WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical optical imaging

  1. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  2. Developing multifunctional tissue simulating phantoms for quantitative biomedical optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronald; Xu, Jeff; Qin, Ruogu; Huang, Jiwei

    2010-02-01

    Many advantages of biomedical optical imaging modalities include low cost, portability, no radiation hazard, molecular sensitivity, and real-time non-invasive measurements of multiple tissue parameters. However, clinical acceptance of optical imaging is hampered by the lack of calibration standards and validation techniques. In this context, developing phantoms that simulate tissue structural, functional, and molecular properties is important for reliable performance and successful translation of biomedical optical imaging techniques to clinical applications. Over the years, we have developed various tissue simulating phantoms to validate imaging algorithms, to optimize instrument performance, to test contrast agents, and to calibrate acquisition systems. We also developed phantoms with multimodal contrasts for co-registration between different imaging modalities. In order to study tissue dynamic changes during medical intervention, we develop gel wax phantoms to simulate tissue optical and mechanical dynamics in response to compression load. We also dispersed heat sensitive microbubbles in agar agar gel phantoms to simulate heatinduced tissue coagulative necrosis in a cancer ablation procedure. The phantom systems developed in our lab have the potential to provide standardized traceable tools for multimodal imaging and image-guided intervention.

  3. Computational optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2015-01-01

    Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging in Personal Care Studies; Guojin Zhang, Roger L. McMullen, Richard Mendelsohn, and Osama M. MusaFluorescence Bioimaging with Applications to Chemistry; Ufana Riaz and S.M. AshrafNew Trends in Immunohistochemical, Genome, and Metabolomics Imaging; G. Livanos, Aditi Deshpande, C. Narayan, Ying Na, T. Quang, T. Farrahi, R. Koglin, Suman Shrestha, M. Zervakis, and George C. GiakosDeveloping a Comprehensive Taxonomy for Human Cell Types; Richard Conroy and Vinay PaiFunctional Near-Infrared S

  4. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  5. High-Speed Imaging and Optical Sensing Systems for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mahjoubfar, Ata

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput real-time optical sensing and imaging instruments for capture and analysis of fast phenomena are among the most essential tools for scientific, industrial, military, and most importantly biomedical applications. The key challenge in these instruments is the fundamental trade-off between speed and sensitivity of the measurement system due to the limited signal energy collected in each measurement window. Based on two enabling technologies, namely photonic time-stretch dispersiv...

  6. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  7. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David;

    2014-01-01

    We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... to conventional piezoelectric transducers. These kind of sensors, made of biocompatible polymers, are good candidates for the sensing element in an optoacoustic endoscope because of its high sensitivity, its shape and its non-brittle and non-electric nature. The acoustic sensitivity of the intrinsic fiber optic...

  8. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  9. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  10. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  11. Examination of the variation of the optical diffusion properties in nanophosphor materials for use in biomedical imaging and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.

    2015-06-01

    Granular phosphors are commonly used in several applications in biomedical imaging and instrumentation. The structural and optical properties of phosphor materials affect the optical signal transferred out and play a critical role in the quality of the final signal or image. In recent years, following developments in materials science and technology, several new methods have been successfully implemented for the preparation of nanosized phosphors. It is of interest to investigate whether nanophosphors could replace existing micro phosphors for next generation high-performance displays and imaging devices. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the variation of the optical parameters (e.g. light extinction coefficient mext, probability of light absorption p, light anisotropy factor g) in the sub-micron and nano scale under the variability of light wavelength (400-700 nm) and refractive index (e.g., two limiting values were used 1.4 and 2.0). For the case of low refractive index (1.4), by increasing the grain diameter: (a) the light extinction increases, (b) the light absorption probability decreases and (c) the anisotropy factor increases in the whole range or gran sizes (2-1000 nm). However, for the high value of the refractive index (2.0), the light extinction coefficient was found to increase up to a maximum for grain diameter: (a) 200 nm (at 400 nm light wavelength) and (b) 600 nm (at 700 nm light wavelength). Finally, at 400 nm grain diameter, the probability of light absorption was found to decrease down to a minimum while the anisotropy factor was found to increase up to maximum for all light wavelengths considered.

  12. Advanced biomedical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    "This book covers the four major areas of image processing: Image enhancement and restoration, image segmentation, image quantification and classification, and image visualization. Image registration, storage, and compression are also covered. The text focuses on recently developed image processing and analysis operators and covers topical research"--Provided by publisher.

  13. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  14. Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the mathematical sciences were used in a general way for image processing, they were of little importance in biomedical work until the development in the 1970s of computed tomography (CT) for the imaging of x-rays and isotope emission tomography. In the 1980s, MRI eclipsed the other modalities in many ways as the most informative medical imaging methodology. Besides these well-established techniques, computer-based mathematical methods are being explored in applications to other well-known methods, such as ultrasound and electroencephalography, as well as new techniques of optical imaging, impedance tomography, and magnetic source imaging. It is worth pointing out that, while the final images of many of these techniques bear many similarities to each other, the technologies involved in each are completely different and the parameters represented in the images are very different in character as well as in medical usefulness. In each case, rather different mathematical or statistical models are used, with different equations. One common thread is the paradigm of reconstruction from indirect measurements--this is the unifying theme of this report. The imaging methods used in biomedical applications that this report discusses include: (1) x-ray projection imaging; (2) x-ray computed tomography (CT); (3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; (4) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); (5) positron emission tomography (PET); (6) ultrasonics; (7) electrical source imaging (ESI); (8) electrical impedance tomography (EIT); (9) magnetic source imaging (MSI); and (10) medical optical imaging

  15. Biomedical Imaging and Sensing using Flatbed Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600–700 cm2) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features o...

  16. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  17. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  18. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  19. GPU programming for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-08-01

    Scientific computing is rapidly advancing due to the introduction of powerful new computing hardware, such as graphics processing units (GPUs). Affordable thanks to mass production, GPU processors enable the transition to efficient parallel computing by bringing the performance of a supercomputer to a workstation. We elaborate on some of the capabilities and benefits that GPU technology offers to the field of biomedical imaging. As practical examples, we consider a GPU algorithm for the estimation of position of interaction from photomultiplier (PMT) tube data, as well as a GPU implementation of the MLEM algorithm for iterative image reconstruction.

  20. Optical nanoparticles: synthesis and biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Chu, Viet Ha; Huan Le, Quang; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thanh Nguyen, Lai; Pham, Duc Minh; Thuan Tong, Kim; Hoa Do, Quang; Vu, Duong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Tan Pham, Minh; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Son Vu, Van; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Tran, Anh Duc; Thuong Trinh, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thai An

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of our results on studies of synthesis and biomedical application of optical nanoparticles. Gold, dye-doped silica based and core-shell multifunctional multilayer (SiO2/Au, Fe3O4/SiO2, Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) water-monodispersed nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical route and surface modified with proteins and biocompatible chemical reagents. The particles were conjugated with antibody or aptamer for specific detecting and imaging bacteria and cancer cells. The photothermal effects of gold nanoshells (SiO2/Au and Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) on cells and tissues were investigated. The nano silver substrates were developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to detect melamine.

  1. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  2. Full-Field and Single-Shot Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Biomedical Imaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hrebesh Molly Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction, optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced dramatically in various field of both clinical and fundamental research. Full-field and Single-shot full-field OCT (FF-OCT and SS-FF-OCT) are alternative OCT concepts, which aims to improve the image acquisition speed and to simplify the optical setup of conventional point-scan OCT by realizing direct line field or full-field sample imaging onto an array or line detector such as CCD or CMOS camera. FF-OCT and ...

  3. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  4. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well. (paper)

  5. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  6. Geometric Aspects in 3D Biomedical Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, P; Unser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present some issues that arise when a geometric transformation is performed on an image or a volume. In particular, we illustrate the well-known problems of blocking, blurring, aliasing and ringing. Although the solution to these problems is trivial in an analog (optical) image processing system, their solution in a discrete (numeric) context is much more difficult. The modern trend of biomedical image processing is to fight these artifacts by using more sophisticated models that emphasize...

  7. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin;

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...

  8. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.

  9. Metrological reliability of optical coherence tomography in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloni, C. M.; Temporão, G. P.; Monteiro, E. C.

    2013-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proving to be an efficient diagnostics technique for imaging in vivo tissues, an optical biopsy with important perspectives as a diagnostic tool for quantitative characterization of tissue structures. Despite its established clinical use, there is no international standard to address the specific requirements for basic safety and essential performance of OCT devices for biomedical imaging. The present work studies the parameters necessary for conformity assessment of optoelectronics equipment used in biomedical applications like Laser, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and OCT, targeting to identify the potential requirements to be considered in the case of a future development of a particular standard for OCT equipment. In addition to some of the particular requirements standards for laser and IPL, also applicable for metrological reliability analysis of OCT equipment, specific parameters for OCT's evaluation have been identified, considering its biomedical application. For each parameter identified, its information on the accompanying documents and/or its measurement has been recommended. Among the parameters for which the measurement requirement was recommended, including the uncertainty evaluation, the following are highlighted: optical radiation output, axial and transverse resolution, pulse duration and interval, and beam divergence.

  10. Metrological reliability of optical coherence tomography in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proving to be an efficient diagnostics technique for imaging in vivo tissues, an optical biopsy with important perspectives as a diagnostic tool for quantitative characterization of tissue structures. Despite its established clinical use, there is no international standard to address the specific requirements for basic safety and essential performance of OCT devices for biomedical imaging. The present work studies the parameters necessary for conformity assessment of optoelectronics equipment used in biomedical applications like Laser, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and OCT, targeting to identify the potential requirements to be considered in the case of a future development of a particular standard for OCT equipment. In addition to some of the particular requirements standards for laser and IPL, also applicable for metrological reliability analysis of OCT equipment, specific parameters for OCT's evaluation have been identified, considering its biomedical application. For each parameter identified, its information on the accompanying documents and/or its measurement has been recommended. Among the parameters for which the measurement requirement was recommended, including the uncertainty evaluation, the following are highlighted: optical radiation output, axial and transverse resolution, pulse duration and interval, and beam divergence

  11. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  12. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: A multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a new optical contrast agent, based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside a polymer cladding, so as to maintain their stability and optical properties und...

  13. Quantum Cascade Lasers in Biomedical Infrared Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Benjamin; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances, namely the integration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) within an infrared (IR) microscope, are enabling the development of valuable label-free biomedical-imaging tools capable of targeting and detecting salient chemical species within practical clinical timeframes. PMID:26409774

  14. Review of biomedical signal and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article is a review of the book “Biomedical Signal and Image Processing” by Kayvan Najarian and Robert Splinter, which is published by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. It will evaluate the contents of the book and discuss its suitability as a textbook, while mentioning highlights of the book, and providing comparison with other textbooks.

  15. Envisioning the Future (Biomedical Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the beginning, I have sought to bring to biology rigorous quantitative techniques at all levels of imaging, whether trying to diagnose disease in ... today is to understand that the complexity of biology is much greater than we ... at the local level. That is why imaging has become so important. ...

  16. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment. (paper)

  17. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  18. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  19. Staying coherent after kent: From optical communications to biomedical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, David D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, an overview of author's research is presented, commencing at the University of Kent under Prof. David A. Jackson. Early research in short optical pulses and fiber-optic delay-line digital correlators led to optical communications research in code-division multiple access networking. This research was based on broadband incoherent light, and this theme continued with research into spectrum-sliced wavelength-division multiplexing. In shifting from photonics research to biomedical optics and biophotonics in the late 1990s, the emphasis on exploiting broadband light continued with research in optical coherence tomography, amongst other topics. In addition to the research outcomes, how these outcomes were attained is described, including mention of the exceptional contributions of many of my colleagues.

  20. Biomedical Image Analysis by Program "Vision Assistant" and "Labview"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces application in image analysis of biomedical images. General task is focused on analysis and diagnosis biomedical images obtained from program ImageJ. There are described methods which can be used for images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on particle analysis, pattern matching techniques. For this task was chosensophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  1. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Aloisio; Maria Cristina Barba; Euro Blasi; Massimo Cafaro; Sandro Fiore; Maria Mirto

    2004-01-01

    Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc.), advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid), a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedic...

  2. Introduction: Feature Issue on Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Perelman, Lev T.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy,” which was a technical area at the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, Florida. The feature issue includes 23 contributions from conference attendees.

  3. Introduction: Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography, Photoacoustic Imaging, and Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X; Beard, P.C.; Georgakoudi, I.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography, Photoacoustic Imaging, and Microscopy,” which combines three technical areas from the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, Florida, and includes contributions from conference attendees.

  4. The OPFOS microscopy family: High-resolution optical-sectioning of biomedical specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, Jan A N; Adriaens, Dominique; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recently emerging (Laser) Light Sheet based Fluorescence Microscopy field (LSFM). The techniques used in this field allow to study and visualize biomedical objects non-destructively in high-resolution through virtual optical sectioning with sheets of laser light. Fluorescence originating in the cross section of the sheet and sample is recorded orthogonally with a camera. In this paper, the first implementation of LSFM to image biomedical tissue in three dimensions - Orthogonal-Plane Fluorescence Optical Sectioning microscopy (OPFOS) - is discussed. Since then many similar and derived methods have surfaced (SPIM, Ultramicroscopy, HR-OPFOS, mSPIM, DSLM, TSLIM...) which we all briefly discuss. All these optical sectioning methods create images showing histological detail. We illustrate the applicability of LSFM on several specimen types with application in biomedical and life sciences.

  5. Digital analysis of the fringe pattern images from biomedical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.; Podbielska, Halina; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

    1995-03-01

    Recent developments in optical, optoelectronic, and digital electronic imaging and metrology are creating opportunities for a new type of diagnostics methods and systems. Some of these techniques, established already in the field of technical and industrial non-destructive testing, have increasingly gained importance in biomedical research and may enter the clinical scene, as well. Even the laboratory investigations can have strong impact for further developments in this field. However, in experimental medicine the quantitative analysis of experimental data is sometimes required. When applying different interferometric methods, the obtained results are in the form of fringe pattern images. In this paper some of these methods, including holographic interferometry, laser interferometry and moire techniques are described and illustrated by experimental results. For acquisition and evaluation of the fringe pattern images, the Bioscan Optimas package from Bioscan, Incorporated of Edmonds, Wash., running under Microsoft Windows was used.

  6. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  7. 78 FR 9066 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-02-07

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  8. 77 FR 13347 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-03-06

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  9. 77 FR 71605 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  17. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  18. 78 FR 66373 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 53690 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-08-29

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  2. 77 FR 74675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-12-17

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  3. 77 FR 58146 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-09-19

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  4. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-06-21

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  5. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-01-05

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  6. Hybrid-modality high-resolution imaging: for diagnostic biomedical imaging and sensing for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, Vadakke M.; Hoong Ta, Lim

    2014-11-01

    Medical diagnostics in the recent past has seen the challenging trend to come up with dual and multi-modality imaging for implementing better diagnostic procedures. The changes in tissues in the early disease stages are often subtle and can occur beneath the tissue surface. In most of these cases, conventional types of medical imaging using optics may not be able to detect these changes easily due to its penetration depth of the orders of 1 mm. Each imaging modality has its own advantages and limitations, and the use of a single modality is not suitable for every diagnostic applications. Therefore the need for multi or hybrid-modality imaging arises. Combining more than one imaging modalities overcomes the limitation of individual imaging method and integrates the respective advantages into a single setting. In this context, this paper will be focusing on the research and development of two multi-modality imaging platforms. The first platform combines ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the eye. The second platform consists of optical hyperspectral and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the colon. Photoacoustic imaging is used as one of the modalities in both platforms as it can offer deeper penetration depth compared to optical imaging. The optical engineering and research challenges in developing the dual/multi-modality platforms will be discussed, followed by initial results validating the proposed scheme. The proposed schemes offer high spatial and spectral resolution imaging and sensing, and is expected to offer potential biomedical imaging solutions in the near future.

  7. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer

    OpenAIRE

    Gramatikov, Boris I.

    2014-01-01

    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage “classical” biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods invo...

  8. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  9. An unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Rodríguez1, Rubén Hernández21Digital Signal Processing Group, Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics, Havana, Cuba; 2Interdisciplinary Professional Unit of Engineering and Advanced Technology, IPN, MexicoAbstract: Many segmentation techniques have been published, and some of them have been widely used in different application problems. Most of these segmentation techniques have been motivated by specific application purposes. Unsupervised methods, which do not assume any prior scene knowledge can be learned to help the segmentation process, and are obviously more challenging than the supervised ones. In this paper, we present an unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation using an algorithm based on recursively applying mean shift filtering, where entropy is used as a stopping criterion. This strategy is proven with many real images, and a comparison is carried out with manual segmentation. With the proposed strategy, errors less than 20% for false positives and 0% for false negatives are obtained.Keywords: segmentation, mean shift, unsupervised segmentation, entropy

  10. Quantitative multi-image analysis for biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Martin A B; Bergholt, Mads S; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-05-01

    Imaging by Raman spectroscopy enables unparalleled label-free insights into cell and tissue composition at the molecular level. With established approaches limited to single image analysis, there are currently no general guidelines or consensus on how to quantify biochemical components across multiple Raman images. Here, we describe a broadly applicable methodology for the combination of multiple Raman images into a single image for analysis. This is achieved by removing image specific background interference, unfolding the series of Raman images into a single dataset, and normalisation of each Raman spectrum to render comparable Raman images. Multivariate image analysis is finally applied to derive the contributing 'pure' biochemical spectra for relative quantification. We present our methodology using four independently measured Raman images of control cells and four images of cells treated with strontium ions from substituted bioactive glass. We show that the relative biochemical distribution per area of the cells can be quantified. In addition, using k-means clustering, we are able to discriminate between the two cell types over multiple Raman images. This study shows a streamlined quantitative multi-image analysis tool for improving cell/tissue characterisation and opens new avenues in biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging. PMID:26833935

  11. Nonlinear Polarimetric Microscopy for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Masood

    A framework for the nonlinear optical polarimetry and polarimetric microscopy is developed. Mathematical equations are derived in terms of linear and nonlinear Stokes Mueller formalism, which comprehensively characterize the polarization properties of the incoming and outgoing radiations, and provide structural information about the organization of the investigated materials. The algebraic formalism developed in this thesis simplifies many predictions for a nonlinear polarimetry study and provides an intuitive understanding of various polarization properties for radiations and the intervening medium. For polarimetric microscopy experiments, a custom fast-scanning differential polarization microscope is developed, which is also capable of real-time three-dimensional imaging. The setup is equipped with a pair of high-speed resonant and galvanometric scanning mirrors, and supplemented by advanced adaptive optics and data acquisition modules. The scanning mirrors when combined with the adaptive optics deformable mirror enable fast 3D imaging. Deformable membrane mirrors and genetic algorithm optimization routines are employed to improve the imaging conditions including correcting the optical aberrations, maximizing signal intensities, and minimizing point-spread-functions of the focal volume. A field-programmable-gate array (FPGA) chip is exploited to rapidly acquire and process the multidimensional data. Using the nonlinear optical polarimetry framework and the home-built polarization microscope, a few biologically important tissues are measured and analyzed to gain insight as to their structure and dynamics. The structure and distribution of muscle sarcomere myosins, connective tissue collagen, carbohydrate-rich starch, and fruit fly eye retinal molecules are characterized with revealing polarization studies. In each case, using the theoretical framework, polarization sensitive data are analyzed to decipher the molecular orientations and nonlinear optical

  12. 75 FR 35820 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., ARRA Related Biomedical Research and Research Support Awards, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  13. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  14. Review of biomedical optical imaging—a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Costas

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews the recent developments in the field of biomedical optical imaging, emphasizing technologies that have been moved from 'bench top to bedside'. Important new developments in this field allow for unprecedented visualization of the tissue microstructure and enable quantitative mapping of disease-specific endogenous and exogenous substances. With these advances, optical imaging technologies are becoming powerful clinical tools for non-invasive and objective diagnosis, guided treatment and monitoring therapies. Recent developments in visible and infrared diffuse spectroscopy and imaging, spectral imaging, optical coherence tomography, confocal imaging, molecular imaging and dynamic spectral imaging are presented together with their derivative medical devices. Their perspectives and challenges are discussed.

  15. What Is Optical Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespos, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a promising new methodology called optical imaging. Optical imaging is used for measuring changes in cortical blood flow due to functional activation. The article outlines the pros and cons of using optical imaging for studying the brain correlates of perceptual, cognitive, and language development in infants and young…

  16. Detecting ionizing radiation with optical fibers down to biomedical doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, S.; D'Avino, V.; Giorgini, A.; Pacelli, R.; Liuzzi, R.; Cella, L.; De Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report on a passive ionizing radiation sensor based on a fiber-optic resonant cavity interrogated by a high resolution interferometric technique. After irradiation in clinical linear accelerators, we observe significant variations of the fiber thermo-optic coefficient. Exploiting this effect, we demonstrate an ultimate detection limit of 160 mGy with an interaction volume of only 6 × 10-4 mm3. Thanks to its reliability, compactness, and sensitivity at biomedical dose levels, our system lends itself to real applications in radiation therapy procedures as well as in radiation monitoring and protection in medicine, aerospace, and nuclear power plants.

  17. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  18. Managing Biomedical Image Metadata for Search and Retrieval of Similar Images

    OpenAIRE

    Korenblum, Daniel; Rubin, Daniel; Napel, Sandy; Cesar RODRIGUEZ; Beaulieu, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Radiology images are generally disconnected from the metadata describing their contents, such as imaging observations (“semantic” metadata), which are usually described in text reports that are not directly linked to the images. We developed a system, the Biomedical Image Metadata Manager (BIMM) to (1) address the problem of managing biomedical image metadata and (2) facilitate the retrieval of similar images using semantic feature metadata. Our approach allows radiologists, researchers, and ...

  19. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  20. Biomedical Imaging Registration Trends and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Data registration, i.e., the process of transforming a dataset so that the entities represented are properly adjusted to the homologous entities represented in a second dataset, has been a topic of huge research in various scientific fields. In Computational Vision, such transformation is commonly used on static images, but also on image sequences, and is usually known as image registration. For example, in medicine, computational methods of image registration have been assuming an essential ...

  1. The conversion of synchrotron radiation biomedical and medical images into DICOM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunling; Sun, Jianyong; Sun, Jianqi; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    With Synchrotron Radiation light source, there was a lot of imaging methods being developed to perform biomedical and medical imaging researches such as X-ray absorption imaging, phase-contrast imaging and micro-CT imaging. In this presentation, we present an approach to transform a various kinds of SR images into proper DICOM images so that to use a rich of medical processing display software to process and display SR biomedical and medical images. The new generated SR DICOM images can be transferred, stored, processed and displayed by using most of commercial medical imaging software.

  2. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  3. Bessel filters applied in biomedical image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Lopez, Juan Pablo; Castañeda Saldarriaga, Diego Leon

    2014-06-01

    A magnetic resonance is an image obtained by means of an imaging test that uses magnets and radio waves to create body images, however, in some images it's difficult to recognize organs or foreign agents present in the body. With these Bessel filters the objective is to significantly increase the resolution of magnetic resonance images taken to make them much clearer in order to detect anomalies and diagnose the illness. As it's known, Bessel filters appear to solve the Schrödinger equation for a particle enclosed in a cylinder and affect the image distorting the colors and contours of it, therein lies the effectiveness of these filters, since the clear outline shows more defined and easy to recognize abnormalities inside the body.

  4. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Iacoviello, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  5. Biomedical Image Registration Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Himadri Nath Moulick#1 , Anindita Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of the similarity measure is an essential theme in medical image registration. In this paper, a novel continuous medical image registration approach (CMIR) is proposed. This is our extension work of the previous one where we did a segmentation part of any particular image with a custom algorithm .The CMIR, considering the feedback from users and their preferences on the trade-off between global registration and local registration, extracts the concerned region by user interaction...

  6. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  7. 75 FR 57969 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  8. 77 FR 2737 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-01-19

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  9. 75 FR 6039 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-05

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  10. 76 FR 62814 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-10-11

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  11. 77 FR 3480 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-01-24

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  12. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  13. 76 FR 5593 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  14. 77 FR 37684 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  15. Numerical study of wavelength-swept semiconductor ring lasers: the role of refractive-index nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers and implications for biomedical imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bilenca, A.; Yun, S H; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent results have demonstrated unprecedented wavelength-tuning speed and repetition rate performance of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating scanning filters. However, several unique operational characteristics of these lasers have not been adequately explained, and the lack of an accurate model has hindered optimization. We numerically investigated the characteristics of these sources, using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) traveling-wave Langevin model, and found good agreement ...

  16. Extended-Cavity Semiconductor Wavelength-Swept Laser for Biomedical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, S. H.; Boudoux, C.; Pierce, M. C.; de Boer, J F; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact high-power rapidly swept wavelength tunable laser source based on a semiconductor optical amplifier and an extended-cavity grating filter. The laser produces excellent output characteristics for biomedical imaging, exhibiting >4-mW average output power, 80-dB noise extinction with its center wavelength swept over 100 nm at 1310 nm at variable repetition rates up to 500 Hz.

  17. Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to prese...

  18. Biomedical signals and sensors II linking acoustic and optic biosignals and biomedical sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    2015-01-01

    The book set develops a bridge between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. While the first volume is focused on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and the resultant biosignals, this second volume is devoted to the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. That is, in the first volume, the physiologic mechanisms determining biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level. This second volume, considers the genesis of acoustic and optic biosignals and the associated sensing technology from a strategic point of view. As a novelty, this book discusses heterogeneous biosignals within a common frame. This frame comprises both the biosignal formation path from the biosignal source at the physiological level to biosignal propagation in the body, and the biosignal sensing path from the biosignal transmission in the sensor applied on the body up to its conversion to a, usually electric, signal. Some biosignals arise in the co...

  19. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  20. Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Visualization' in imaging is the process of extracting useful information from raw data in such a way that meaningful physical contrasts are developed. 'Classification' is the subsequent process of defining parameter ranges which allow us to identify elements of images such as different tissues or different objects. In this paper, we explore techniques for visualization and classification in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) for biomedical applications. For archived (formalin-fixed, alcohol-dehydrated and paraffin-mounted) test samples, we investigate both time- and frequency-domain methods based on bright- and dark-field TPI. Successful tissue classification is demonstrated

  1. Advanced Nanomaterials in Multimodal Imaging: Design, Functionalization, and Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomedical applications of nanoparticles in molecular imaging, drug delivery, and therapy give rise to the term nanomedicine and have led to ever-growing developments in the past decades. New generation of imaging probes (or contrast agents) and state of the art of various strategies for efficient multimodal molecular imaging have drawn much attention and led to successful preclinical uses. In this context, we intend to elucidate the fundamentals and review recent advances as well as to provide an outlook perspective in these fields.

  2. High sensitivity and high selectivity terahertz biomedical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongsin M. Kim; William Baughman; David S. Wilbert; Lee Butler; Michael Bolus; Soner Balci; Patrick Kung

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate two distinct emerging terahertz (THz) biomedical imaging techniques. One is based on the use of a new single frequency THz quantum cascade laser and the other is based on broadband THz time domain spectrocopy. The first method is employed to derive a metastasis lung tissue imaging at 3.7 THz with clear contrast between cancerous and healthy areas. The second approach is used to study an osseous tissue under several imaging modalities and achieve full THz spectroscopic imaging based on the frequency domain or on a fixed THz propagation time-delay. Sufficient contrast is achieved which facilitated the identification of regions with different cellular types and density compositions.%Terahertz (THz) imaging is a non-destructive,nonionizing imaging technology with potential applications in medicine,dentistry,pharmaceuticals,and homeland security[1-5].In these applications,THz biomedical imaging has become a particularly important and active field of research because of the potential for safer early screening of a disease.This will benefit the medical community tremendously and create considerable sociological impact.

  3. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bin or C60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied

  4. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-12-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  5. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dwmoon@kriss.re.kr; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho [Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi{sub n} or C{sub 60} under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  6. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  7. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  8. Optical coherence tomography—current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... as birefringence, motion, or the distributions of certain substances can be detected with high spatial resolution. Its main field of application is biomedical imaging and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, OCT is accepted as a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of a number of...... developmental biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  9. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  10. Radioanalytical and imaging techniques. Challenges and opportunities in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where human health worldwide is under threat, radioanalytical and imaging scientists are expected to make significant difference and contribution. Diabetes, malnutrition, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases can be better understood by probing elemental distributions to nano-scales and quantifying elemental compositions to ultratrace levels. As we aim towards personalized medicine, cancer management awaits new diagnostic and therapy methods which account, for example, for tissue oxygenation. In the context of such biomedical issues, recent trends and future developments are presented taking into consideration the availability of research reactors and ion beam facilities, as well as alternative and emerging techniques such as PIXE tomography (PIXE-T) and two- and three-gamma PET. (author)

  11. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook. PMID:26996636

  12. Acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region for biomedical prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurer, Maria Ines [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Pathology]. E-mail: emaninha@gmail.com; Meurer, Eduardo [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes da; Santa Barbara, Ailton [Centro de Pesquisa Renato Archer (CenPRA), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Clinical Practice; Oliveira, Marilia Gerhardt de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Silva, Daniela Nascimento [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. of Surgery

    2008-01-15

    Biomedical prototyping has resulted from a merger of rapid prototyping and imaging diagnosis technologies. However, this process is complex, considering the necessity of interaction between biomedical sciences and engineering. Good results are highly dependent on the acquisition of computed tomography images and their subsequent manipulation by means of specific software. The present study describes the experience of a multidisciplinary group of researchers in the acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region aiming at biomedical prototyping for surgical purposes. (author)

  13. Acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region for biomedical prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomedical prototyping has resulted from a merger of rapid prototyping and imaging diagnosis technologies. However, this process is complex, considering the necessity of interaction between biomedical sciences and engineering. Good results are highly dependent on the acquisition of computed tomography images and their subsequent manipulation by means of specific software. The present study describes the experience of a multidisciplinary group of researchers in the acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region aiming at biomedical prototyping for surgical purposes. (author)

  14. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.)

  15. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  16. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  17. Polymer Optical Fibre Sensors for Endoscopic Opto-Acoustic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet;

    2015-01-01

    Opto-acoustic imaging (OAI) shows particular promise for in-vivo biomedical diagnostics. Its applications include cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems imaging. Opto-acoustic endoscopy (OAE) allows the imaging of body parts through cavities permitting entry. The critical parameter...... in existing publications. A great advantage can be obtained for endoscopy due to a small size and array potential to provide discrete imaging speed improvements. Optical fibre exhibits numerous advantages over conventional piezo-electric transducers, such as immunity from electromagnetic interference...... on the opportunities and challenges of applying this technology in biomedical applications....

  18. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

    OpenAIRE

    Gramatikov Boris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback), 787 pages

  19. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramatikov Boris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback, 787 pages

  20. Applications of optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  1. Multidimensional biomedical image representation using a linear hypertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaroudene, Djaffer; Acharya, Raj S.

    1990-07-01

    Biomedical structures such as the beating heart are inherently multi-dimensional in nature. In addition to the three spatial directions which represent the object location and orientation, higher order dimensions can be assigned to represent various object parameters such as time and tissue density. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical data structure which can be mapped into a computer architecture that will efficiently store, manipulate, and display time varying images of multi-dimensional biomedical structures. This n-D object representation scheme which is called a linear hypertree is a generalization of the linear quadtree and octree from their respective 2-D and 3-D spaces to n-D environment. It is a hierarchical data structure which represents multi-dimensional volumetric information in a 2'-way branching tree. The basic properties of a linear hypertree are briefly presented along with the procedure for encoding the node rectangular coordinates into a hierarchical locational code. Two decoding techniques that transform the node locational code into its rectangular coordinate format are introduced. Some adjacency concepts in a multi-dimensional environment are defined. A neighbor finding algorithm which identifies the locational code of the adjacent hypertree node in a given direction is also presented. This algorithm does not convert the locational code to its rectangular coordinate form; instead, it operates directly on the node locational code in order to determine the neighbor's identification. Finally, Procedures for computing the locational codes of larger and smaller size neighbors are also included.

  2. Optical imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza Dominguez, Jorge

    , crosstalk effects and small artifacts appeared in all the cases (more intense in the DE images). Comparatively, the reconstructed images show a lesser influence of these undesirable 'effects than other approaches found in the literature. The results suggest that the DOT algorithm based on the TD-pSPN model is an accurate alternative to the DE for imaging optical properties of biological media. These results directly benefict the fields of therapeutics and time-domain optical imaging of biological tissues. Particularly, the presented work is a decisive step in the elaboration of an optical scanner for small animal imaging at our lab. Thus, a positive impact in the areas of clinical diagnosis and biomedical research are expected. Keywords: Light propagation in biological tissues; spectroscopy, fluorescence; time-domain diffuse optical tomography; simplified spherical harmonics equations; constrained optimization methods.

  3. Detection of optics disc glaucoma damages using image analysis and artifical neural net

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluháček, F.; Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Kuběna, T.; Marešová, K.

    Washington : SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2003 - (Boccara, A.), s. 240-249 ISBN 0-8194-5013-8. ISSN 1605-7422. - (Proceedings of SPIE. OSA Biomedical Optics. 5143). [Novel Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications. Munich (DE), 24.06.2003-25.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : glaucoma * image analysis * statistical evaluation * neural net * visual field Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  4. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for biomedical optical measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Erbao; Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Han, Yilin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Optical phantoms are commonly used to validate and calibrate biomedical optical devices in order to ensure accurate measurement of optical properties in biological tissue. However, commonly used optical phantoms are based on homogenous materials that reflect neither optical properties nor multi-layer heterogeneities of biological tissue. Using these phantoms for optical calibration may result in significant bias in biological measurement. We propose to characterize and fabricate tissue simulating phantoms that simulate not only the multi-layer heterogeneities but also optical properties of biological tissue. The tissue characterization module detects tissue structural and functional properties in vivo. The phantom printing module generates 3D tissue structures at different scales by layer-by-layer deposition of phantom materials with different optical properties. The ultimate goal is to fabricate multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for optimal calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  5. Omni-tomography: Next-generation Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ge; Vannier, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Omni-tomography is enabled by interior tomography that has been developed over the past five years. By omni-tomography, we envision that the next stage of biomedical imaging will be the grand fusion of many tomographic modalities into a single gantry (all in one) for simultaneous data acquisition of numerous complementary features (all at once). This integration has great synergistic potential for development of systems biology, personalized and preventive medicine, because many physiological processes are dynamic and complicated, and must be observed promptly, comprehensively, sensitively, specifically, and non-invasively. In this perspective, we first present the background for and power of omni-tomography, then discuss its important applications in vulnerable plaque characterization and intratumor heterogeneity evaluation, review its enabling theory and technology, explain for the first time the feasibility of the CT-MRI scanner as an example, and finally suggest exciting research opportunities.

  6. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2011, 76 FR 572. This Federal Register Notice has been... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, March 14, 2011, 6 p.m. to March 16, 2011, 12...

  7. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 29, 2013, 78 FR 64506. The meeting notice is amended to change... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, December 11, 2013, 08:30 a.m.,...

  8. 78 FR 55268 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, November 6, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00...

  9. 78 FR 64519 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2013, 78 FR 37557. The meeting notice is amended... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 3, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00...

  10. 78 FR 66755 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on August 2, 2013, 78 FR 46995. The meeting notice is... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 10-11, 2013, 09:00 a.m.-08:00...

  11. 78 FR 64506 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2013, 78 FR 45254. The meeting notice is amended... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 11, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00...

  12. 77 FR 25488 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... April 2, 2012, 77 FR 19675. The meeting location has been changed to The Bolger Center, 9600 Newbridge... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, May 21, 2012, 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., Bethesda...

  13. 78 FR 64966 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2013, 78 FR 42970. The meeting notice is amended... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, October 10-11, 2013, 03:00 p.m.-06:00...

  14. Modality prediction of biomedical literature images using multimodal feature representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelka, Obioma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling approaches performed to automatically predict the modality of images found in biomedical literature. Various state-of-the-art visual features such as Bag-of-Keypoints computed with dense SIFT descriptors, texture features and Joint Composite Descriptors were used for visual image representation. Text representation was obtained by vector quantisation on a Bag-of-Words dictionary generated using attribute importance derived from a χ-test. Computing the principal components separately on each feature, dimension reduction as well as computational load reduction was achieved. Various multiple feature fusions were adopted to supplement visual image information with corresponding text information. The improvement obtained when using multimodal features vs. visual or text features was detected, analysed and evaluated. Random Forest models with 100 to 500 deep trees grown by resampling, a multi class linear kernel SVM with C=0.05 and a late fusion of the two classifiers were used for modality prediction. A Random Forest classifier achieved a higher accuracy and computed Bag-of-Keypoints with dense SIFT descriptors proved to be a better approach than with Lowe SIFT.

  15. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  16. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations, but share the same core physical principle: light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation and, lastly, imaging contrast.

  17. Optical physics enables advances in multiphoton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the initial images were taken using a multiphoton imaging technique the method has rapidly established itself as the preferred method for imaging deeply into biological samples with micron resolution in three dimensions. Multiphoton imaging has thus enabled researchers in the life sciences to undertake studies that had previously been believed to be impossible without significantly perturbing the sample. Many of these experiments have only been realized due to close cooperation between optical physicists, from a range of disciplines, and the biomedical researchers. This paper will provide a general review of the current state of the field demonstrating how the various aspects of the physics development have brought the multiphoton technique to its current position at the forefront of biological microscopy. (topical review)

  18. Automatic and robust calibration of optical detector arrays for biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; DiFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    The design and testing of a new, fully automated, calibration approach is described. The process was used to calibrate an image-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy system with 16 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), but can be extended to any large array of optical detectors and associated imaging geometry. The design goals were accomplished by developing a routine for robust automated calibration of the multi-detector array within 45 minutes. Our process was able to characterize individual detector...

  19. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  20. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2000-12-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are used with these instruments are described. Numerous examples of devices for a broad variety of biomedical measurements are presented.

  1. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perchoux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical feedback interferometry (OFI sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications.

  2. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Julien; Quotb, Adam; Atashkhooei, Reza; Azcona, Francisco J.; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Bernal, Olivier; Jha, Ajit; Luna-Arriaga, Antonio; Yanez, Carlos; Caum, Jesus; Bosch, Thierry; Royo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications. PMID:27187406

  3. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Julien; Quotb, Adam; Atashkhooei, Reza; Azcona, Francisco J; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E; Bernal, Olivier; Jha, Ajit; Luna-Arriaga, Antonio; Yanez, Carlos; Caum, Jesus; Bosch, Thierry; Royo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications. PMID:27187406

  4. Virtual reality techniques for the visualization of biomedical imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Maurice A.; Spillman, William B., Jr.; Meissner, Ken E.; Gabbard, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The Optical Sciences & Engineering Research Center (OSER) at Virginia Polytechnic and State University investigates advanced laser surgery optics, biocompatible material for implants, and diagnostic patches and other diagnostic and drug delivery tools. The Center employs optics to provide new biological research tools for visualization, measurement, analysis and manipulation. The Center's Research into Multispectral Medical Analysis and Visualization techniques will allow human and veterinary medical professionals to diagnose various conditions of the body in much the same way that satellite information is used to study earth resources. Each pixel in the image has an associated spectra. Advanced image analysis techniques are combined with cross-correlation of the spectra with signatures of known conditions, allowing automated diagnostic assistance to physicians. The analysis and visualization system consists of five components: data acquisition, data storage, data standardization, data analysis, and data visualization. OSER research efforts will be directed toward investigations of these system components as an integrated tool for next generation medical diagnostics. OSER will research critical data quality and data storage issues, mult-spectral sensor technologies, data analysis techniques, and diagnostic visualization systems including the VT-CAVE, (www.cave.vt.edu). The VT-CAVE is Virginia Tech's configuration of Fakespace Systems, Inc Virtual Reality system.

  5. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Gbur, Gregory J; Hanson, Steen G; Lee, Tim; Miyamoto, Yoko; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Wyant, James C

    2016-04-20

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers. PMID:27140140

  6. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Gbur, Gregory J.;

    2016-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers. (C...

  7. e-Science platform for translational biomedical imaging research: running, statistics, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mingqing; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. In past the two-years, we implemented a biomedical image chain including communication, storage, cooperation and computing based on this e-Science platform. In this presentation, we presented the operating status of this system in supporting biomedical imaging research, analyzed and discussed results of this system in supporting multi-disciplines collaboration cross-multiple institutions.

  8. New Software Developments for Quality Mesh Generation and Optimization from Biomedical Imaging Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zeyun; Wang, Jun; Gao, Zhanheng; Xu, Ming; Hoshijima, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new software toolkit for generating and optimizing surface and volumetric meshes from three-dimensional (3D) biomedical imaging data, targeted at image-based finite element analysis of some biomedical activities in a single material domain. Our toolkit includes a series of geometric processing algorithms including surface re-meshing and quality-guaranteed tetrahedral mesh generation and optimization. All methods described have been encapsulated into a user-friendly ...

  9. Biomedical Image Edge Detection using an Ant Colony Optimization Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rahebi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ant colony optimization (ACO is the algorithm that has inspired from natural behavior of ants life, which the ants leaved pheromone to search food on the ground. In this paper, ACO is introduced for resolving the edge detection in the biomedical image. Edge detection method based on ACO is able to create a matrix pheromone that shows information of available edge in each location of edge pixel which is created based on the movements of a number of ants on the biomedical image. Moreover, the movements of these ants are created by local fluctuation of biomedical image intensity values. The detected edge biomedical images have low quality rather than detected edge biomedical image resulted of a classic mask and won’t result application of these masks to edge detection biomedical image obtained of ACO. In proposed method, we use artificial neuralnetwork with supervised learning along with momentum to improve edge detection based on ACO. The experimental results shows that make use neural network are very effective in edge detection based on ACO.

  10. Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ∼30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 μm to 150 μm. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

  11. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, R. Y.; Y. K. Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and bi...

  12. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  13. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  14. Medical applications of Terahertz Imaging: a Review of Current Technology and Potential Applications in Biomedical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, K.; Loughran, J.P.; Gradziel, M; Lanigan, W.; Ward, T.; Murphy, J. A.; O'Sullivan, C.

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is in its early stages of development but already the potential clinical impact of this new imaging modality is clear. From cancer research to DNA analysis THz technology is improving or even making possible imaging of hitherto inaccessible phenomena. In this paper we present a short review of THz imaging from the point of view of biomedical engineering. We discuss the current state of the art in terms of THz imaging systems; describe current ap...

  15. Interactive processing and visualization of image data for biomedical and life science applications

    OpenAIRE

    Staadt, Oliver G; Natarajan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley, David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and l...

  16. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data for Biomedical and Life Science Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Staadt, Oliver G; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley, David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Background Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life s...

  17. Interactive processing and visualization of image data for biomedical and life science applications

    OpenAIRE

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarajan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley, David F; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Background Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life s...

  18. Imaging investigations of optic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT and MR imaging findings of optic gliomas and their clinical significance. Methods: CT and MR imaging findings of 20 patients with pathologically confirmed optic gliomas were analyzed retrospectively. The age of the patients ranged from 8 months to 69 years. Ten patients were female and ten were male. CT scanning was performed in 10 patients with contrast scanning in 2, and MR imaging was performed in 19 patients with contrast scanning in 14. Results: Of the 20 cases with optic gliomas, a fusiform thickening of the optic nerve was found on CT and/or MR imaging in 12, a tubular enlarging and kinking of the optic nerve in 5, a dumb-bell mass of the optic nerve in 2, and an ovoid mass in 1. Enlargement of intraorbital and intracanalicular segments of the optic nerve was seen in all 20 cases, simultaneous enlargement of intracranial segment in 15, a simultaneous mass of intraocular segment in 4, a simultaneous mass of optic chiasm in 6, and simultaneous enlargement of optic tract in 2. CT scanning performed in 10 patients showed iso-density mass. Enhancement of enlarged optic nerve was observed on postcontrast CT in two. MR imaging performed in 19 patients displayed a long T1 and long T2 signal intensity mass in 12, a long T1 and identical T2 signal intensity mass in 5, and an isointense mass on T1- and T2- weighted images in 2. After contrast administration in 14 cases, marked enhancement of the mass was seen in 12 cases, and moderate enhancement was demonstrated in 2. Of the 7 patients associated with neurofibromatosis I, four optic gliomas appeared as a specific sign-isointense in the center on both T1- and T2-weighted images , hypointense on T1- and T2-weighted images in the intermediate portion, and long T1 and long T2 signal intensity in peripheral portion. After statistical analysis, MR imaging was superior to CT in demonstrating the tumor involvement of the intracanalicular and intracranial segments of the optic nerve (P<0

  19. Automatic and robust calibration of optical detector arrays for biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastanduno, Michael A; Jiang, Shudong; Diflorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-10-01

    The design and testing of a new, fully automated, calibration approach is described. The process was used to calibrate an image-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy system with 16 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), but can be extended to any large array of optical detectors and associated imaging geometry. The design goals were accomplished by developing a routine for robust automated calibration of the multi-detector array within 45 minutes. Our process was able to characterize individual detectors to a median norm of the residuals of 0.03 V for amplitude and 4.4 degrees in phase and achieved less than 5% variation between all the detectors at the 95% confidence interval for equivalent measurements. Repeatability of the calibrated data from the imaging system was found to be within 0.05 V for amplitude and 0.2 degrees for phase, and was used to evaluate tissue-simulating phantoms in two separate imaging geometries. Spectroscopic imaging of total hemoglobin concentration was recovered to within 5% of the true value in both cases. Future work will focus on streamlining the technology for use in a clinical setting with expectations of achieving accurate quantification of suspicious lesions in the breast. PMID:23082277

  20. Biomedical Image Processing Using FCM Algorithm Based on the Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yu-hua; WANG Hui-min; LI Shi-pu

    2004-01-01

    An effective processing method for biomedical images and the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm based on the wavelet transform are investigated.By using hierarchical wavelet decomposition, an original image could be decomposed into one lower image and several detail images. The segmentation started at the lowest resolution with the FCM clustering algorithm and the texture feature extracted from various sub-bands. With the improvement of the FCM algorithm, FCM alternation frequency was decreased and the accuracy of segmentation was advanced.

  1. Understanding and Using DICOM, the Data Interchange Standard for Biomedical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Horii, Steven C.; Prior, Fred W.; Van Syckle, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard specifies a non-proprietary data interchange protocol, digital image format, and file structure for biomedical images and image-related information. The fundamental concepts of the DICOM message protocol, services, and information objects are reviewed as background for a detailed discussion of the functionality of DICOM; the innovations and limitations of the Standard; and the impact of various DICOM f...

  2. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  3. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  4. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source - part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1-4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6-9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20-100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to -7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT, described

  5. Optical Imaging of Flow Pattern and Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Pierre A.; Liang, X.; Wang, L.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.; Breisacher, K.

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved optical imaging technique has been used to image the spatial distribution of small droplets and jet sprays in a highly scattering environment. The snake and ballistic components of the transmitted pulse are less scattered, and contain direct information about the sample to facilitate image formation as opposed to the diffusive components which are due to multiple collisions as a light pulse propagates through a scattering medium. In a time-gated imaging scheme, these early-arriving, image-bearing components of the incident pulse are selected by opening a gate for an ultrashort period of time and a shadowgram image is detected. Using a single shot cooled CCD camera system, the formation of water droplets is monitored as a function of time. Picosecond time-gated image of drop in scattering cells, spray droplets as a function of let speed and gas pressure, and model calcification samples consisted of calcium carbonate particles of irregular shapes ranging in size from 0. 1 to 1.5 mm affixed to a microscope slide have been measured. Formation produced by an impinging jet will be further monitored using a CCD with 1 kHz framing illuminated with pulsed light. The desired image resolution of the fuel droplets is on the 20 pm scale using early light through a highly scattering medium. A 10(exp -6)m displacement from a jet spray with a flow speed of 100 m/sec introduced by the ns grating pulse used in the imaging is negligible. Early ballistic/snake light imaging offers nondestructive and noninvasive method to observe the spatial distribution of hidden objects inside a highly scattering environment for space, biomedical, and materials applications. In this paper, the techniques we will present are time-resolved K-F transillumination imaging and time-gated scattered light imaging. With a large dynamic range and high resolution, time-gated early light imaging has the potential for improving rocket/aircraft design by determining jets shape and particle sizes

  6. Single-step colloidal processing of stable aqueous dispersions of ferroelectric nanoparticles for biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomedical applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles rely on the production of stable aqueous colloids. We report an implementation of the high energy ball milling method to produce and disperse ultrafine BaTiO3 nanoparticles in an aqueous media in a single step. This technique is low-cost, environmentally friendly and has the capability to control nanoparticle size and functionality with milling parameters. As a result, ultrafine nanoparticles with sizes as small as 6 nm can be produced. These nanoparticles maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. This technique can be generalized to produce aqueous nanoparticle colloids of other imaging materials. (paper)

  7. Biomedical image analysis recipes in Matlab for life scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos

    2015-01-01

    As its title suggests, this innovative book has been written for life scientists needing to analyse their data sets, and programmers, wanting a better understanding of the types of experimental images life scientists investigate on a regular basis. Each chapter presents one self-contained biomedical experiment to be analysed. Part I of the book presents its two basic ingredients: essential concepts of image analysis and Matlab. In Part II, algorithms and techniques are shown as series of 'recipes' or solved examples that show how specific techniques are applied to a biomedical experiments like

  8. A Self-Referenced Optical Intensity Sensor Network Using POFBGs for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tapetado Moraleda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work bridges the gap between the remote interrogation of multiple optical sensors and the advantages of using inherently biocompatible low-cost polymer optical fiber (POF-based photonic sensing. A novel hybrid sensor network combining both silica fiber Bragg gratings (FBG and polymer FBGs (POFBG is analyzed. The topology is compatible with WDM networks so multiple remote sensors can be addressed providing high scalability. A central monitoring unit with virtual data processing is implemented, which could be remotely located up to units of km away. The feasibility of the proposed solution for potential medical environments and biomedical applications is shown.

  9. Bio-medical X-ray imaging with spectroscopic pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Tipples, R; Cook, N; Watts, R; Meyer, J; Bell, A J; Melzer, T R; Butler, P H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the clinical potential of spectroscopic X-ray detectors and to undertake a feasibility study using a novel detector in a clinical hospital setting. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allowing for routine use of spectroscopic bio-medical imaging. We have coined the term MARS (Medipix All Resolution System) for bio-medical images that provide spatial, temporal, and energy information. The full clinical significance of spectroscopic X-ray imaging is difficult to predict but insights can be gained by examining both image reconstruction artifacts and the current uses of dual-energy techniques. This paper reviews the known uses of energy information in vascular imaging and mammography, clinically important fields. It then presents initial results from using Medipix-2, to image human tissues within a clinical radiology department. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allo...

  10. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  11. Optical and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cristobal, Gabriel; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Moore's law has fostered the steady growth of the field of digital image processing, though the computational complexity remains a problem for most of the digital image processing applications. In parallel, the research domain of optical image processing has matured, potentially bypassing the problems digital approaches were suffering and bringing new applications. The advancement of technology calls for applications and knowledge at the intersection of both areas but there is a clear knowledge gap between the digital signal processing and the optical processing communities. T

  12. Introduction: Feature Issue on Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on “Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices.” This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7–8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  13. Digital histologic images: practical pointers for successful electronic submission to biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N; Sun, Y

    2009-12-01

    The advent of digital imaging and online submission of manuscripts has created new challenges for authors using histological images. Digital images are used routinely in today's histology research lab and authors must prepare illustrations that meet standards for resolution, color modes, image size, and digital file types for successful online submission to biomedical journals. Because authors may not be familiar with these requirements, our objective here is to present practical guidelines and information for successful image submission online. Ethical issues related to digital imaging and other current topics also are discussed with reference to available online resources. PMID:19418314

  14. Micro-optics for imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Robert R.

    2010-09-01

    This project investigates the fundamental imaging capability of an optic with a physical thickness substantially less than 1 mm. The analysis assumes that post-processing can overcome certain restrictions such as detector pixel size and image degradation due to aberrations. A first order optical analysis quickly reveals the limitations of even an ideal thin lens to provide sufficient image resolution and provides the justification for pursuing an annular design. Some straightforward examples clearly show the potential of this approach. The tradeoffs associated with annular designs, specifically field of view limitations and reduced mid-level spatial frequencies, are discussed and their impact on the imaging performance evaluated using several imaging examples. Additionally, issues such as detector acceptance angle and the need to balance aberrations with resolution are included in the analysis. With these restrictions, the final results present an excellent approximation of the expected performance of the lens designs presented.

  15. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for label-free biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has established itself as an imaging technique capable of providing video-rate imaging of biological specimens through vibrational coherence of endogenous molecules. Current techniques predominantly involve the application of costly, invasive and potentially non-specific dyes or labels for imaging biomolecules. CARS microscopy can however provide a high-resolution and non-invasive alternative for imaging biomolecules of interest without the need for exogenous labels. Here we provide an overview of CARS including the technique and common instrumentation as well as its applications in biomedical imaging. We discuss the major biomedical areas where CARS has been applied such as in evaluating liver disease, progression of atherosclerosis, tumour classification and tracking drug delivery, whilst also assessing the future challenges for clinical translation. (special issue article)

  16. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Lecture: Thermophotonic and Photoacoustic Radar Imaging Methods for Biomedical and Dental Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    In the first part of this presentation I will introduce thermophotonic radar imaging principles and techniques using chirped or binary-phase-coded modulation, methods which can break through the maximum detection depth/depth resolution limitations of conventional photothermal waves. Using matched-filter principles, a methodology enabling parabolic diffusion-wave energy fields to exhibit energy localization akin to propagating hyperbolic wave-fields has been developed. It allows for deconvolution of individual responses of superposed axially discrete sources, opening a new field: depth-resolved thermal coherence tomography. Several examples from dental enamel caries diagnostic imaging to metal subsurface defect thermographic imaging will be discussed. The second part will introduce the field of photoacoustic radar (or sonar) biomedical imaging. I will report the development of a novel biomedical imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection and processing coupled with a beamforming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Utilization of specific chirped modulation waveforms (``waveform engineering'') achieves dramatic signal-to-noise-ratio increase and improved axial resolution over pulsed laser photoacoustics. The talk will conclude with aspects of instrumental sensitivity of the PA Radar to optical contrast using cancerous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast enhancement agents and in-vivo tissue samples.

  17. A comparison of image communication protocols in e-science platform for biomedical imaging research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    In designing of e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals, it needs to find out the best communication protocol to transmit various kinds of biomedical images acquired from Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Source (SSRS), micro-PET, Micro-CT which includes both types of DICOM and non-DICOM images. In this presentation, we presented several image communication scenarios required in e-Science platform and several possible image communication protocols, and then tested and evaluated the performance of these image communication protocols in e-Science data flows to find out which protocol is the best candidate to be used in e-Science platform for the purpose for security, communication performance, easy implementation and management.

  18. Biomedical Image Segmentation and Registration Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Arya Ghosh1 , Himadri Nath Moulick2 , Susmit Karmokar

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of the similarity measure is an essential theme in medical image registration. In this paper, a novelcontinuous medical image registration approach (CMIR) is proposed. This is our extension work of the previous one where we did a segmentation part of any particular image with a custom algorithm .The CMIR, considering the feedback from users and their preferences on the trade-off between global registration and local registration, extracts the concerned region by user interaction ...

  19. National Institute of Standards and Technology measurement service of the optical properties of biomedical phantoms: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Cooksey, Catherine C.; Levine, Zachary H.; Pintar, Adam L.; Hwang, Jeeseong; Allen, David W.

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use. To address this need, a double-integrating sphere based instrument has been installed to measure the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The basic system and methods have been described in previous papers. An important attribute in establishing a viable calibration service is the estimation of measurement uncertainties. The use of custom models and comparisons with other established scales enabled uncertainty measurements. Here, we describe the continuation of those efforts to advance the understanding of the uncertainties through two independent measurements: the bidirectional reflectance distribution function and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function of a commercially available solid biomedical phantom. A Monte Carlo-based model is used and the resulting optical properties are compared to the values provided by the phantom manufacturer.

  20. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  1. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    The eye is essentially transparent, transmitting light with only minimal optical attenuation and scattering providing easy optical access to the anterior segment as well as the retina. For this reason, ophthalmic and especially retinal imaging has been not only the first but also most successful clinical application for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This chapter focuses on the development of OCT technology for retinal imaging. OCT has significantly improved the potential for early diagnosis, understanding of retinal disease pathogenesis, as well as monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Development of ultrabroad bandwidth light sources and high-speed detection techniques has enabled significant improvements in ophthalmic OCT imaging performance, demonstrating the potential of three-dimensional, ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT) to perform noninvasive optical biopsy of the living human retina, i.e., the in vivo visualization of microstructural, intraretinal morphology in situ approaching the resolution of conventional histopathology. Significant improvements in axial resolution and speed not only enable three-dimensional rendering of retinal volumes but also high-definition, two-dimensional tomograms, topographic thickness maps of all major intraretinal layers, as well as volumetric quantification of pathologic intraretinal changes. These advances in OCT technology have also been successfully applied in several animal models of retinal pathologies. The development of light sources emitting at alternative wavelengths, e.g., around #1,060 nm, not only enabled three-dimensional OCT imaging with enhanced choroidal visualization but also improved OCT performance in cataract patients due to reduced scattering losses in this wavelength region. Adaptive optics using deformable mirror technology, with unique high stroke to correct higher-order ocular aberrations, with specially designed optics to compensate chromatic aberration of the human eye, in

  2. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, AC; Zheng, Y.; Speller, RD; Evans, PM; Allinson, NM; Wells, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently CMOS Active Pixels Sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous Silicon and Selenium Flat Panel Imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non...

  3. New Windows based Color Morphological Operators for Biomedical Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Juan; Bouchet, Agustina; Brun, Marcel; Ballarin, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Morphological image processing is well known as an efficient methodology for image processing and computer vision. With the wide use of color in many areas, the interest on the color perception and processing has been growing rapidly. Many models have been proposed to extend morphological operators to the field of color images, dealing with some new problems not present previously in the binary and gray level contexts. These solutions usually deal with the lattice structure of the color space, or provide it with total orders, to be able to define basic operators with required properties. In this work we propose a new locally defined ordering, in the context of window based morphological operators, for the definition of erosions-like and dilation-like operators, which provides the same desired properties expected from color morphology, avoiding some of the drawbacks of the prior approaches. Experimental results show that the proposed color operators can be efficiently used for color image processing.

  4. Light source design for spectral tuning in biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrajit; Schlangen, Sebastian; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    We propose an architecture with a remote phosphor-based modular and compact light-emitting diode (LED) light source in a noncontact dermoscope prototype for skin cancer screening. The spectrum and color temperature of the output light can easily and significantly be changed depending on spectral absorption characteristics of the tissues being imaged. The new system has several advantages compared to state-of-the-art phosphor converted ultrabright white LEDs, used in a wide range of medical imaging devices, which have a fixed spectrum and color temperature at a given operating point. In particular, the system can more easily be adapted to the requirements originating from different tissues in the human body, which have wavelength-dependent absorption and reflectivity. This leads to improved contrast for different kinds of imaged tissue components. The concept of such a lighting architecture can be vastly utilized in many other medical imaging devices including endoscopic systems. PMID:26839911

  5. Infrared thermography and image analysis for biomedical use

    OpenAIRE

    SZENTKUTI, ANDRAS; Skala Kavanagh, Hana; Grazio, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermography is used for measuring and analyzing physiological functions and pathology related to the body’s thermal homeostasis and temperature. This review provides an overview of the technological advantages of infrared imaging, with the focus on new advances in and opportunities for infrared imaging, as a reliable medical diagnostic tool. The review has four main parts. Firstly, a short history of thermography development in medicine is given. Secondly, an overview on the cl...

  6. Image-based Informatics for Preclinical Biomedical Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Wall, Jonathan [ORNL; Gregor, Jens [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, the New England Journal of Medicine selected medical imaging as one of the eleven most important innovations of the past 1,000 years, primarily due to its ability to allow physicians and researchers to visualize the very nature of disease. As a result of the broad-based adoption of micro imaging technologies, preclinical researchers today are generating terabytes of image data from both anatomic and functional imaging modes. In this paper we describe our early research to apply content-based image retrieval to index and manage large image libraries generated in the study of amyloid disease in mice. Amyloidosis is associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes, chronic inflammation and myeloma. In particular, we will focus on results to date in the area of small animal organ segmentation and description for CT, SPECT, and PET modes and present a small set of preliminary retrieval results for a specific disease state in kidney CT crosssections.

  7. Optics for image intensifier devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of image intensifier tubes in devices for operation under low-light level (1.1.1.) conditions created the need for optics which require special properties. General requirements for the front optics are in some aspects different from those in standard photographic lens design. New systems and refined basic lens configurations, redesigned to match the properties of tubes, have been introduced in this field. Some examples and their performances are discussed. High speed relay lenses for imaging the anode-screen on film or T.V. pick up tube, mainly applied in X-ray image intensifier systems are realized. Night telescopes and similar instruments also require special eyepieces, monocular as well as bi-ocular. (Auth.)

  8. Fundamental and applied studies in nanoparticle biomedical imaging, stabilization, and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Vikram J.

    Nanoparticle carrier systems are gaining importance in the rapidly expanding field of biomedical whole animal imaging where they provide long circulating, real time imaging capability. This thesis presents a new paradigm in imaging whereby long wavelength fluorescent or photoacoustically active contrast agents are embedded in the hydrophobic core of nanocarriers formed by Flash NanoPrecipitation. The long wavelength allows for improved optical penetration depth. Compared to traditional contrast agents where fluorophores are placed on the surface, this allows for improved signal, increased stability, and molecular targeting capabilities. Several types of long wavelength hydrophobic dyes based on acene, cyanine, and bacteriochlorin scaffolds are utilized and animal results obtained for nanocarrier systems used in both fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging modes. Photoacoustic imaging is particularly promising due to its high resolution, excellent penetration depth, and ability to provide real-time functional information. Fundamental studies in nanoparticle stabilization are also presented for two systems: model alumina nanoparticles and charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles. Motivated by the need for stable suspensions of alumina-based nanocrystals for security printing applications, results are presented for the adsorption of various small molecule charged hydrophobes onto the surface of alumina nanoparticles. Results are also presented for the production of charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles via Flash NanoPrecipitation, allowing for the independent control of polymer molecular weight and nanoparticle size, which is not possible by traditional emulsion polymerization routes. Lastly, methods for processing nanoparticle systems are explored. The increasing use of nanoparticle therapeutics in the pharmaceutical industry has necessitated the development of scalable, industrially relevant processing methods. Ultrafiltration is particularly well suited for

  9. Lensless, ultra-wideband fiber optic rotary joint for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wihan; Chen, Xi; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-05-01

    The demands of optical fiber-based biomedical applications can, in many cases, outstrip the capabilities of lens-based commercially available fiber optic rotary joints. In some circumstances, it is necessary to use very broad spectral bandwidths (near UV to short-wave IR) and specialized optical fibers, such as double-clad fiber, and have the capacity to accommodate high rotational velocities. The broad spectrum, stretching down into the UV, presents two problems: (1) adequate chromatic correction in the lenses across the entire bandwidth and (2) strong UV absorption by the fluids used to lubricate the rotary joint. To accommodate these types of applications, we have developed an ultra-wideband lensless fiber optic rotary joint based on the principle that when two optical fibers are coaligned and placed in contact (or very close), the optical losses at the junction are very low. The advances demonstrated here enable excellent performance (<0.2  dB insertion loss), even down into the UV and spanning a wavelength range of at least 355-1360 nm with single-mode, multimode, and double-clad fibers. We also demonstrate excellent performance, ∼0.38  dB insertion loss, at rotational velocities up to 8800 rpm (146 Hz). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this type of rotary joint capable of such a wide bandwidth and high rotational velocities. PMID:27128052

  10. PEGylated gold nanorods as optical trackers for biomedical applications: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Magrassi, Raffaella; Dante, Silvia; d’Amora, Marta; Scotto d’Abbusco, Marco; Pellegrino, Teresa; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are eligible for a variety of biological applications including cell imaging, sensing, and photothermal therapy thanks to their optical properties. The aim of this work is to show how AuNRs could be employed as non-photobleachable optical contrast agents for biomedical applications. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of their use as optical trackers, we employed two-photon emission confocal microscopy on cells incubated with PEGylated AuNRs. Remarkably, AuNRs were localized mostly in the perinuclear zone and microscopy characterization showed the presence of a considerable number of rods inside cell nuclei. Furthermore, we estimated the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs as a function of administered dose on HeLa/3T3 cell lines and on zebrafish during development, employed as an in vivo model. Eventually, we observed good agreement between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The employed AuNRs were prepared through a photochemical protocol here improved by tuning the amount of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for the achievement of AuNRs at two different aspect ratios. Furthermore we also investigated if the AuNR aspect ratio influenced the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs in HeLa/3T3 cell lines and in zebrafish embryos.

  11. PEGylated gold nanorods as optical trackers for biomedical applications: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N; Magrassi, Raffaella; Dante, Silvia; d'Amora, Marta; d'Abbusco, Marco Scotto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-06-24

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are eligible for a variety of biological applications including cell imaging, sensing, and photothermal therapy thanks to their optical properties. The aim of this work is to show how AuNRs could be employed as non-photobleachable optical contrast agents for biomedical applications. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of their use as optical trackers, we employed two-photon emission confocal microscopy on cells incubated with PEGylated AuNRs. Remarkably, AuNRs were localized mostly in the perinuclear zone and microscopy characterization showed the presence of a considerable number of rods inside cell nuclei. Furthermore, we estimated the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs as a function of administered dose on HeLa/3T3 cell lines and on zebrafish during development, employed as an in vivo model. Eventually, we observed good agreement between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The employed AuNRs were prepared through a photochemical protocol here improved by tuning the amount of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for the achievement of AuNRs at two different aspect ratios. Furthermore we also investigated if the AuNR aspect ratio influenced the toxicity and the efficiency of cellular uptake of the PEGylated AuNRs in HeLa/3T3 cell lines and in zebrafish embryos. PMID:27176116

  12. Basic research and clinical application of optical molecular imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technology,in vivo optical molecular imaging has been widely applied in various research fields owing to its unique real-time, quantitative and noninvasive characteristics. The applications of in vivo optical imaging technology in the basic and clinical research of breast cancer were reviewed, including detection of distant metastasis,tumor apoptosis, cell cycle, hypoxia and angiogenesis, ER-mediated molecular pathway, breast cancer stem cells, early diagnosis, sentinel node biopsy, evaluation of drug efficacy and detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression. They all seem to have a promising potential in in vivo optical molecular imaging. (authors)

  13. Biomedical image representation and classification using an entropy weighted probabilistic concept feature space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dinna; Thoma, George R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image representation for classification by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy based probabilistic feature space. In a heterogeneous collection of medical images, it is possible to identify specific local patches that are perceptually and/or semantically distinguishable. The variation of these patches is effectively modeled as local concepts based on their low-level features as inputs to a multi-class SVM classifier. The probability of occurrence of each concept in an image is measured by spreading and normalizing each region's class confidence score based on the probabilistic output of the classifier. Furthermore, importance of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy based on pixel values of image patches and used to refine the feature vector to overcome the limitation of the "TF-IDF"- based weighting. In addition, to take the localization information of concepts into consideration, each image each segmented into five overlapping regions and local concept feature vectors are generated from those regions to finally obtain a combined semi-global feature vector. A systematic evaluation of image classification on two biomedical image data sets demonstrates improvement of more than 10% for the proposed feature representation approach compared to the commonly used low level and visual word-based approaches.

  14. Biomedical Image Processing with Morphology and Segmentation Methods for Medical Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Patra

    2013-07-01

    of morphological filters eliminate the bias of the standard filters, while the value-and-criterion filters allow a American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER 2013w w w . a j e r . o r g Page 228variety of linear and nonlinear operations to be used in the geometric structure of morphology. One important value-and-criterion filter is the Mean of Least Variance (MLV filter, which sharpens edges and provides noise smoothing equivalent to linear filtering. To help understand the behavior of the new filters, the deterministic and statistical properties of the filters are derived and compared to the properties of the standard morphological filters. In addition, new analysis techniques for nonlinear filters are introduced that describe the behavior of filters in the presence of rapidly fluctuating signals, impulsive noise, and corners. The corner response analysis is especially informative because it quantifies the degree to which a filter preserves corners of all angles.Examples of the new nonlinear filtering techniques are given for a variety of medical images, including thermographic, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound images. The results of the filter analyses are important in deciding which filter to use for a particular application. For thermography, accurate gray level estimation is required, so linear combinations of morphological operators are appropriate. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, noise reduction and contrast enhancement are desired. The MLV filter performs these tasks well on MR images. The new filters perform as well or better than previously established techniques for biomedical image enhancement in these applications.

  15. World Wide Web platform-independent access to biomedical text/image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1998-07-01

    The biomedical digital library of the future is expected to provide access to stores of biomedical database information containing text and images. Developing efficient methods for accessing such databases is a research effort at the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications of the National Library of Medicine. In this paper we examine issues in providing access to databases across the Web and describe a tool we have developed: the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System (WebMIRS). We address a number of critical issues, including preservation of data integrity, efficient database design, access to documentation, quality of query and results interfaces, capability to export results to other software, and exploitation of multimedia data. WebMIRS is implemented as a Java applet that allows database access to text and to associated image data, without requiring any user software beyond a standard Web browser. The applet implementation allows WebMIRS to run on any hardware platform (such as PCs, the Macintosh, or Unix machines) which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. WebMIRS is being tested on text/x-ray image databases created from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  16. Progress of MEMS Scanning Micromirrors for Optical Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih Y. Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS have an unmatched ability to incorporate numerous functionalities into ultra-compact devices, and due to their versatility and miniaturization, MEMS have become an important cornerstone in biomedical and endoscopic imaging research. To incorporate MEMS into such applications, it is critical to understand underlying architectures involving choices in actuation mechanism, including the more common electrothermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric approaches, reviewed in this paper. Each has benefits and tradeoffs and is better suited for particular applications or imaging schemes due to achievable scan ranges, power requirements, speed, and size. Many of these characteristics are fabrication-process dependent, and this paper discusses various fabrication flows developed to integrate additional optical functionality beyond simple lateral scanning, enabling dynamic control of the focus or mirror surface. Out of this provided MEMS flexibility arises some challenges when obtaining high resolution images: due to scanning non-linearities, calibration of MEMS scanners may become critical, and inherent image artifacts or distortions during scanning can degrade image quality. Several reviewed methods and algorithms have been proposed to address these complications from MEMS scanning. Given their impact and promise, great effort and progress have been made toward integrating MEMS and biomedical imaging.

  17. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors

  18. Angiogram, fundus, and oxygen saturation optic nerve head image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua; Khoobehi, Bahram

    2009-02-01

    A novel multi-modality optic nerve head image fusion approach has been successfully designed. The new approach has been applied on three ophthalmologic modalities: angiogram, fundus, and oxygen saturation retinal optic nerve head images. It has achieved an excellent result by giving the visualization of fundus or oxygen saturation images with a complete angiogram overlay. During this study, two contributions have been made in terms of novelty, efficiency, and accuracy. The first contribution is the automated control point detection algorithm for multi-sensor images. The new method employs retina vasculature and bifurcation features by identifying the initial good-guess of control points using the Adaptive Exploratory Algorithm. The second contribution is the heuristic optimization fusion algorithm. In order to maximize the objective function (Mutual-Pixel-Count), the iteration algorithm adjusts the initial guess of the control points at the sub-pixel level. A refinement of the parameter set is obtained at the end of each loop, and finally an optimal fused image is generated at the end of the iteration. It is the first time that Mutual-Pixel-Count concept has been introduced into biomedical image fusion area. By locking the images in one place, the fused image allows ophthalmologists to match the same eye over time and get a sense of disease progress and pinpoint surgical tools. The new algorithm can be easily expanded to human or animals' 3D eye, brain, or body image registration and fusion.

  19. Morphological image processing for quantitative shape analysis of biomedical structures: effective contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contrast enhancement approach utilizing a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing is introduced. The method is quantitatively evaluated and then applied to some medical images. Image processing methods significantly contribute to visualization of images captured by biomedical modalities (such as mammography, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and light and electron microscopy). Quantitative interpretation of the deluge of complicated biomedical images, however, poses many research challenges, one of which is to enhance structural features that are scarcely perceptible to the human eye. This study introduces a contrast enhancement approach based on a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing. The proposed method is applied to medical images for the enhancement of structural features. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated quantitatively by the contrast improvement ratio (CIR). The CIR of the proposed method is 12.1, versus 4.7 and 0.1 for two conventional contrast enhancement methods, clearly indicating the high contrasting capability of the method

  20. Grating-based X-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article we describe the development of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with particular emphasis on potential biomedical applications of the technology. We review the basics of image formation in grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with laboratory X-ray sources. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical concepts to extend grating-based multimodal radiography to quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography. (orig.)

  1. Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building on previous work, a phase-preserving bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator was developed with the capability of performing live animal phase contrast dynamic imaging at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called ‘magic condition’ that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used

  2. Automatic segmentation of subfigure image panels for multimodal biomedical document retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Antani, Sameer; Stanley, R. Joe; Thoma, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical images are often referenced for clinical decision support (CDS), educational purposes, and research. The task of automatically finding the images in a scientific article that are most useful for the purpose of determining relevance to a clinical situation is traditionally done using text and is quite challenging. We propose to improve this by associating image features from the entire image and from relevant regions of interest with biomedical concepts described in the figure caption or discussion in the article. However, images used in scientific article figures are often composed of multiple panels where each sub-figure (panel) is referenced in the caption using alphanumeric labels, e.g. Figure 1(a), 2(c), etc. It is necessary to separate individual panels from a multi-panel figure as a first step toward automatic annotation of images. In this work we present methods that add make robust our previous efforts reported here. Specifically, we address the limitation in segmenting figures that do not exhibit explicit inter-panel boundaries, e.g. illustrations, graphs, and charts. We present a novel hybrid clustering algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) with fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to locate related figure components in such images. Results from our evaluation are very promising with 93.64% panel detection accuracy for regular (non-illustration) figure images and 92.1% accuracy for illustration images. A computational complexity analysis also shows that PSO is an optimal approach with relatively low computation time. The accuracy of separating these two type images is 98.11% and is achieved using decision tree.

  3. Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.m@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gomez, Ariel [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Building on previous work, a phase-preserving bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator was developed with the capability of performing live animal phase contrast dynamic imaging at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called ‘magic condition’ that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used.

  4. Effect of surface coating of KYb2F7:Tm(3+) on optical properties and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Francisco J; Avalos, Julio C; Yust, Brian G; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj K

    2016-09-23

    This project aims to provide an insight on the effects of biocompatible polymers on the optical properties and the nanoparticle-cell interaction of KYb2F7:Tm(3+) nanocrystals that exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) fluorescence. KYb2F7:Tm(3+) nanocrystals were synthesized with a diameter of 20-30 nm and surface modified with poly(ethylene glycol), Pluronic(®) F-127, and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone), due to the associated advantages. Some of these include biocompatibility and biodistribution in the instance of agglomeration and hydrophobicity as well as the addition of a targeting agent and drug loading by further functionalization. Despite the decrease in fluorescence intensity induced by the surface modification, thulium's emission fingerprint was easily detected. Moreover, surface modified KYb2F7:Tm(3+) nanocrystals failed to induce a toxic response on endothelial cells following a 24 h uptake period up to concentrations of 100 μg ml(-1). In vitro toxicity and confocal imaging have demonstrated the versatility of these NIR fluorescence nanocrystals in biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy. PMID:27518385

  5. The use of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function in Monte Carlo simulations in biomedical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are often at the heart of the testing procedure in biomedical optics. One of the critical points in MC simulations is to define the new photon direction after each scattering event. One of the most popular solutions is to use the Henyey-Greenstein phase function or some linear combinations of it. In this note, we demonstrate that randomly generating the angle defining the new direction of a photon after a collision, by means of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function, is not equivalent to generating the cosine of this angle, as is classically done. In practice, it is demonstrated that for a nearly isotropic medium (asymmetry parameter g ∼ 0) this discrepancy is not large, however for an anisotropic medium as is typically found in vivo (e.g. g = 0.98) the two methods give completely different results. (note)

  6. HyperSuprime: imaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Furusawa, Hisanori; Takeshi, Kunio; Nariai, Kyoji

    2006-06-01

    We summarize the optical design of the wide-field corrector for HyperSuprime which is being considered as a next generation prime focus camera for Subaru Telescope. Two optical designs are investigated under several design constraints such as image quality, field curvature, focal length, etc. The corrector with 2 degree field of view attains good image quality at the wavelength between 600 nm and 1100 nm although the first lens is large (1.2 m in diameter) and three aspherical surfaces are required. The image quality for shorter wavelength than 600 nm is fair. The incident light blocked at the edge of the field is only 20% and the transmission is more than 80% if the multi-layer coating applied for the current Subaru prime focus corrector is available. The corrector with 1.5 degree field of view is designed as a smaller version of 2 degree corrector. The properties and performance of 1.5 degree corrector resemble those of 2 degree corrector, but 1.5 degree corrector has a merit that the focal plane is flat. The availability of large fused-silica blank up to about 200 kg is promising.

  7. Confocal Optical Imaging Systems and Their Applications in Microscopy and Range Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guoqing

    1990-11-01

    Confocal optical imaging systems have been the subject of much recent studies. They have found their applications in biomedical imaging and integrated circuit metrology. Confocal systems differ from the standard optical imaging systems in their use of point illumination and point detection, gaining an improved transverse resolution and superior depth resolution. The depth discrimination capability allows confocal imaging systems to optically cross section translucent objects or to image three-dimensional structures. The improvement in transverse resolution permits them to image structures with more detail and better contrast. This thesis has focused on the design and implementation of the confocal optical imaging systems and their applications. A nonparaxial confocal optical imaging theory is developed based on the scalar Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory and Sine Condition without the normally-used thin-lens approximation. Two confocal optical range sensors and a Real-time Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (RSOM) are demonstrated. It is shown that our RSOM has tremendous advantages over other confocal microscopes both in scanning speed and in the ease of use and alignment. The dependence of the imaging characteristics on the pinhole size and the lens is fully discussed. Experimental measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations. Good agreement is obtained. Also demonstrated in this thesis are numerous applications of the RSOM in integrated circuit metrology and biomedical imaging. Deep trenches as narrow as 1 μm and deep as 6 mu m are observed with the RSOM. The RSOM is not only able to measure the trench depth but, is also able to inspect individual defects inside the trench. Linewidth measurement is also investigated. The RSOM is shown to have an excellent optical cross-sectioning capability. Sectioned images of bones, teeth, and the unprepared cornea of a rabbit eye have been observed. Well-defined sectioned images have been obtained

  8. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everbach, E. Carr

    2005-09-01

    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  9. Wavelet-domain de-noising of optical coherent tomography data for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a rapidly developing method of fundamental and applied research. Detection and processing of OCT images is a very important problem of applied physics and optical signal processing. In the present paper we are demonstrating the ability for effective wavelet-domain de-noising of OCT images. We are realizing an algorithm for wavelet-domain de-noising of OCT data and implementing it for the purpose of studying test samples and for in vivo nail tomography. High de-noising efficiency with no significant losses of information about the internal sample structure is observed

  10. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    as birefringence, motion, or the distributions of certain substances can be detected with high spatial resolution. Its main field of application is biomedical imaging and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, OCT is accepted as a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of a number of...... retinal diseases, and OCT is becoming an important instrument for clinical cardiology. New applications are emerging in various medical fields, such as early-stage cancer detection, surgical guidance, and the early diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. OCT has also proven its value as a tool for...... developmental biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  11. Development of highly luminescent and water-dispersible lanthanide-based nanomaterials for potential bio-medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Gayanthi Kumari

    Lanthanide metal ions exhibit fascinating optical and magnetic properties. Lanthanide-based nanomaterials have potential applications in optical devices, telecommunication, electroluminescent devices, bio-analytical sensors, and bio-medical imaging technology. Despite the recent developments, low luminescence characteristics, poor water solubility, and poor cell selectivity of lanthanide-based materials limit their use in bio-medical applications. This project is designed to mainly improve the luminescence properties of Eu(III)-based nanomaterials for their potential use in biomedical applications. In addition, we explore synthetic methods to enhance the water dispersibility and melanoma cell selectivity of the nanoparticles. Current research is designed to address the above mentioned drawbacks of lanthanide-based nanomaterials. Two different nanoparticle systems were developed in this project. i. europium (Eu)-based down-converting nanoparticles, ii. ytterbium (Yb)- erbium (Er)-based upconverting nanoparticles. Many down-converting nanoparticle systems suffer from low-luminescence efficiencies due to their poor light absorption by direct excitation of the lanthanide ions. In order to improve the luminescence characteristics, we have designed a novel nanomaterial by surface-coating it with organic chromophores having strong light absorption properties. LaEuF3.AEP (La=lanthanum, AEP = aminoethyl phosphate) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a low temperature heating method and Eu-based NaYF4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a high temperature heating method. A ligand exchange procedure was developed to functionalize the surface of the nanoparticles with an organic chromophore, TTA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone). The TTA functionalized Eu(III)-based nanoparticles exhibit impressive luminescence enhancements utilizing the sensitization effect. Poor water solubility is the main drawback of the upconverting nanoparticles for bio-medical applications. We

  12. An inventory of biomedical imaging physics elements-of-competence for diagnostic radiography education in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an inventory of biomedical physics elements-of-competence for diagnostic radiography education in Europe. Method: Research articles in the English literature and UK documentation pertinent to radiography education, competences and role development were subjected to a rigorous analysis of content from a functional and competence analysis perspective. Translations of radiography curricula from across Europe and relevant EU legislation were likewise analysed to ensure a pan-European perspective. Broad Subject Specific Competences for diagnostic radiography that included major biomedical physics components were singled out. These competences were in turn carefully deconstructed into specific elements-of-competence and those elements falling within the biomedical physics learning domain inventorised. A pilot version of the inventory was evaluated by participants during a meeting of the Higher Education Network for Radiography in Europe (HENRE), held in Marsascala, Malta, in November 2004. The inventory was further refined taking into consideration suggestions by HENRE members and scientific, professional and educational developments. Findings: The evaluation of the pilot inventory was very positive and indicated that the overall structure of the inventory was sensible, easily understood and acceptable - hence a good foundation for further development. Conclusions: Use of the inventory by radiography programme leaders and biomedical physics educators would guarantee that all necessary physics elements-of-competence underpinning the safe, effective and economical use of imaging devices are included within radiography curricula. It will also ensure the relevancy of physics content within radiography education. The inventory is designed to be a pragmatic tool for curriculum development across the entire range of radiography education up to doctorate level and irrespective of whether curriculum delivery is discipline-based or integrated, presentation

  13. Nonlinear Image Formation by Optical Superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The angular spectrum theory is applied to the nonlinear harmonic generation process in optical superlattices. Several explicit and analytical structure functions are deduced to design optical superlattices for various purposes. Employing this method, nonlinear image formation is achieved during the second-harmonic generation process in a properly designed optical superlattice. This method is universal for both nonlinear beam shaping and nonlinear arbitrary image formation. The theory has been experimentally validated in two-dimensional optical superlattice of LiTaO3 crystals and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work not only extends the application of optical superlattices, but also opens a new area for imaging technologies.

  14. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  15. Biomedical image and signal de-noising using dual tree complex wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizi, F. Yousefi; Noubari, H. Ahmadi; Setarehdan, S. K.

    2011-10-01

    Dual tree complex wavelet transform(DTCWT) is a form of discrete wavelet transform, which generates complex coefficients by using a dual tree of wavelet filters to obtain their real and imaginary parts. The purposes of de-noising are reducing noise level and improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) without distorting the signal or image. This paper proposes a method for removing white Gaussian noise from ECG signals and biomedical images. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is very valuable in a large scope of de-noising problems. However, it has limitations such as oscillations of the coefficients at a singularity, lack of directional selectivity in higher dimensions, aliasing and consequent shift variance. The complex wavelet transform CWT strategy that we focus on in this paper is Kingsbury's and Selesnick's dual tree CWT (DTCWT) which outperforms the critically decimated DWT in a range of applications, such as de-noising. Each complex wavelet is oriented along one of six possible directions, and the magnitude of each complex wavelet has a smooth bell-shape. In the final part of this paper, we present biomedical image and signal de-noising by the means of thresholding magnitude of the wavelet coefficients.

  16. A bidimensional xenon-filled MWPC X-ray imaging detector for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray imaging system developed at the Rutherford Laboratory for biomedical applications is described. It consists of a bidimensional, xenon-filled MWPC operating at NTP, and capable of detecting x-rays of energies up to approximately 50 keV. The chamber data is processed in a PDP-11 computer which is capable of storing and processing the x-ray images so as to provide good pictures of biological structures with a spatial resolution of approximately 2mm. Special attention has been paid to an application in the field of x-ray absorptiometry using monochromatic x-rays of approximately 42 keV and promising results are being obtained. Other potential applications are discussed. Particular attention is drawn to the usefulness of pulse height selection in improving the spatial resolution and imaging capability of an atmospheric pressure MWPC x-ray detector. (author)

  17. Nonlocal Optical Real Image Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gilson, Greyson

    2010-01-01

    A nonlocal theory of optical real image formation is developed from the basic physics associated with an optical real image formation apparatus. The theory shows how two separated illuminated object points are required for real image formation. When the distance between the points exceeds twice the wavelength of the light used two equi-amplitude plane waves propagate independently away from the object plane toward the imaging system. Quantum amplitude components with spatial frequencies that are within the passband of the imaging system pass through the imaging system. Each plane wave pair that propagates through the imaging system and ultimately arrives at the image plane contributes to real image formation. Object and image field depths are treated and found to be very different than they are ordinarily thought to be. Resolution limits related to real image formation are investigated. Reference distribution real image formation (RIF) is introduced. Real image formation with no fundamental resolution limit i...

  18. Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Mercedes; Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Gomez, Ariel; Chapman, Dean

    2015-05-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called `magic condition' that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used. PMID:25931100

  19. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  20. Biomedical sensing and imaging for the anterior segment of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Joong; Yoo, Young-Sik; Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Beop-Min; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2015-07-01

    Eye is an optical system composed briefly of cornea, lens, and retina. Ophthalmologists can diagnose status of patient's eye from information provided by optical sensors or images as well as from history taking or physical examinations. Recently, we developed a prototype of optical coherence tomography (OCT) image guided femtosecond laser cataract surgery system. The system combined a swept-source OCT and a femtosecond (fs) laser and afford the 2D and 3D structure information to increase the efficiency and safety of the cataract procedure. The OCT imaging range was extended to achieve the 3D image from the cornea to lens posterior. A prototype of OCT image guided fs laser cataract surgery system. The surgeons can plan the laser illumination range for the nuclear division and segmentation, and monitor the whole cataract surgery procedure using the real time OCT. The surgery system was demonstrated with an extracted pig eye and in vivo rabbit eye to verify the system performance and stability.

  1. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Strain effects on the optical parameters of quantum dots nanocrystals employed in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to perform the influence of the strain (lattice and radius) effects on the optical parameters of nanocrystals for use in medical imaging instrumentation technology. The present manuscript involved (a) quantum dots (QD) based nanophosphors with particle size 3–5 nm in diameter, (b) dielectric constants (core) of nanophosphors in the range 2–4, and (c) the whole portion of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human eye, 400–700 nm. Lattice strain effects on the optical properties were evaluated by the modification of the bulk dielectric function using a Drude–Sommerfeld model for the free or conduction electrons, and a core term representing the bound electrons. The Mie scattering theory, was used to predict the shifted optical parameters. Results showed that (i) lattice stain reduces the real part (n) of refractive index, (ii) the reduction of n becomes higher with the increase of εcore(ω) and (iii) no significant variations on n were observed under the variability of incident light wavelength (400–700 nm). Light wavelength was found to affect significantly the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index. In addition, the radius strain (i) decreases the light extinction coefficient, mext, (ii) increases the anisotropy factor, g and (iii) increases the light absorption probability, p. However, in cases of εcore(ω)=2, radius strain of 5% seems to present slightly higher p values than the cases of radius strain 10%. The present investigation found that the modification on the optical parameters enhances the utilization of quantom-dots luminescent nanomaterial in optical diffusion studies with requirements of high sensitivity (such as nuclear medical imaging modalities) rather than of high light spatial resolution (such as X-ray projection medical imaging systems). -- Highlights: • The strain effects on the optical parameters of quantum dots were examined. • Light wavelength affects significantly the

  3. Classification of visual signs in abdominal CT image figures in biomedical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2014-03-01

    "Imaging signs" are a critical part of radiology's language. They not only are important for conveying diagnosis, but may also aid in indexing radiology literature and retrieving relevant cases and images. Here we report our work towards representing and categorizing imaging signs of abdominal abnormalities in figures in the radiology literature. Given a region-of-interest (ROI) from a figure, our goal was to assign a correct imaging sign label to that ROI from the following seven: accordion, comb, ring, sandwich, small bowel feces, target, or whirl. As training and test data, we created our own "gold standard" dataset of regions containing imaging signs. We computed 2997 feature attributes to represent imaging sign characteristics for each ROI in training and test sets. Following feature selection they were reduced to 70 attributes and were input to a Support Vector Machine classifier. We applied image-enhancement methods to compensate for variable quality of the images in radiology articles. In particular we developed a method for automatic detection and removal of pointers/markers (arrows, arrowheads, and asterisk symbols) on the images. These pointers/markers are valuable for approximately locating ROIs; however, they degrade the classification because they are often (partially) included in the training ROIs. On a test set of 283 ROIs, our method achieved an overall accuracy of 70% in labeling the seven signs, which we believe is a promising result for using imaging signs to search/retrieve radiology literature. This work is also potentially valuable for the creation of a visual ontology of biomedical imaging entities.

  4. Rare earths based nir luminomagnetic nanoparticles and their multimodal applications in biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimun, L. Christopher

    Medical imaging is one of the most important techniques in the medical field for diagnostics and analysis of biological tissues. The most common imaging modalities are X-ray, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and optical imaging. In each of these imaging techniques, several contrast agents are used to improve the image resolution. There are several contrast agents available that are specific for a particular application and only include one functionality. In addition, most of the contrast agents available today have several limitations such as low image resolution, low thermal stability, toxicity, cost of production etc. The development of an ideal contrast agent with multiple functionalities that overcome most of these limitations is a challenging topic in the medical industry. Furthermore, by adding multiple functionalities into a single contrast agent the benefits would provide a decrease in cost and time by imaging multiple modalities simultaneously. Though there are various attempts in this area by several researchers around the world, the idea of developing a core-shell free multifunctional contrast agent with near infrared (NIR) imaging features and magnetic properties is novel. This doctoral dissertation is focused on the investigation of rare earth doped, NIR active, luminomagnetic nanocrystals (NCs) that have the potential to be effective contrast with multiple modalities. The main content of the thesis is about the development, characterization, and implementation of Nd 3+ doped YF3, GdF3, and Na(Lu0.5Gd 0.5)F4. The "as prepared" and surface functionalized NCs are characterized for their phase, morphology, and detailed optical characteristics such as absorption, emission and quantum yield. Magnetic properties are studied by magnetization experiments. In order to show the proof of concept as a multifunctional imaging agent various imaging experiments such as confocal intracellular imaging, NIR optical imaging, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging

  5. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  6. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound biomedical B-scan images using discrete topological derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Nedumaran; Ramamurthy, Sivakumar; Velusamy, Sekar; Manickam, Gayathri Kanakaraj

    2012-02-01

    Over three decades, several despeckling techniques have been developed by researchers to reduce the speckle noise inherently present in ultrasound B-scan images without losing the diagnostic information. The topological derivative (TD) is the recently adopted technique in the area of biomedical image processing. In this work, we computed the topological derivative for an appropriate function associated to the ultrasound B-scan image gradient by assigning a diffusion factor k, which indicates the cost endowed to that particular image. In this article, a novel image denoising approach, called discrete topological derivative (DTD) has been implemented. The algorithm has been developed in MATLAB7.1 and tested over 200 ultrasound B-scan images of several organs such as the liver, kidney, gall bladder and pancreas. Further, the performance of the DTD algorithm has been estimated by calculating important performance metrics. A comparative study was carried out between the DTD and the traditional despeckling techniques. The calculated peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) (the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation) value of the DTD despeckled liver image is found to be 28 which is comparable with the outperformed speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) filter. SRAD filter is an edge-sensitive diffusion method for speckled images of ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. Canny edge detection and visual inspection of DTD filtered images by the trained radiologist found that the DTD algorithm preserves the hypoechoic and hyperechoic regions resulting in improved diagnosis as well as tissue characterization. PMID:22230135

  7. Peer-to-peer Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in topical applications of biomedical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of further development of the unified approach of photon migration in complex turbid media, such as biological tissues we present a peer-to-peer (P2P) Monte Carlo (MC) code. The object-oriented programming is used for generalization of MC model for multipurpose use in various applications of biomedical optics. The online user interface providing multiuser access is developed using modern web technologies, such as Microsoft Silverlight, ASP.NET. The emerging P2P network utilizing computers with different types of compute unified device architecture-capable graphics processing units (GPUs) is applied for acceleration and to overcome the limitations, imposed by multiuser access in the online MC computational tool. The developed P2P MC was validated by comparing the results of simulation of diffuse reflectance and fluence rate distribution for semi-infinite scattering medium with known analytical results, results of adding-doubling method, and with other GPU-based MC techniques developed in the past. The best speedup of processing multiuser requests in a range of 4 to 35 s was achieved using single-precision computing, and the double-precision computing for floating-point arithmetic operations provides higher accuracy.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  9. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source-Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W. [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)], E-mail: tomasz.wysokinski@lightsource.ca; Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-11-11

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) Facility will provide synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes one of the BMIT beamlines: the bend magnet (BM) beamline 05B1-1. It plays a complementary role to the insertion device (ID) beamline 051D-2 and allows either monochromatic or filtered white beam to be used in the experimental hutch. The monochromatic spectral range will span 8-40 keV, and the beam is more than 200 mm wide in the experimental hutch for imaging studies of small and medium-size animals (up to sheep size). The experimental hutch will have a positioning system that will allow imaging (computed tomography and planar imaging) as well as radiation therapy applications with both filtered white and monochromatic X-ray beams and will handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different focal plane detectors (cameras) will be available with resolutions ranging from 10 to 150 {mu}m.

  10. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.

    1999-01-21

    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  11. Testing of electro-optical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof

    2004-08-01

    Humans cannot objectively judge electro-optical imaging systems looking on an image of typical scenery. Quality of the image can be bad for some people but good for others and therefore objective test methods and advanced equipment are needed to evaluate these imaging systems. Test methods and measuring systems that enable reliable testing and evaluation of modern thermal cameras, color and monochrome TV cameras, LLLTV cameras and image intensifier systems are presented in this paper.

  12. Optical tecnology developments in biomedicine: history, current and future

    OpenAIRE

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applicati...

  13. Optical Tecnology Developments in Biomedicine: History, Current and Future

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applications are also di...

  14. Optical Tecnology Developments in Biomedicine: History, Current and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applicati...

  15. Optical tecnology developments in biomedicine: history, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Yu

    2011-09-01

    Biomedical optics is a rapidly emerging field for medical imaging and diagnostics. This paper reviews several biomedical optical technologies that have been developed and translated for either clinical or pre-clinical applications. Specifically, we focus on the following technologies: 1) near-infrared spectroscopy and tomography, 2) optical coherence tomography, 3) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, and 4) optical molecular imaging. There representative biomedical applications are also discussed here. PMID:23905030

  16. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.; Andersen, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects in the...

  17. State-of-the-art in retinal optical coherence tomography image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Yu, Zeyun; D’Souza, Roshan M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging modality that has been widely used in the field of biomedical imaging. In the recent past, it has found uses as a diagnostic tool in dermatology, cardiology, and ophthalmology. In this paper we focus on its applications in the field of ophthalmology and retinal imaging. OCT is able to non-invasively produce cross-sectional volumetric images of the tissues which can be used for analysis of tissue structure and properties. Due to the und...

  18. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David

    2013-08-01

    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data. PMID:23589184

  19. Introduction: feature issue on In Vivo Microcirculation Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Andrew K.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Wang, Ruikang K.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2011-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “In Vivo Microcirculation Imaging,” which includes 14 contributions from the biomedical optics community, covering such imaging techniques as optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic microscopy, laser Doppler /speckle imaging, and near infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging.

  20. Molecular imaging by optically-detected electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancies in nanodiamond

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to a class of noninvasive biomedical imaging techniques with the sensitivity and specificity to image biochemical variations in-vivo. An ideal molecular imaging technique visualizes a biochemical target according to a range of criteria, including high spatial and temporal resolution, high contrast relative to non-targeted tissues, depth-independent penetration into tissue, lack of harm to the organism under study, and low cost. Because no existing molecular imaging modality is ideal for all purposes, new imaging approaches are needed. Here we demonstrate a novel molecular imaging approach, called nanodiamond imaging, that uses nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers as an imaging agent, and image nanodiamond targets in pieces of chicken breast. Nanodiamonds can be tagged with biologically active molecules so they bind to specific receptors; their distribution can then be quantified in-vivo via optically-detected magnetic resonance of the NVs. In effect, we are demo...

  1. Single-shot optical imaging through scattering medium using digital in-line holography

    CERN Document Server

    R., Vinu; Somkuwar, Atul S; Park, YongKeun; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive and single-shot holographic imaging through complex media is technically challenging due to random light scattering which significantly scrambles optical information. Recently, several methods have been presented to address this issue. However, they require complicated measurements of optical transmission matrices, or existing techniques do only retrieve intensity information. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a holographic approach for single-shot imaging through a scattering layer based on digital in-line holography in combination with the autocorrelation of the speckle intensity. Using a simple optical configuration and experimental procedure, the proposed method enables to retrieve the complex amplitude image of an object located at arbitrary planes behind scattering media. The technique has potential applications in biomedical imaging, deep tissue microscopy, and 3D imaging through turbid media.

  2. Nanohybrids Near-Field Optical Microscopy: From Image Shift to Biosensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayla El-Kork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-Field Optical Microscopy is a valuable tool for the optical and topographic study of objects at a nanometric scale. Nanoparticles constitute important candidates for such type of investigations, as they bear an important weight for medical, biomedical, and biosensing applications. One, however, has to be careful as artifacts can be easily reproduced. In this study, we examined hybrid nanoparticles (or nanohybrids in the near-field, while in solution and attached to gold nanoplots. We found out that they can be used for wavelength modulable near-field biosensors within conditions of artifact free imaging. In detail, we refer to the use of topographic/optical image shift and the imaging of Local Surface Plasmon hot spots to validate the genuineness of the obtained images. In summary, this study demonstrates a new way of using simple easily achievable comparative methods to prove the authenticity of near-field images and presents nanohybrid biosensors as an application.

  3. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshitij Thorat

    2011-12-01

    We present the radio-optical imaging of ATLBS, a sensitive radio survey (Subrahmanyan et al. 2010). The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio sources. We give here details of the imaging of the radio data and optical data for the ATLBS survey.

  4. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer. (paper)

  5. Holography In Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bally, G.

    1988-01-01

    Today not only physicists and engineers but also biological and medical scientists are exploring the potentials of holographic methods in their special field of work. Most of the underlying physical principles such as coherence, interference, diffraction and polarization as well as general features of holography e.g. storage and retrieval of amplitude and phase of a wavefront, 3-d-imaging, large field of depth, redundant storage of information, spatial filtering, high-resolving, non-contactive, 3-d form and motion analysis are explained in detail in other contributions to this book. Therefore, this article is confined to the applications of holography in biomedical sciences. Because of the great number of contributions and the variety of applications [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] in this review the investigations can only be mentioned briefly and the survey has to be confined to some examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review of biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and their utilization are not mentioned. As will be demonstrated by selected examples the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare like biomedical research [9]. This fact is actually characterized and stressed by the expression "Star Wars Medicine", which becomes increasingly common as popular description for laser applications (including holography) in medicine [10]. Thus, the consequence - even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography - have to be discussed.

  6. Electron-optic limitations on image resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to the solution of the electron-optical problem of designing an image tube configuration. Emphasis is placed on the method of computer design, and an illustration is given in which the technique is used in the design of an 80-mm image tube with a zoom capability of 3:1. The solutions are discussed to such problems as image distortion, magnification, and electron bundles striking the zoom electrode. Three types of an electron-optical configuration are examined for the electron-optic limitations to resolution: (1) the proximity image tube, (2) the magnetic-type image tube having uniform electric and magnetic fields, and (3) the electrostatic-type image tube such as the 80-mm zoom tube.

  7. Functional imaging and assessment of the glucose diffusion rate in epithelial tissues in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional imaging, monitoring and quantitative description of glucose diffusion in epithelial and underlying stromal tissues in vivo and controlling of the optical properties of tissues are extremely important for many biomedical applications including the development of noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensors as well as for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Recent progress in the development of a noninvasive molecular diffusion biosensor based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is described. The diffusion of glucose was studied in several epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Because OCT provides depth-resolved imaging of tissues with high in-depth resolution, the glucose diffusion is described not only as a function of time but also as a function of depth. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  8. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  9. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  10. Optical scatter imaging using digital Fourier microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach reported recently by Alexandrov et al (2005 Int. J. Imag. Syst. Technol. 14 253-8) on optical scatter imaging, termed digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), represents an adaptation of digital Fourier holography to selective imaging of biological matter. The holographic mode of the recording of the sample optical scatter enables reconstruction of the sample image. The form-factor of the sample constituents provides a basis for discrimination of these constituents implemented via flexible digital Fourier filtering at the post-processing stage. As in dark-field microscopy, the DFM image contrast appears to improve due to the suppressed optical scatter from extended sample structures. In this paper, we present the theoretical and experimental study of DFM using a biological phantom that contains polymorphic scatterers

  11. Image reconstruction for optical tomography using photon density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaf, R

    1999-08-01

    Diagnostic imaging makes use of different kinds of radiation. A recent type of imaging using near-infrared light is thought to be a safer and less-expensive method of in-vivo imaging. Near infra-red light can penetrate biological tissue to certain depths. The problem of using near infrared light for imaging, is that the scattering of the photons dominates absorption, causing difficulties in the reconstruction model on which biomedical optical imaging depends crucially. The aim of this thesis is to develop and investigate the performance of a reconstruction algorithm in the frequency domain which allows fast and efficient reconstruction of the image of a limb, or an optical phantom. The forward problem of the propagation of photons inside biological tissue is modelled using the Diffusion Approximation theory solved by the finite element method. Values of DC intensity, phase shift and modulation depth at the boundary as functions of the diffusion and absorption coefficients are given. The inverse model is formulated as a nonlinear least-squares optimisation problem. The Truncated Newton method with Trust region is used to determine the optical properties. Reverse differentiation is used to calculate the error function because of its speed advantage over forward differentiation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the simultaneous reconstruction of the diffusion and absorption coefficients. The use of a combined error function of DC intensity, phase and modulation prove to be the most successful at recovering the optical parameters. The ability to distinguish between object size and size of optical parameter is also investigated. Contrast, mean and standard deviation are used as measures of the performance of the reconstruction algorithm. A Tikhonov regularisation method was used to improve ill-conditioning and behaviour in the presence of noise. An investigation of the optimal regularisation parameter is undertaken with the addition of noise to the

  12. Image reconstruction for optical tomography using photon density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging makes use of different kinds of radiation. A recent type of imaging using near-infrared light is thought to be a safer and less-expensive method of in-vivo imaging. Near infra-red light can penetrate biological tissue to certain depths. The problem of using near infrared light for imaging, is that the scattering of the photons dominates absorption, causing difficulties in the reconstruction model on which biomedical optical imaging depends crucially. The aim of this thesis is to develop and investigate the performance of a reconstruction algorithm in the frequency domain which allows fast and efficient reconstruction of the image of a limb, or an optical phantom. The forward problem of the propagation of photons inside biological tissue is modelled using the Diffusion Approximation theory solved by the finite element method. Values of DC intensity, phase shift and modulation depth at the boundary as functions of the diffusion and absorption coefficients are given. The inverse model is formulated as a nonlinear least-squares optimisation problem. The Truncated Newton method with Trust region is used to determine the optical properties. Reverse differentiation is used to calculate the error function because of its speed advantage over forward differentiation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the simultaneous reconstruction of the diffusion and absorption coefficients. The use of a combined error function of DC intensity, phase and modulation prove to be the most successful at recovering the optical parameters. The ability to distinguish between object size and size of optical parameter is also investigated. Contrast, mean and standard deviation are used as measures of the performance of the reconstruction algorithm. A Tikhonov regularisation method was used to improve ill-conditioning and behaviour in the presence of noise. An investigation of the optimal regularisation parameter is undertaken with the addition of noise to the

  13. LIF and fast imaging plasma jet characterization relevant for NTP biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of biomedical application, many publications report on non-thermal plasma jet potentialities for cell behaviour modifications in cancer treatment, wound healing or sterilization. However most previous plasma jet characterizations were performed when jets expend freely in air. Only recently has the influence of the targeted surface been properly considered. In this work, modifications induced by various types of targets, mimicking the biological samples, in the plasma propagation and production of hydroxyl radicals are evidenced through time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device imaging and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. A LIF model, also specifically dedicated to estimate air and water penetration inside the jet, is used and proves to be well adapted to characterize the plasma jet under biomedical application conditions. It is shown that the plasma produced by the plasma gun counter-propagates after impinging the surface which, for the same operating parameters, leads to an increase of almost one order of magnitude in the maximum OH density (from ∼2 × 1013 cm−3 for open-air propagation to ∼1 × 1014 cm−3 for a grounded metal target). The nature of the target, especially its electrical conductivity, as well as gas flow rate and voltage amplitude are playing a key role in the production of hydroxyl radicals. The strong interplay between gas flow dynamics and plasma propagation is here confirmed by air and water distribution measurements. The need for a multi-diagnostic approach, as well as great care in setting up the in situ characterization of plasma jets, is here emphasized. Special attention must not only be paid to voltage amplitude and gas flow rate but also to the nature, humidity and conductivity of the target. (paper)

  14. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  15. Full-angle optical imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes implanted in small animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Hu; Junjie Yao; Jing Bai

    2008-01-01

    To provide a valuable experimental platform for in vivo biomedical research of small animal model with fluorescence mediated approach, we developed a whole-body near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging system as described in this paper. This system is based on a sensitive CCD camera and has the ability to achieve 360° full-angle source illuminations and projections capture of the targets to obtain the dense sampling by performing rotational scan. The measurement accuracy is validated from cylinder phantom experiments by the comparison between the experimental data and theoretical predictions. Finally, we also present typical in vivo images of fluorescent tube implanted into the mouse body. The results are promising and have proved the system imaging performance for macroscopic optical biomedical research.

  16. Impacts of optical turbulence on underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weilin; Woods, S.; Goode, W.; Jarosz, E.; Weidemann, A.

    2011-06-01

    Optical signal transmission underwater is of vital interests to both civilian and military applications. The range and signal to noise during the transmission, as a function of system and water optical properties determines the effectiveness of EO technology. These applications include diver visibility, search and rescue, mine detection and identification, and optical communications. The impact of optical turbulence on underwater imaging has been postulated and observed by many researchers. However, no quantative studies have been done until recently, in terms of both the environmental conditions, and impacts on image quality as a function of range and spatial frequencies. Image data collected from field measurements during SOTEX (Skaneateles Optical Turbulence Exercise, July 22-31, 2010) using the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST) are presented. Optical properties of the water column in the field were measured using WETLab's ac-9 and Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST, Sequoia Scientific), in coordination with physical properties including CTD (Seabird), dissipation rate of kinetic energy and heat, using both the Vector velocimeter and CT combo (Nortek and PME), and shear probe based Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP, Rockland). The strong stratification structure in the water column provides great opportunity to observe various dissipation strengths throughout the water column, which corresponds directly with image quality as shown. Initial results demonstrate general agreement between data collected and model prediction, while discrepancies between measurements and model suggest higher spatial and temporal observations are needed in the future.

  17. Novel Polysaccharide Based Polymers and Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery and Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Alireza

    controlled delivery applications of larger molecular size compounds. The starch based hydrogels, polymers and nanoparticles developed in this work have shown great potentials for controlled drug delivery and biomedical imaging applications.

  18. Statistics for imaging, optics, and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Bajorski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A vivid, hands-on discussion of the statistical methods in imaging, optics, and photonics applications In the field of imaging science, there is a growing need for students and practitioners to be equipped with the necessary knowledge and tools to carry out quantitative analysis of data. Providing a self-contained approach that is not too heavily statistical in nature, Statistics for Imaging, Optics, and Photonics presents necessary analytical techniques in the context of real examples from various areas within the field, including remote sensing, color science, printing, and astronomy. B

  19. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W.; Hoefer, Richard A.; Majewski, Stanislaw; McKisson, John; Kross, Brian; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  20. Refraction-based X-ray Computed Tomography for Biomedical Purpose Using Dark Field Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    We have proposed a tomographic x-ray imaging system using DFI (dark field imaging) optics along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured intensities, and a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct a refractive-index field from the projections generated from the extracted refraction information. The DFI imaging system consists of a tandem optical system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals, a positioning device system for a sample, and two CCD (charge coupled device) cameras. Then, we developed a software code to simulate the data-acquisition, data-processing, and reconstruction methods to investigate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, we imaged a sample with DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) excised from a breast cancer patient using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK-PF. Its CT images depicted a variety of fine histological structures, such as milk ducts, duct walls, secretions, adipose and fibrous tissue. They correlate well with histological sections.

  1. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-μCT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  2. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: ameneses@ieee.org [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cely Barroso, Regina [Laboratory of Applied Physics on Biomedical Sciences, Physics Department, Rio de Janeiro State University, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography ({mu}CT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-{mu}CT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  3. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson; Giusti, Alessandro; de Almeida, André Pereira; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson; Cely Barroso, Regina; deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-μCT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  4. Optical encryption for large-sized images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpei, Takuho; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  5. BIOLUMINESCENCE TOMOGRAPHY: BIOMEDICAL BACKGROUND, MATHEMATICAL THEORY, AND NUMERICAL APPROXIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Han; Ce Wang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last couple of years molecular imaging has been rapidly developed to study physiological and pathological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular levels. Among molecular imaging modalities, optical imaging stands out for its unique advantages, especially performance and cost-effectiveness. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is an emerging optical imaging mode with promising biomedical advantages. In this survey paper, we explain the biomedical significance of BLT, summarize theoretical results on the analysis and numerical solution of a diffusion based BLT model, and comment on a few extensions for the study of BLT.

  6. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  7. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  8. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  9. Quantum parallel dense coding of optical images

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, T Yu; Sokolov, I V; Kolobov, M I; Golubev, Yu.M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose quantum dense coding protocol for optical images. This protocol extends the earlier proposed dense coding scheme for continuous variables [S.L.Braunstein and H.J.Kimble, Phys.Rev.A 61, 042302 (2000)] to an essentially multimode in space and time optical quantum communication channel. This new scheme allows, in particular, for parallel dense coding of non-stationary optical images. Similar to some other quantum dense coding protocols, our scheme exploits the possibility of sending a classical message through only one of the two entangled spatially-multimode beams, using the other one as a reference system. We evaluate the Shannon mutual information for our protocol and find that it is superior to the standard quantum limit. Finally, we show how to optimize the performance of our scheme as a function of the spatio-temporal parameters of the multimode entangled light and of the input images.

  10. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  11. Nonlinear Optical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude transmission feature of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. The bacteriorhodopsin film displays the logarithmic amplitude response for write beam intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2.0 orders of magnitude. We present experimental results demonstrating the principle and capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. Using the bacteriorhodopsin film, we successfully filter out image noise from the transformed image that cannot be removed from the original image.

  12. Sound and Image Processing with Optical Biocomputers

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Cameron L

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method to perform signal processing using cells or atoms to synthesize variation in digital data stored in optical format. Interfacing small-scale biological or chemical systems with information stored on CD, DVD and related disc media has been termed molecular media. This is defined as micron or nanoscale interference and/or augmentation of optical data translation with a specific focus on sound and image processing. The principle of this approach uses cells with ...

  13. Optics of astigmatism and retinal image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, M.; Díaz-Doutón, F.; Luque, S. O.; Aldaba, M.; Arjona, M.; Pujol, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this chapter, the optical condition of astigmatism is defined. The main causes and available classifications of ocular astigmatism are briefly described. The most relevant optical properties of image formation in an astigmatic eye are analysed and compared to that of an emmetropic eye and an eye with spherical ametropia. The spectacle prescription and axis notation for astigmatism are introduced, and the correction of astigmatism by means of lenses is briefly described. ...

  14. Three-dimensional laser optoacoustic and laser ultrasound imaging system for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, Andre; Oruganti, Tanmayi; Wang, Kun; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we introduce an improved prototype of the imaging system that combines three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography (3D-OAT) and laser ultrasound tomography slicer (2D-LUT) to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and speed of sound (SOS). The imaging scan is performed by a 360 degree rotation of a phantom/mouse with respect to a static arc-shaped array of ultrasonic transducers. A Q-switched laser system is used to establish optoacoustic illumination pattern appropriate for deep tissue imaging with a tunable (730-840 nm) output wavelengths operated at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate. For the LUT slicer scans, the array is pivoted by 90 degrees with respect to the central transducers providing accurate registration of optoacoustic and SOS maps, the latter being reconstructed using waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) technique. The coregistered OAT-LUT modality is validated by imaging a phantom and a live mouse. SOS maps acquired in the imaging system can be employed by an iterative optoacoustic reconstruction algorithm capable of compensating for acoustic wavefield aberrations. The most promising applications of the imaging system include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distributions of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, fluorophores, etc.).

  15. MR imaging of optic chiasmatic glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Sook; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ryu, Meung Sun; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Ra, Young Shin; Khang, Shin Kwang [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of optic chiasmatic glioma (OCG). MR images were reviewed in 14 patients with histologically proven OCGs and one with neurofibromatosis type 1 (male: female=8:7, mean age=8.5 years.) Tumors were evaluated retrospectively with respect to their size, involvement of the optic pathway, transverse/vertical diameter ratio based on the coronal plane, signal intensities, enhancement pattern, and the presence of a cyst or calcification. Tumors was measured 1.7-5.5 (mean, 3.3) cm in maximum diameter. In ten patients, the optic tracts were involved, and in three, the optic nerves. In 12 patients, tumors had a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of over one, and showed iso (n=5) or low signal intensity (n=10) compared with gray matter at T1-weighted imaging and high signal intensity (n=15) at T2-weighted imaging. Cyst formations were ween in eight patients, and tumors were enhanced strongly and homogeneously in nine and peripherally in four. In seven three was associated hydrocephalus, and in one, calcification. OCG is a suprasellar tumor which can extend into the optic pathway, has a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of more than one, and shows strong and homogeneous enhancement. These MR imaging findings are useful for the differentiation of OCG from other suprasellar tumors.

  16. MR imaging of optic chiasmatic glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR findings of optic chiasmatic glioma (OCG). MR images were reviewed in 14 patients with histologically proven OCGs and one with neurofibromatosis type 1 (male: female=8:7, mean age=8.5 years.) Tumors were evaluated retrospectively with respect to their size, involvement of the optic pathway, transverse/vertical diameter ratio based on the coronal plane, signal intensities, enhancement pattern, and the presence of a cyst or calcification. Tumors was measured 1.7-5.5 (mean, 3.3) cm in maximum diameter. In ten patients, the optic tracts were involved, and in three, the optic nerves. In 12 patients, tumors had a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of over one, and showed iso (n=5) or low signal intensity (n=10) compared with gray matter at T1-weighted imaging and high signal intensity (n=15) at T2-weighted imaging. Cyst formations were ween in eight patients, and tumors were enhanced strongly and homogeneously in nine and peripherally in four. In seven three was associated hydrocephalus, and in one, calcification. OCG is a suprasellar tumor which can extend into the optic pathway, has a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of more than one, and shows strong and homogeneous enhancement. These MR imaging findings are useful for the differentiation of OCG from other suprasellar tumors

  17. Non-destructive imaging of optical nanofibres

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Lars S; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode optical nanofibres are a central component of a broad range of applications and emerging technologies. Their fabrication has been extensively studied over the past decade, but imaging of the final sub-micrometre products has been restricted to destructive or low-precision techniques. Here we demonstrate an optical scattering-based scanning method that uses a probe nanofibre to locally scatter the evanescent field of a sample nanofibre. The method does not damage the sample nanofibre and is easily implemented only using the same equipment as in a standard fibre puller setup. We demonstrate sub-nanometre radial resolution at video rates (0.7 nm in 10 ms) on single mode nanofibres, allowing for a complete high-precision profile to be obtained within minutes of fabrication. The method thus enables non-destructive, fast and precise characterisation of optical nanofibers, with applications ranging from optical sensors and cold atom traps to non-linear optics.

  18. Studies on thermo-optic property of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG complex: a direction for devices for biomedical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nidhi Nigam; Santosh Kumar; Pradip Kumar Dutta; Tamal Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    The optical parameters including the refractive index () and thermo-optic coefficient, TOC (d/d), the dielectric constant () and its variation with temperature, and the thermal volume expansion coefficient () and its variation with temperature of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG (CS–AY GG) complex were examined. The dn/dT and - values for the polymer derivative were in the range −2.5 × 10−4 to 1.2 × 10−4° C−1 and 2.2 to 2.3, respectively. The dn/dT values were larger than that of inorganic glasses such as zinc silicate glass (5.5 × 10−6° C−1) and borosilicate glass (4.1 × 10−6° C−1) and were larger than that of organic polymers such as polystyrene (−1.23 × 10−4 ° C−1) and PMMA (−1.20 × 10−4 ° C−1). The -values are lower than optically estimated -values of conventional polymer (3.00), aliphatic polyimide (2.5) and semi-aromatic polyamide (2.83). The obtained results of chitosan derivative are expected to be useful for optical switching and optical waveguide areas for devices of biomedical applications.

  19. Image Formation in Bio-optical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Over the past two decades a number of optical sensing methods have emerged with potential to provide complementary information to traditional medical imaging modalities in application areas ranging from basic science to disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Though still largely in the research and development stage, modalities including diffuse optical tomography (DOT), fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), photo-acoustic tomography (PAT), and bio-luminescence tomography (BLT) have excited much interest due to their natural functional imaging capability, their relatively low cost, and the fact that none required the use of ionizing radiation. These advantages however are tempered by a number of challenges associated with the processing of these data. Specifically, these data types all rely in one way or another on the interaction of light with tissue. The diffusive nature of this interaction inherently limits the spatial resolution of these modalities. As a result the process of forming an image is a far more delicate task than is the case with more standard imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). Two basic methods have been explored to address the ill-posedness of these problems in order to improve the information content in the resulting images. The optical data may be augmented either through the use of spectral diversity or by attempting to integrate optical data types with information from other modalities such as CT or MRI. Alternatively, a mathematical technique known as regularization can be used to impose physically-based constraints on the reconstruction. In this talk, I shall provide an overview of the work in my group in optical image formation within the contexts of DOT for breast cancer imaging and FMT for small animal imaging. The focus of the talk will be on methods that integrate data augmentation and mathematical regularization. In the case of FMT, we shall discuss our work in combining the optical data with information

  20. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  1. Applications of optical imaging; Optische Bildgebung: Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, E. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  2. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  3. Optical fourier transform image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to improve the signal to noise ratio of the X-ray shadow graphs and tomographs of human body using optical spatial filtering techniques. Helium Neon laser of 4 milli Watt has been used for the purpose. Spatial filtering of the beam has been done in the first step to eliminate the coherent noise produced by various laser modes. Conventional method of spatial filtering has been used to process simple achieved using conventional filters. Edge enhancement and improvement of signal to noise ratio of the X-ray shadow graphs has been done using lens and lens-less Fourier transform holographic filters and VanderLugt filters. VanderLugt filter has given the best edge-enhancement for the chest X-ray shadow graph. (author)

  4. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  5. RNA aptamer probes as optical imaging agents for the detection of amyloid plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Farrar

    Full Text Available Optical imaging using multiphoton microscopy and whole body near infrared imaging has become a routine part of biomedical research. However, optical imaging methods rely on the availability of either small molecule reporters or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, which are challenging and time consuming to develop. While directly labeled antibodies can also be used as imaging agents, antibodies are species specific, can typically not be tagged with multiple fluorescent reporters without interfering with target binding, and are bioactive, almost always eliciting a biological response and thereby influencing the process that is being studied. We examined the possibility of developing highly specific and sensitive optical imaging agents using aptamer technology. We developed a fluorescently tagged anti-Aβ RNA aptamer, β55, which binds amyloid plaques in both ex vivo human Alzheimer's disease brain tissue and in vivo APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Diffuse β55 positive halos, attributed to oligomeric Aβ, were observed surrounding the methoxy-XO4 positive plaque cores. Dot blots of synthetic Aβ aggregates provide further evidence that β55 binds both fibrillar and non-fibrillar Aβ. The high binding affinity, the ease of probe development, and the ability to incorporate multiple and multimodal imaging reporters suggest that RNA aptamers may have complementary and perhaps advantageous properties compared to conventional optical imaging probes and reporters.

  6. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  8. Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarry, M J

    2007-09-05

    When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.

  9. Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging of an optical antenna with a single diamond NV center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Smith, Dallas; Johnson, Timothy W; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Novotny, Lukas; Vamivakas, A Nick

    2013-08-14

    Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter, we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna. PMID:23815462

  10. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shambat, Gary; Kothapalli, Sri Rajasekhar; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; HARRIS, JAMES; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presenc...

  11. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  12. Poly(ethylene oxide)-silica hybrids entrapping sensitive dyes for biomedical optical pH sensors: Molecular dynamics and optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Paola; Pilati, Francesco; Rovati, Luigi; McKenzie, Ruel; Mijovic, Jovan

    2011-06-01

    Polymer-silica hybrid nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel process based on triethoxisilane-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) chains and tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor, doped with organic pH sensitive dyes, have been prepared and their suitability for use as sensors coupled with plastic optic fibers has been evaluated. Sensors were prepared by immobilizing a drop of the hybrid materials onto the tip of a multi-mode poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber. The performance of the optical sensor in terms of sensitivity and response time was tested in different experimental conditions, and was found to be markedly higher than analogous sensors present on the market. The very fast kinetic of the hybrid's optical response was supported by studies performed at the molecular level by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), investigated over a wide range of frequency and temperature, showing that poly(ethylene oxide) chains maintain their dynamics even when covalently bonded to silica domains, which decrease the self-association interactions and promote motions of polymer chain segments. Due to the fast response kinetic observed, these pH optical sensors result suitable for the fast-detection of biomedical parameters, i.e. fast esophageous pH-metry.

  13. The preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapeutic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jonathan W.

    Effective clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer is reliant upon the positive identification of damaged tissue before and after surgical or radiation treatment. The promise of next generation contrast agents is the sensitive and selective recognition of cancerous tissue using highly specific targeting ligands. Multimodal nanoparticles may fill this role as cell-targeted agents capable of exhibiting contrast enhancement in both magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging. Specifically, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with biocompatible polymers serve as both a biodegradable MR imaging agent as well as a platform for small molecule, protein and fluorophore modification. In the work presented here, iron oxide nanoparticles have been coated with either poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or a graft copolymer chitosan-PEG for prolonged stability, and functionalized with: (1) peptide-major histocompatibility complexes for T-cell trafficking during immunotherapy, (2) annexin V for apoptosis detection during post-therapy evaluation, or (3) biotin for fusion protein pretreatment imaging (e.g. for use in non-Hodgekin's lymphoma). Each nanoparticle system has been characterized for proper surface modification, physical profile, targeting functionality and bioactivity. Additionally, two novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for sensitive iron oxide nanoparticle quantification, and direct PEG coating quantification of nanoparticles. These techniques may be applicable to multiple nanoparticle formulations using NMR systems ubiquitous in academic and professional laboratories. The development of new nanoparticle systems for a variety of clinical applications, as well as novel characterization techniques will offer new possibilities for both clinicians and researchers alike.

  14. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  15. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  16. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled (32P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I

  17. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  18. IOT Overview: Optical Spectro-Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, F.

    Taking the FORS instruments as a representative case, I review the Calibration Plan for optical spectro-imagers currently offered at ESO, discussing various aspects related both to the scientific outcome and the instrument/site monitoring. I also describe ongoing and future calibration projects planned by the Instrument Operations Teams, trying to give an objective view on the limitations of the Calibration Plans currently implemented at ESO for this class of instruments.

  19. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.

    1992-01-01

    -spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained are...

  20. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Harris, James; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Our sensor can detect both gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and can be utilized for molecular sensing applications in biomedicine.

  1. WebMedSA: a web-based framework for segmenting and annotating medical images using biomedical ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Francisco; Pérez, Wilson; Tello, Andrés.; Saquicela, Victor; Espinoza, Mauricio; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Vidal, Maria-Esther; La Cruz, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging have fostered medical diagnosis based on digital images. Consequently, the number of studies by medical images diagnosis increases, thus, collaborative work and tele-radiology systems are required to effectively scale up to this diagnosis trend. We tackle the problem of the collaborative access of medical images, and present WebMedSA, a framework to manage large datasets of medical images. WebMedSA relies on a PACS and supports the ontological annotation, as well as segmentation and visualization of the images based on their semantic description. Ontological annotations can be performed directly on the volumetric image or at different image planes (e.g., axial, coronal, or sagittal); furthermore, annotations can be complemented after applying a segmentation technique. WebMedSA is based on three main steps: (1) RDF-ization process for extracting, anonymizing, and serializing metadata comprised in DICOM medical images into RDF/XML; (2) Integration of different biomedical ontologies (using L-MOM library), making this approach ontology independent; and (3) segmentation and visualization of annotated data which is further used to generate new annotations according to expert knowledge, and validation. Initial user evaluations suggest that WebMedSA facilitates the exchange of knowledge between radiologists, and provides the basis for collaborative work among them.

  2. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis. PMID:26367974

  3. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  4. Metal micro-detector TimePix imaging synchrotron radiation beams at the ESRF Bio-Medical Beamline ID17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization studies of the metal micro-detector TimePix measuring dose distribution at the Minibeam Radiation Therapy setup (Bio-Medical Beamline ID17, ESRF) were performed. The results obtained for high intensity synchrotron radiation minibeams illustrate an excellent performance of the TimePix providing in real time 2D image of the dose distribution over many beams in a 14×14 mm2 area. Peak-to-Valley–Dose–Ratios measured by TimePix and gafhromic films agree well.

  5. Metal micro-detector TimePix imaging synchrotron radiation beams at the ESRF Bio-Medical Beamline ID17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugatch, V., E-mail: pugatch@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Campbell, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Chaus, A.; Kovalchuk, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Llopart, X. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Okhrimenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Prezado, Y.; Renier, M. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Tlustos, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Characterization studies of the metal micro-detector TimePix measuring dose distribution at the Minibeam Radiation Therapy setup (Bio-Medical Beamline ID17, ESRF) were performed. The results obtained for high intensity synchrotron radiation minibeams illustrate an excellent performance of the TimePix providing in real time 2D image of the dose distribution over many beams in a 14 Multiplication-Sign 14 mm{sup 2} area. Peak-to-Valley-Dose-Ratios measured by TimePix and gafhromic films agree well.

  6. Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing.

  7. Optical clearing of unsectioned specimens for three-dimensional imaging via optical transmission and emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Mark; Sakhalkar, Harshad; Oliver, Tim; Johnson, G. Allan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques that enable unprecedented high-resolution 3-D multimodal imaging of tissue structure and function. Applications include imaging macroscopic gene expression and microvasculature structure in unsectioned biological specimens up to 8 cm3. A key requisite for these imaging techniques is effective sample preparation including optical clearing, which enables light transport through the...

  8. Convex optimisation for optical-interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Auria, Anna; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Image recovery in optical interferometry is an ill-posed nonlinear inverse problem arising from incomplete power spectrum and bispectrum measurements. We reformulate this nonlin- ear problem as a linear problem for the supersymmetric rank-1 order-3 tensor formed by the tensor product of the vector representing the image under scrutiny with itself. We propose a convex approach for tensor recovery with built-in supersymmetry, and regularising the inverse problem through a nuclear norm relaxation of a low-rank constraint. For comparison, and in the line of the current state of the art, we also study a nonlinear nonconvex approach. Keeping our tensor perspective, the problem is formulated for the tensor product of 3 vectors, where supersymmetry is relaxed while the rank-1 constraint is built-in. Linear convex minimisation problems are solved alternately and iteratively for these vectors. Simulation results show that the convex scheme provides significantly superior and more stable imaging quality than the nonconv...

  9. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Banzhaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods: Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA, respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results: The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion: Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies.

  10. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, Anthony B.; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: saber.hussain@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.Graphical Abstract.

  11. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.Graphical Abstract

  12. Electron-Focus Adjustment for Photo-Optical Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Walter B.; Flemming, Keith; Ziegler, Michael M.

    1987-01-01

    Internal electron focus made independent of optical focus. Procedure enables fine tuning of internal electron-focusing system of photo-optical imager, without complication by imperfections of associated external optics. Applicable to imager in which electrons emitted from photocathode in optical focal plane, then electrostatically and/or magnetically focused to replica of image in second focal plane containing photodiodes, phototransistorss, charge-coupled devices, multiple-anode outputs, or other detectors.

  13. Self-referenced, microdegree, optical rotation polarimeter for biomedical applications: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Zeev; Goldberg, Doron

    2016-07-01

    We comprehensively analyze the performance of a type of optical rotation (OR) polarimeter, which has been designed from the outset to fit the special requirements of two major applications: general chiral detection during the separation of optical isomers by high-pressure liquid chromatography systems in the pharmaceutical industry, and monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid of diabetics by a fully implanted long-term optical sensor. Both very demanding applications call for an OR polarimeter that can be miniaturized while maintaining high resolution and accuracy in the microdegree range in the face of considerable noise from various sources. These two characteristics—miniature size and immunity to noise—set this polarimeter apart from the traditional OR polarimeters currently in use, which are both bulky and very susceptible to noise. The following detailed analysis demonstrates the advantages of this polarimeter and its potential as an analytic and diagnostic tool. PMID:26720051

  14. Self-referenced, microdegree, optical rotation polarimeter for biomedical applications: an analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Zeev; Goldberg, Doron

    2016-07-01

    We comprehensively analyze the performance of a type of optical rotation (OR) polarimeter, which has been designed from the outset to fit the special requirements of two major applications: general chiral detection during the separation of optical isomers by high-pressure liquid chromatography systems in the pharmaceutical industry, and monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid of diabetics by a fully implanted long-term optical sensor. Both very demanding applications call for an OR polarimeter that can be miniaturized while maintaining high resolution and accuracy in the microdegree range in the face of considerable noise from various sources. These two characteristics-miniature size and immunity to noise-set this polarimeter apart from the traditional OR polarimeters currently in use, which are both bulky and very susceptible to noise. The following detailed analysis demonstrates the advantages of this polarimeter and its potential as an analytic and diagnostic tool.

  15. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  16. Photo-magnetic Imaging: Resolving Optical Contrast at MRI resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yuting; Gao, Hao; Thayer, David; Luk, Alex L.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the mathematical framework of a novel imaging technique, namely Photo-magnetic Imaging (PMI). PMI uses laser to illuminate biological tissues and measure the induced temperature variations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMI overcomes the limitation of conventional optical imaging and allows imaging of optical contrast at MRI spatial resolution. The image reconstruction for PMI, using a finite element-based algorithm with iterative approach, is presented in...

  17. Design and Optimization of Dual Optical Fiber MEMS Pressure Sensor For Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagang, Guo [Mechanical Engineering, National University Of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Po, Samuel Ng Choon [Mechanical Engineering, National University Of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Hock, Francis Tay Eng [Mechanical Engineering, National University Of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Rongming, Lin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    A novel Single Deeply Corrugated Diaphragm (SDCD) based dual optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement is proposed. Both mechanical and optical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superior performance of the proposed sensor. Result shows that less than 2% nonlinearity can be achieved for the proposed sensor using optimal Fabry-Perot microcavity. Also, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is given, instead of complicated fusion bonding process, only bulk and surface micromachining techniques are required which facilitate the mass production of such biocompatible and disposable pressure sensors.

  18. Molecular Optical Coherence Tomography Contrast Enhancement and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Applegate, Brian E.; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Skala, Melissa C.; Kim, Jongsik; Boppart, Stephen A.

    Histochemistry began as early as the nineteenth century, with the development of synthetic dyes that provided spatially mapped chemical contrast in tissue [1]. Stains such as hematoxylin and eosin, which contrast cellular nuclei and cytoplasm, greatly aid in the interpretation of microscopy images. An analogous development is currently taking place in biomedical imaging, whereby techniques adapted for MRI, CT, and PET now provide in vivo molecular imaging over the entire human body, aiding in both fundamental research discovery and in clinical diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Because OCT offers a unique spatial scale that is intermediate between microscopy and whole-body biomedical imaging, molecular contrast OCT (MCOCT) also has great potential for providing new insight into in vivo molecular processes. The strength of MCOCT lies in its ability to isolate signals from a molecule or contrast agent from the tissue scattering background over large scan areas at depths greater than traditional microscopy techniques while maintaining high resolution.

  19. Image Deblurring Using Derivative Compressed Sensing for Optical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Mohammad; Wang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of multidimensional signals from the samples of their partial derivatives is known to be a standard problem in inverse theory. Such and similar problems routinely arise in numerous areas of applied sciences, including optical imaging, laser interferometry, computer vision, remote sensing and control. Though being ill-posed in nature, the above problem can be solved in a unique and stable manner, provided proper regularization and relevant boundary conditions. In this paper, however, a more challenging setup is addressed, in which one has to recover an image of interest from its noisy and blurry version, while the only information available about the imaging system at hand is the amplitude of the generalized pupil function (GPF) along with partial observations of the gradient of GPF's phase. In this case, the phase-related information is collected using a simplified version of the Shack-Hartmann interferometer, followed by recovering the entire phase by means of derivative compressed sensing. Su...

  20. Signal and Image Processing of Optical Coherence Tomography at 1310 nm Wavelength for Non Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OCT is a recently developed optical interferometric technique for non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging in vivo; the most sensitive optical imaging modality.OCT finds its application in ophthalmology, blood flow estimation and cancer diagnosis along with many non biomedical applications. The main advantage of OCT is its high resolution which is in µm range and depth of penetration in mm range. Unlike other techniques like X rays and CT scan, OCT does not comprise any x ray source and therefore no radiations are involved. This research work discusses the basics of spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT, experimental setup, data acquisition and signal processing involved in OCT systems. Simulation of OCT involving modelling and signal processing, carried out on Lab VIEW platform has been discussed. Using the experimental setup, some of the non biomedical samples have been scanned. The signal processing and image processing of the scanned data was carried out in MATLAB and Lab VIEW, some of the results thus obtained have been discussed in the end.

  1. Nanodiamond-Based Composite Structures for Biomedical Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M; Vlasov, Igor I; Burikov, Sergey A; Dolenko, Tatiana A; Shenderova, Olga A

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond particles are widely recognized candidates for biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, bright photoluminescence based on color centers and outstanding photostability. Recently, more complex architectures with a nanodiamond core and an external shell or nanostructure which provides synergistic benefits have been developed, and their feasibility for biomedical applications has been demonstrated. This review is aimed at summarizing recent achievements in the fabrication and functional demonstrations of nanodiamond-based composite structures, along with critical considerations that should be taken into account in the design of such structures from a biomedical point of view. A particular focus of the review is core/shell structures of nanodiamond surrounded by porous silica shells, which demonstrate a remarkable increase in drug loading efficiency; as well as nanodiamonds decorated with carbon dots, which have excellent potential as bioimaging probes. Other combinations are also considered, relying on the discussed inherent properties of the inorganic materials being integrated in a way to advance inorganic nanomedicine in the quest for better health-related nanotechnology. PMID:26353602

  2. Imaging of murine embryonic cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongyang; Degenhardt, Karl R.; Astrof, Sophie; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated the capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to image full development of mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. Monitoring morphological changes of mouse embryonic heart occurred in different embryonic stages helps identify structural or functional cardiac anomalies and understand how these anomalies lead to congenital heart diseases (CHD) present at birth. In this study, mouse embryo hearts ranging from E9.5 to E15.5 were prepared and imaged in vitro. A customized spectral domain OCT system was used for imaging, with a central wavelength of 1310nm, spectral bandwidth of ~100nm and imaging speed of 47kHz A-scans/s. Axial resolution of this system was 8.3µm in air, and transverse resolution was 6.2 µm with 5X objective. Key features of mouse embryonic cardiovascular development such as vasculature remodeling into circulatory system, separation of atria and ventricles and emergence of valves could be clearly seen in three-dimensional OCT images. Optical clearing was applied to overcome the penetration limit of OCT system. With high resolution, fast imaging speed, 3D imaging capability, OCT proves to be a promising biomedical imaging modality for developmental biology studies, rivaling histology and micro-CT.

  3. Refractive-index based tomosynthesis using dark-field imaging optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosynthesis (TS) is a pseudo-3-dimensional image reconstruction method to recover depth-resolved information using restricted number of projections. In this research, refraction index based TS imaging using dark-field imaging (DFI) optics is proposed and biomedical soft tissues were imaged in low dose exposure. By a single exposure of an object, two projected images are obtained from a Laue-case analyzer of DFI. Calculating the both images refraction component is deduced, while two exposures are needed in DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging). Thus the measurement time and the radiation dose in DFI are half of DEI. In addition, the proposed reconstruction algorithm, derived from the quantitative relationship in measurement process, allows high contrast tomographic imaging in spite of one order smaller number of projections for CT (computed tomography). To demonstrate the proposed imaging protocol efficacy, an ex-vivo excised tissue of human lung were imaged using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline at PF-BL14C at KEK. TS image is successfully delineated high quality soft tissue structures comparable to CT.

  4. State-of-the-art in retinal optical coherence tomography image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Yu, Zeyun; D'Souza, Roshan M

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging modality that has been widely used in the field of biomedical imaging. In the recent past, it has found uses as a diagnostic tool in dermatology, cardiology, and ophthalmology. In this paper we focus on its applications in the field of ophthalmology and retinal imaging. OCT is able to non-invasively produce cross-sectional volumetric images of the tissues which can be used for analysis of tissue structure and properties. Due to the underlying physics, OCT images suffer from a granular pattern, called speckle noise, which restricts the process of interpretation. This requires specialized noise reduction techniques to eliminate the noise while preserving image details. Another major step in OCT image analysis involves the use of segmentation techniques for distinguishing between different structures, especially in retinal OCT volumes. The outcome of this step is usually thickness maps of different retinal layers which are very useful in study of normal/diseased subjects. Lastly, movements of the tissue under imaging as well as the progression of disease in the tissue affect the quality and the proper interpretation of the acquired images which require the use of different image registration techniques. This paper reviews various techniques that are currently used to process raw image data into a form that can be clearly interpreted by clinicians. PMID:26435924

  5. Physiochemical, Optical and Biological Activity of Chitosan-Chromone Derivative for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Joonseok Koh; Santosh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the physiochemical, optical and biological activity of chitosan-chromone derivative. The chitosan-chromone derivative gels were prepared by reacting chitosan with chromone-3-carbaldehyde, followed by solvent exchange, filtration and drying by evaporation. The identity of Schiff base was confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The chitosan-chromone derivative was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric...

  6. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  7. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat’s principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs. Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  8. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  9. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al2O3 particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  10. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, P [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hospital L. Sacco Unit, University of Milan, Via G B Grassi, 74-20157 Milan (Italy); Lualdi, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Colombo, A [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Marchesini, R [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-05-21

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  11. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, P; Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2007-05-21

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al(2)O(3) particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. PMID:17473339

  12. Nonlinear optical imaging: toward chemical imaging during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Dietzek, Benjamin; Krafft, Christoph; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Tumor recognition and precise tumor margin detection presents a central challenge during neurosurgery. In this contribution we present our recent all-optical approach to tackle this problem. We introduce various nonlinear optical techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPEF), to study the morphology and chemical composition of (ex vivo) brain tissue. As the experimental techniques presented are contact-free all-optical techniques, which do not rely on the administration of external (fluorescence) labels, we anticipate that their implementation into surgical microscopes will provide significant advantages of intraoperative tumor diagnosis. In this contribution an introduction to the different optical spectroscopic methods will be presented and their implementation into a multimodal microscopic setup will be discussed. Furthermore, we will exemplify their application to brain tissue, i.e. both pig brain as a model for healthy brain tissue and human brain samples taken from surgical procedures. The data to be discussed show the capability of a joint CARS/SHG/TPEF multimodal imaging approach in highlighting various aspects of tissue morphochemistry. The consequences of this microspectroscopic potential, when combined with the existing technology of surgical microscopes, will be discussed.

  13. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  14. A content-based image retrieval method for optical colonoscopy images based on image recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Eiichi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a content-based image retrieval method for optical colonoscopy images that can find images similar to ones being diagnosed. Optical colonoscopy is a method of direct observation for colons and rectums to diagnose bowel diseases. It is the most common procedure for screening, surveillance and treatment. However, diagnostic accuracy for intractable inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), is highly dependent on the experience and knowledge of the medical doctor, because there is considerable variety in the appearances of colonic mucosa within inflammations with UC. In order to solve this issue, this paper proposes a content-based image retrieval method based on image recognition techniques. The proposed retrieval method can find similar images from a database of images diagnosed as UC, and can potentially furnish the medical records associated with the retrieved images to assist the UC diagnosis. Within the proposed method, color histogram features and higher order local auto-correlation (HLAC) features are adopted to represent the color information and geometrical information of optical colonoscopy images, respectively. Moreover, considering various characteristics of UC colonoscopy images, such as vascular patterns and the roughness of the colonic mucosa, we also propose an image enhancement method to highlight the appearances of colonic mucosa in UC. In an experiment using 161 UC images from 32 patients, we demonstrate that our method improves the accuracy of retrieving similar UC images.

  15. Listening to light scattering in turbid media: quantitative optical scattering imaging using photoacoustic measurements with one-wavelength illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomedical photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as a potential imaging modality, can visualize tissue structure and function with high spatial resolution and excellent optical contrast. It is widely recognized that the ability of quantitatively imaging optical absorption and scattering coefficients from photoacoustic measurements is essential before PAT can become a powerful imaging modality. Existing quantitative PAT (qPAT), while successful, has been focused on recovering absorption coefficient only by assuming scattering coefficient a constant. An effective method for photoacoustically recovering optical scattering coefficient is presently not available. Here we propose and experimentally validate such a method for quantitative scattering coefficient imaging using photoacoustic data from one-wavelength illumination. The reconstruction method developed combines conventional PAT with the photon diffusion equation in a novel way to realize the recovery of scattering coefficient. We demonstrate the method using various objects having scattering contrast only or both absorption and scattering contrasts embedded in turbid media. The listening-to-light-scattering method described will be able to provide high resolution scattering imaging for various biomedical applications ranging from breast to brain imaging. (papers)

  16. Development of A Biomedical Imaging Informatics System for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Geoffrey; Wang, May D.

    2003-01-01

    The medical imaging technologies have been used for detecting tumors through the years. Tumors that can be viewed in imaging are usually big enough to contain billion tumor cells. Some patients may be cured if detected earlier and the surgery is performed well. Those lead to molecular imaging and image-guided surgery research activities, which post new challenges on large scale imaging data management and 3-D visualization. The goal of this project is to develop 3-D imaging informatics system...

  17. RESEARCH ON IMAGE TRANSLATION BETWEEN SAR AND OPTICAL IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Fu; Zhang,

    2012-01-01

    Compare to optical sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can work at all time and under all weather conditions. However, SAR images are less intuitive and more difficult to understand. To complement advantages of optical and SAR sensors, a technique of image translation is put forward. Firstly, the concept named as remote sensing image translation is presented, and a set of technology thinking for multi-source remote sensing image translation is also given. Image understand...

  18. Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, Wilfried; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; Lacot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel technique of microscopy to overcome the effects of both scattering and limitation of the accessible depth due to the objective working distance. By combining Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) with Acoustic Photon Taging (APT) and Synthetic Aperture (SA) refocusing we demonstrate an ultimate shot noise sensitivity at low power (required to preserve the tissues) and a high resolution beyond the microscope working distance. More precisely, with a laser power of 10mW, we obtain images with a micrometric resolution over ~8 transport mean free paths, corresponding to 1.3 times the microscope working distance. Various applications such as biomedical diagnosis, research and development of new drugs and therapies can benefit from our imaging setup.

  19. Modern Trends in Imaging XI: Impedance Measurements in the Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick D. Coffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  20. Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhaojun; An, Ran; Hayward, Joseph E; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin

    2013-09-01

    A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrument is developed to study endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue as an optical biopsy tool. This instrument is able to spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolve fluorescence signal, thus providing multidimensional information to assist clinical tissue diagnosis. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is used to realize rapid wavelength switch, and a photomultiplier tube and a high-speed digitizer are used to collect the time-resolved fluorescence decay at each wavelength in real time. The performance of this instrument has been characterized and validated on fluorescence tissue phantoms and fresh porcine skin specimens. This dual-arm AOTF design achieves high spectral throughput while allowing microsecond nonsequential, random wavelength switching, which is highly desirable for time-critical applications. In the results reported here, a motorized scanning stage is used to realize spatial scanning for two-dimensional images, while a rapid beam steering technique is feasible and being developed in an ongoing project. PMID:24002188

  1. Extreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: XAOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J; Poyneer, L; Sommargren, G; Wilhelmsen, J; Gavel, D; Jones, S; Kalas, P; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Patience, J; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Troy, M; Wallace, K

    2003-09-17

    Ground based adaptive optics is a potentially powerful technique for direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere imposes some fundamental limits, but the large size of ground-based telescopes compared to spacecraft can work to mitigate this. We are carrying out a design study for a dedicated ultra-high-contrast system, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager (XAOPI), which could be deployed on an 8-10m telescope in 2007. With a 4096-actuator MEMS deformable mirror it should achieve Strehl >0.9 in the near-IR. Using an innovative spatially filtered wavefront sensor, the system will be optimized to control scattered light over a large radius and suppress artifacts caused by static errors. We predict that it will achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} at angular separations of 0.2-0.8 inches around a large sample of stars (R<7-10), sufficient to detect Jupiter-like planets through their near-IR emission over a wide range of ages and masses. We are constructing a high-contrast AO testbed to verify key concepts of our system, and present preliminary results here, showing an RMS wavefront error of <1.3 nm with a flat mirror.

  2. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  3. A game-based platform for crowd-sourcing biomedical image diagnosis and standardized remote training and education of diagnosticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Minjae; Chandramouli, Krithika; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, crowd-sourcing complex image analysis tasks to a human crowd has emerged as an alternative to energy-inefficient and difficult-to-implement computational approaches. Following this trend, we have developed a mathematical framework for statistically combining human crowd-sourcing of biomedical image analysis and diagnosis through games. Using a web-based smart game (BioGames), we demonstrated this platform's effectiveness for telediagnosis of malaria from microscopic images of individual red blood cells (RBCs). After public release in early 2012 (http://biogames.ee.ucla.edu), more than 3000 gamers (experts and non-experts) used this BioGames platform to diagnose over 2800 distinct RBC images, marking them as positive (infected) or negative (non-infected). Furthermore, we asked expert diagnosticians to tag the same set of cells with labels of positive, negative, or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis) and statistically combined their decisions to generate a gold standard malaria image library. Our framework utilized minimally trained gamers' diagnoses to generate a set of statistical labels with an accuracy that is within 98% of our gold standard image library, demonstrating the "wisdom of the crowd". Using the same image library, we have recently launched a web-based malaria training and educational game allowing diagnosticians to compare their performance with their peers. After diagnosing a set of ~500 cells per game, diagnosticians can compare their quantified scores against a leaderboard and view their misdiagnosed cells. Using this platform, we aim to expand our gold standard library with new RBC images and provide a quantified digital tool for measuring and improving diagnostician training globally.

  4. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  5. Precise Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles for Electronic, Optical and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cihan

    Assembly of nano building blocks offers a versatile route to the creation of complex 1, 2 and 3-dimensional homogenous or hybrid nanostructures with unique properties to be used in many applications including electronics, optics, energy, and biotechnology. Bottom-up directed assembly of nanoparticles has been recently considered as one of the best approaches to manufacture such functional and novel nanostructures. However, current directed assembly techniques have not been shown to make nanostructures homogeneous or hybrid materials with nanoscale precision at a high yield. This is mainly due to the lack of fundamental understanding of the forces driving the assembly of nanoparticles into organized nanostructures on surfaces and the difficulties in precisely controlling these forces to enable the repeatable and reliable assembly of various types of organic or inorganic nanoparticles. We experimentally and numerically investigated the fundamental mechanism of the electrophoretic directed assembly for different sizes and types of nanoparticles. The results showed that unlike large (such as 500nm) Polysterene Latex (PSL) particles, the electrophoretic assembly of 50nm and smaller PSL particles is significantly influenced by the Brownian diffusion. This results in random and low yield assembly for the smaller nanoparticles. In order to overcome the Brownian diffusion-limited assembly of 50nm or smaller particles, the electrophoretic velocity of the particles must be increased. This can be accomplished by increasing the electrophoretic force, which is a function of particle surface charge and applied voltage. The surface charge of the PSL particles is greatly influenced by the pH of the solution. At high pH values (pH 10.1 or above), the nanoparticles attain higher charge, which increases the electrophoretic force. Consequently, the Brownian diffusion can also be overcome by increasing the pH of the solution. Overcoming the Brownian motion at low pH values (high

  6. Image restoration of the open-loop adaptive optics retinal imaging system based on optical transfer function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Qi, Yue; Li, Dayu; Xia, Mingliang; Xuan, Li

    2013-07-01

    The residual aberrations of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system will decrease the quality of the retinal images. To overcome this obstacle, we found that the optical transfer function (OTF) of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system can be described as the Levy stable distribution. Then a new method is introduced to estimate the OTF of the open-loop adaptive optics system, based on analyzing the residual aberrations of the open-loop adaptive optics system in the residual aberrations measuring mode. At last, the estimated OTF is applied to restore the retinal images of the open-loop adaptive optics retinal imaging system. The contrast and resolution of the restored image is significantly improved with the Laplacian sum (LS) from 0.0785 to 0.1480 and gray mean grads (GMG) from 0.0165 to 0.0306.

  7. Phase-retrieved optical projection tomography for 3D imaging through scattering layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Daniele; Di Battista, Diego; Giasafaki, Georgia; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Liapis, Evangelos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2016-03-01

    Recently great progress has been made in biological and biomedical imaging by combining non-invasive optical methods, novel adaptive light manipulation and computational techniques for intensity-based phase recovery and three dimensional image reconstruction. In particular and in relation to the work presented here, Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) is a well-established technique for imaging mostly transparent absorbing biological models such as C. Elegans and Danio Rerio. On the contrary, scattering layers like the cocoon surrounding the Drosophila during the pupae stage constitutes a challenge for three dimensional imaging through such a complex structure. However, recent studies enabled image reconstruction through scattering curtains up to few transport mean free paths via phase retrieval iterative algorithms allowing to uncover objects hidden behind complex layers. By combining these two techniques we explore the possibility to perform a three dimensional image reconstruction of fluorescent objects embedded between scattering layers without compromising its structural integrity. Dynamical cross correlation registration was implemented for the registration process due to translational and flipping ambiguity of the phase retrieval problem, in order to provide the correct aligned set of data to perform the back-projection reconstruction. We have thus managed to reconstruct a hidden complex object between static scattering curtains and compared with the effective reconstruction to fully understand the process before the in-vivo biological implementation.

  8. Developments of optical imaging capillary plate gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical imaging capillary plate (CP) gas detector has been successfully developed for a gas mixture of Ar+CF4. Gas gains of up to 104 can be achieved with a single CP. Scintillation light simultaneously emitted during the development of electron avalanches can be observed using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and optical imaging system which consists of a CP gas detector and a cooled CCD camera coupled to lens optics. The energy resolutions obtained for the charge signal and the light signal were 22% and 24% for 10 keV X-rays, respectively. Using the optical imaging system, clearer images of X-rays have been obtained with the gas mixture. Successful operation with this gas mixture has allowed us to realise a novel-imaging device with CP for X-ray imaging, cold neutron imaging, medical imaging, and cellular function analysis

  9. Advances in Biomedical Imaging, Bioengineering, and Related Technologies for the Development of Biomarkers of Pancreatic Disease: Summary of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly A; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Christina H; Singh, Vikesh K; Srivastava, Sudhir; Wasan, Ajay D; Yadav, Dhiraj; Andersen, Dana K

    2015-11-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering focused on research gaps and opportunities in the development of new biomarkers of pancreatic disease. The session was held on July 22, 2015, and structured into 6 sessions: 1) Introduction and Overview; 2) Keynote Address; 3) New Approaches to the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis; 4) Biomarkers of Pain and Inflammation; 5) New Approaches to the Detection of Pancreatic Cancer; and 6) Shed Exosomes, Shed Cells, and Shed Proteins. Recent advances in the fields of pancreatic imaging, functional markers of pancreatic disease, proteomics, molecular and cellular imaging, and detection of circulating cancer cells and exosomes were reviewed. Knowledge gaps and research needs were highlighted. The development of new methods for the noninvasive determination of pancreatic pathology; the use of cellular markers of pancreatic function, inflammation, pain, and malignancy; and the refinement of methods to identify cells and cellular constituents of pancreatic cancer were discussed. The further refinement of sophisticated technical methods and the need for clinical studies to validate these new approaches in large-scale studies of patients at risk for the development of pancreatic disease were repeatedly emphasized. PMID:26465948

  10. Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nicholas; Lee, Hyesog; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Xiang

    2005-04-22

    Recent theory has predicted a superlens that is capable of producing sub-diffraction-limited images. This superlens would allow the recovery of evanescent waves in an image via the excitation of surface plasmons. Using silver as a natural optical superlens, we demonstrated sub-diffraction-limited imaging with 60-nanometer half-pitch resolution, or one-sixth of the illumination wavelength. By proper design of the working wavelength and the thickness of silver that allows access to a broad spectrum of subwavelength features, we also showed that arbitrary nanostructures can be imaged with good fidelity. The optical superlens promises exciting avenues to nanoscale optical imaging and ultrasmall optoelectronic devices. PMID:15845849

  11. Numerical modelling and image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Hamid; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Gibson, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The development of diffuse optical tomography as a functional imaging modality has relied largely on the use of model-based image reconstruction. The recovery of optical parameters from boundary measurements of light propagation within tissue is inherently a difficult one, because the problem is nonlinear, ill-posed and ill-conditioned. Additionally, although the measured near-infrared signals of light transmission through tissue provide high imaging contrast, the reconstructed images suffer ...

  12. Reconstruction of Optical Thickness from Hoffman Modulation Contrast Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Holm; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; Hnida, Christina; Ziebe, Søren

    Hoffman microscopy imaging systems are part of numerous fertility clinics world-wide. We discuss the physics of the Hoffman imaging system from optical thickness to image intensity, implement a simple, yet fast, reconstruction algorithm using Fast Fourier Transformation and discuss the usability ...... the method on a number of cells from a human embryo. Novelty is identifying the non-linearity of a typical Hoffman imaging system, and the application of Fourier Transformation to reconstruct the optical thickness....

  13. Multi-scale volumetric cell and tissue imaging based on optical projection tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Cho, Nam Hyun; Ryu, Yongjae; Jung, Sunwoo; Vavilin, Andrey; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu

    2016-04-01

    Optical projection tomography is a new optical imaging method for visualizing small biological specimens in three dimension. The most important advantage of OPT is to fill the gap between MRI and confocal microscope for the specimen having the range of 1-10 mm. Thus, it has been mainly used for whole-mount small animals and developmental study since this imaging modality was developed. The ability of OPT delivering anatomical and functional information of relatively large tissue in 3D has made it a promising platform in biomedical research. Recently, the potential of OPT spans its coverage to cellular scale. Even though there are increasing demand to obtain better understanding of cellular dynamics, only few studies to visualize cellular structure, shape, size and functional morphology over tissue has been investigated in existing OPT system due to its limited field of view. In this study, we develop a novel optical imaging system for 3D cellular imaging with OPT integrated with dynamic focusing technique. Our tomographic setup has great potential to be used for identifying cell characteristic in tissue because it can provide selective contrast on dynamic focal plane allowing for fluorescence as well as absorption. While the dominant contrast of optical imaging technique is to use the fluorescence for detecting certain target only, the newly developed OPT system will offer considerable advantages over currently available method when imaging cellar molecular dynamics by permitting contrast variation. By achieving multi-contrast, it is expected for this new imaging system to play an important role in delivering better cytological information to pathologist.

  14. Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 1300nm bio-imaging window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleppat, Ratheesh Kumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Seah, Leong Keey

    2015-07-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging system (OFDI) in the 1300nm biological imaging window is demonstrated by using a high speed frequency swept laser source. The output of the laser with central wave length of 1320nm is continuously tuned over a bandwidth of 100nm with a repetition rate of 16 KHz. The laser source has an instantaneous coherence length of 6mm and delivers an average power of 12mW. Axial resolution ~ 6μm in the biological tissue and peak sensitivity of 110dB are achieved. The experimentally determined values of the imaging parameters such as the axial resolution, sensitivity and depth range are found to be in good agreement with the theoretically estimated values. The developed system is capable of generating the images of size 512x1024 at a rate of 20 frames per second. High resolution and high contrast images of the finger nail and anterior chamber of a pig's eye acquired using the developed OFDI system are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the system for in-vivo biomedical imaging applications.

  15. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  16. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔVtorso = ΔVthorax + ΔVabdomen) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BPv = ΔVthorax/ΔVtorso) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI imaging and CT

  17. Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Classical imaging optics has been developed over centuries in many areas, such as its paraxial imaging theory and practical design methods like multi-parametric optimization techniques. Although these imaging optical design methods can provide elegant solutions to many traditional optical problems, there are more and more new design problems, like solar concentrator, illumination system, ultra-compact camera, etc., that require maximum energy transfer efficiency, or ultra-compact optical stru...

  18. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  19. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  20. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Gradowski, Martin A.; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-01-01

    We present wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) for in vivo small animal retinal imaging. WSAO is attractive especially for mouse retinal imaging because it simplifies optical design and eliminates the need for wavefront sensing, which is difficult in the small animal eye. GPU accelerated processing of the OCT data permitted real-time extraction of image quality metrics (intensity) for arbitrarily selected retinal layers to be optimi...

  1. Brain Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography: Quantification and Biomedical Applications in Alzheimer's Disease and Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wardak, Mirwais

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique and powerful imaging technique that is used to visualize and quantify various biological processes in living subjects in health and disease. PET imaging can also provide biological information for the assessment of therapies. In this dissertation, we will cover three projects that utilize the quantitative capability of PET for studying two neurological disorders: Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors.One of the goals in PET imaging is to produce...

  2. A laboratory-based X-ray phase contrast imaging scanner with applications in biomedical and non-medical disciplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) provides a much higher visibility of low-absorbing details than conventional, attenuation-based radiography. This is due to the fact that image contrast is determined by the unit decrement of the real part of the complex refractive index of an object rather than by its imaginary part (the absorption coefficient), which can be up to 1000 times larger for energies in the X-ray regime. This finds applications in many areas, including medicine, biology, material testing, and homeland security. Until lately, XPCi has been restricted to synchrotron facilities due to its demanding coherence requirements on the radiation source. However, edge illumination XPCi, first developed by one of the authors at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Italy, substantially relaxes these requirements and therefore provides options to overcome this problem. Our group has built a prototype scanner that adapts the edge-illumination concept to standard laboratory conditions and extends it to large fields of view. This is based on X-ray sources and detectors available off the shelf, and its use has led to impressive results in mammography, cartilage imaging, testing of composite materials and security inspection. This article presents the method and the scanner prototype, and reviews its applications in selected biomedical and non-medical disciplines. (author)

  3. Reconstruction of color biomedical images by means of quaternion generic Jacobi-Fourier moments in the framework of polar pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Bello, César; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Báez-Rojas, José Javier

    2016-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the quaternion generic Jacobi-Fourier moments (QGJFMs) for color image description is presented. In order to reach numerical stability, a recursive approach is used during the computation of the generic Jacobi radial polynomials. Moreover, a search criterion is performed to establish the best values for the parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the radial Jacobi polynomial families. Additionally, a polar pixel approach is taken into account to increase the numerical accuracy in the calculation of the QGJFMs. To prove the mathematical theory, some color images from optical microscopy and human retina are used. Experiments and results about color image reconstruction are presented. PMID:27014716

  4. Scintillating optical fibers in detection of X synchrotron radiation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is pointed out how the use of optical fiber matrices (or alluminated optical guides) of scintillating glass can constitute systems of X image detection with energy higher than 2 KeV, with high efficiency, high spatial resolution and an acquisition capability dependent on the X flux, in the formation of the single images

  5. Analytical model and optical design of distributed aperture optical system for millimeter-wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caihua; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; MacKrides, Daniel G.; Mirotznik, Mark; Prather, Dennis W.

    2008-10-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is very interesting due to its unique transmission properties through a broad range of atmospheric obscurants such as cloud, dust, fog, sandstorms, and smoke, which thereby enables all-weather passive imaging. Unfortunately, the usefulness of millimeter-wave imagers is often limited by the large aperture sizes required to obtain images of sufficient resolution, as governed by the diffraction limit. To this end, we previously proposed a distributed aperture system for direct non-scan millimeter-wave imaging using an optical upconversion technique. In this proposed approach, an antenna array is employed to sample image signals in the millimeter-wave domain. The sampled millimeter-wave signals are then upconverted to the optical domain using electro-optic modulation techniques. These optical signals are mapped into a similar array on the entrance pupil of the following optical system for direct imaging. Although distributed aperture imaging is not new in both radio astronomy and conventional optical inteferometric imaging, the proposed approach is different in that it physically samples image in the millimeter-wave domain and directly forms the image in the optical domain. Therefore, specific analysis and evaluation techniques are required for the design and optimization of the proposed system. In this paper, we will address these issues, develop techniques to evaluate and enhance the system imaging performance and present methods to optimize the geometric configuration.

  6. Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren

    2015-07-13

    We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results. PMID:26191901

  7. Optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation. In ghost imaging, multiple series of photons recorded at the object beam arm can be arbitrarily controlled for the generation of synthesized objects. Ghost imaging with sparse reference intensity patterns provides a channel to effectively modulate the noise-like synthesized objects during the recovery, and the reconstructed (noise-like) objects, i.e., added or subtracted information, can be further authenticated by optical nonlinear correlation algorithm. It is expected that the proposed method can provide an effective and promising alternative for ghost-imaging-based optical processing.

  8. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  9. Hybrid Deconvolution of Adaptive Optics Retinal Images from Wavefront Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptive optics can be used to compensate for the wave aberration of the human eyes to achieve high-resolution imaging in real time. However the correction is partial due to the limitation of hardware. We propose a kind of hybrid image post-processing method, which uses the blind deconvolution combined with the residual data in wavefront sensor to restore the partially adaptive optics corrected retinal image. This method is applied in the image restoration of the vivid human retinal images. The results show that it is effective to improve the retinal image quality

  10. Hybrid Deconvolution of Adaptive Optics Retinal Images from Wavefront Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu; RAO Chang-Hui; RAO Xue-Jun; WANG Cheng; YU Xiang; LIU Qian; XUE Li-Xia; LING Ning; JIANG Wen-Han

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive optics can be used to compensate for the wave aberration of the human eyes to achieve high-resolution imaging in real time.However the correction is partial due to the limitation of hardware.We propose a kind of hybrid image post-processing method.which uses the blind deconvolution combined with the residual data in wavefront sensor to restore the partially adaptive optics corrected retinal image.This method is applied in the image restoration of the vivid human retinal images.The results show that it is effective to improve the retinal image quality.

  11. Biomedical imaging modality classification using combined visual features and textual terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xian-Hua; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We describe an approach for the automatic modality classification in medical image retrieval task of the 2010 CLEF cross-language image retrieval campaign (ImageCLEF). This paper is focused on the process of feature extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010. PMID:21912534

  12. Biomedical Imaging Modality Classification Using Combined Visual Features and Textual Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Han

    2011-01-01

    extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010.

  13. Functional Biomedical Images of Alzheimer's Disease. A Green's Function-based Empirical Mode Decomposition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baddai, S; Neubauer, A; Tomé, A M; Vigneron, V; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Górriz, J M; Puntonet, C G; Lang, E W; The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a functional imaging modality to detect signs of dementias in human brains. Two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD) provides means to analyze such images. It decomposes the latter into characteristic modes which represent textures on different spatial scales. These textures provide informative features for subsequent classification purposes. The study proposes a new EMD variant which relies on a Green's function based estimation method including a tension parameter to fast and reliably estimate the envelope hypersurfaces interpolating extremal points of the twodimensional intensity distrubution of the images. The new method represents a fast and stable bi-dimensional EMD which speeds up computations roughly 100-fold. In combination with proper classifiers these exploratory feature extraction techniques can form a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system to assist clinicians in identifying various diseases from functional images alone. PET images of subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease are taken to illustrate this ability. PMID:27001676

  14. A General System for Automatic Biomedical Image Segmentation Using Intensity Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is important with applications to several problems in biology and medicine. While extensively researched, generally, current segmentation methods perform adequately in the applications for which they were designed, but often require extensive modifications or calibrations before being used in a different application. We describe an approach that, with few modifications, can be used in a variety of image segmentation problems. The approach is based on a supervised learning strategy that utilizes intensity neighborhoods to assign each pixel in a test image its correct class based on training data. We describe methods for modeling rotations and variations in scales as well as a subset selection for training the classifiers. We show that the performance of our approach in tissue segmentation tasks in magnetic resonance and histopathology microscopy images, as well as nuclei segmentation from fluorescence microscopy images, is similar to or better than several algorithms specifically designed for each of these applications.

  15. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  16. Combined X-ray CT and mass spectrometry for biomedical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging technologies play a key role in many branches of science, especially in biology and medicine. They provide an invaluable insight into both internal structure and processes within a broad range of samples. There are many techniques that allow one to obtain images of an object. Different techniques are based on the analysis of a particular sample property by means of a dedicated imaging system, and as such, each imaging modality provides the researcher with different information. The use of multimodal imaging (imaging with several different techniques) can provide additional and complementary information that is not possible when employing a single imaging technique alone. In this study, we present for the first time a multi-modal imaging technique where X-ray computerized tomography (CT) is combined with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). While X-ray CT provides 3-dimensional information regarding the internal structure of the sample based on X-ray absorption coefficients, MSI of thin sections acquired from the same sample allows the spatial distribution of many elements/molecules, each distinguished by its unique mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), to be determined within a single measurement and with a spatial resolution as low as 1 μm or even less. The aim of the work is to demonstrate how molecular information from MSI can be spatially correlated with 3D structural information acquired from X-ray CT. In these experiments, frozen samples are imaged in an X-ray CT setup using Medipix based detectors equipped with a CO2 cooled sample holder. Single projections are pre-processed before tomographic reconstruction using a signal-to-thickness calibration. In the second step, the object is sliced into thin sections (circa 20 μm) that are then imaged using both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and secondary ion (SIMS) mass spectrometry, where the spatial distribution of specific molecules within the sample is determined. The

  17. A Novel Light Source Design for Spectral Tuning in Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Chandrajit; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel architecture with a remote phosphor based modular and compact light source in a non-contact dermoscope prototype for skin cancer screening. The spectrum and color temperature of the output light can easily and significantly be changed depending on spectral absorption characteristics of the tissues being imaged. The new system has several advantages compared to state-of-the-art phosphor converted ultra-bright white LEDs, used in a wide range of medical imaging devices, which have a fixed spectrum and color temperature at a given operating point. In particular, the system can more easily be adapted to the requirements originating from different tissues in the human body which have wavelength dependent absorption and reflectivity. This leads to improved contrast for different kinds of imaged tissue components. The concept of such a lighting architecture can be vastly utilized in many other medical imaging devices including endoscopic systems.

  18. A general non-stationarity measure : Application to biomedical image and signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    The intensity variation is often used in signal or image processing algorithms after being quantified by a measurement method. The method for measuring and quantifying the intensity variation is called a « change measure », which is commonly used in methods for signal change detection, image edge detection, edge-based segmentation models, feature-preserving smoothing, etc. In these methods, the « change measure » plays such an important role that their performances are greatly affected by the...

  19. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  20. Limitations to adaptive optics image quality in rodent eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal image quality of rodent eyes is inferior to that of human eyes, despite the promise of greater numerical aperture. This paradox challenges several assumptions commonly made in AO imaging, assumptions which may be invalidated by the very high power and dioptric thickness of the rodent retina. We used optical modeling to compare the performance of rat and human eyes under conditions that tested the validity of these assumptions. Results showed that AO image quality ...

  1. Sensitivity analysis of imaging geometries for prostate diffuse optical tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic and interstitial diffuse optical tomography have been studied in clinical investigations for imaging prostate tissues, yet, there is no comprehensive comparison of how these two imaging geometries affect the quality of the reconstruction images. In this study, the effect of imaging geometry is investigated by comparing the cross-section of the Jacobian sensitivity matrix and reconstructed images for three-dimensional mathematical phantoms. Next, the effect of source-detector config...

  2. Wave optics and image formation in gravitational lensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yasusada Nambu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate image formations in gravitational lensing systems using wave optics. Applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula to waves scattered by a gravitational potential of a lens object, we demonstrate how images of source objects are obtained directly from wave functions without using a lens equation for gravitational lensing. As an example of image formation in gravitational lensing, images of a point source by a point mass gravitational lens are presented. These images reduc...

  3. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  4. Radiance and photon noise: imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca; Myers, Kyle J.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2016-01-01

    The statistics of detector outputs produced by an imaging system are derived from basic radiometric concepts and definitions. We show that a fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular, and wavelength variables. We begin the paper by recalling the concept of radiance in geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics, and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Building upon these concepts, we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors (capable of measuring radiance on a photon-by-photon basis). This allows us to rigorously show how the concept of radiance is related to the statistical properties of detector outputs and to the information content of a single detected photon. A Monte-Carlo technique, which is derived from the Boltzmann transport equation, is presented as a way to estimate probability density functions to be used in reconstruction from photon-processing data.

  5. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  6. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  7. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  8. Comparison of no-prior and soft-prior regularization in biomedical microwave imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Golnabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave imaging for medical applications is attractive because the range of dielectric properties of different soft tissues can be substantial. Breast cancer detection and monitoring of treatment response are areas where this technology could be important because of the contrast between normal and malignant tissue. Unfortunately, the technique is unable to achieve the high spatial resolution at depth in tissue which is available from other conventional modalities such as x-ray computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We have incorporated a soft-prior regularization strategy within our microwave reconstruction algorithm and compared it with the images obtained with traditional no-prior (Levenberg-Marquardt regularization. Initial simulation and phantom results show a significant improvement of the recovered electrical properties. Specifically, errors in the microwave property estimates were improved by as much as 95%. The effects of a false-inclusion region were also evaluated and the results show that a small residual property bias of 6% in permittivity and 15% in conductivity can occur that does not otherwise degrade the property recovery accuracy of inclusions that actually exist. The work sets the stage for integrating microwave imaging with MR for improved resolution and functional imaging of the breast in the future.

  9. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Fu, Qiang; Amata, Hadi; Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-11-30

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging. PMID:26698765

  10. A simple multipurpose double-beam optical image analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Popowicz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we present a low cost optical device which splits the light in the focal plane into two separate optical paths and collimates it back into a single image plane, and where a selective information processing ca be carried out. The optical system is straightforward and easy implementable as it consists of only three lens and two mirrors. The system is dedicated for imaging in low-light-level conditions in which widely used optical devices, based on beam-splitters or dichroic mirrors, suffer from light loss. We expose examples of applications of our device, using a prototype model. The proposed optical system may be employed for: monitoring the objects located in different distances from observer (1), creating regions of different magnification within a single image plane (2), high dynamic range photometry (3), or imaging in two wavelength bands simultaneously (4).

  11. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2015-11-23

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging.

  12. Subdiffraction incoherent optical imaging via spatial-mode demultiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2016-01-01

    I propose a spatial-mode demultiplexing (SPADE) scheme for the far-field imaging of arbitrary incoherent optical sources. For an object too small to be resolved by direct imaging under the diffraction limit, I show that SPADE can estimate the moments of the source distribution much more precisely than direct imaging can fundamentally do under the effect of photon shot noise.

  13. Optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasma jet for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Nicula, Cosmina [Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory (PERL), College of Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    In this work, we have applied optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics to investigate the characteristics of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The discharge characteristics in the active and afterglow region of the plasma jet, that are critical for biomedical applications, have been investigated. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma discharge were analyzed and the average plasma power was measured to be around 18 W. The effect of addition of small fractions of oxygen at 0.1%-0.5% on the plasma jet characteristics was studied. The addition of oxygen resulted in a decrease in plasma plume length due to the electronegativity property of oxygen. Atomic and molecular lines of selected reactive plasma species that are considered to be useful to induce biochemical reactions such as OH transitions A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({nu}=0,1){yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}({Delta}{nu}=0) at 308 nm and A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({nu}=0,1){yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}({Delta}{nu}=1) at 287 nm, O I transitions 3p{sup 5}P{yields}3s{sup 5}S{sup 0} at 777.41 nm, and 3p{sup 3}P{yields}3s{sup 3}S{sup 0} at 844.6 nm, N{sub 2}(C-B) second positive system with electronic transition C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}{sup {yields}}B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}'' in the range of 300-450 nm and N{sub 2}{sup +}(B-X) first negative system with electronic transition B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}{yields}X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}({Delta}{nu}=0) at 391.4 nm have been studied. The atomic emission lines of helium were identified, including the He I transitions 3p{sup 3}P{sup 0}{yields}2s{sup 3}S at 388.8 nm, 3p{sup 1}P{sup 0}{yields} 2s{sup 1}S at 501.6 nm, 3d{sup 3}D{yields}2p{sup 3}P{sup 0} at 587.6 nm, 3d{sup 1}D{yields}2p{sup 1}P{sup 0} at 667.8 nm, 3s{sup 3}S{sup 1}{yields}2p{sup 3}P{sup 0} at 706.5 nm, 3s{sup 1}S{sup 0}{yields}2p{sup 1}P{sup 0} at 728.1 nm, and H{sub {alpha}} transition 2p-3d at 656.3 nm. Using a spectral fitting method, the OH radicals at 306-312 nm, the rotational and vibrational

  14. Accurate Interactive Visualization of Large Deformations and Variability in Biomedical Image Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Max; Schunke, Anja C; Schultz, Thomas; Klein, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Large image deformations pose a challenging problem for the visualization and statistical analysis of 3D image ensembles which have a multitude of applications in biology and medicine. Simple linear interpolation in the tangent space of the ensemble introduces artifactual anatomical structures that hamper the application of targeted visual shape analysis techniques. In this work we make use of the theory of stationary velocity fields to facilitate interactive non-linear image interpolation and plausible extrapolation for high quality rendering of large deformations and devise an efficient image warping method on the GPU. This does not only improve quality of existing visualization techniques, but opens up a field of novel interactive methods for shape ensemble analysis. Taking advantage of the efficient non-linear 3D image warping, we showcase four visualizations: 1) browsing on-the-fly computed group mean shapes to learn about shape differences between specific classes, 2) interactive reformation to investigate complex morphologies in a single view, 3) likelihood volumes to gain a concise overview of variability and 4) streamline visualization to show variation in detail, specifically uncovering its component tangential to a reference surface. Evaluation on a real world dataset shows that the presented method outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of visual quality while retaining interactive frame rates. A case study with a domain expert was performed in which the novel analysis and visualization methods are applied on standard model structures, namely skull and mandible of different rodents, to investigate and compare influence of phylogeny, diet and geography on shape. The visualizations enable for instance to distinguish (population-)normal and pathological morphology, assist in uncovering correlation to extrinsic factors and potentially support assessment of model quality. PMID:26390470

  15. Do Physicians Make Their Articles Readable for Their Blind or Low-Vision Patients? An Analysis of Current Image Processing Practices in Biomedical Journals from the Point of View of Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Splendiani, Bruno; Ribera, Mireia; Garcia, Roberto; Termens, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Visual content in biomedical academic papers is a growing source of critical information, but it is not always fully readable for people with visual impairments. We aimed to assess current image processing practices, accessibility policies, and submission policies in a sample of 12 highly cited biomedical journals. We manually checked the application of text-based alternative image descriptions for every image in 12 articles (one for each journal). We determined whether the journals claimed t...

  16. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  17. Characteristics of optical imaging capillary plate gas detector with fiber optic plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capillary plate (CP) gas detector with fiber optic plate (FOP) has been successfully operated as a gas scintillation proportional counter. A thin film of indium tinoxide (ITO) was used for the transparent electrode of the CP. Scintillation light emitted during the development of electron avalanches can be observed through the FOP using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and an optical imaging system, which consists of a CP gas detector and a cooled CCD camera coupled to lens optics. Using this optical imaging system, clearer images of X-rays have been obtained. Successful operation with the CP gas detector and the FOP has allowed us to realize a novel imaging device for medical imaging, cellular function analysis, and X-ray imaging

  18. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea.

  19. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center; Imagen molecular an investigation biomedica. La Unidad de Imagen Molecular del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-07-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  20. True dynamic imaging and image composition by the optical translational projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F.; Liu, Y.; He, S.

    2016-04-01

    Based on transformation optics, a novel shell (an optical translational projector (OTP)) that can be utilized for true dynamic imaging is designed. Our OTP has several notable features: Firstly OTP can form an image without a scanning process, which results in fast imaging. Secondly, the object to be imaged by the OTP can move inside the OTP, which means that we can achieve dynamic real-time imaging. Thirdly, we can achieve an image composition effect by using two OTPs that form two images in a common spatial region. The OTP will lead a new way to future true 3D volumetric display technologies.

  1. Image science and image-quality research in the Optical Sciences Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the history of research into imaging and image quality at the Optical Sciences Center (OSC), with emphasis on the period 1970-1990. The work of various students in the areas of psychophysical studies of human observers of images; mathematical model observers; image simulation and analysis, and the application of these methods to radiology and nuclear medicine is summarized. The rapid progress in computational power, at OSC and elsewhere, which enabled the steady advances in imaging and the emergence of a science of imaging, is also traced. The implications of these advances to ongoing research and the current Image Science curriculum at the College of Optical Sciences are discussed.

  2. Quality assessment for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, SHUANG; Paranjape, Amit S.; Elmaanaoui, Badr; Dewelle, Jordan; Rylander, H. Grady; Markey, Mia K.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a measure of glaucoma progression, can be measured in images acquired by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The accuracy of RNFL thickness estimation, however, is affected by the quality of the OCT images. In this paper, a new parameter, signal deviation (SD), which is based on the standard deviation of the intensities in OCT images, is introduced for objective assessment of OCT image quality. Two other objective assessment paramete...

  3. Sodium-22-radiolabeled silica nanoparticles as new radiotracer for biomedical applications: in vivo positron emission tomography imaging, biodistribution, and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Faraj A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Achraf Al Faraj,1 Basem Alotaibi,2 Abjal Pasha Shaik,3 Khaled Z Shamma,1 Ibrahim Al Jammaz,2 Jürgen Gerl4 1Molecular and Cellular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiological Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, 2Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceutical Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, 3Department of Clinical Lab Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: Despite their advantageous chemical properties for nuclear imaging, radioactive sodium-22 (22Na tracers have been excluded for biomedical applications because of their extremely long lifetime. In the current study, we proposed, for the first time, the use of 22Na radiotracers for pre-clinical applications by efficiently loading with silica nanoparticles (SiNPs and thus offering a new life for this radiotracer. Crown-ether-conjugated SiNPs (300 nm; -0.18±0.1 mV were successfully loaded with 22Na with a loading efficacy of 98.1%±1.4%. Noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging revealed a transient accumulation of 22Na-loaded SiNPs in the liver and to a lower extent in the spleen, kidneys, and lung. However, the signal gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner to become not detectable starting from 2 weeks postinjection. These observations were confirmed ex vivo by quantifying 22Na radioactivity using γ-counter and silicon content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the blood and the different organs of interest. Quantification of Si content in the urine and feces revealed that SiNPs accumulated in the organs were cleared from the body within a period of 2 weeks and completely in 1 month. Biocompatibility evaluations performed during the 1-month follow-up study to assess the possibility of synthesized nanocarriers to induce oxidative stress or DNA damage confirmed their safety for

  4. Biomedical imaging and therapy with physically and physiologically tailored magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit Praful

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) are emerging imaging and therapy approaches that have the potential to improve diagnostic safety and disease management of heart disease and cancer - the number 1 and 2 leading causes of deaths in the United States. MPI promises real-time, tomographic and quantitative imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) tracers distributed in vivo, and is targeted to offer a safer angiography alternative for its first clinical application. MFH uses ac-fields to dissipate heat from SPIONs that can be delivered locally to promote hyperthermia therapy (~42°C) in cancer cells. Both technologies use safe radiofrequency magnetic fields to exploit the fundamental magnetic relaxation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which must be tailored for optimal imaging in the case of MPI, and maximum hyperthermia potency in the case of MFH. Furthermore, the magnetic core and shell of SPIONs are both central to the optimization process; the shell, in particular, bridges the translational gap between the optimized core and its safe and effective use in the physiological environment. Unfortunately, existing SPIONs that were originally designed as MRI contrast agents lack the basic physical properties that enable the clinical translation of MPI and MFH. In this work, the core and shell of monodisperse SPIONs were optimized in concert to accomplish two equally important objectives: (1) biocompatibility, and (2) MPI and MFH efficacy of SPIONs in physiological environments. Critically, it was found that the physical and physiological responses of SPIONs are coupled, and impacting one can have consequences on the other. It was shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based shell when properly optimized reduced protein adsorption to SPION surface and phagocytic uptake in macrophages - both prerequisites for designing long-circulating SPIONs. In MPI, tailoring the surface coating

  5. Brucellar spondylitis: evaluation by NMR imaging, CT and biomedical radiography - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 50-year-old white woman presented with a 4-month history of low pain with lower extremity irradiation. Image studies showed inflammatory changes of the vertebral bodies and invertebral disk at L3-L4 level. Considering she had no previous spinal surgery, negative tests for tuberculosis and a positive history of exposure to brucellosis, further studies were done, and the serologic tests were positive for brucellar antibodies. Follow-up studies within the first two months demonstrated the progressive spinal changes in brucellar spondylitis. (author)

  6. Parallel Multi-Dimensional LSTM, With Application to Fast Biomedical Volumetric Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stollenga, Marijn F.; Byeon, Wonmin; Liwicki, Marcus; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can be shifted across 2D images or 3D videos to segment them. They have a fixed input size and typically perceive only small local contexts of the pixels to be classified as foreground or background. In contrast, Multi-Dimensional Recurrent NNs (MD-RNNs) can perceive the entire spatio-temporal context of each pixel in a few sweeps through all pixels, especially when the RNN is a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Despite these theoretical advantages, however, ...

  7. Single Molecule Imaging in Living Cell with Optical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Significance, difficult, international developing actuality and our completed works for single molecules imaging in living cell with optical method are described respectively. Additionally we give out some suggestions for the technology development further.

  8. In vivo high-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedahmadi, Babak Jian; Vavvas, Demetrios

    2010-01-01

    Retinal imaging with conventional methods is only able to overcome the lowest order of aberration, defocus and astigmatism. The human eye is fraught with higher order of aberrations. Since we are forced to use the human optical system in retinal imaging, the images are degraded. In addition, all of these distortions are constantly changing due to head/eye movement and change in accommodation. Adaptive optics is a promising technology introduced in the field of ophthalmology to measure and compensate for these aberrations. High-resolution obtained by adaptive optics enables us to view and image the retinal photoreceptors, retina pigment epithelium, and identification of cone subclasses in vivo. In this review we will be discussing the basic technology of adaptive optics and hardware requirement in addition to clinical applications of such technology. PMID:21090998

  9. Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girkin, John M; Poland, Simon; Wright, Amanda J

    2009-02-01

    Optical microscopy has been a cornerstone of life science investigations since its first practical application around 400 years ago with the goal being subcellular resolution, three-dimensional images, at depth, in living samples. Nonlinear microscopy brought this dream a step closer, but as one images more deeply the material through which you image can greatly distort the view. By using optical devices, originally developed for astronomy, whose optical properties can be changed in real time, active compensation for sample-induced aberrations is possible. Submicron resolution images are now routinely recorded from depths over 1mm into tissue. Such active optical elements can also be used to keep conventional microscopes, both confocal and widefield, in optimal alignment. PMID:19272766

  10. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  11. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T. O.; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In thi...

  12. Plenoptic microscope based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, W; Jacquin, O; de Chatellus, H Guillet; Lacot, E

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the performances of a plenoptic microscope which combines the high sensitivity of a laser optical feedback imaging setup , the high resolution of optical synthetic aperture and a shot noise limited signal to noise ratio by using acoustic photon tagging. By using an adapted phase filtering, this microscope allows phase drift correction and numerical aberration compensation (defocusing, coma, astigmatism ...). This new kind of microscope seems to be well adapted to make deep imaging through scattering and heterogeneous media.

  13. Design of photoelectronic optical image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The main performance goals for the image sensors are given and the design criteria for accomplishing these goals are discussed. Each functional element of the image sensors is described along with the various tradeoffs considered.

  14. A purification system for 64Cu produced by a biomedical cyclotron for antibody PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange is a simple and efficient method for separating no-carrier-added 64Cu from an irradiated Ni target. We developed a semi-automated two-round 64Cu separation system equipped with a strong-base anion exchange resin column. We first verified the efficiency of the system using a non-radioactive substitute consisting of 25 mg of Ni and 127 ng of Cu, and confirmed that Cu was completely eluted at the second round of the separation step. After the bombardment, separation of 64Cu from the Ni target was achieved with high radiochemical purity. 64Cu produced and separated in this study had an extremely low level of Ni impurity. It could be used for labeling monoclonal antibodies for antibody positron emission tomography imaging and synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  15. Simulation of Optical and Synthetic Imaging using Microwave Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo

    2004-01-16

    Two-dimensional full-wave time-dependent simulations in full plasma geometry are presented which show that conventional reflectometry (without a lens) can be used to synthetically image density fluctuations in fusion plasmas under conditions where the parallel correlation length greatly exceeds the poloidal correlation length of the turbulence. The advantage of synthetic imaging is that the image can be produced without the need for a large lens of high optical quality, and each frequency that is launched can be independently imaged. A particularly simple arrangement, consisting of a single receiver located at the midpoint of a microwave beam propagating along the plasma midplane is shown to suffice for imaging purposes. However, as the ratio of the parallel to poloidal correlation length decreases, a poloidal array of receivers needs to be used to synthesize the image with high accuracy. Simulations using DIII-D relevant parameters show the similarity of synthetic and optical imaging in present-day experiments.

  16. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  17. Hemodynamic responses to functional activation accessed by optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Songlin; Li, Pengcheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaohua; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    A multi-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) based optical imaging system was developed to visualize the changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation following functional activation simultaneously in rodent cortex. The 2-D blood flow image was accessed by laser speckle contrast imaging, and the spectroscopic imaging of intrinsic signal was used for the calculation of oxyhemoglobin (HbO), deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration. The combination of spectroscopic imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging provides the capability to simultaneously investigate the spatial and temporal blood flow and hemoglobin concentration changes with high resolution, which may lead to a better understanding of the coupling between neuronal activation and vascular responses. The optical imaging system been built is compact and convenient to investigators. And it is reliable to acquire raw data. In present study, the hemodynamic responses to cortical spreading depression (CSD) in parietal cortex of ~-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats were demonstrated.

  18. Simulation of Optical and Synthetic Imaging using Microwave Reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional full-wave time-dependent simulations in full plasma geometry are presented which show that conventional reflectometry (without a lens) can be used to synthetically image density fluctuations in fusion plasmas under conditions where the parallel correlation length greatly exceeds the poloidal correlation length of the turbulence. The advantage of synthetic imaging is that the image can be produced without the need for a large lens of high optical quality, and each frequency that is launched can be independently imaged. A particularly simple arrangement, consisting of a single receiver located at the midpoint of a microwave beam propagating along the plasma midplane is shown to suffice for imaging purposes. However, as the ratio of the parallel to poloidal correlation length decreases, a poloidal array of receivers needs to be used to synthesize the image with high accuracy. Simulations using DIII-D relevant parameters show the similarity of synthetic and optical imaging in present-day experiments

  19. Optical analysis of miniature lenses with curved imaging surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshidko, Dmitry; Sasian, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Miniature cameras for consumer electronics and mobile phones have been, and continue to be, in fast development. The system level requirements, such as manufacturing cost, packaging, and sensor characteristics, impose unique challenges for optical designers. In this paper, we discuss the potential optical benefits of having a curved image surface rather than a flat one. We show that curved sensor technology allows for optically faster lens solutions. We discuss trade-offs of several relevant characteristics, such as packaging, chief ray angle, image quality, and tolerance sensitivity. A comparison of a benchmark flat field lens, and an evaluation design imaging on a curved surface and working at f/1.6, provides useful specific insights. For a given image quality, departing from a flat imaging surface does not allow significantly reducing the total length of a lens. PMID:26479656

  20. A method to estimate optical distortion using planetary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyama, Toru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Imamura, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    We developed a method to calibrate optical distortion parameters for axisymmetrical optical systems using images of a spherical target taken at a variety of distances. The method utilizes the fact that the influence of distortion on the apparent radius in the image changes with the disk size of the projected body. Because several planets can be used as the spherical target, this method enables us to obtain distortion parameters in space and by using a large number of planetary images, desired accuracy of parameters can be achieved statistically. The applicability of the method was tested by applying it to simulated planetary images and real Venus images taken by Venus Monitoring Camera onboard the ESA's Venus Express, and optical distortion was successfully retrieved with the pixel position error of less than 1 pixel. Venus is the planet most suitable for the proposed method because of its smooth, nearly spherical surface of the haze layer covering the planet.

  1. Optical molecular imaging technology in genetically engineered mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical molecular imaging technology has been rapidly developed to non-invasively, quantitatively and dynamically monitor the in vivo biological processes in real time. It is widely used in various fields of biomedicine and life sciences with advantages like easy operation, real-time study, high sensitivity and low cost image equipment. In recent years, the generation of transgenic animal models in combination with optical molecular imaging reporter genes has greatly facilitated the development of the imaging technology and expanded its application. In this article, we review the research progress by optical molecular imaging in genetically engineered mice (GEM) for 1) investigating tumorigenesis, growth or metastasis, 2) monitoring cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis or angiogenesis, 3) evaluating the inflammation process and 4) providing a modality for pharmaceutical development. (authors)

  2. Design of infrared diffractive telescope imaging optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhouFeng; Hu, BingLiang; Yin, QinYe; Xie, YongJun; Kang, FuZeng; Wang, YanJun

    2015-10-01

    Diffractive telescope is an updated imaging technology, it differs from conventional refractive and reflective imaging system, which is based on the principle of diffraction image. It has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight telescope. However, one of the great challenges of design this optical system is that the diffractive optical element focuses on different wavelengths of light at different point in space, thereby distorting the color characteristics of image. In this paper, we designs a long-wavelength infrared diffractive telescope imaging system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the infrared optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens, achieving broadband light(from 8μm-12μm) to a common focus with 4.6° field of view. At last, the diffuse spot size and MTF function provide diffractive-limited performance.

  3. Imaging of dental implant osseointegration using optical coherent tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, I.; Reisen, P.

    2009-02-01

    Investigation of initial implant stability with different dental implant designs is an important task to obtain good quality dental implants. Failure of a dental implant is often related to failure to osseointegrate correctly. Optical Coherent Tomography is a competitive non-invasive method of osseointegration investigation. FD-OCT with Swept Source was used to obtain 3-D image of the peri-implant tissue (soft and hard) in the case of mandible fixed screw. 1350 nm centered laser source give better images than 850 nm laser source for hard tissue imaging. Present work suggests that Optical Coherent Tomography is a proper technique to obtain the image of the contact tissue-metal screw. OCT images are useful to evaluate optical properties of bone tissues.

  4. Secure Transmission and Recovery of Embedded Patient Information from Biomedical Images of Different Modalities through a Combination of Cryptography and Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Koley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of information hiding skill in biomedical images is proposed through a combination of cryptography and digital watermarking to achieve the enhancement in confidential and authenticated data storage and secured transmission. Here patient's name and doctor's name are considered as patient's information which is encrypted using cryptography and embedded in the scan image of that patient through watermarking. RSA algorithm is used for encryption and higher order bit LSB replacement technique is used for embedding the information. The private keys are also embedded in the cover image to have better security and accurate recovery of the hidden information. The outcome of the proposed methodology shows that the hidden information doesn't affect the cover image and it can be recovered efficiently even from several noisy images. The strength of the proposed embedding scheme is also supported by several image quality matrices.

  5. Imaging and steering an optical wireless nanoantenna link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregely, Daniel; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus; Engheta, Nader; Totzeck, Michael; Giessen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Optical nanoantennas tailor the transmission and reception of optical signals. Owing to their capacity to control the direction and angular distribution of optical radiation over a broad spectral range, nanoantennas are promising components for optical communication in nanocircuits. Here we measure wireless optical power transfer between plasmonic nanoantennas in the far-field and demonstrate changeable signal routing to different nanoscopic receivers via beamsteering. We image the radiation pattern of single-optical nanoantennas using a photoluminescence technique, which allows mapping of the unperturbed intensity distribution around plasmonic structures. We quantify the distance dependence of the power transmission between transmitter and receiver by deterministically positioning nanoscopic fluorescent receivers around the transmitting nanoantenna. By adjusting the wavefront of the optical field incident on the transmitter, we achieve directional control of the transmitted radiation over a broad range of 29°. This enables wireless power transfer from one transmitter to different receivers. PMID:24993946

  6. Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works

  7. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  8. Noncontact optical imaging in mice with full angular coverage and automatic surface extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heiko; Garofalakis, Anikitos; Zacharakis, Giannis; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Mamalaki, Clio; Kioussis, Dimitris; Economou, Eleftherios N.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Ripoll, Jorge

    2007-06-01

    During the past decade, optical imaging combined with tomographic approaches has proved its potential in offering quantitative three-dimensional spatial maps of chromophore or fluorophore concentration in vivo. Due to its direct application in biology and biomedicine, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and its fluorescence counterpart, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), have benefited from an increase in devoted research and new experimental and theoretical developments, giving rise to a new imaging modality. The most recent advances in FMT and DOT are based on the capability of collecting large data sets by using CCDs as detectors, and on the ability to include multiple projections through recently developed noncontact approaches. For these to be implemented, we have developed an imaging setup that enables three-dimensional imaging of arbitrary shapes in fluorescence or absorption mode that is appropriate for small animal imaging. This is achieved by implementing a noncontact approach both for sources and detectors and coregistering surface geometry measurements using the same CCD camera. A thresholded shadowgrammetry approach is applied to the geometry measurements to retrieve the surface mesh. We present the evaluation of the system and method in recovering three-dimensional surfaces from phantom data and live mice. The approach is used to map the measured in vivo fluorescence data onto the tissue surface by making use of the free-space propagation equations, as well as to reconstruct fluorescence concentrations inside highly scattering tissuelike phantom samples. Finally, the potential use of this setup for in vivo small animal imaging and its impact on biomedical research is discussed.

  9. A General Epipolar-Line Model between Optical and SAR Images and Used in Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The search space and strategy are important for optical and SAR image matching. In this paper a general epipolar-line model has been proposed between linear array push-broom optical and SAR images. Then a dynamic approximate epipolar-line constraint model (DAELCM has been constructed and used to construct a new image matching algorithm with Harris operator and CRA. Experimental results have shown that the general epipolar-line model is valid and successfully used in optical and SAR image matching, and effectively limits the search space and decreased computation.

  10. The image registration of multi-band images by geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-09-01

    The image fusion is combination of two or more images into one image. The fusion of multi-band spectral images has been in many applications, such as thermal system, remote sensing, medical treatment, etc. Images are taken with the different imaging sensors. If the sensors take images through the different optical paths in the same time, it will be in the different positions. The task of the image registration will be more difficult. Because the images are in the different field of views (F.O.V.), the different resolutions and the different view angles. It is important to build the relationship of the viewpoints in one image to the other image. In this paper, we focus on the problem of image registration for two non-pinhole sensors. The affine transformation between the 2-D image and the 3-D real world can be derived from the geometrical optics of the sensors. In the other word, the geometrical affine transformation function of two images are derived from the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of two sensors. According to the affine transformation function, the overlap of the F.O.V. in two images can be calculated and resample two images in the same resolution. Finally, we construct the image registration model by the mapping function. It merges images for different imaging sensors. And, imaging sensors absorb different wavebands of electromagnetic spectrum at the different position in the same time.

  11. Optical image encryption based on multifractional Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B; Liu, S; Ran, Q

    2000-08-15

    We propose a new image encryption algorithm based on a generalized fractional Fourier transform, to which we refer as a multifractional Fourier transform. We encrypt the input image simply by performing the multifractional Fourier transform with two keys. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the algorithm, and an optical implementation setup is also suggested. PMID:18066153

  12. Fast optical measurements and imaging of flow mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff;

    combustion enhancement can be also obtained. The infrared camera was also used together with special endoscope optics for fast thermal imaging of a coal-straw flame in an industrial boiler. Obtained time-resolved infrared images provided useful information for the diagnostics of the flame and fuel...

  13. Wave optics and image formation in gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Nambu, Yasusada

    2012-01-01

    We discuss image formation in gravitational lensing systems using wave optics. Applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula to waves scattered by a gravitational potential of a lens object, we demonstrate how images of source objects are obtained directly from wave functions without using a lens equation for gravitational lensing.

  14. Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging (NIVI) with Novel Optical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; King, Matthew D.; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Haohua; Gruebele, Martin

    Optical imaging is essential in medicine and in fundamental studies of biological systems. Although many existing imaging modalities can supply valuable information, not all are capable of label-free imaging with high-contrast and molecular specificity. The application of molecular or nanoparticle contrast agents may adversely influence the biological system under investigation. These substances also present ongoing concerns over toxicity or particle clearance, which must be properly addressed before their approval for in vivo human imaging. Hence there is an increasing appreciation for label-free imaging techniques. It is of primary importance to develop imaging techniques that can indiscriminately identify and quantify biochemical compositions to high degrees of sensitivity and specificity through only the intrinsic optical response of endogenous molecular species. The development and use of nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging, which is based on the interferometric detection of optical signals from coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), along with novel optical sources, offers the potential for label-free molecular imaging.

  15. Compact low-cost detection electronics for optical coherence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Akcay, A. C.; Lee, K. S.; Furenlid, L.R.; Costa, M A; Rolland, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    A compact and low-cost detection electronics scheme for optical coherence imaging is demonstrated. The performance of the designed electronics is analyzed in comparison to a commercial lock-in amplifier of equal bandwidth. Images of a fresh-onion sample are presented for each detection configuration.

  16. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  17. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  18. Perfect imaging in the optical domain using dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Lucas H; Lipson, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The promise of perfect imaging in the optical domain, where light can be imaged without aberrations and with ultra-high resolution, could revolutionize technology and nanofabrication [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Recently it has been shown theoretically that perfect imaging can be achieved in a dielectric medium with spatially varying refractive index [7, 8]. The lens geometry is defined using transformation optics [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15] for projecting a spherical space onto a real plane space, forming Maxwells fish eye [16, 17, 18, 19]. Most transformation optics demonstrations have been achieved for Euclidean spaces and in the microwave regime, due to ease of fabrication. Here we demonstrate a transformation to a non-Euclidean space [20] in the optical regime using silicon nanophotonic structures.

  19. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography for thick tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong V.; Zhao, Xuemei; Jacques, Steven L.

    1995-12-01

    Continuous-wave ultrasonic modulation of scattered laser light has been used to image objects in tissue-simulating turbid media for the first time. We hypothesize that the ultrasound wave focused into the turbid media modulates the laser light passing through the ultrasonic focal spot. The modulated laser light collected by a photomultiplier tube reflects the local mechanical and optical properties in the focal zone. Buried objects in 5-cm thick tissue phantoms are located with millimeter resolution by scanning and detecting alterations of the ultrasound-modulated optical signal. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography separates the conflict between signal and resolution in purely optical imaging of tissue and does not rely on ballistic or quasi-ballistic photons but on the abundant diffuse photons. The imaging resolution is determined by the focused ultrasonic wave. This technique has the potential to provide a noninvasive, nonionizing, inexpensive diagnostic tool for diseases such as breast cancer.

  20. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  1. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weersink, Robert A., E-mail: robert.weersink@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Shah, Duoaud [Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Lindsay, Patricia E. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  2. Optical image hiding based on computational ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan; Chen, Hanwu

    2016-05-01

    Imaging hiding schemes play important roles in now big data times. They provide copyright protections of digital images. In the paper, we propose a novel image hiding scheme based on computational ghost imaging to have strong robustness and high security. The watermark is encrypted with the configuration of a computational ghost imaging system, and the random speckle patterns compose a secret key. Least significant bit algorithm is adopted to embed the watermark and both the second-order correlation algorithm and the compressed sensing (CS) algorithm are used to extract the watermark. The experimental and simulation results show that the authorized users can get the watermark with the secret key. The watermark image could not be retrieved when the eavesdropping ratio is less than 45% with the second-order correlation algorithm, whereas it is less than 20% with the TVAL3 CS reconstructed algorithm. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust against the 'salt and pepper' noise and image cropping degradations.

  3. High throughput optical system for HDES hyperspectral imager

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Melich, Radek; Pintr, Pavel; Pleštil, Jan

    Vol. 9442. Bellingham : SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2015 - (Kovačičinová, J.; Vít, T.), 94421D ISBN 978-1-62841-557-5. ISSN 0277-786X. - (SPIE). [Optics and Measurement Conference 2014 (OaM 2014). Liberec (CZ), 07.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA MV VG20132015110 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Hyperspectral systems * Optical systems * Optics * Scanning * Single point diamond turning * Staring arrays * Imaging systems * Infrared materials * Mirrors * Detector arrays Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0247066

  4. Specifying and controlling the optical image on the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    A review covering the trends that led to the current state of knowledge in the areas of: (a) schematic models of the eye, and the definition of the retinal image in terms of first-order optics; (b) the description of the actual image on the retina and methods for accessing and characterizing it; (c) available procedures for controlling the quality of the retinal image in defined situations; and (d) intra-receptoral optical effects that cause differences between the light distribution on the retinal surface and at the level of interaction with photopigment molecules. PMID:16099192

  5. Specifying and controlling the optical image on the human retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    A review covering the trends that led to the current state of knowledge in the areas of: (a) schematic models of the eye, and the definition of the retinal image in terms of first-order optics; (b) the description of the actual image on the retina and methods for accessing and characterizing it; (c) available procedures for controlling the quality of the retinal image in defined situations; and (d) intra-receptoral optical effects that cause differences between the light distribution on the r...

  6. Sensitivity of synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the sensitivity of two imaging configurations both based on Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI). The first one is direct imaging, which uses conventional optical focalisation on target and the second one is made by Synthetic Aperture (SA) Laser, which uses numerical focalisation. We show that SA configuration allows to obtain good resolutions with high working distance and that the drawback of SA imagery is that it has a worse photometric balance in comparison to conventional microscope. This drawback is partially compensated by the important sensitivity of LOFI. Another interest of SA relies on the capacity of getting a 3D information in a single x-y scan.

  7. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: Studies on image contrast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Divakar Rao; H S Patel; B Jain; P K Gupta

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we report the development of experimental set-up for timegated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated images show that for a given optical thickness, the image contrast is better for sample with lower scattering coefficient and higher physical thickness, and that the contrast improves with decreasing value of anisotropy parameters of the scatterers. These results are consistent with time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

  9. Scalable multiplexing for parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hee Yoon; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Khan, Saara A.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating...

  10. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT: Advances in Gastrointestinal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas S. Kirtane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly evolving field of endoscopic gastrointestinal imaging, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT has found many diverse applications. We present the current status of OCT and its practical applications in imaging normal and abnormal mucosa in the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and biliary and pancreatic ducts. We highlight technical aspects and principles of imaging, assess published data, and suggest future directions for OCT-guided evaluation and therapy.

  11. Fast optical pH manipulation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Oscar; Carrone, Guillermo; Pavlovsky, Victoria Andino; Etchenique, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    We describe a complete system for optical pH manipulation and imaging. The system consists of a photoactive Ruthenium complex capable of inducing a change of more than 5 pH units at the nanosecond time scale. A compatible imaging system acquires microscopic pH images at 1200 fps using a nonexpensive commercial digital camera and an LED illumination system. We use the system as a superb tool to investigate flow in Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) models. PMID:22703044

  12. Optical imaging of visual cortex epileptic foci and propagation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Michael M

    2012-06-01

    Precise localization of neocortical epileptic foci is a complex problem that usually requires ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings; high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies; and/or invasive monitoring with implanted grid array electrodes. The exact ictal-onset site must be identified and removed to obtain the best opportunity for a seizure-free outcome. The goal of this study was to determine if high-resolution optical imaging could precisely identify neocortical epileptic foci and what role underlying neuroanatomic pathways played in the seizure propagation. Small acute epileptic foci (0.5 × 0.5 mm(2) ) were created in the primate visual neocortex and single-unit and surface EEG recordings were combined with optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye changes. Brief visual stimulation was used to evoke interictal bursts. In addition, different visually evoked epileptiform bursts were analyzed to determine the location of the epileptic focus. Spike-triggered averaging of the optical images associated with the surface EEG interictal bursts were analyzed to determine the exact location of the epileptic focus. Specific orientations of brief visual stimulation evoked different intensity optical changes and precisely localized the epileptic focus. Optical imaging identified individual epileptic foci that were <3 mm apart. The development of individual epileptic focus was monitored with optical imaging, which demonstrated excitatory activity at the focus with a surrounding zone of inhibitory-like activity. Propagation pathways outside of the inhibitory-like surround demonstrated alternating bands of excitation and inhibition with a pattern orthogonal to the ocular dominance columns. This experimental study demonstrates that optical imaging can precisely localize an epileptic focus, and provides excellent spatial resolution of the changes that

  13. Large Scale 3D Image Reconstruction in Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schutz, Antony; Mary, David; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Ferréol

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical optical interferometers (OI) sample the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution of a source at the observation wavelength. Because of rapid atmospheric perturbations, the phases of the complex Fourier samples (visibilities) cannot be directly exploited , and instead linear relationships between the phases are used (phase closures and differential phases). Consequently, specific image reconstruction methods have been devised in the last few decades. Modern polychromatic OI instruments are now paving the way to multiwavelength imaging. This paper presents the derivation of a spatio-spectral ("3D") image reconstruction algorithm called PAINTER (Polychromatic opticAl INTErferometric Reconstruction software). The algorithm is able to solve large scale problems. It relies on an iterative process, which alternates estimation of polychromatic images and of complex visibilities. The complex visibilities are not only estimated from squared moduli and closure phases, but also from differential phase...

  14. Predictive spectroscopy and chemical imaging based on novel optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew Paul

    1998-10-01

    This thesis describes two futuristic optical systems designed to surpass contemporary spectroscopic methods for predictive spectroscopy and chemical imaging. These systems are advantageous to current techniques in a number of ways including lower cost, enhanced portability, shorter analysis time, and improved S/N. First, a novel optical approach to predicting chemical and physical properties based on principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed and evaluated. A regression vector produced by PCA is designed into the structure of a set of paired optical filters. Light passing through the paired filters produces an analog detector signal directly proportional to the chemical/physical property for which the regression vector was designed. Second, a novel optical system is described which takes a single-shot approach to chemical imaging with high spectroscopic resolution using a dimension-reduction fiber-optic array. Images are focused onto a two- dimensional matrix of optical fibers which are drawn into a linear distal array with specific ordering. The distal end is imaged with a spectrograph equipped with an ICCD camera for spectral analysis. Software is used to extract the spatial/spectral information contained in the ICCD images and deconvolute them into wave length-specific reconstructed images or position-specific spectra which span a multi-wavelength space. This thesis includes a description of the fabrication of two dimension-reduction arrays as well as an evaluation of the system for spatial and spectral resolution, throughput, image brightness, resolving power, depth of focus, and channel cross-talk. PCA is performed on the images by treating rows of the ICCD images as spectra and plotting the scores of each PC as a function of reconstruction position. In addition, iterative target transformation factor analysis (ITTFA) is performed on the spectroscopic images to generate ``true'' chemical maps of samples. Univariate zero-order images, univariate first

  15. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-09-15

    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  16. Three-dimensional force microscope: A nanometric optical tracking and magnetic manipulation system for the biomedical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. K.; Cummings, J. R.; Desai, K. V.; Vicci, L.; Wilde, B.; Keller, K.; Weigle, C.; Bishop, G.; Taylor, R. M.; Davis, C. W.; Boucher, R. C.; O'Brien, E. Timothy; Superfine, R.

    2005-05-01

    We report here the development of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic force microscope for applying forces to and measuring responses of biological systems and materials. This instrument combines a conventional optical microscope with a free-floating or specifically bound magnetic bead used as a mechanical probe. Forces can be applied by the bead to microscopic structures of interest (specimens), while the reaction displacement of the bead is measured. This enables 3D mechanical manipulations and measurements to be performed on specimens in fluids. Force is generated by the magnetically permeable bead in reaction to fields produced by external electromagnets. The displacement is measured by interferometry using forward light scattered by the bead from a focused laser beam. The far-field interference pattern is imaged on a quadrant photodetector from which the 3D displacement can be computed over a limited range about the focal point. The bead and specimen are mounted on a 3D translation stage and feedback techniques are used to keep the bead within this limited range. We demonstrate the system with application to beads attached to cilia in human lung cell cultures.

  17. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  18. Elucidation of the mechanisms of optical clearing in collagen tissue with multiphoton imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Shean-Jen; Kim, Chang-Seok; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Optical clearing (OC) is a promising method to overcome limitations in biomedical depth-resolved optical studies. Mechanisms of OC in purified bovine Achilles tendon, chicken skin, and chicken tendon were studied using time-lapsed, three-dimensional second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence microscopic imaging. Quantified nonlinear optical measurements allowed temporal separation of two processes in collagen OC with glycerol. The first one is a fast process of tissue dehydration accompanied with collagen shrinkage and the second relatively slow process is glycerol penetration into the interfibrillar space of collagen alongside with CF swelling. The use of 50% glycerol induced less-expressed OC via partial substitution of water molecules with glycerol molecules. We also found that phosphate-buffered saline- and glycerol-treatments were reversible, and fiber morphology and SHG signal intensity were recovered after the removal of immersion agents. It was shown that tissue OC was a dynamic process and elucidation of its physical mechanisms may help choose optimal diagnostic, treatment, and modification regimes for collagen-based as well as other types of biomaterials. PMID:23552636

  19. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  20. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  1. X-ray refraction-contrast computed tomography images using dark-field imaging optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If an x-ray beam containing internal information derived from sample soft tissue is incident upon a Laue-case analyzer, the beam will subsequently split into a forwardly diffracted beam and a separate diffracted beam. Using these beams acquired simultaneously, a refraction-contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging system for biomedical use with lower radiation dose can be easily realized, and has a high depicting capability on the soft tissues compared with conventional x-ray CT based on absorption contrast principles. In this paper, we propose an imaging system using dark-field imaging for CT measurement based on a tandem system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals with two two-dimensional detectors, along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured entangled intensities by use of rocking curve fitting with polynomial functions. Reconstructed images of soft tissues are presented and described.

  2. Cloned images and the optical unconscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    contribute its special status. When Walter Benjamin coined the term optical unconscious, he was primarily referring to the psychoanalytical perspective: photography opened a new realm of experience that was not accessible to the naked eye – the same way that psychoanalysis provided an access to the physic...

  3. Optical techniques for the molecular imaging of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of angiogenesis, an essential hallmark for tumour development as well as for several inflammatory diseases and physiological phenomena, is of growing interest for diagnosis and therapy in oncology. In the context of biochemical characterisation of key molecules involved in angiogenesis, several targets for imaging and therapy could be identified in the last decade. Optical imaging (OI) relies on the visualisation of near infrared (NIR) light, either its absorption and scattering in tissue (non-enhanced OI) or using fluorescent contrast agents. OI offers excellent signal to noise ratios due to virtually absent background fluorescence in the NIR range and is thus a versatile tool to image specific molecular target structures in vivo. This work intends to provide a survey of the different approaches to imaging of angiogenesis using OI methods in preclinical research as well as first clinical trials. Different imaging modalities as well as various optical contrast agents are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes. PMID:26417525

  5. Fresnel Lens Sidewall Design for Imaging Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T.; Goulet, A.; Hattori, K.; Konno, K.; Tanaka, A.; Bosmans, R.; Sawada, M.; Yazawa, H.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ray tracing simulation tool for imaging systems including a Fresnel lens with a quasi-arbitrary sidewall structure. One issue with Fresnel lens is that noise in the image plane can appear from rays passing through or reflected at its sidewalls. One way to reduce it is to modify the orientation of the sidewalls so that rays will not reach the image plane. To find the best sidewall orientations, we developed a method where locally, a sidewall can freely be oriented. We could then derive the best modulation scheme for each Fresnel lens sidewall. In the case of a single imaging Fresnel lens, relative parasite noise intensity could mostly be prevented. To experimentally check our method, snapshot images were taken with single Fresnel lenses and a single spherical lens. No noticeable differences in image quality could be observed using a standard C-MOS camera. However, parasite noise could experimentally be detected with a Fresnel lens prototype when using a very! high-dynamic range C-MOS camera.

  6. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  7. Optical imaging of absorption and distribution of RITC-SiO2 nanoparticles after oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Moon Lee,1 Tai Kyoung Lee,2–5 Dae-Ik Kim,1,6 Yu-Ri Kim,7 Meyoung-Kon Kim,7 Hwan-Jeong Jeong,2–5 Myung-Hee Sohn,2–5 Seok Tae Lim2–5 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 3Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 5Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 6School of Electrical, Electronic Communication, and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seounbuk-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: In this study, we investigated the absorption and distribution of rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC-incorporated silica oxide nanoparticles(SiNPs (RITC-SiNPs after oral exposure, by conducting optical imaging, with a focus on tracking the movement of RITC-SiNPs of different particle size and surface charge. Methods: RITC-SiNPs (20 or 100 nm; positively or negatively charged were used to avoid the dissociation of a fluorescent dye from nanoparticles via spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed reactions in vivo. The changes in the nanoparticle sizes and shapes were investigated in an HCl solution for 6 hours. RITC-SiNPs were orally administered to healthy nude mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Optical imaging studies were performed at 2, 4, and 6 hours after oral administration. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours post-administration, and ex vivo imaging studies were performed

  8. Integrated structural and functional optical imaging combining spectral-domain optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vinegoni, C; Luo, W; Marks, D L; Ralston, T; Tan, W

    2005-01-01

    An integrated microscope that combines different optical techniques for simultaneous imaging is demonstrated. The microscope enables spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy based on optical backscatter, and multi-photon microscopy for the detection of two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The unique configuration of this integrated microscope allows for the simultaneous acquisition of both anatomical (structural) and functional imaging information with particular emphasis for applications in the fields of tissue engineering and cell biology. In addition, the contemporary analysis of the spectroscopic features can enhance contrast by differentiating among different tissue components.

  9. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  10. Optical asymmetric image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform to secure a fully phase image, based on amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. The gyrator wavelet transform constitutes four basic parameters; gyrator transform order, type and level of mother wavelet, and position of different frequency bands. These parameters are used as encryption keys in addition to the random phase codes to the optical cryptosystem. This tool has also been applied for simultaneous compression and encryption of an image. The system's performance and its sensitivity to the encryption parameters, such as, gyrator transform order, and robustness has also been analyzed. It is expected that this tool will not only update current optical security systems, but may also shed some light on future developments. The computer simulation results demonstrate the abilities of the gyrator wavelet transform as an effective tool, which can be used in various optical information processing applications, including image encryption, and image compression. Also this tool can be applied for securing the color image, multispectral, and three-dimensional images.

  11. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  12. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  13. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  14. Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard E; Vernon, Stephen P; Steel, Paul T; Lowry, Mark E

    2014-11-04

    A high sensitivity transient grating ultrafast radiation to optical image converter is based on a fixed transmission grating adjacent to a semiconductor substrate. X-rays or optical radiation passing through the fixed transmission grating is thereby modulated and produces a small periodic variation of refractive index or transient grating in the semiconductor through carrier induced refractive index shifts. An optical or infrared probe beam tuned just below the semiconductor band gap is reflected off a high reflectivity mirror on the semiconductor so that it double passes therethrough and interacts with the radiation induced phase grating therein. A small portion of the optical beam is diffracted out of the probe beam by the radiation induced transient grating to become the converted signal that is imaged onto a detector.

  15. Biomedical Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Naomi

    2010-03-01

    The near infrared region of the optical spectrum provides a window into the human body that can be exploited for diagnostics and therapeutics, offering an opportunity to merge these concepts. We have shown that the strong light-absorbing and light-scattering properties of noble metal nanoparticles can be controlled by manipulating their shape: in a core-shell geometry, the metallic shell layer can be easily tuned to this spectral region. This `nanoshell' geometry has proven to be ideal for enhancing both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for cancer. Nanoshells can serve as light scattering beacons, strong enhancers of fluorescent markers for optical tomography, and impart a highly effective, targeted therapeutic response via their unparalleled light-to-heat conversion properties. This latter effect has been used to induce cell death and tumor remission in animals at greater than 90% efficacy, and is currently in clinical trials. This nanoparticle platform can be combined with MRI contrast agents for the enhancement of dual imaging modalities, and also shows promise as a light-controlled nonviral vector for intracellular gene delivery.

  16. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  17. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Palmer, David W; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Ammons, S Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Perrin, Marshall D; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J

    2016-01-10

    The Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. A definitive description of the system's algorithms and technologies as built is given. 564 AO telemetry measurements from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey campaign are analyzed. The modal gain optimizer tracks changes in atmospheric conditions. Science observations show that image quality can be improved with the use of both the spatially filtered wavefront sensor and linear-quadratic-Gaussian control of vibration. The error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term. PMID:26835769

  18. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  19. Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

    2006-02-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

  20. Correlation characteristics of optical coherence tomography images of turbid media with statistically inhomogeneous optical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisy structure of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of turbid medium contains information about spatial variations of its optical parameters. We propose analytical model of statistical characteristics of OCT signal fluctuations from turbid medium with spatially inhomogeneous coefficients of absorption and backscattering. Analytically predicted correlation characteristics of OCT signal from spatially inhomogeneous medium are in good agreement with the results of correlation analysis of OCT images of different biological tissues. The proposed model can be efficiently applied for quantitative evaluation of statistical properties of absorption and backscattering fluctuations basing on correlation characteristics of OCT images.

  1. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  2. A True Multi-modality Approach for High Resolution Optical Imaging: Photo-Magnetic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Alex T.; Ha, Seunghoon; Nouizi, Farouk; Thayer, David; Lin, Yuting; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging leverages the competitive advantage of different imaging systems to improve the overall resolution and quantitative accuracy. Our new technique, Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI) is one of these true multi-modality imaging approaches, which can provide quantitative optical absorption map at MRI spatial resolution. PMI uses laser light to illuminate tissue and elevate its temperature while utilizing MR thermometry to measure the laser-induced temperature variation with high s...

  3. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to...

  4. IMAKA: imaging from MAuna KeA optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Clinton; Lin, Hua; McColgan, Ashley; Rowlands, Neil; Salmon, Derrick

    2010-07-01

    The 'IMAKA (Imaging from MAuna KeA) instrument is a wide field visible light imager incorporating Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) to take maximum advantage of the excellent seeing available at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). It requires better than 0.3" image quality simultaneously over a total field of view of approximately one square degree (~3 x 10-4 sr). This requirement along with other criterions and constraints raises a challenge for optical design. The advent of orthogonal transfer (OT) CCDs allows the tip-tilt portion of the atmospheric correction to be performed at the science detector itself. 'IMAKA will take full advantage of the large array mosaics of OTCCDs. Since the size of the adaptive mirror would drive the cost and hence implementation of the overall 'IMAKA instrument, a review of possible optical design configurations which minimize the size (diameter) of the deformable mirror is undertaken. A promising design was obtained and developed in more detail. This all reflective system is described along with its predicted optical performance. An opto-mechanical design concept was developed around this nominal optical design which takes into account various constraints due to its required location on the top end of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope. The design concept is feasible and meets the optical performance requirements.

  5. Optic disc detection and boundary extraction in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, A; Fraz, Muhammad Moazam

    2015-04-10

    With the development of digital image processing, analysis and modeling techniques, automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early detection of ophthalmologic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a robust method for optic disc detection and extraction of the optic disc boundary is proposed to help in the development of computer-assisted diagnosis and treatment of such ophthalmic disease. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, smoothing filters, and the marker controlled watershed transform. Internal and external markers are used to first modify the gradient magnitude image and then the watershed transformation is applied on this modified gradient magnitude image for boundary extraction. This method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. The proposed method has optic disc detection success rate of 100%, 100%, 100% and 98.9% for the DRIVE, Shifa, CHASE_DB1, and DIARETDB1 databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 61.88%, 70.96%, 45.61%, and 54.69% for these databases, respectively, which are higher than currents methods. PMID:25967336

  6. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems. PMID:26510305

  7. Improved optical flow motion estimation for digital image stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lijun; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xuyao

    2015-11-01

    Optical flow is the instantaneous motion vector at each pixel in the image frame at a time instant. The gradient-based approach for optical flow computation can't work well when the video motion is too large. To alleviate such problem, we incorporate this algorithm into a pyramid multi-resolution coarse-to-fine search strategy. Using pyramid strategy to obtain multi-resolution images; Using iterative relationship from the highest level to the lowest level to obtain inter-frames' affine parameters; Subsequence frames compensate back to the first frame to obtain stabilized sequence. The experiment results demonstrate that the promoted method has good performance in global motion estimation.

  8. Image segmentation by nonlinear filtering of optical Hough transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Flores, Jorge L; Alonso, Julia R; Ferrari, José A

    2016-05-01

    The identification and extraction (i.e., segmentation) of geometrical features is crucial in many tasks requiring image analysis. We present a method for the optical segmentation of features of interest from an edge enhanced image. The proposed method is based on the nonlinear filtering (implemented by the use of a spatial light modulator) of the generalized optical Hough transform and is capable of discriminating features by shape and by size. The robustness of the method against noise in the input, low contrast, or overlapping of geometrical features is assessed, and experimental validation of the working principle is presented. PMID:27140381

  9. Deep optical images of malin 1 reveal new features

    OpenAIRE

    Galaz, Gaspar; Milovic, Carlos; Suc, Vincent; Busta, Luis; Lizana, Guadalupe; Infante, Leopoldo; Royo Royo, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    We present Megacam deep optical images (g and r) of Malin 1 obtained with the 6.5m Magellan/Clay telescope, detecting structures down to ~ 28 B mag arcsec-2. In order to enhance galaxy features buried in the noise, we use a noise reduction filter based on the total generalized variation regularizator. This method allows us to detect and resolve very faint morphological features, including spiral arms, with a high visual contrast. For the first time, we can appreciate an optical image of Malin...

  10. Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the first demonstration of nanodiamond (ND) as a scattering optical label in a biological environment. NDs were efficiently transfected into cells using cationic liposomes, and imaged using differential interference and Hoffman modulation 'space' contrast microscopy techniques. We have shown that 55 nm NDs are biologically inert and produce a bright signal compared to the cell background. ND as a scattering label presents the possibility for extended biological imaging with relatively little thermal or biochemical perturbations due to the optical transparency and biologically inert nature of diamond

  11. Fluorescence optical imaging in anticancer drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Lucas, H.; Janoušková, Olga; Chytil, Petr; Mueller, T.; Mäder, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 226, 28 March (2016), s. 168-181. ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fluorescence imaging * drug delivery * theranostics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.705, year: 2014

  12. Optical replication techniques for image slicers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmoll, J.; Robertson, D.J.; Dubbeldam, C.M.; Bortoletto, F.; Pína, L.; Hudec, René; Prieto, E.; Norrie, C.; Ramsay- Howat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, 4-5 (2006), s. 263-266. ISSN 1387-6473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : smart focal planes * image slicers * replication Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.914, year: 2006

  13. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay

    2016-04-01

    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Breast imaging technology: Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review addresses the capacity of optical imaging to resolve functional and molecular characteristics of breast cancer. We focus on recent developments in optical imaging that allow three-dimensional reconstruction of optical signatures in the human breast using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These technologic advances allow the noninvasive, in vivo imaging and quantification of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of contrast agents that target the physiologic and molecular functions of tumors. Hence, malignancy differentiation can be based on a novel set of functional features that are complementary to current radiologic imaging methods. These features could enhance diagnostic accuracy, lower the current state-of-the-art detection limits, and play a vital role in therapeutic strategy and monitoring

  15. A novel optical gating method for laser gated imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Ran; Schneider, Ron; Zohar, Eyal; Nesher, Ofer

    2013-06-01

    For the past 15 years, Elbit Systems is developing time-resolved active laser-gated imaging (LGI) systems for various applications. Traditional LGI systems are based on high sensitive gated sensors, synchronized to pulsed laser sources. Elbit propriety multi-pulse per frame method, which is being implemented in LGI systems, improves significantly the imaging quality. A significant characteristic of the LGI is its ability to penetrate a disturbing media, such as rain, haze and some fog types. Current LGI systems are based on image intensifier (II) sensors, limiting the system in spectral response, image quality, reliability and cost. A novel propriety optical gating module was developed in Elbit, untying the dependency of LGI system on II. The optical gating module is not bounded to the radiance wavelength and positioned between the system optics and the sensor. This optical gating method supports the use of conventional solid state sensors. By selecting the appropriate solid state sensor, the new LGI systems can operate at any desired wavelength. In this paper we present the new gating method characteristics, performance and its advantages over the II gating method. The use of the gated imaging systems is described in a variety of applications, including results from latest field experiments.

  16. Flexibly combined optical microangiography and dual-wavelength laser speckle system for comprehensive imaging of hemodynamic and metabolic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Qin, Jia; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-03-01

    We have proposed and developed a multi-modal non-invasive biomedical optical imager. It was combined from the subsystems of optical microangiography and dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging. The system was designed to maintain the performances of both subsystems. It was capable of simultaneously imaging the hemodynamic and metabolic responses in tissue environment in vivo. To achieve such requirements, we utilized unique optical setup, such as paired dichroic mirrors to compensate dispersion, additional relay lens to increase working distance and translational sample probe to freely select imaging area and focal plane. The multi-functionality of the system was demonstrated in an investigation of hemodynamic and metabolic responses on an acute wound healing model in mouse pinna in vivo. The microvasculature, blood flow and hemoglobin concentration from millimeter down to capillary level were comprehensively visualized. The captured instantaneous responses to wound onset differed greatly between localized areas; after that blood flow had a rebalance tendency, and hemoglobin concentration dynamically recovered to baseline situation.

  17. Automated Localization of Optic Disc in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali A.Godse

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient detection of optic disc (OD in colour retinal images is a significant task in an automated retinal image analysis system. Most of the algorithms developed for OD detection are especially applicable to normal and healthy retinal images. It is a challenging task to detect OD in all types of retinal images, that is, normal, healthy images as well as abnormal, that is, images affected due to disease. This paper presents an automated system to locate an OD and its centre in all types of retinal images. The ensemble of steps based on different criteria produces more accurate results. The proposed algorithm gives excellent results and avoids false OD detection. The technique is developed and tested on standard databases provided for researchers on internet, Diaretdb0 (130 images, Diaretdb1 (89 images, Drive (40 images and local database (194 images. The local database images are collected from ophthalmic clinics. It is able to locate OD and its centre in 98.45% of all tested cases. The results achieved by different algorithms can be compared when algorithms are applied on same standard databases. This comparison is also discussed in this paper which shows that the proposed algorithm is more efficient.

  18. Optical system design of the snapshot imaging spectrometerusing image replication based on Wollaston prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lin-lin; Min, Huang; Lv, Qun-bo; Wang, Jian-wei; Li, Wei-yan

    2015-01-01

    Imaging spectral is a novel detection approach which simultaneously acquires two-dimensional visual picture and one-dimensional spectral information.The imaging spectrometer not only provides abundant data for aeronautics and astronautics remote sensing, but also offers promising applications on biomedical imaging, conservation and identification of art works,surveillance of food safety,prevention and control of plant diseases and elimination of pests,and so forth. In this paper, the snapshot imaging spectrometer using image replication based on Wollaston prisms is designed. This system includes the telescope objective, the collimator lens, the wave plates, Wollaston prisms, and the imaging lens.The imaging spectrometer system based on multi-configuration can obtain a high diffraction efficiency. Every configuration provide a kind of wave. The 16 configurations are in one mechanical structure. The system's MTF at 56 line pairs is better than 0.75. The RMS of the spots are all in one pixel.The imaging spectrometer can obtain perfect data.

  19. Optical and acoustic properties at 1064 nm of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol for use as a tissue phantom in biomedical optoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel optoacoustic phantom made of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP) for optoacoustic studies is described. The optical and acoustic properties of PVCP were measured. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder and black plastic colour (BPC) were used to introduce scattering and absorption, respectively, in the phantoms. The optical absorption coefficient (μa) at 1064 nm was determined using an optoacoustic method, while diffuse reflectance measurements were used to obtain the optical reduced scattering coefficient (μ's). These optical properties were calculated to be μa = (12.818 ? 0.001)ABPC cm-1 and μ's = (2.6 ? 0.2)STiO2 + (1.4 ? 0.1) cm-1, where ABPC is the BPC per cent volume concentration, and STiO2 is the TiO2 volume concentration (mg mL-1). The speed of sound in PVCP was measured to be (1.40 ? 0.02) ? 103 m s-1 using the pulse echo transmit receive method, with an acoustic attenuation of (0.56 ? 1.01) f(1.51?0.06)MHz (dB cm-1) in the frequency range of 0.61-1.25 MHz, and a density, calculated by measuring the displacement of water, of 1.00 ? 0.04 g cm-3. The speed of sound and density of PVCP are similar to tissue, and together with the user-adjustable optical properties, make this material well suited for developing tissue-equivalent phantoms for biomedical optoacoustics. (note)

  20. A Survey on Object Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    Object detection in optical remote sensing images, being a fundamental but challenging problem in the field of aerial and satellite image analysis, plays an important role for a wide range of applications and is receiving significant attention in recent years. While enormous methods exist, a deep review of the literature concerning generic object detection is still lacking. This paper aims to provide a review of the recent progress in this field. Different from several previously published su...