Kolbe


    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON. We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1. We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, and mean diffusivity (MD] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p=0.006. Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R=0.450, p=0.006; RD: R=-0.428, p=0.009; MD: R=-0.365, p=0.029. In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R=0.489, p=0.039. In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.

  11. Integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy imaging of human pathology (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aquirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.


    Excisional biopsy is the current gold standard for disease diagnosis; however, it requires a relatively long processing time and it may also suffer from unacceptable false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging technique that provide real-time, high resolution and three-dimensional (3D) images of tissue morphology. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an extension of OCT, combining both the coherence gating and the confocal gating techniques. OCM imaging achieves cellular resolution with deeper imaging depth compared to confocal microscopy. An integrated OCT/OCM imaging system can provide co-registered multiscale imaging of tissue morphology. 3D-OCT provides architectural information with a large field of view and can be used to find regions of interest; while OCM provides high magnification to enable cellular imaging. The integrated OCT/OCM system has an axial resolution of kidney (19), were imaged with OCT and OCM within 2 to 6 hours after excision. The images were compared with H & E histology to identify characteristic features useful for disease diagnosis. The feasibility of visualizing human pathology using integrated OCT/OCM was demonstrated in the pathology laboratory settings.

  12. Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Choi, Stacey S; Fuller, Alfred R; Evans, Julia W; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S


    Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented, and include co-registration of AO-OCT volumes with fundus photography and stitching of multiple AO-OCT sub-volumes to create a large field of view (FOV) high-resolution volume. Additionally, we explored the utility of Interactive Science Publishing by linking all presented AO-OCT datasets with the OSA ISP software.

  13. Optical-parametric-amplification applications to complex images (United States)

    Vaughan, Peter M.


    Ultrafast optical pulses have many useful features. One in particular is their ability to exploit nonlinear processes due to their extremely short durations. We have used ultrafast optical pulses, primarily focused on the nonlinear processes of Polarization Gating and of Optical Parametric Amplification, one for measurement and the other for imaging purposes. For measurement, we have demonstrated a robust method of measurement to simultaneously measure both optical pulses used in a pump-probe type configuration. In these measurements, no initial information beyond the nonlinear interaction between the pulses is required. We refer to this method of pulse measurement as Double-Blind Polarization Gating FROG[1]. We have demonstrated this single-shot method for measuring two unknown pulses using one device. We have demonstrated this technique on three separate pulse pairs. We measured two Gaussian pulses with different amounts of chirp. We measured two double pulses with different pulse separations, and we have measured two extremely different pulses, where one was simple Gaussian and the other was a pulse train produced by an etalon. This method has no non-trivial ambiguities, has a reliable algorithm, and is automatically phase matched for all spectral bandwidths. In simulations[2], this method has proven to be extremely robust, measuring very complicated pulses with TBPs of ˜100 even in the presence of noise. In addition to pulse measurement, we have demonstrated the processes of Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) applicability to imaging of complex objects[3]. We have done this where the Fourier transform plane is used during the interaction. We have amplified and wavelength converted a complex image. We report imaging of spatial features from 1.1 to 10.1 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) in the vertical dimension and from 2.0 to 16.0 lp/mm in the horizontal dimension. We observe a gain of ˜100, and, although our images were averaged over many shots, we used a

  14. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan


    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  15. Imaging patients with glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography (United States)

    Auyeung, Kris; Auyeung, Kelsey; Kono, Rei; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Ruikang K.


    In ophthalmology, a reliable means of diagnosing glaucoma in its early stages is still an open issue. Past efforts, including forays into fluorescent angiography (FA) and early optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, to develop a potential biomarker for the disease have been explored. However, this development has been hindered by the inability of the current techniques to provide useful depth and microvasculature information of the optic nerve head (ONH), which have been debated as possible hallmarks of glaucoma progression. We reasoned that a system incorporating a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) based Optical Microangiography (OMAG) system, could allow an effective, non-invasive methodology to evaluate effects on microvasculature by glaucoma. SD-OCT follows the principle of light reflection and interference to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye. OMAG produces imaging contrasts via endogenous light scattering from moving particles, allowing for 3D image productions of dynamic blood perfusion at capillary-level resolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optic cup perfusion (flow) differences in glaucomatous and normal eyes. Images from three normal and five glaucomatous subjects were analyzed our OCT based OMAG system for blood perfusion and structural images, allowing for comparisons. Preliminary results from blood flow analysis revealed reduced blood perfusion within the whole-depth region encompassing the Lamina Cribrosa in glaucomatous cases as compared to normal ones. We conclude that our OCT-OMAG system may provide promise and viability for glaucoma screening.

  16. Chemical shift selective magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in patients with acute optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, H.B.W.; Thomsen, C.; Frederiksen, J.; Henriksen, O.; Olesen, J.

    Optic neuritis is often the first manifestion of multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixteen patients with acute optic neuritis and one patient with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging, using a chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence. In 3 of the 16 patients, abnormalities were seen. In one patient with bilateral symptoms, signal hyperintensity and swelling of the right side of the chiasm were found. In another patient the optic nerve was found diffusely enlarged with only a marginally increased signal in the second echo. In the third patient an area of signal hyperintensity and swelling was seen in the left optic nerve. In the patient with BIH the subarachnoid space which surrounds the optic nerves was enlarged. Even using this refined pulse sequence, avoiding the major artefact in imaging the optic nerve, the chemical shift artefact, lesions were only shown in 3/16 (19%) of the patients with optic neuritis. Nevertheless, the presented chemical shift selective double spin echo sequence may be of great value for detection of retrobulbar lesions.

  17. Method to improve the performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging based on polygonal optical fibers arrangement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weitao Li; Zhiyu Qian; Ting Li


    In order to improve the performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging(rDOI),a novel polynomial geometry(PG)of optical fibers arrangement is proposed.Polynomial geometry is based on the hexagonal geometry(HG)and multicentered double-density(MD)mode.The overlapping sensitivity matrix,area ratio(AR),reconstruction image,two-absorber model,arid contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR)in different depths are used to evaluate the performance of PG.The other three geometries including HG,rectangular geometry(RG),and MD mode are also compared with PG.The deformation of the reconstruction images is evaluted by circular ratio(CR).The results prove that the proposed PG has high performance and minimum deformation in quality of reconstruction image in rDOI.

  18. Fluorescence-enhanced imaging using a novel hand-held based optical imager: phantom studies (United States)

    Ge, Jiajia; Zhu, Banghe; Regalado, Steven; Godavarty, Anuradha


    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. The currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Hence, a novel hand-held probe based gain modulated intensified CCD camera imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of this hand-held probe based optical imaging system are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the tissue contours, thus decreasing the light leakage at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. Phantom studies are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of performing fluorescence optical imaging under different target depths using cubical phantoms (10×6.5×10 cc). The effect of simultaneous multiple point illumination over sequential single point illumination is demonstrated from experimental phantom studies.

  19. Satellite Imaging with Adaptive Optics on a 1 M Telescope (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Copeland, M.


    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optic (AO) systems for space situational awareness applications. We report on the development and demonstration of an AO system for satellite imaging using a 1 m telescope. The system uses the orbiting object as a natural guide star to measure atmospheric turbulence, and a deformable mirror to provide an optical correction. The AO system utilised modern, high speed and low noise EMCCD technology on both the wavefront sensor and imaging camera to achieve high performance, achieving a Strehl ratio in excess of 30% at 870 nm. Images are post processed with lucky imaging algorithms to further improve the final image quality. We demonstrate the AO system on stellar targets and Iridium satellites, achieving a near diffraction limited full width at half maximum. A specialised realtime controller allows our system to achieve a bandwidth above 100 Hz, with the wavefront sensor and control loop running at 2 kHz. The AO systems we are developing show how ground-based optical sensors can be used to manage the space environment. AO imaging systems can be used for satellite surveillance, while laser ranging can be used to determine precise orbital data used in the critical conjunction analysis required to maintain a safe space environment. We have focused on making this system compact, expandable, and versatile. We are continuing to develop this platform for other space situational awareness applications such as geosynchronous satellite astrometry, space debris characterisation, satellite imaging, and ground-to-space laser communication.

  20. Imaging of the Macula Indicates Early Completion of Structural Deficit in Autosomal-Dominant Optic Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Milea, Dan; Larsen, Michael


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables 3-dimensional imaging of the retina, including the layer of ganglion cells that supplies the optic nerve with its axons. We tested OCT as means of diagnosing and phenotyping autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (ADOA)....

  1. Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons. (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Badioli, Michela; Alonso-González, Pablo; Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; Huth, Florian; Osmond, Johann; Spasenović, Marko; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Godignon, Philippe; Elorza, Amaia Zurutuza; Camara, Nicolas; García de Abajo, F Javier; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Koppens, Frank H L


    The ability to manipulate optical fields and the energy flow of light is central to modern information and communication technologies, as well as quantum information processing schemes. However, because photons do not possess charge, a way of controlling them efficiently by electrical means has so far proved elusive. A promising way to achieve electric control of light could be through plasmon polaritons—coupled excitations of photons and charge carriers—in graphene. In this two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms, it is expected that plasmon polaritons and their associated optical fields can readily be tuned electrically by varying the graphene carrier density. Although evidence of optical graphene plasmon resonances has recently been obtained spectroscopically, no experiments so far have directly resolved propagating plasmons in real space. Here we launch and detect propagating optical plasmons in tapered graphene nanostructures using near-field scattering microscopy with infrared excitation light. We provide real-space images of plasmon fields, and find that the extracted plasmon wavelength is very short—more than 40 times smaller than the wavelength of illumination. We exploit this strong optical field confinement to turn a graphene nanostructure into a tunable resonant plasmonic cavity with extremely small mode volume. The cavity resonance is controlled in situ by gating the graphene, and in particular, complete switching on and off of the plasmon modes is demonstrated, thus paving the way towards graphene-based optical transistors. This successful alliance between nanoelectronics and nano-optics enables the development of active subwavelength-scale optics and a plethora of nano-optoelectronic devices and functionalities, such as tunable metamaterials, nanoscale optical processing, and strongly enhanced light–matter interactions for quantum devices and biosensing applications.

  2. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging (United States)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  3. Dynamic fluorescence lifetime imaging based on acousto-optic deflectors (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Peng, Xiao; Qi, Jing; Gao, Jian; Fan, Shunping; Wang, Qi; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben


    We report a dynamic fluorescence lifetime imaging (D-FLIM) system that is based on a pair of acousto-optic deflectors for the random regions of interest (ROI) study in the sample. The two-dimensional acousto-optic deflector devices are used to rapidly scan the femtosecond excitation laser beam across the sample, providing specific random access to the ROI. Our experimental results using standard fluorescent dyes in live cancer cells demonstrate that the D-FLIM system can dynamically monitor the changing process of the microenvironment in the ROI in live biological samples.

  4. Phi optics: from image to knowledge (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chiritescu, Catalin


    Optical microscopy of live cells and tissues provides the main insight for life science researchers in academia and bio-pharma. The cells have very small features, are transparent, and require long term observations (hours to days) to measure the effects of drugs and diseases. New technologies - under the umbrella term of Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) - have come to light in the past decade to challenge and complement the current state of the art solutions that use fluorophores. Phi Optics talk will outline their lessons learned in the process of bringing an academic idea to the commercial space.

  5. Raman imaging of biofilms using gold sputtered fiber optic probes (United States)

    Christopher, Christina Grace Charlet; Manoharan, Hariharan; Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Sai, V. V. Raghavendra


    In this work we report characterization of bacterial biofilm using gold sputtered optical fiber probe as substrates for confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements. The chemical composition and the heterogeneity of biofilms in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was evaluated. The spatial distribution of bacterial biofilm on the substrates during their growth phase was studied using Raman imaging. Further, the influence of substrate's surface on bacterial adhesion was investigated by studying growth of biofilms on surfaces with hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings. This study validates the use of gold sputtered optical fiber probes as SERS substrates in confocal microscopic configuration to identify and characterize clinically relevant biofilms.

  6. Joint Change Detection and Image Registration for Optical Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Luo


    Full Text Available In this letter, a novel method is proposed for jointly unsupervised change detection and image registration over multi-temporal optical remote sensing images. An iterative energy minimization scheme is employed to extract the pixel opacity. Specifically, we extract the consistent points which provide the initial seed nodes and the feature nodes for random walker image segmentation and image registration, respectively. And the seed nodes will be updated according to the analysis of the changed and unchanged regions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can perform change detection as well as the state of the art methods. In particular, it can perform change detection rapidly and automatically over unregistered optical remote sensing images.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann H


    Full Text Available Hanna Zimmermann,1 Timm Oberwahrenbrock,1 Alexander U Brandt,1 Friedemann Paul,1–3 Jan Dörr1,2 1NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, 2Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, 3Department of Neurology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: Visual disturbances caused by inflammatory and demyelinating processes of the visual system, mainly in the optic nerve, are a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a tool that is increasingly used for quantifying retinal damage in MS and other neurologic diseases. Based on spectral interferometry, it uses low-coherent infrared light to generate high-resolution spatial images of the retina. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL consists of unmyelinated axons that form the optic nerve, and thus represents a part of the central nervous system. OCT allows for noninvasive measurements of RNFL thickness in micrometer resolution. With the help of OCT, researchers have managed to demonstrate that eyes of MS patients show distinct RNFL thinning after an event of acute optic neuritis in MS, and even subclinical damage in eyes with no previous optic neuritis. OCT is also a useful tool in terms of providing a differential diagnosis of MS toward, for example, neuromyelitis optica, a disease that usually shows stronger retinal thinning, or Susac syndrome, which is characterized by distinct patchy thinning of the inner retinal layers. RNFL thinning is associated with magnetic resonance imaging-derived measurements of the brain, such as whole-brain atrophy, gray and white matter atrophy, and optic radiation damage. These features suggest that OCT-derived retinal measurements are a complement for measuring central nervous system neurodegeneration in the context of clinical trials – for example, with neuroprotective substances. Keywords: visual function, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, retinal nerve fiber layer, neuromyelitis optica

  8. Optical color-image encryption in the diffractive-imaging scheme (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Qunna; Gong, Qiong


    By introducing the theta modulation technique into the diffractive-imaging-based optical scheme, we propose a novel approach for color image encryption. For encryption, a color image is divided into three channels, i.e., red, green and blue, and thereafter these components are appended by redundant data before being sent to the encryption scheme. The carefully designed optical setup, which comprises of three 4f optical architectures and a diffractive-imaging-based optical scheme, could encode the three plaintexts into a single noise-like intensity pattern. For the decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, together with a filter operation, is applied to extract the primary color images from the diffraction intensity map. Compared with previous methods, our proposal has successfully encrypted a color rather than grayscale image into a single intensity pattern, as a result of which the capacity and practicability have been remarkably enhanced. In addition, the performance and the security of it are also investigated. The validity as well as feasibility of the proposed method is supported by numerical simulations.

  9. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging (United States)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas


    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques

  10. Optical coherence tomography for embryonic imaging: a review (United States)

    Raghunathan, Raksha; Singh, Manmohan; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.


    Embryogenesis is a highly complex and dynamic process, and its visualization is crucial for understanding basic physiological processes during development and for identifying and assessing possible defects, malformations, and diseases. While traditional imaging modalities, such as ultrasound biomicroscopy, micro-magnetic resonance imaging, and micro-computed tomography, have long been adapted for embryonic imaging, these techniques generally have limitations in their speed, spatial resolution, and contrast to capture processes such as cardiodynamics during embryogenesis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality with micrometer-scale spatial resolution and imaging depth up to a few millimeters in tissue. OCT has bridged the gap between ultrahigh resolution imaging techniques with limited imaging depth like confocal microscopy and modalities, such as ultrasound sonography, which have deeper penetration but poorer spatial resolution. Moreover, the noninvasive nature of OCT has enabled live imaging of embryos without any external contrast agents. We review how OCT has been utilized to study developing embryos and also discuss advances in techniques used in conjunction with OCT to understand embryonic development.

  11. Label-free nonlinear optical imaging of mouse retina. (United States)

    He, Sicong; Ye, Cong; Sun, Qiqi; Leung, Christopher K S; Qu, Jianan Y


    A nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy system integrating stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) was developed to image fresh mouse retinas. The morphological and functional details of various retinal layers were revealed by the endogenous NLO signals. Particularly, high resolution label-free imaging of retinal neurons and nerve fibers in the ganglion cell and nerve fiber layers was achieved by capturing endogenous SRS and TPEF signals. In addition, the spectral and temporal analysis of TPEF images allowed visualization of different fluorescent components in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fluorophores with short TPEF lifetime, such as A2E, can be differentiated from other long-lifetime components in the RPE. The NLO imaging method would provide important information for investigation of retinal ganglion cell degeneration and holds the potential to study the biochemical processes of visual cycle in the RPE.

  12. Adaptive optics imaging of low and intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Theodore, B; Bremer, M; Monnet, G; Beuzit, J L


    We present the results of adaptive-optics imaging in the H and K bands of 12 low and intermediate redshift (z15.0) themselves as reference for the correction, have typical spatial resolution of FWHM~0.3 arcsec before deconvolution. The deconvolved H-band image of PG1700+514 has a spatial resolution of 0.16 arcsec and reveals a wealth of details on the companion and the host-galaxy. Four out of the twelve quasars have close companions and obvious signs of interactions. The two-dimensional images of three of the host-galaxies unambiguously reveal bars and spiral arms. The morphology of the other objects are difficult to determine from one dimensional surface brightness profile and deeper images are needed. Analysis of mocked data shows that elliptical galaxies are always recognized as such, whereas disk hosts can be missed for small disk scale lengths and large QSO contributions.

  13. Label-free imaging through nonlinear optical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tong


    Full Text Available Strong intrinsic nonlinear optical (NLO signals not only make nanostructures promising agents for bio-imaging, but also advance NLO microscopy for the study of interactions between nanomaterials and live cells. Single beam modalities such as multiphoton luminescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation provide a simple way to probe many types of nanostructures. As for more advanced modalities, photothermal heterodyne imaging provides improved detection sensitivity for smaller objects, and transient absorption microscopy provides structural information to distinguish metal from semiconducting carbon nanotubes, and eumelanin from pheomelanin. The four-wave mixing signal achieves chemical selectivity in the presence of either vibrational or electronic resonance, as used in coherent Raman scattering imaging of molecules and in electronically resonance enhanced four-wave mixing imaging of nanostructures.

  14. Biomedical Plasmonics (United States)

    Halas, Naomi


    The near infrared region of the optical spectrum provides a window into the human body that can be exploited for diagnostics and therapeutics, offering an opportunity to merge these concepts. We have shown that the strong light-absorbing and light-scattering properties of noble metal nanoparticles can be controlled by manipulating their shape: in a core-shell geometry, the metallic shell layer can be easily tuned to this spectral region. This `nanoshell' geometry has proven to be ideal for enhancing both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for cancer. Nanoshells can serve as light scattering beacons, strong enhancers of fluorescent markers for optical tomography, and impart a highly effective, targeted therapeutic response via their unparalleled light-to-heat conversion properties. This latter effect has been used to induce cell death and tumor remission in animals at greater than 90% efficacy, and is currently in clinical trials. This nanoparticle platform can be combined with MRI contrast agents for the enhancement of dual imaging modalities, and also shows promise as a light-controlled nonviral vector for intracellular gene delivery.

  15. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung


    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  16. Up-converting NaYF4:0.1%Tm3+, 20%Yb3+nanoparticles as luminescent labels for deep-tissue optical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Gnach; K. Prorok; M. Misiak; B. Cichy; A. Bednarkiewicz


    Optical imaging plays an important role in biomedical research being extremely useful for early detection, screening and image-guided therapy. Lanthanide-doped up-converting nanoparticles were ideally suited for bioimaging because they could be ex-cited in near infrared (NIR) and emit in NIR or visible (VIS). Here, we compared lanthanide doped up-converting NaYF4 and organic fluorophores for application in deep-tissue imaging. For that purpose-tissue phantoms mimicking the natural properties of light scat-tering by living tissues were prepared. The studies allowed to quantitatively compare optical resolution of different fluorescent com-pounds, revealing that the NIR photoexcitation was favorable over conventional UV photoexcitation.

  17. Imaged document information location and extraction using an optical correlator (United States)

    Stalcup, Bruce W.; Dennis, Phillip W.; Dydyk, Robert B.


    Today, the paper document is fast becoming a thing of the past. With the rapid development of fast, inexpensive computing and storage devices, many government and private organizations are archiving their documents in electronic form (e.g., personnel records, medical records, patents, etc.). Many of these organizations are converting their paper archives to electronic images, which are then stored in a computer database. Because of this, there is a need to efficiently organize this data into comprehensive and accessible information resources and provide for rapid access to the information contained within these imaged documents. To meet this need, Litton PRC and Litton Data Systems Division are developing a system, the Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS), to provide a total solution to the problem of managing and retrieving textual and graphic information from imaged document archives. At the heart of IDOCCS, optical correlation technology provide a means for the search and retrieval of information from imaged documents. IDOCCS can be used to rapidly search for key words or phrases within the imaged document archives and has the potential to determine the types of languages contained within a document. In addition, IDOCCS can automatically compare an input document with the archived database to determine if it is a duplicate, thereby reducing the overall resources required to maintain and access the document database. Embedded graphics on imaged pages can also be exploited, e.g., imaged documents containing an agency's seal or logo can be singled out. In this paper, we present a description of IDOCCS as well as preliminary performance results and theoretical projections.

  18. Optic probe for multiple angle image capture and optional stereo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert M.; Kaufman, Morris I.


    A probe including a multiple lens array is disclosed to measure velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the moving surface is reflected back from the surface and is Doppler shifted, collected into the array, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to the multiple lens array. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays to establish many measurement points at numerous different locations. One or more lens groups may be replaced with imaging lenses so a stereo image of the moving surface can be recorded. Imaging a portion of the surface during initial travel can determine whether the surface is breaking up.

  19. Optical imaging process based on two-dimensional Fourier transform for synthetic aperture imaging ladar (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei


    The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.

  20. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D


    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO