WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical named entities

  1. A CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS APPROACH TO BIOMEDICAL NAMED ENTITY RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Named entity recognition is a fundamental task in biomedical data mining. In this letter, a named entity recognition system based on CRFs (Conditional Random Fields) for biomedical texts is presented. The system makes extensive use of a diverse set of features, including local features, full text features and external resource features. All features incorporated in this system are described in detail,and the impacts of different feature sets on the performance of the system are evaluated. In order to improve the performance of system, post-processing modules are exploited to deal with the abbreviation phenomena, cascaded named entity and boundary errors identification. Evaluation on this system proved that the feature selection has important impact on the system performance, and the post-processing explored has an important contribution on system performance to achieve better results.

  2. Various criteria in the evaluation of biomedical named entity recognition

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    Lin Yu-Chun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text mining in the biomedical domain is receiving increasing attention. A key component of this process is named entity recognition (NER. Generally speaking, two annotated corpora, GENIA and GENETAG, are most frequently used for training and testing biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER systems. JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE are two major Bio-NER tasks using these corpora. Both tasks take different approaches to corpus annotation and use different matching criteria to evaluate system performance. This paper details these differences and describes alternative criteria. We then examine the impact of different criteria and annotation schemes on system performance by retesting systems participated in the above two tasks. Results To analyze the difference between JNLPBA's and BioCreAtIvE's evaluation, we conduct Experiment 1 to evaluate the top four JNLPBA systems using BioCreAtIvE's classification scheme. We then compare them with the top four BioCreAtIvE systems. Among them, three systems participated in both tasks, and each has an F-score lower on JNLPBA than on BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 2, we apply hypothesis testing and correlation coefficient to find alternatives to BioCreAtIvE's evaluation scheme. It shows that right-match and left-match criteria have no significant difference with BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 3, we propose a customized relaxed-match criterion that uses right match and merges JNLPBA's five NE classes into two, which achieves an F-score of 81.5%. In Experiment 4, we evaluate a range of five matching criteria from loose to strict on the top JNLPBA system and examine the percentage of false negatives. Our experiment gives the relative change in precision, recall and F-score as matching criteria are relaxed. Conclusion In many applications, biomedical NEs could have several acceptable tags, which might just differ in their left or right boundaries. However, most corpora annotate only one of them. In our

  3. A kernel-based approach for biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rakesh; Saha, Sujan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is one of the popular machine learning techniques used in various text processing tasks including named entity recognition (NER). The performance of the SVM classifier largely depends on the appropriateness of the kernel function. In the last few years a number of task-specific kernel functions have been proposed and used in various text processing tasks, for example, string kernel, graph kernel, tree kernel and so on. So far very few efforts have been devoted to the development of NER task specific kernel. In the literature we found that the tree kernel has been used in NER task only for entity boundary detection or reannotation. The conventional tree kernel is unable to execute the complete NER task on its own. In this paper we have proposed a kernel function, motivated by the tree kernel, which is able to perform the complete NER task. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed kernel, we have applied the kernel function on the openly available JNLPBA 2004 data. Our kernel executes the complete NER task and achieves reasonable accuracy.

  4. Unsupervised biomedical named entity recognition: experiments with clinical and biological texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-12-01

    Named entity recognition is a crucial component of biomedical natural language processing, enabling information extraction and ultimately reasoning over and knowledge discovery from text. Much progress has been made in the design of rule-based and supervised tools, but they are often genre and task dependent. As such, adapting them to different genres of text or identifying new types of entities requires major effort in re-annotation or rule development. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach to extracting named entities from biomedical text. We describe a stepwise solution to tackle the challenges of entity boundary detection and entity type classification without relying on any handcrafted rules, heuristics, or annotated data. A noun phrase chunker followed by a filter based on inverse document frequency extracts candidate entities from free text. Classification of candidate entities into categories of interest is carried out by leveraging principles from distributional semantics. Experiments show that our system, especially the entity classification step, yields competitive results on two popular biomedical datasets of clinical notes and biological literature, and outperforms a baseline dictionary match approach. Detailed error analysis provides a road map for future work.

  5. Improving named entity recognition accuracy for gene and protein in biomedical text literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Hossein; Ibrahim, Hamidah; Murad, Masrah Azrifah Azmi

    2014-01-01

    The task of recognising biomedical named entities in natural language documents called biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the focus of many researchers due to complex nature of such texts. This complexity includes the issues of character-level, word-level and word order variations. In this study, an approach for recognising gene and protein names that handles the above issues is proposed. Similar to the previous related works, our approach is based on the assumption that a named entity occurs within a noun group. The strength of our proposed approach lies on a Statistical Character-based Syntax Similarity (SCSS) algorithm which measures similarity between the extracted candidates and the well-known biomedical named entities from the GENIA V3.0 corpus. The proposed approach is evaluated and results are satisfied. For recognitions of both gene and protein names, we achieved 97.2% for precision (P), 95.2% for recall (R), and 96.1 for F-measure. While for protein names recognition we gained 98.1% for P, 97.5% for R and 97.7 for F-measure.

  6. A re-evaluation of biomedical named entity-term relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kim, Jin-Dong; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2010-10-01

    Text mining can support the interpretation of the enormous quantity of textual data produced in biomedical field. Recent developments in biomedical text mining include advances in the reliability of the recognition of named entities (NEs) such as specific genes and proteins, as well as movement toward richer representations of the associations of NEs. We argue that this shift in representation should be accompanied by the adoption of a more detailed model of the relations holding between NEs and other relevant domain terms. As a step toward this goal, we study NE-term relations with the aim of defining a detailed, broadly applicable set of relation types based on accepted domain standard concepts for use in corpus annotation and domain information extraction approaches.

  7. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/.

  8. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities, i.e.

  9. Named Entity Recognition for IDEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qianzhou; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    This project explored how to apply Named Entity Recognition to large Twitter and web page datasets to extract useful entities such as people, organization, location, and date. In addition, this NER utility has been scaled to the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop cluster. A schema and software allow this to be integrated with IDEAL. The term “Named Entity”, which was first introduced by Grishman and Sundheim, is widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The researchers were focusing...

  10. HMM based Korean Named Entity Recognition

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    Yi-Gyu Hwang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a named entity recognition model for Korean Language. Named entity recognition is an essential and important process of Question Answering and Information Extraction system. This paper proposes a HMM based named entity recognition using compound word construction principles. In Korean, above 60% of NE (Named-Entity is a compound word. This compound word may be consisted of proper noun, common noun, or bound noun, etc. There is an intercontextual relationship among nouns which consists NE. NE and surrounding words of NE have a contextual relationship. For considering these relationships, we classified nouns into 4 word classes (Independent Entity, Constituent Entity, Adjacent Entity, Not an Entity. With this classification, our system gets contextual and lexical information by stochastic based machine leaning method from a NE labeled training data. Experimental result shows that this approach is better approach than rulebased in the Korean named-entity recognition.

  11. Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

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    Pino Buizza

    2011-10-01

    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

  12. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  13. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

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    Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE isfound in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE’s nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in atext, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of afootballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize aNE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representations andmodified tf-idf representations are used to calculate the context weights associated to context frequency, learning example frequency, and document frequency in the corpus.

  15. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Karaa, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE) can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE is found in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE's nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in a text, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of a footballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize a NE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representatio...

  16. Improving Named Entity Disambiguation by Iteratively Enhancing Certainty of Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This paper addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost n

  17. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  18. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244

  19. Named Entity Recognition Based on A Machine Learning Model

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    Jing Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the recruitment information in Web pages, a novel unified model for named entity recognition is proposed in this study. The models provide a simple statistical framework to incorporate a wide variety of linguistic knowledge and statistical models in a unified way. In our approach, firstly, Multi-Rules are built for a better representation of the named entity, in order to emphasize the specific semantics and term space in the named entity. Then an optimal algorithm of the hierarchically structured DSTCRFs is performed, in order to pick out the structure attributes of the named entity from the recruitment knowledge and optimize the efficiency of the training. The experimental results showed that the accuracy rate has been significantly improved and the complexity of sample training has been decreased.

  20. Named Entity Recognition in Turkish Using Association Measures

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    Senem Kumova Metin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition which is an important subject of Natural Language Processing is a key technology of information extraction, information retrieval, question answering and other text processing applications. In this study, we evaluate previously well-established association measures as an initial attempt to extract two-worded named entities in a Turkish corpus. Furthermore we propose a new association measure, and compare it with the other methods. The evaluation of these methods is performed by precision and recall measures.

  1. Integrating Semantic Features for Enhancing Arabic Named Entity Recognition

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    Hamzah A. Alsayadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER is currently an essential research area that supports many tasks in NLP. Its goal is to find a solution to boost accurately the named entities identification. This paper presents an integrated semantic-based Machine learning (ML model for Arabic Named Entity Recognition (ANER problem. The basic idea of that model is to combine several linguistic features and to utilize syntactic dependencies to infer semantic relations between named entities. The proposed model focused on recognizing three types of named entities: person, organization and location. Accordingly, it combines internal features that represented linguistic features as well as external features that represent the semantic of relations between the three named entities to enhance the accuracy of recognizing them using external knowledge source such as Arabic WordNet ontology (ANW. We introduced both features to CRF classifier, which are effective for ANER. Experimental results show that this approach can achieve an overall F-measure around 87.86% and 84.72% for ANERCorp and ALTEC datasets respectively.

  2. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  3. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ananiadou

    Full Text Available Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org. We developed named entity recognition (NER tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1 bacteria names, 2 biological processes, 3 molecular functions, and 4 cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80% are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  4. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  5. SimConcept: A Hybrid Approach for Simplifying Composite Named Entities in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    Many text-mining studies have focused on the issue of named entity recognition and normalization, especially in the field of biomedical natural language processing. However, entity recognition is a complicated and difficult task in biomedical text. One particular challenge is to identify and resolve composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept(e.g., BRCA1/2). Most bioconcept recognition and normalization studies have either ignored this issue, used simple ad-hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, which is only one of the many types of composite mentions studied in this work. No systematic methods for simplifying composite mentions have been previously reported, making a robust approach greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach by integrating a machine learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the antecedent and conjuncts regions of a concept mention, and then reassemble the composite mention using those identified regions. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first method to systematically handle most types of composite mentions. Our method achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three fundamental biological entities: genes (89.29% in F-measure), diseases (85.52% in F-measure) and chemicals (84.04% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that, using our SimConcept method can subsequently help improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization.

  6. Named Entity Recognition and Classification in Kannada Language

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    S Amarappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition and classification (NERC is an essential and challenging task in (NLP. Kannada is a highly inflectional and agglutinating language providing one of the richest and most challenging sets of linguistic and statistical features resulting in long and complex word forms, which is large in number. It is primarily a suffixing Language and inflected word starts with a root and may have several suffixes added to the right. It is also a Freeword order Language. Like other Indian languages, it is a resource poor language. Annotated corpora, name dictionaries, good morphological analyzers, Parts of Speech (POS taggers etc. are not yet available in the required measure and not many works are reported for this language. The work related to NERC in Kannada is not yet reported. In recent years, automatic named entity recognition and extraction systems have become one of the popular research areas. Building NERC for Kannada is challenging. It seeks to classify words which represent names in text into predefined categories like person name, location, organization, date, time etc. This paper deals with some attempts in this direction. This work starts with experiments in building Semi-Automated Statistical Machine learning NLP Models based on Noun Taggers. In this paper we have developed an algorithm based on supervised learning techniques that include Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Some sample results are reported.

  7. Confidence Links Between Name Entities in Disparate Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    system functions. For example, memory 106 includes cache, Flash , ROM, RAM, or one or more different types of memory used for 15 temporarily storing...augmented set of names. Aug- television, he transformed from the pain-racked boy mentation can be performed using various information who left the city of...corpus statistics. Similar to the tar- 50 "he", "his", " boy ", and "who" all refer to the same entity, geted problems, each algoritlnn can augment the

  8. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

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    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  9. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300... PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A reporting... under any Federal, State or local law or regulation. If a reporting entity is composed of more than...

  10. Incorporating rich background knowledge for gene named entity classification and recognition

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    Yang Zhihao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene named entity classification and recognition are crucial preliminary steps of text mining in biomedical literature. Machine learning based methods have been used in this area with great success. In most state-of-the-art systems, elaborately designed lexical features, such as words, n-grams, and morphology patterns, have played a central part. However, this type of feature tends to cause extreme sparseness in feature space. As a result, out-of-vocabulary (OOV terms in the training data are not modeled well due to lack of information. Results We propose a general framework for gene named entity representation, called feature coupling generalization (FCG. The basic idea is to generate higher level features using term frequency and co-occurrence information of highly indicative features in huge amount of unlabeled data. We examine its performance in a named entity classification task, which is designed to remove non-gene entries in a large dictionary derived from online resources. The results show that new features generated by FCG outperform lexical features by 5.97 F-score and 10.85 for OOV terms. Also in this framework each extension yields significant improvements and the sparse lexical features can be transformed into both a lower dimensional and more informative representation. A forward maximum match method based on the refined dictionary produces an F-score of 86.2 on BioCreative 2 GM test set. Then we combined the dictionary with a conditional random field (CRF based gene mention tagger, achieving an F-score of 89.05, which improves the performance of the CRF-based tagger by 4.46 with little impact on the efficiency of the recognition system. A demo of the NER system is available at http://202.118.75.18:8080/bioner.

  11. Network analysis of named entity interactions in written texts

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R

    2015-01-01

    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics has allowed for the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to identify patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we introduce a model that links entities appearing in the same context in order to capture the complexity of entities organization through a networked representation. Computational simulations in books revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as short typical shortest path length, high values of clustering coefficient and modular organization. The effectiveness of the our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared ...

  12. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to “text mine” these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug developmen...

  13. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  14. A Variance Based Active Learning Approach for Named Entity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    The cost of manually annotating corpora is one of the significant issues in many text based tasks such as text mining, semantic annotation and generally information extraction. Active Learning is an approach that deals with reduction of labeling costs. In this paper we proposed an effective active learning approach based on minimal variance that reduces manual annotation cost by using a small number of manually labeled examples. In our approach we use a confidence measure based on the model's variance that reaches a considerable accuracy for annotating entities. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is chosen as the underlying learning model due to its promising performance in many sequence labeling tasks. The experiments show that the proposed method needs considerably fewer manual labeled samples to produce a desirable result.

  15. Assessment of disease named entity recognition on a corpus of annotated sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga Rafael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the recognition of semantic types from the biomedical scientific literature has been focused on named entities like protein and gene names (PGNs and gene ontology terms (GO terms. Other semantic types like diseases have not received the same level of attention. Different solutions have been proposed to identify disease named entities in the scientific literature. While matching the terminology with language patterns suffers from low recall (e.g., Whatizit other solutions make use of morpho-syntactic features to better cover the full scope of terminological variability (e.g., MetaMap. Currently, MetaMap that is provided from the National Library of Medicine (NLM is the state of the art solution for the annotation of concepts from UMLS (Unified Medical Language System in the literature. Nonetheless, its performance has not yet been assessed on an annotated corpus. In addition, little effort has been invested so far to generate an annotated dataset that links disease entities in text to disease entries in a database, thesaurus or ontology and that could serve as a gold standard to benchmark text mining solutions. Results As part of our research work, we have taken a corpus that has been delivered in the past for the identification of associations of genes to diseases based on the UMLS Metathesaurus and we have reprocessed and re-annotated the corpus. We have gathered annotations for disease entities from two curators, analyzed their disagreement (0.51 in the kappa-statistic and composed a single annotated corpus for public use. Thereafter, three solutions for disease named entity recognition including MetaMap have been applied to the corpus to automatically annotate it with UMLS Metathesaurus concepts. The resulting annotations have been benchmarked to compare their performance. Conclusions The annotated corpus is publicly available at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/textmining/corpora/diseases and can serve as

  16. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recogniti...

  17. Combined SVM-CRFs for biological named entity recognition with maximal bidirectional squeezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhu

    Full Text Available Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs and conditional random fields (CRFs, which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F(1 of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data.

  18. Combined SVM-CRFs for biological named entity recognition with maximal bidirectional squeezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Shen, Bairong

    2012-01-01

    Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F(1) of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data.

  19. Rule Based Approach for Arabic Part of Speech Tagging and Name Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hjouj Btoush

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to build a tool for Part of Speech (POS tagging and Name Entity Recognition for Arabic Language, the approach used to build this tool is a rule base technique. The POS Tagger contains two phases:The first phase is to pass word into a lexicon phase, the second level is the morphological phase, and the tagset are (Noun, Verb and Determine. The Named-Entity detector will apply rules on the text and give the correct Labels for each word, the labels are Person(PERS, Location (LOC and Organization (ORG.

  20. Named-Entity Tagging a Very Large Unbalanced Corpus. Training and Evaluating NE classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Haider, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We describe a systematic and application-oriented approach to training and evaluating named entity recognition and classification (NERC) systems, the purpose of which is to identify an optimal system and to train an optimal model for named entity tagging DeReKo, a very large general-purpose corpus...... of contemporary German (Kupietz et al., 2010). DeReKo 's strong dispersion wrt. genre, register and time forces us to base our decision for a specific NERC system on an evaluation performed on a representative sample of DeReKo instead of performance figures that have been reported for the individual NERC systems...

  1. A Novel Approach for Protein-Named Entity Recognition and Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Meijing Li; Tsendsuren Munkhdalai; Xiuming Yu; Keun Ho Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers focus on developing protein-named entity recognition (Protein-NER) or PPI extraction systems. However, the studies about these two topics cannot be merged well; then existing PPI extraction systems’ Protein-NER still needs to improve. In this paper, we developed the protein-protein interaction extraction system named PPIMiner based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) and parsing tree. PPIMiner consists of three main models: natural language processing (NLP) model, Protein-NER mod...

  2. A survey of Named Entity Recognition in English and other Indian Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvinder Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a survey is done on various approaches used to recognize name entity in various Indian languages. Firstly, the introduction is given about the work done in the NER task. Then a survey is given about the work done in recognition of name entities in English and other foreign languages like Spanish, Chinese etc. In English language, lots of work has been done in this field, where capitalization is a major clue for making rules. Secondly, a survey is given regarding the work done in Indian Languages. As Punjabi is one of the Indian languages and also the official language of Punjab. In next part, survey is given on Punjabi Language regarding what work is done and what work is going on in this field.

  3. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparamete...

  4. ONER: Tool for Organization Named Entity Recognition from Affiliation Strings in PubMed Abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Automatically extracting organization names from the affiliation sentences of articles related to biomedicine is of great interest to the pharmaceutical marketing industry, health care funding agencies and public health officials. It will also be useful for other scientists in normalizing author names, automatically creating citations, indexing articles and identifying potential resources or collaborators. Today there are more than 18 million articles related to biomedical research indexed in PubMed, and information derived from them could be used effectively to save the great amount of time and resources spent by government agencies in understanding the scientific landscape, including key opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Our process for extracting organization names involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The system achieves 99.6% f-measure in extracting organization names.

  5. Named Entity Recognition System for Postpositional Languages: Urdu as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamran Malik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition and Classification is the process of identifying named entities and classifying them into one of the classes like person name, organization name, location name, etc. In this paper, we propose a tagging scheme Begin Inside Last -2 (BIL2 for the Subject Object Verb (SOV languages that contain postposition. We use the Urdu language as a case study. We compare the F-measure values obtained for the tagging schemes IO, BIO2, BILOU and BIL2 using Hidden Markov Model (HMM and Conditional Random Field (CRF. The BIL2 tagging scheme results are better than the other three tagging schemes using the same parameters including bigram and context window. With HMM, the F-measure values for IO, BIO2, BILOU, and BIL2 are 44.87%, 44.88%, 45.14%, and 45.88%, respectively. With CRF, the F-measure values for IO, BIO2, BILOU, and BIL2 are 35.13%, 35.90%, 37.85%, and 38.39%, respectively. The F-measure values for BIL2 are better than those of previously reported techniques

  6. Incorporating Linguistic Expertise Using ILP for Named Entity Recognition in Data Hungry Indian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anup; Ramakrishnan, Ganesh; Bhattacharya, Pushpak

    Developing linguistically sound and data-compliant rules for named entity annotation is usually an intensive and time consuming process for any developer or linguist. In this work, we present the use of two Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) techniques to construct rules for extracting instances of various named entity classes thereby reducing the efforts of a linguist/developer. Using ILP for rule development not only reduces the amount of effort required but also provides an interactive framework wherein a linguist can incorporate his intuition about named entities such as in form of mode declarations for refinements (suitably exposed for ease of use by the linguist) and the background knowledge (in the form of linguistic resources). We have a small amount of tagged data - approximately 3884 sentences for Marathi and 22748 sentences in Hindi. The paucity of tagged data for Indian languages makes manual development of rules more challenging, However, the ability to fold in background knowledge and domain expertise in ILP techniques comes to our rescue and we have been able to develop rules that are mostly linguistically sound that yield results comparable to rules hand-crafted by linguists. The ILP approach has two advantages over the approach of hand-crafting all rules: (i) the development time reduces by a factor of 240 when ILP is used instead of involving a linguist for the entire rule development and (ii) the ILP technique has the computational edge that it has a complete and consistent view of all significant patterns in the data at the level of abstraction specified through the mode declarations. The point (ii) enables the discovery of rules that could be missed by the linguist and also makes it possible to scale the rule development to a larger training dataset. The rules thus developed could be optionally edited by linguistic experts and consolidated either (a) through default ordering (as in TILDE[1]) or (b) with an ordering induced using [2] or (c) by

  7. A Survey on Named Entity Recognition in Indian Languages with particular reference to Telugu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sasidhar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a survey of various approaches for identification of Named Entities (NE in Indian Languages. First we present various approaches used to recognize NE in Indian languages . Next we critically describe the observations and research related to NER. In the language of English it is observed capitalization is a major clue to identify NEs. Indian languages are resource poor languages and gazetteers available are insufficient. Indian languages are agglutinative in nature the reason being more number of inflectional words.

  8. Network analysis of named entity co-occurrences in written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2016-06-01

    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics to analyze written texts has allowed the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to unveil patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we represent entities appearing in the same context as a co-occurrence network, where links are established according to a null model based on random, shuffled texts. Computational simulations performed in novels revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as the small world feature, characterized by high values of clustering coefficient. The effectiveness of our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared with traditional word adjacency networks, our model displayed optimized results in identifying unknown references in texts. Because the proposed representation plays a complementary role in characterizing unstructured documents via topological analysis of named entities, we believe that it could be useful to improve the characterization of written texts (and related systems), specially if combined with traditional approaches based on statistical and deeper paradigms.

  9. Recognition and translation Arabic-French of Named Entities: case of the Sport places

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadou, Abdelmajid Ben; Fehri, Héla

    2010-01-01

    The recognition of Arabic Named Entities (NE) is a problem in different domains of Natural Language Processing (NLP) like automatic translation. Indeed, NE translation allows the access to multilingual information. This translation doesn't always lead to ex-pected result especially when NE contains a person name. For this reason and in order to ameliorate translation, we can transliterate some part of NE. In this context, we propose a method that integrates translation and transliteration together using the linguistic NooJ platform that is based on local grammars and transducers. In this paper, we focus on sport domain. We will firstly suggest a refinement of the typological model presented at the MUC-6 Conference. We will describe the integration of an Arabic transliteration module into translation system. Finally, we will detail our method and give the results of the evaluation.

  10. Mining heart disease risk factors in clinical text with named entity recognition and distributional semantic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay

    2015-12-01

    We present the design, and analyze the performance of a multi-stage natural language processing system employing named entity recognition, Bayesian statistics, and rule logic to identify and characterize heart disease risk factor events in diabetic patients over time. The system was originally developed for the 2014 i2b2 Challenges in Natural Language in Clinical Data. The system's strengths included a high level of accuracy for identifying named entities associated with heart disease risk factor events. The system's primary weakness was due to inaccuracies when characterizing the attributes of some events. For example, determining the relative time of an event with respect to the record date, whether an event is attributable to the patient's history or the patient's family history, and differentiating between current and prior smoking status. We believe these inaccuracies were due in large part to the lack of an effective approach for integrating context into our event detection model. To address these inaccuracies, we explore the addition of a distributional semantic model for characterizing contextual evidence of heart disease risk factor events. Using this semantic model, we raise our initial 2014 i2b2 Challenges in Natural Language of Clinical data F1 score of 0.838 to 0.890 and increased precision by 10.3% without use of any lexicons that might bias our results.

  11. Drug name recognition in biomedical texts: a machine-learning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linna; Yang, Zhihao; Lin, Hongfei; Li, Yanpeng

    2014-05-01

    Currently, there is an urgent need to develop a technology for extracting drug information automatically from biomedical texts, and drug name recognition is an essential prerequisite for extracting drug information. This article presents a machine-learning-based approach to recognize drug names in biomedical texts. In this approach, a drug name dictionary is first constructed with the external resource of DrugBank and PubMed. Then a semi-supervised learning method, feature coupling generalization, is used to filter this dictionary. Finally, the dictionary look-up and the condition random field method are combined to recognize drug names. Experimental results show that our approach achieves an F-score of 92.54% on the test set of DDIExtraction2011.

  12. Automatically building large-scale named entity recognition corpora from Chinese Wikipedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Bi-cheng LI; Gang CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Named entity recognition (NER) is a core component in many natural language processing applications. Most NER systems rely on supervised machine learning methods, which depend on time-consuming and expensive annotations in different languages and domains. This paper presents a method for automatically building silver-standard NER corpora from Chinese Wikipedia. We refine novel and language-dependent features by exploiting the text and structure of Chinese Wikipedia. To reduce tagging errors caused by entity classification, we design four types of heuristic rules based on the characteristics of Chinese Wikipedia and train a supervised NE classifier, and a combined method is used to improve the precision and coverage. Then, we realize type identification of implicit mention by using boundary information of outgoing links. By selecting the sentences related with the domains of test data, we can train better NER models. In the experiments, large-scale NER corpora containing 2.3 million sentences are built from Chinese Wikipedia. The results show the effectiveness of automatically annotated corpora, and the trained NER models achieve the best performance when combining our silver-standard corpora with gold-standard corpora.

  13. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  14. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  15. Investigating the Combination of Bag of Words and Named Entities Approach in Tracking and Detection Tasks among Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd, Masnizah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of many interactive Topic Detection and Tracking (iTDT systems has motivated researchers to design systems that can track and detect news better. iTDT focuses on user interaction, user evaluation, and user interfaces. Recently, increasing effort has been devoted to user interfaces to improve TDT systems by investigating not just the user interaction aspect but also user and task oriented evaluation. This study investigates the combination of the bag of words and named entities approaches implemented in the iTDT interface, called Interactive Event Tracking (iEvent, including what TDT tasks these approaches facilitate. iEvent is composed of three components, which are Cluster View (CV, Document View (DV, and Term View (TV. User experiments have been carried out amongst journalists to compare three settings of iEvent: Setup 1 and Setup 2 (baseline setups, and Setup 3 (experimental setup. Setup 1 used bag of words and Setup 2 used named entities, while Setup 3 used a combination of bag of words and named entities. Journalists were asked to perform TDT tasks: Tracking and Detection. Findings revealed that the combination of bag of words and named entities approaches generally facilitated the journalists to perform well in the TDT tasks. This study has confirmed that the combination approach in iTDT is useful and enhanced the effectiveness of users' performance in performing the TDT tasks. It gives suggestions on the features with their approaches which facilitated the journalists in performing the TDT tasks.

  16. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  17. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research.

  18. NERChem: adapting NERBio to chemical patents via full-token features and named entity feature with chemical sub-class composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Po-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Chemical patents contain detailed information on novel chemical compounds that is valuable to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper, we introduce a system, NERChem that can recognize chemical named entity mentions in chemical patents. NERChem is based on the conditional random fields model (CRF). Our approach incorporates (1) class composition, which is used for combining chemical classes whose naming conventions are similar; (2) BioNE features, which are used for distinguishing chemical mentions from other biomedical NE mentions in the patents; and (3) full-token word features, which are used to resolve the tokenization granularity problem. We evaluated our approach on the BioCreative V CHEMDNER-patent corpus, and achieved an F-score of 87.17% in the Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) task and a sensitivity of 98.58% in the Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) task, ranking alongside the top systems. Database URL: Our NERChem web-based system is publicly available at iisrserv.csie.n cu.edu.tw/nerchem.

  19. Life Sciences—Life Writing: PTSD as a Transdisciplinary Entity between Biomedical Explanation and Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W. Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, the life sciences have become one of the dominant explanatory models for almost every aspect of human life. Hand in hand with biomedical developments and technologies, the life sciences are constantly shaping and reshaping human lives and changing human biographies in manifold ways. The orientation towards life sciences and biomedicine from the very beginning to the end of human life is driven by the utopian notion that all forms of contingency could be technologically and medically controlled. This paper addresses the interrelatedness of life sciences and human biographies in a field where contingency and risk become essential and existential parts of lived experience: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. On the one hand, this diagnostic entity is related to (neuro-biological underpinnings of (a lack of psychic resilience as well as to those of contemporary pharmacotherapy. On the other hand, PTSD is also understood as based on a traumatic life event, which can be accessed through and addressed by talk therapy, particularly narrative exposure therapy (NET. We argue that a novel focus on concepts of narrativity will generate pathways for an interdisciplinary understanding of PTSD by linking biological underpinnings from neurobiological findings, to brain metabolism and pharmacotherapy via the interface of psychotherapy and the specific role of narratives to the lived experience of patients and vice versa. The goal of our study is to demonstrate why therapies such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy are successful in controlling the disease burden of PTSD to some extent, but the restitutio ad integrum, the reestablishing of the bodily and psychic integrity remains out of reach for most PTSD patients. As a test case, we discuss the complementary methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and the established procedures of talk therapy (NET to show how a methodological focus on narratives enhanced by

  20. Person-specific named entity recognition using SVM with rich feature sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui; NIE

    2012-01-01

    (F1value)for all types of name entities can achieve above 88.6%,which can meet the requirements for the practical application.

  1. "That thing in New York": Impaired naming vs. preserved recognition of unique entities following an anterior temporal lobe lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Anterior temporal lobe (aTL damage often results in semantic impairment. As such, the contribution of this region to semantic processing has received considerable attention. Two theories exist to explain aTL function based on conflicting neuropsychological investigations. The first proposes bilateral aTLs form a “hub” implicated in multimodal semantics (for review see: Jefferies, 2013. The second assumes distinct functions. The left is thought to function as a repertoire for knowledge of entities with unique lexical-conceptual associations (for review: Ross & Olson, 2012. These items represent an extreme end of a continuum of semantic specificity spanning unique (e.g., Eiffel Tower over less specific (e.g., tower to nonspecific (e.g., landmark – often denoted by famous faces, landmarks and proper names. LaTL function, therefore, is to link semantics to language systems for naming, whilst RaTL is involved in familiarity and recognition (e.g., Eiffel Tower -> a building in Paris; Drane et al., 2013. Evidence for each theory has proceeded in parallel but there has been no attempt to directly test them in a patient (Simmons & Martin, 2009. The novelty of this study, therefore, was to determine whether LaTL lesions disproportionately affect unique entity naming vs. recognition. Method WRP, a 51year old right-handed male, three year post-HSVE has a LaTL lesion with destruction of the temporal pole, extending to medial temporal, amygdala and hippocampus and atypical connectivity particularly involving the uncinate fasciculas. There is no evidence of either cortical or white matter damage in the right hemisphere. Previous work with WRP revealed a mild/moderate category-specific semantic deficit (Roberts et al., 2012. This new study focuses on unique entity picture naming, recognition and word-to-picture matching (WPM. Results & Discussion As predicted, results (Table 1 show that WRP was severely impaired in naming different categories

  2. Semantic representation of scientific literature: bringing claims, contributions and named entities onto the Linked Open Data cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Sateli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Finding relevant scientific literature is one of the essential tasks researchers are facing on a daily basis. Digital libraries and web information retrieval techniques provide rapid access to a vast amount of scientific literature. However, no further automated support is available that would enable fine-grained access to the knowledge ‘stored’ in these documents. The emerging domain of Semantic Publishing aims at making scientific knowledge accessible to both humans and machines, by adding semantic annotations to content, such as a publication’s contributions, methods, or application domains. However, despite the promises of better knowledge access, the manual annotation of existing research literature is prohibitively expensive for wide-spread adoption. We argue that a novel combination of three distinct methods can significantly advance this vision in a fully-automated way: (i Natural Language Processing (NLP for Rhetorical Entity (RE detection; (ii Named Entity (NE recognition based on the Linked Open Data (LOD cloud; and (iii automatic knowledge base construction for both NEs and REs using semantic web ontologies that interconnect entities in documents with the machine-readable LOD cloud.Results. We present a complete workflow to transform scientific literature into a semantic knowledge base, based on the W3C standards RDF and RDFS. A text mining pipeline, implemented based on the GATE framework, automatically extracts rhetorical entities of type Claims and Contributions from full-text scientific literature. These REs are further enriched with named entities, represented as URIs to the linked open data cloud, by integrating the DBpedia Spotlight tool into our workflow. Text mining results are stored in a knowledge base through a flexible export process that provides for a dynamic mapping of semantic annotations to LOD vocabularies through rules stored in the knowledge base. We created a gold standard corpus from computer

  3. A New Data Representation Based on Training Data Characteristics to Extract Drug Name Entity in Medical Text

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    Mujiono Sadikin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One essential task in information extraction from the medical corpus is drug name recognition. Compared with text sources come from other domains, the medical text mining poses more challenges, for example, more unstructured text, the fast growing of new terms addition, a wide range of name variation for the same drug, the lack of labeled dataset sources and external knowledge, and the multiple token representations for a single drug name. Although many approaches have been proposed to overwhelm the task, some problems remained with poor F-score performance (less than 0.75. This paper presents a new treatment in data representation techniques to overcome some of those challenges. We propose three data representation techniques based on the characteristics of word distribution and word similarities as a result of word embedding training. The first technique is evaluated with the standard NN model, that is, MLP. The second technique involves two deep network classifiers, that is, DBN and SAE. The third technique represents the sentence as a sequence that is evaluated with a recurrent NN model, that is, LSTM. In extracting the drug name entities, the third technique gives the best F-score performance compared to the state of the art, with its average F-score being 0.8645.

  4. NOMINAL MARKING SYSTEM OF BAHASA MANGGARAI AND ITS INTERRELATION TO NAMING SYSTEM OF ENTITIES: A CULTURAL LINGUISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kletus Erom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the cultural imagery of the Manggaraian SpeechCommunities (MSC in “Nominal Marking System (NMS of Bahasa Manggaraiand Its Interrelation with Naming Systems of Entity (NSE: A CulturalLinguistic Study”. The result of the analysis is useful for both the academic worldand the life of the society, especially the MSC.The study conducted in Manggarai Regency, Flores, East Nusa TenggaraProvince, is qualitative. The data were obtained through observation, elicitation,interview, documentation study, listening, and note taking. For this reason, a numberof questions were prepared in a written form. The data obtained were analyzedthrough steps of selection, listing, translation, and interpretation of the formallinguistic meaning and cultural imagery of the MSC. The result of the data analysisis informally reported and verbally described.To analyze the data, the Cultural Linguistic Theory was applied andsupported by the structural and the dynamic theories. To know the chance and toinspire the study, a number of previous studies were reviewed. To easily understand,direct, and limit the discussion of the study, a number of basic concepts weredefined.Syntactically and semantically, there are four kinds of nominal markers(NMs of BM. NMs in the forms of personal pronouns (PP: hau ‘you SG’, hia/hi‘he/she’, meu ‘you-PLUR’, and ise ‘they’ mark proper nouns (PN as theSubject/Agent or Object/Patient in a clause bearing the meaning of subject or objectposition of a clause and not common nouns (CN. NMs in the forms of de/ di/ disemark the noun (CN/pronoun or PN as the possessor of the possessed noun in aclause bearing the meaning of possession. NMs in the forms of le/ li/ lise mark thenoun (CN/pronoun or PN as the agent diathesis of an action targeted to a noun asthe patient diathesis in a clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/localityof an action. And NMs in the forms of ge/ gi/ gise mark the noun (CN/pronoun or

  5. Playing God and the ethics of divine names: an Islamic paradigm for biomedical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Qaiser

    2007-10-01

    The notion of 'playing God' frequently comes to fore in discussions of bioethics, especially in religious contexts. The phrase has always been analyzed and discussed from Christian and secular standpoints. Two interpretations exist in the literature. The first one takes 'God' seriously and playing 'playfully'. It argues that this concept does state a principle but invokes a perspective on the world. The second takes both terms playfully. In the Islamic Intellectual tradition, the Sufi concept of 'adopting divine character traits' provides a legitimate paradigm for 'playing God'. This paradigm is interesting because here we take both terms 'God' and 'playing' seriously. It is significant for the development of biomedical ethics in contemporary Islamic societies as it can open new vistas for viewing biotechnological developments.

  6. Feature Engineering for Drug Name Recognition in Biomedical Texts: Feature Conjunction and Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug name recognition (DNR is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  7. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  8. Topic Modeling Approach to Named Entity Linking%一种基于概率主题模型的命名实体链接方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    怀宝兴; 宝腾飞; 祝恒书; 刘淇

    2014-01-01

    Named entity linking (NEL) is an advanced technology which links a given named entity to an unambiguous entity in the knowledge base, and thus plays an important role in a wide range of Internet services, such as online recommender systems and Web search engines. However, with the explosive increasing of online information and applications, traditional solutions of NEL are facing more and more challenges towards linking accuracy due to the large number of online entities. Moreover, the entities are usually associated with different semantic topics (e.g., the entity“Apple”could be either a fruit or a brand) whereas the latent topic distributions of words and entities in same documents should be similar. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel topic modeling approach to named entity linking. Different from existing works, the new approach provides a comprehensive framework for NEL and can uncover the semantic relationship between documents and named entities. Specifically, it first builds a knowledge base of unambiguous entities with the help of Wikipedia. Then, it proposes a novel bipartite topic model to capture the latent topic distribution between entities and documents. Therefore, given a new named entity, the new approach can link it to the unambiguous entity in the knowledge base by calculating their semantic similarity with respect to latent topics. Finally, the paper conducts extensive experiments on a real-world data set to evaluate our approach for named entity linking. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed approach outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines with a significant margin.%命名实体链接(named entity linking,简称NEL)是把文档中给定的命名实体链接到知识库中一个无歧义实体的过程,包括同义实体的合并、歧义实体的消歧等。该技术可以提升在线推荐系统、互联网搜索引擎等实际应用的信息过滤能力。然而,实体数量的激增给实体消歧等带

  9. Dictionary and Gene Ontology Based Similarity for Named Entity Relationship Protein-protein Interaction Prediction from Biotext Corpus

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    Smt K. Prabavathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions functions as a significant key role in several biological systems. These involves in complex formation and many pathways which are used to perform biological processes. By accurate identification of the set of interacting proteins can get rid of new light on the functional role of various proteins in the complex surroundings of the cell. The ability to construct biologically consequential gene networks and identification of the exact relationship in the gene network is critical for present-day systems biology. In earlier research, the power of presented gene modules to shed light on the functioning of complex biological systems is studied. Most of modules in these networks have shown small link with meaningful biological function, because these methods doesn’t exactly calculate the semantic relationship between the entities. In order to overcome these problems and improve the PPI results in the biotext corpus a new method is proposed in this research. The proposed method which directly incorporates Gene Ontology (GO annotation in construction of gene modules and Dictionary-based text is proposed to extract biotext information. Dictionary-Based Text and Gene Ontology (DBTGO approach that integrates with various gene-gene pairwise similarity values, protein-protein interaction relationship obtained from gene expression, in order to gain better biotext information retrieval result. A result analysis has been carried out on Biotext Project at UC Berkley. Testing the DBTGO algorithm indicates that it is able to improve PPI relationship identification result with all previously suggested methods in terms of the precision, recall, F measure and Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG. The proposed DBTGO algorithm can facilitate comprehensive and in-depth analysis of high throughput experimental data at the gene network level.

  10. Product Named Entity Recognition Based on Ontology%基于本体的产品命名实体识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芳; 熊前兴; 肖敏

    2011-01-01

    论述了近年来国内外在常规命名实体识别方面研究工作的进展状况,针对其中最为关键的产品命名实体识别技术,考虑到领域本体对产品命名实体识别的支持,提出了将本体特征融入到统计模型中,结合词性特征、上下文特征,以及本体特征的多特征模型进行产品命名实体识别实验,实验结果证明,该方法能有效地提高产品命名实体识别的性能.%In recent years,there are a lot of research achievements in the field of NER(name entity recognition) , while PNER (product named entity recognition) is just starting. With the rapid development of e - commerce,PNER becomes one of the key techniques of intelligent e - commerce. In the view of supporting domain ontology to PNER, a method of PNER was proposed, which combined CRF(conditional random field) model with domain ontology as a semantic feature besides word and part - of -speech features. Experiments were conducted to compare the two kinds of feature templates, and results indicate that the method can effectively improve the performance of PNER.

  11. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncui Hu

    Full Text Available The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5% on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  12. Evaluation and cross-comparison of lexical entities of biological interest (LexEBI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Biomedical entities, their identifiers and names, are essential in the representation of biomedical facts and knowledge. In the same way, the complete set of biomedical and chemical terms, i.e. the biomedical "term space" (the "Lexeome", forms a key resource to achieve the full integration of the scientific literature with biomedical data resources: any identified named entity can immediately be normalized to the correct database entry. This goal does not only require that we are aware of all existing terms, but would also profit from knowing all their senses and their semantic interpretation (ambiguities, nestedness. RESULT: This study compiles a resource for lexical terms of biomedical interest in a standard format (called "LexEBI", determines the overall number of terms, their reuse in different resources and the nestedness of terms. LexEBI comprises references for protein and gene entries and their term variants and chemical entities amongst other terms. In addition, disease terms have been identified from Medline and PubmedCentral and added to LexEBI. Our analysis demonstrates that the baseforms of terms from the different semantic types show only little polysemous use. Nonetheless, the term variants of protein and gene names (PGNs frequently contain species mentions, which should have been avoided according to protein annotation guidelines. Furthermore, the protein and gene entities as well as the chemical entities, both do comprise enzymes leading to hierarchical polysemy, and a large portion of PGNs make reference to a chemical entity. Altogether, according to our analysis based on the Medline distribution, 401,869 unique PGNs in the documents contain a reference to 25,022 chemical entities, 3,125 disease terms or 1,576 species mentions. CONCLUSION: LexEBI delivers the complete biomedical and chemical Lexeome in a standardized representation (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/LexEBI/. The resource provides the disease terms as

  13. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD.

  14. Chinese Micro-blog named entity linking based on multisource knowledge%基于多源知识的中文微博命名实体链接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝红英; 吴泳钢; 贾玉祥; 牛桂玲

    2015-01-01

    命名实体在文本中是承载信息的重要单元,而微博作为一种分享简短实时信息的社交网络平台,其文本长度短、不规范,而且常有新词出现,这就需要对其命名实体进行准确的理解,以提高对文本信息的正确分析。提出了基于多源知识的中文微博命名实体链接,把同义词词典、百科资源等知识与词袋模型相结合实现命名实体的链接。在 NLP&CC2013中文微博实体链接评测数据集进行了实验,获得微平均准确率为92.97%,与 NLP&CC2013中文实体链接评测最好的评测结果相比,提高了两个百分点。%Named entity is an important component conveying information in texts.Micro-blog is a social network plat-form used to share brief real-time information,with characteristics such as short text length,nonstandard words,and even the frequent emergence of neologisms.So an accurate understanding of the named entities is needed to ensure a cor-rect analysis of the text information.A Chinese Micro-blog entity linking strategy was proposed based on multi-resource knowledge,combing the dictionary of synonyms,the encyclopedia resources as well as the bag-of-words model together to deal with named entity linking.In this strategy,named entities to be linked in Micro-blog were mapped to the corre-sponding candidate entities in the knowledge base.The evaluation results obtain a micro average accuracy of 92.97%, based on experiments using data sets of NLP&CC2013 Chinese micro-blog entity linking track.Compared with the state-of-the-art result,the accuracy of this method is two percent higher,which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method.

  15. Chinese named entity recognition in 3D mobile phone animation auto-generation%面向手机3D动画自动生成的中文命名实体识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳霞; 刘椿年

    2012-01-01

    基于人工智能技术,陆汝钤院士提出了全过程计算机辅助动画自动生成技术.该技术需要对能在动画中具体表现的特殊类型命名实体进行识别,如学校名称、餐馆名称、商场名称等.提出了一种基于隐马尔科夫模型(HMM)和规则相结合的特殊类型命名实体识别方法,利用词性、特征词和词义等信息对HMM模型进行训练,并用自动提取的规则对统计模型的识别结果进行补充和修正.开放性测试实验的最高准确率、召回率和F值分别达到了79.89%、86.6%、83.11%.%Academician Lu Ruqian proposed Full Cycle Computer Aided Animation Auto-generation Technology based on artificial intelligence technology. The technology needs to recognize special types of named entities such as school names, restaurant names and emporium names, which can be performed in animation. A method for recognizing special types of named entities is proposed based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and rules. The method uses HMM and trains the model with part-of-speech information, feature words and the sense of words, then complements and corrects the recognition results of HMM with rules automatically extracted from the training corpus and entity names. The accuracy, recall and F-score of the open testing experiment reaches 79.89%, 86.6% and 83.11%.

  16. Use of controlled vocabularies to improve biomedical information retrieval tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Vishnyakova, Dina; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of biomedical vocabulary is a major obstacle for information retrieval in large biomedical collections. Therefore, using biomedical controlled vocabularies is crucial for managing these contents. We investigate the impact of query expansion based on controlled vocabularies to improve the effectiveness of two search engines. Our strategy relies on the enrichment of users' queries with additional terms, directly derived from such vocabularies applied to infectious diseases and chemical patents. We observed that query expansion based on pathogen names resulted in improvements of the top-precision of our first search engine, while the normalization of diseases degraded the top-precision. The expansion of chemical entities, which was performed on the second search engine, positively affected the mean average precision. We have shown that query expansion of some types of biomedical entities has a great potential to improve search effectiveness; therefore a fine-tuning of query expansion strategies could help improving the performances of search engines.

  17. Using Local Grammar for Entity Extraction from Clinical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Ghoulam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Extraction (IE is a natural language processing (NLP task whose aim is to analyze texts written in natural language to extract structured and useful information such as named entities and semantic relations linking these entities. Information extraction is an important task for many applications such as bio-medical literature mining, customer care, community websites, and personal information management. The increasing information available in patient clinical reports is difficult to access. As it is often in an unstructured text form, doctors need tools to enable them access to this information and the ability to search it. Hence, a system for extracting this information in a structured form can benefits healthcare professionals. The work presented in this paper uses a local grammar approach to extract medical named entities from French patient clinical reports. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved an F-Measure of 90. 06%.

  18. Immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) genes and alleles: new entities, new names and implications for research and prognostication in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xochelli, Aliki; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Minga, Evangelia; Sutton, Lesley Ann; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Giudicelli, Véronique; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Maglaveras, Nikos; Bonello, Lisa; Trentin, Livio; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Geisler, Christian; Langerak, Anton W; Pospisilova, Sarka; Jelinek, Diane F; Oscier, David; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Darzentas, Nikos; Davi, Fred; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Belessi, Chrysoula; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Νext generation sequencing studies in Homo sapiens have identified novel immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) genes and alleles necessitating changes in the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (IMGT) GENE-DB and reference directories of IMGT/V-QUEST. In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the somatic hypermutation (SHM) status of the clonotypic rearranged IGHV gene is strongly associated with patient outcome. Correct determination of this parameter strictly depends on the comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the clonotypic rearranged IGHV gene with that of the closest germline counterpart. Consequently, changes in the reference directories could, in principle, affect the correct interpretation of the IGHV mutational status in CLL. To this end, we analyzed 8066 productive IG heavy chain (IGH) rearrangement sequences from our consortium both before and after the latest update of the IMGT/V-QUEST reference directory. Differences were identified in 405 cases (5 % of the cohort). In 291/405 sequences (71.9 %), changes concerned only the IGHV gene or allele name, whereas a change in the percent germline identity (%GI) was noted in 114/405 (28.1 %) sequences; in 50/114 (43.8 %) sequences, changes in the %GI led to a change in the mutational set. In conclusion, recent changes in the IMGT reference directories affected the interpretation of SHM in a sizeable number of IGH rearrangement sequences from CLL patients. This indicates that both physicians and researchers should consider a re-evaluation of IG sequence data, especially for those IGH rearrangement sequences that, up to date, have a GI close to 98 %, where caution is warranted.

  19. 汉英双语命名实体识别与对齐的交互式方法%Joint Chinese-English Named Entity Recognition and Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钰枫; 宗成庆; 苏克毅

    2011-01-01

    Named entity (NE) recognition is an essential early stage and has long been a thorny problem in many natural language processing pipelines. Generally, bilingual named entity recog-nition and alignment are processed sequentially and independently, regardless of interactions be-tween the two stages. Therefore, NE recognition errors are propagated and compounded in NE alignment stage. Actually, bilingual alignment information, other than monolingual information, provides further indications for NE recognition. It is necessary to capture the interactions be-tween NE recognition and alignment. Accordingly, based on the characteristics of NE recognition and alignment, this paper proposes an interactive bilingual NE alignment model, which combines basic alignment and corrective alignment. Basic alignment is achieved as traditional alignment ap-proach, while the corrective alignment realizes the joint of NE recognition and alignment. On the one hand, bilingual alignment information is utilized for NE recognition; on the other hand, NE recognition errors can be recovered in the NE alignment stage. Both the NE boundaries and type can be corrected in such interactive NE alignment model. The experiments show that this novel model not only achieves a significant improvement of the Chinese-English NE alignment quality (F-score from 74. 4% to 81. 2%), but also improves the performance of NE recognition.%基于汉英双语命名实体的识别与对齐特性,文中提出了一种双语命名实体交互式对齐模型,其中的修正对齐计算体现了汉英实体识别与对齐的密切结合:一方面,利用双语对齐信息帮助实体识别;另一方面,实体的对齐过程对实体的识别结果又具有一定的修正作用,两方面的结合实现了双语实体识别与对齐之间的交互式互助过程.实验证明,这种交互式对齐模型不仅显著提高了汉英实体对齐的性能(F值从74.4%提高到81.2%),而且有效地提高了汉英实体识别的正确率和召回率.

  20. Syntactic dependency parsers for biomedical-NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Syntactic parsers have made a leap in accuracy and speed in recent years. The high order structural information provided by dependency parsers is useful for a variety of NLP applications. We present a biomedical model for the EasyFirst parser, a fast and accurate parser for creating Stanford Dependencies. We evaluate the models trained in the biomedical domains of EasyFirst and Clear-Parser in a number of task oriented metrics. Both parsers provide stat of the art speed and accuracy in the Genia of over 89%. We show that Clear-Parser excels at tasks relating to negation identification while EasyFirst excels at tasks relating to Named Entities and is more robust to changes in domain.

  1. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools

    OpenAIRE

    Verspoor Karin; Cohen Kevin; Lanfranchi Arrick; Warner Colin; Johnson Helen L; Roeder Christophe; Choi Jinho D; Funk Christopher; Malenkiy Yuriy; Eckert Miriam; Xue Nianwen; Baumgartner William A; Bada Michael; Palmer Martha; Hunter Lawrence E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance...

  2. Quantifying the impact and extent of undocumented biomedical synonymy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Blair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous relationships among biomedical terms are extensively annotated within specialized terminologies, implying that synonymy is important for practical computational applications within this field. It remains unclear, however, whether text mining actually benefits from documented synonymy and whether existing biomedical thesauri provide adequate coverage of these linguistic relationships. In this study, we examine the impact and extent of undocumented synonymy within a very large compendium of biomedical thesauri. First, we demonstrate that missing synonymy has a significant negative impact on named entity normalization, an important problem within the field of biomedical text mining. To estimate the amount synonymy currently missing from thesauri, we develop a probabilistic model for the construction of synonym terminologies that is capable of handling a wide range of potential biases, and we evaluate its performance using the broader domain of near-synonymy among general English words. Our model predicts that over 90% of these relationships are currently undocumented, a result that we support experimentally through "crowd-sourcing." Finally, we apply our model to biomedical terminologies and predict that they are missing the vast majority (>90% of the synonymous relationships they intend to document. Overall, our results expose the dramatic incompleteness of current biomedical thesauri and suggest the need for "next-generation," high-coverage lexical terminologies.

  3. A stacked sequential learning method for investigator name recognition from web-based medical articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George

    2010-01-01

    "Investigator Names" is a newly required field in MEDLINE citations. It consists of personal names listed as members of corporate organizations in an article. Extracting investigator names automatically is necessary because of the increasing volume of articles reporting collaborative biomedical research in which a large number of investigators participate. In this paper, we present an SVM-based stacked sequential learning method in a novel application - recognizing named entities such as the first and last names of investigators from online medical journal articles. Stacked sequential learning is a meta-learning algorithm which can boost any base learner. It exploits contextual information by adding the predicted labels of the surrounding tokens as features. We apply this method to tag words in text paragraphs containing investigator names, and demonstrate that stacked sequential learning improves the performance of a nonsequential base learner such as an SVM classifier.

  4. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  5. Information Retrieval Systems Adapted to the Biomedical Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Marrero, Mónica; Urbano, Julián; Morato, Jorge; Moreiro, José-Antonio; 10.3145/epi.2010.may.04

    2012-01-01

    The terminology used in Biomedicine shows lexical peculiarities that have required the elaboration of terminological resources and information retrieval systems with specific functionalities. The main characteristics are the high rates of synonymy and homonymy, due to phenomena such as the proliferation of polysemic acronyms and their interaction with common language. Information retrieval systems in the biomedical domain use techniques oriented to the treatment of these lexical peculiarities. In this paper we review some of the techniques used in this domain, such as the application of Natural Language Processing (BioNLP), the incorporation of lexical-semantic resources, and the application of Named Entity Recognition (BioNER). Finally, we present the evaluation methods adopted to assess the suitability of these techniques for retrieving biomedical resources.

  6. Biomedical ontologies: a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Shah, Nigam H; Noy, Natalya F

    2008-01-01

    The information explosion in biology makes it difficult for researchers to stay abreast of current biomedical knowledge and to make sense of the massive amounts of online information. Ontologies--specifications of the entities, their attributes and relationships among the entities in a domain of discourse--are increasingly enabling biomedical researchers to accomplish these tasks. In fact, bio-ontologies are beginning to proliferate in step with accruing biological data. The myriad of ontologies being created enables researchers not only to solve some of the problems in handling the data explosion but also introduces new challenges. One of the key difficulties in realizing the full potential of ontologies in biomedical research is the isolation of various communities involved: some workers spend their career developing ontologies and ontology-related tools, while few researchers (biologists and physicians) know how ontologies can accelerate their research. The objective of this review is to give an overview of biomedical ontology in practical terms by providing a functional perspective--describing how bio-ontologies can and are being used. As biomedical scientists begin to recognize the many different ways ontologies enable biomedical research, they will drive the emergence of new computer applications that will help them exploit the wealth of research data now at their fingertips.

  7. Tracking topological entity changes in 3D collaborative modeling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengYuan; He Fazhi; HuangZhiyong; Cai Xiantao; and Zhang Dejun

    2012-01-01

    One of the key problems in collaborative geometric modeling systems is topological entity correspondence when topolog- ical structure of geometry models on collaborative sites changes, ha this article, we propose a solution for tracking topological entity alterations in 3D collaborative modeling environment. We firstly make a thorough analysis and detailed categorization on the altera- tion properties and causations for each type of topological entity, namely topological face and topological edge. Based on collabora- tive topological entity naming mechanism, a data structure called TEST (Topological Entity Structure Tree) is introduced to track the changing history and current state of each topological entity, to embody the relationship among topological entities. Rules and algo- rithms are presented for identification of topological entities referenced by operations for correct execution and model consistency. The algorithm has been verified within the prototype we have implemented with ACIS.

  8. PKDE4J: Entity and relation extraction for public knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young

    2015-10-01

    Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction.

  9. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  10. Enhancing interoperability in the GFZ ISDC ontology by embedding SKOS transformed NASA's GCMD keywords for describing and connecting entities and VIAF authority data for referencing personal and corporate names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.

    2011-12-01

    ISDC ontology integrated GCMD's controlled science and services keywords. In order to benefit from the hierarchical structure of GCDM's keywords, NASA's original files have been transformed into appropriate multi-language capable SKOS ontologies and afterwards integrated into the ISDC ontology. Now, existing information retrieval use cases can be extended using the SKOS vocabulary, such as e.g. broader, narrower or prefLabel. The problem of the global identification of persons and institutions within the ISDC ontology could be solved by the integration of authority data. From viaf.org provided URIs for personal and corporate names have been integrated as steady pillars into the ISDC ontology. Now persons and institutions can be unambiguously identified and further relations to publications or other information in the Web can be established. The successful educational and research activities combining geoscientists and information scientists will be extended into the areas of Open linked data and re-use of existing ontologies and controlled vocabularies.

  11. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room...

  12. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Manana Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  13. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering,...

  14. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  15. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  16. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  17. Patent Retrieval in Chemistry based on Semantically Tagged Named Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    their corresponding synonyms. An ex- ample query for TS-15 is: (" Betaine " OR "Glycine betaine " OR "Glycocol betaine " OR "Glycylbetaine" OR ...) AND...task in an automatic way based on noun- phrase detection incorporating the OpenNLP chun- 3 Informative Term Synonyms Source Betaine Glycine betaine ...Glycocol betaine , Glycylbetaine etc. ATC Peripheral Artery Disease Peripheral Artery Disorder, Peripheral Arterial Disease etc. MeSH Diels-Alder reaction

  18. Programming Drupal 7 entities

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    The book follows a standard tutorial-based approach to create, retrieve, update, and delete Drupal 7 entities, their properties and fields.Programming Drupal 7 Entities is perfect for intermediate or advanced developers new to Drupal entity development who are looking to get a good grounding in how to code using the new paradigm. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PHP development already, and being vaguely familiar with Drupal, GIT, and Drush will also help.

  19. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  20. Biomedical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    Biomedical libraries are discussed as a distinct and specialized group of special libraries and their unique services and user interactions are described. The move toward professional standards, as evidenced by the Medical Library Association's new certification program, and the current state of development for a new section of IFLA established…

  1. Semantic characteristics of NLP-extracted concepts in clinical notes vs. biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen; Liu, Hongfang

    2011-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) has become crucial in unlocking information stored in free text, from both clinical notes and biomedical literature. Clinical notes convey clinical information related to individual patient health care, while biomedical literature communicates scientific findings. This work focuses on semantic characterization of texts at an enterprise scale, comparing and contrasting the two domains and their NLP approaches. We analyzed the empirical distributional characteristics of NLP-discovered named entities in Mayo Clinic clinical notes from 2001-2010, and in the 2011 MetaMapped Medline Baseline. We give qualitative and quantitative measures of domain similarity and point to the feasibility of transferring resources and techniques. An important by-product for this study is the development of a weighted ontology for each domain, which gives distributional semantic information that may be used to improve NLP applications.

  2. Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spackman K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall, with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge.

  3. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  4. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  5. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  6. A concept-driven biomedical knowledge extraction and visualization framework for conceptualization of text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiruddin; Abulaish, Muhammad; Dey, Lipika

    2010-12-01

    A number of techniques such as information extraction, document classification, document clustering and information visualization have been developed to ease extraction and understanding of information embedded within text documents. However, knowledge that is embedded in natural language texts is difficult to extract using simple pattern matching techniques and most of these methods do not help users directly understand key concepts and their semantic relationships in document corpora, which are critical for capturing their conceptual structures. The problem arises due to the fact that most of the information is embedded within unstructured or semi-structured texts that computers can not interpret very easily. In this paper, we have presented a novel Biomedical Knowledge Extraction and Visualization framework, BioKEVis to identify key information components from biomedical text documents. The information components are centered on key concepts. BioKEVis applies linguistic analysis and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to identify key concepts. The information component extraction principle is based on natural language processing techniques and semantic-based analysis. The system is also integrated with a biomedical named entity recognizer, ABNER, to tag genes, proteins and other entity names in the text. We have also presented a method for collating information extracted from multiple sources to generate semantic network. The network provides distinct user perspectives and allows navigation over documents with similar information components and is also used to provide a comprehensive view of the collection. The system stores the extracted information components in a structured repository which is integrated with a query-processing module to handle biomedical queries over text documents. We have also proposed a document ranking mechanism to present retrieved documents in order of their relevance to the user query.

  7. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  8. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  9. ARABIC PERSON NAMES RECOGNITION BY USING A RULE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aboaoga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Name Entity Recognition is very important task in many natural language processing applications such as; Machine Translation, Question Answering, Information Extraction, Text Summarization, Semantic Applications and Word Sense Disambiguation. Rule-based approach is one of the techniques that are used for named entity recognition to identify the named entities such as a person names, location names and organization names. The recent rule-based methods have been applied to recognize the person names in political domain. They ignored the recognition of other named entity types such as locations and organizations. We have used the rule based approach for recognizing the named entity type (person names for Arabic. We have developed four rules for identifying the person names depending on the position of name. We have used an in-house Arabic corpus collected from newspaper achieves. The evaluation method that compares the results of the system with the manually annotated text has been applied in order to compute precision, recall and f-measure. In the experiment of this study, the average f-measure for recognizing person names are (92.66, 92.04 and 90.43% in sport, economic and politic domain respectively. The experimental results showed that our rule-based method achieved the highest f-measure values in sport domain comparing with political and economic domains.

  10. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  11. Classification and prioritization of biomedical literature for the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to perform biomedical documents classification and prioritization for the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). This approach is motivated by needs such as literature curation, in particular applied to the human health environment domain. The unique integration of chemical, genes/proteins and disease data in the biomedical literature may advance the identification of exposure and disease biomarkers, mechanisms of chemical actions, and the complex aetiologies of chronic diseases. Our approach aims to assist biomedical researchers when searching for relevant articles for CTD. The task is functionally defined as a binary classification task, where selected articles must also be ranked by order of relevance. We design a SVM classifier, which combines three main feature sets: an information retrieval system (EAGLi), a biomedical named-entity recognizer (MeSH term extraction), a gene normalization (GN) service (NormaGene) and an ad-hoc keyword recognizer for diseases and chemicals. The evaluation of the gene identification module was done on BioCreativeIII test data. Disease normalization is achieved with 95% precision and 93% of recall. The evaluation of the classification was done on the corpus provided by BioCreative organizers in 2012. The approach showed promising performance on the test data.

  12. Evaluating Stream Filtering for Entity Profile Updates for TREC 2013 (KBA Track Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    form name of an entity and assigning a 5   confidence score based on the length of the observed name. See code in github [6]. This achieves...name of an entity. See the implementation of the baseline system in the github repository for the “toy_kba_algorithm.py”   The scores indicate

  13. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  14. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  15. 民国《云阳县志·方言》植物类名物词命名取象探析%An Analysis on the Naming Mechanism of Plant-type Entity Nouns in Dialect of Yunyang County Annals in Public of China Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继明; 杨晓叶

    2012-01-01

      文章对民国云阳方言41个植物类名物词命名取象的依据以及命名取象的规律进行了探讨,认为植物类名物词的命名取象是有规律的,在形体、性态、颜色、功用、气味、质地、滋味等八大类取象名素中,往往是视觉感知优先,在视觉感知中又以形体为先,在形体感知中以形状为优;而性态以空间为先,习性次之;颜色和功用在这八大类取象名素中同样具有重要地位。说明人们对客观事物的感知绝大部分是来源于视觉。%  This paper analyzes the naming mechanism for 41 plant-type entity nouns in Dialect of Yunyang County Annals. It is thought that the nomination has certain rules in terms of eight elements such as form, gender, color, function, smell, texture, taste and integration, with visual perception enjoying priority. And in visual perception, form comes first;and for form, shape is preferred;for gender, space is preferred, and habits follows;Among the eight elements, color and function play an equally important role. It concludes that vision constitutes the majority of people's perceiving the objective world.

  16. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator’s Semantic Relevancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator’s knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user’s vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

  17. Exploring Entity Associations Over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinanda, R.; Odijk, D.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of entity-oriented search in the humanities and social sciences domain. We are particularly interested in retrieving entities related to a query entity and finding associations between these entities over time. Evidence from our target end users suggests that it is more inform

  18. Chinese multi-document personal name disambiguation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to determining whether an interested personal name across documents refers to the same entity. Firstly, three vectors for each text are formed: the personal name Boolean vectors denoting whether a personal name occurs in the text, the biographical word Boolean vector representing title, occupation and so forth, and the feature vector with real values. Then, by combining a heuristic strategy based on Boolean vectors with an agglomerative clustering algorithm based on feature vectors, it seeks to resolve multi-document personal name coreference. Experimental results show that this approach achieves a good performance by testing on "Wang Gang" corpus.

  19. Extraction of semantic biomedical relations from text using conditional random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetter Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing amount of published literature in biomedicine represents an immense source of knowledge, which can only efficiently be accessed by a new generation of automated information extraction tools. Named entity recognition of well-defined objects, such as genes or proteins, has achieved a sufficient level of maturity such that it can form the basis for the next step: the extraction of relations that exist between the recognized entities. Whereas most early work focused on the mere detection of relations, the classification of the type of relation is also of great importance and this is the focus of this work. In this paper we describe an approach that extracts both the existence of a relation and its type. Our work is based on Conditional Random Fields, which have been applied with much success to the task of named entity recognition. Results We benchmark our approach on two different tasks. The first task is the identification of semantic relations between diseases and treatments. The available data set consists of manually annotated PubMed abstracts. The second task is the identification of relations between genes and diseases from a set of concise phrases, so-called GeneRIF (Gene Reference Into Function phrases. In our experimental setting, we do not assume that the entities are given, as is often the case in previous relation extraction work. Rather the extraction of the entities is solved as a subproblem. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, we achieve very competitive results on both data sets. To demonstrate the scalability of our solution, we apply our approach to the complete human GeneRIF database. The resulting gene-disease network contains 34758 semantic associations between 4939 genes and 1745 diseases. The gene-disease network is publicly available as a machine-readable RDF graph. Conclusion We extend the framework of Conditional Random Fields towards the annotation of semantic relations from

  20. In the Name of the Name: RDF literals, ER attributes and the potential to rethink the structures and visualizations of catalogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Peponakis

    2016-06-01

    In this way, a new approach to bibliographic data emerges where the distinction between description and authorities is obsolete. Instead, the integration of the authorities with descriptive information becomes fundamental so that a network of correlations can be established between the entities and the names by which the entities are known. Naming is a vital issue for human cultures because names are not random sequences of characters or sounds which stand just as identifiers for the entities - they also have socio-cultural meanings and interpretations. Thus, instead of describing indivisible resources, we could describe entities that appear in a variety of names on various resources. In this study, a method is proposed to connect the names with the entities they represent and, in this way, to document the provenance of these names by connecting specific resources with specific names.

  1. Mastering entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul Rajat

    2015-01-01

    This book is for .NET developers who are developing data-driven applications using ADO.NET or other data access technologies. This book is going to give you everything you need to effectively develop and manage data-driven applications using Entity Framework.

  2. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  3. Web entity extraction based on entity attribute classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Su, Ya-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The large amount of entity data are continuously published on web pages. Extracting these entities automatically for further application is very significant. Rule-based entity extraction method yields promising result, however, it is labor-intensive and hard to be scalable. The paper proposes a web entity extraction method based on entity attribute classification, which can avoid manual annotation of samples. First, web pages are segmented into different blocks by algorithm Vision-based Page Segmentation (VIPS), and a binary classifier LibSVM is trained to retrieve the candidate blocks which contain the entity contents. Second, the candidate blocks are partitioned into candidate items, and the classifiers using LibSVM are performed for the attributes annotation of the items and then the annotation results are aggregated into an entity. Results show that the proposed method performs well to extract agricultural supply and demand entities from web pages.

  4. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  5. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org.

  6. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  7. What's in a Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, some baby names have been more popular during a specific time span, whereas other names are considered timeless. The Internet article, "How to Tell Someone's Age When All You Know Is Her Name" (Silver and McCann 2014), describes the phenomenon of the rise and fall of name popularity, which served as a catalyst for the…

  8. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  9. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  10. Integrating Naming and Addressing of Persistent data in Programming Language and Operating System Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der M.

    1993-01-01

    There exist a number of desirable transparencies in distributed computing, viz., name transparency: having a uniform way of naming entities in the system, regardless of their type or physical make up; location transparency: having a uniform way of addressing entities, regardless of their physical lo

  11. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  12. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change....... Second, it offers practical support to organizations, private as well as public, who find themselves in a situation where changing the name of the organization could be a way to reach either communicative or organizational goals....

  13. Naming the extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W

    2009-01-01

    Extrasolar planets are not named and are referred to only by their assigned scientific designation. The reason given by the IAU to not name the planets is that it is considered impractical as planets are expected to be common. I advance some reasons as to why this logic is flawed, and suggest names for the 403 extrasolar planet candidates known as of Oct 2009, based on the continued tradition of names from Roman-Greek mythology.

  14. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors.

  15. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  16. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD probl

  17. Language as a biological entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒音

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, the metaphor of "languageas abiological entity"claimed by some linguists being used widely has become a hot issue. Language and biological entity indeed share a lot of similarities,specifically,the life cycle of languages and the process of the language evolution and the spread of languages.

  18. Periocular xanthogranuloma: A forgotten entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Papagoras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Charalampos Papagoras1, George Kitsos2, Paraskevi V Voulgari1, Anastasia K Zikou3, Maria I Argyropoulou3, Aikaterini Zioga4, Alexandros A Drosos11Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology; 3Department of Clinical Imaging and Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Periocular xanthogranulomatous diseases are a rare group of disorders which are characterized by a predilection to affect the orbit and ocular adnexa and special histopathological features, in particular infiltrates comprising non-Langerhans-derived foamy histiocytes and Touton giant cells. The differential diagnosis is difficult and occasionally definite diagnosis cannot be established even after clinical and histopathological findings are taken together. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with a 10-year history of voluminous eyelid swelling with concomitant late-onset atopic manifestations, namely bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis with nasal polyps. After thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, including a biopsy of the eyelid, we classified the patient’s disease to a rare entity that has been relatively recently described: periocular xanthogranuloma associated with adult-onset asthma. In a review of the literature, no prospective trials concerning the treatment of this disease were found. The literature mainly contained case reports and case series in which corticosteroids and chemotherapy with alkylating agents have been reported to be beneficial. We treated our patient with a combination of oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide pulses and we observed substantial regression of the eyelid masses together with a normalization of systemic immunologic abnormalities.Keywords: periocular xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma, non-Langerhans histiocytoses, cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone

  19. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The Masters of Engineering program with concentration in Biomedical Engineering at Tennessee State University was established in fall 2000. Under... biomedical engineering . The lab is fully equipped with 10 Pentium5-based, 2 Pentium4-based laptops for mobile experiments at remote locations, 8 Biopac...students (prospective graduate students in biomedical engineering ) are regularly using this lab. This summer, 8 new prospective graduate students

  20. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verspoor Karin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications.

  1. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  2. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  3. Analysing Java Identifier Names

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Identifier names are the principal means of recording and communicating ideas in source code and are a significant source of information for software developers and maintainers, and the tools that support their work. This research aims to increase understanding of identifier name content types - words, abbreviations, etc. - and phrasal structures - noun phrases, verb phrases, etc. - by improving techniques for the analysis of identifier names. The techniques and knowledge acquired can be appl...

  4. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since entitie

  5. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development.

  6. The Name Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sharon J.

    Described is a game which provides a method for teaching students to locate cities and towns on a map. Students are provided with a list of descriptive phrases which stand for the name of a city, e.g., hot weather town (Summerville, Georgia); a chocolate candy bar (Hershey, Pennsylvania). Using a map, students must then try to find the name of a…

  7. Your Name Is What?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AARON; A.; VESSUP

    2009-01-01

    country singer Johnny Cash was famous for his song Boy Named Sue that topped the charts back in the early 1970s. The song tells of a father who gave his son a girl’s name to help harden him for life. This was the excuse of

  8. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  9. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  10. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  11. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-10-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  12. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  13. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  14. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  15. Personalized biomedical devices & systems for healthcare applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ming; Phee, Soo Jay; Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian

    2011-03-01

    With the advancement in micro- and nanotechnology, electromechanical components and systems are getting smaller and smaller and gradually can be applied to the human as portable, mobile and even wearable devices. Healthcare industry have started to benefit from this technology trend by providing more and more miniature biomedical devices for personalized medical treatments in order to obtain better and more accurate outcome. This article introduces some recent development in non-intrusive and intrusive biomedical devices resulted from the advancement of niche miniature sensors and actuators, namely, wearable biomedical sensors, wearable haptic devices, and ingestible medical capsules. The development of these devices requires carful integration of knowledge and people from many different disciplines like medicine, electronics, mechanics, and design. Furthermore, designing affordable devices and systems to benefit all mankind is a great challenge ahead. The multi-disciplinary nature of the R&D effort in this area provides a new perspective for the future mechanical engineers.

  16. Recognizing the emotional valence of names: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional valence only for nouns. This might reflect automatic attention directed towards emotional stimuli. The absence of such an effect for names supports the notion that the emotional meaning carried by names is accessed after word recognition and person identification. In addition, both names with negative valence and emotional nouns elicited late positive effects, which have been associated with evaluation of emotional significance. This positive effect started earlier for nouns than for names, but with similar durations. Our results suggest that distinct neural systems are involved in the retrieval of names' and nouns' emotional meaning.

  17. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  18. User Name Alias Extraction in Emails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding out user identity information from emails is one of the important research topics in email mining. Most approaches extract an email user’s name only from the header of an email, but there are often many name information appearing in the body of emails, and those names are usually more suitable for representing the sender’s or recipient’s identity. This paper focuses on the problem of extracting email users’ name aliases in the body of plain-text emails. After locating and extracting salutation and signature blocks from email bodies, we can identify the potential aliases in the salutation and signature lines, which can be directly associated with the corresponding email address in email headers, by using named entity recognition(NER tools. However the identified aliases may be half-baked or there are still some potential aliases that can’t be correctly identified. So we propose a novel approach to efficiently and accurately extract aliases in the salutation and signature lines based on name boundary word template built on the characteristics of alias neighboring words. Results on the public subset of the Enron corpus indicate that the approaches presented in this paper can efficiently extract user’s aliases from email bodies.

  19. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  20. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  1. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century,medicine has come out of the "black bag" and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiology to informatics and signal processing. Reflecting the enormous growth and change in biomedical engineering during the infancy of the 21st century, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook enters its third edition as a set of three carefully focused and

  2. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  3. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  4. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  5. Recommending Given Names

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzlaff, Folke

    2013-01-01

    All over the world, future parents are facing the task of finding a suitable given name for their child. This choice is influenced by different factors, such as the social context, language, cultural background and especially personal taste. Although this task is omnipresent, little research has been conducted on the analysis and application of interrelations among given names from a data mining perspective. The present work tackles the problem of recommending given names, by firstly mining for inter-name relatedness in data from the Social Web. Based on these results, the name search engine "Nameling" was built, which attracted more than 35,000 users within less than six months, underpinning the relevance of the underlying recommendation task. The accruing usage data is then used for evaluating different state-of-the-art recommendation systems, as well our new \\NR algorithm which we adopted from our previous work on folksonomies and which yields the best results, considering the trade-off between prediction ...

  6. Statistics in biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new p...

  7. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  8. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  9. Semantically linking molecular entities in literature through entity relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landeghem, S.; Bjorne, J.; Abeel, T.E.P.M.F.; De Baets, B.; Salakoski, T.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Text mining tools have gained popularity to process the vast amount of available research articles in the biomedical literature. It is crucial that such tools extract information with a sufficient level of detail to be applicable in real life scenarios. Studies of mining non-causal molecu

  10. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON ENTITY'S RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, because of the complexity of this topic, the purpose is to discuss the main aspects involved by risk analysis; starting with few conceptual approaches about risk and to outline the contributions about methods to assess different risks categories, especially methods to assess bankruptcy risk prediction (entity insolvency from economic literature. The methods used to estimate bankruptcy risk are based on the score function which helps to find if an entity is confronted with financial difficulties. The score functions are a diagnosis method elaborated relying on the discriminant analysis, allowing to assess and to predict the bankruptcy risk of the entity using a set of relevant financial ratios.

  12. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  13. Names For Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouillard, Nicolas; Bernardy, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel technique to represent names and binders in Haskell. The dynamic (run-time) representation is based on de Bruijn indices, but it features an interface to write and manipulate variables conviently, using Haskell-level lambdas and variables. The key idea is to use rich types...

  14. Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress%Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 朱墨桃; 李敬源

    2012-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, there are growing concerns about biological effects and biosafety of engineered nanomaterials. On the other hand, nanoparticles are widely used in medical fields based on their novel interactions with biological entities. However, there are still a lot of challenges to establish systematic knowledge about nanotoxicology and develop biologically safer biomedical materials due to the variety of factors determining their biomedical effects and nanotoxicity. Understanding the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with the bio- logical entities becomes crucial to the further development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the past decade, colleagues in our laboratory intensively studied the toxic properties of various kinds of nanomaterials and their chemical mechanisms. In this paper we review the recent advance in the research on the biological effects of engi- neered nanomaterials and nanosafety issue, by focusing on the studies about representative nanomaterials in our la- boratory.

  15. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  16. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  17. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  18. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  19. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  20. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  1. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  2. No Name: Paul Celan’s Poetics of Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Eemeli Salminen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Name is a powerful sign, and name-giving is also calling one intolanguage. Name identifies, summons and subjects. Paul Celan wasfamiliar with all these uses of name and addresses them in his poeticsand poetry. This article will discuss how poetry like Celan’s, which is heavily influenced by so many philosophical readings, could form a critique of naming,on a poetical basis towards philosophical concepts that underline problematics of name-giving in poetic text in particular.

  3. Entity Framework 41 Expert's Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liles, Devlin

    2012-01-01

    This book takes a step-by-step problem solving approach that leads you through a problem and explains each step in detail to accomplish the goal. This books gives you concrete code examples as well as detailed information on the decisions involved. This book is for intermediate to advanced .NET developers who have used LINQ to SQL or Entity Framework in some form but want to have more control over the implementation.

  4. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  5. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  6. Holography In Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bally, G.

    1988-01-01

    Today not only physicists and engineers but also biological and medical scientists are exploring the potentials of holographic methods in their special field of work. Most of the underlying physical principles such as coherence, interference, diffraction and polarization as well as general features of holography e.g. storage and retrieval of amplitude and phase of a wavefront, 3-d-imaging, large field of depth, redundant storage of information, spatial filtering, high-resolving, non-contactive, 3-d form and motion analysis are explained in detail in other contributions to this book. Therefore, this article is confined to the applications of holography in biomedical sciences. Because of the great number of contributions and the variety of applications [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] in this review the investigations can only be mentioned briefly and the survey has to be confined to some examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review of biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and their utilization are not mentioned. As will be demonstrated by selected examples the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare like biomedical research [9]. This fact is actually characterized and stressed by the expression "Star Wars Medicine", which becomes increasingly common as popular description for laser applications (including holography) in medicine [10]. Thus, the consequence - even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography - have to be discussed.

  7. What is biomedical informatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Smith, Jack W; Johnson, Todd R

    2010-02-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine.

  8. Qualified Entity Certification Program for Medicare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QECP welcomes any entities that would like to participate in, learn more about, or assess their capability to function as a qualified entity (QE) under section 10332...

  9. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  10. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  11. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/

  12. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  13. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  14. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does not... unincorporated business entities that are formally established and maintained through applicable State law,...

  15. Ranking related entities: components and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Related entity finding is the task of returning a ranked list of homepages of relevant entities of a specified type that need to engage in a given relationship with a given source entity. We propose a framework for addressing this task and perform a detailed analysis of four core components; co-occu

  16. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  17. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of education

  18. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  19. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  20. Extraction of genotype-phenotype-drug relationships from text: from entity recognition to bioinformatics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, Adrien; Shah, Nigam; Hunter, Lawrence; Barral, Chitta; Altman, Russ B

    2010-01-01

    Advances in concept recognition and natural language parsing have led to the development of various tools that enable the identification of biomedical entities and relationships between them in text. The aim of the Genotype-Phenotype-Drug Relationship Extraction from Text workshop (or GPD-Rx workshop) is to examine the current state of art and discuss the next steps for making the extraction of relationships between biomedical entities integral to the curation and knowledge management workflow in Pharmacogenomics. The workshop will focus particularly on the extraction of Genotype-Phenotype, Genotype-Drug, and Phenotype-Drug relationships that are of interest to Pharmacogenomics. Extracting and structuring such text-mined relationships is a key to support the evaluation and the validation of multiple hypotheses that emerge from high throughput translational studies spanning multiple measurement modalities. In order to advance this agenda, it is essential that existing relationship extraction methods be compared to one another and that a community wide benchmark corpus emerges; against which future methods can be compared. The workshop aims to bring together researchers working on the automatic or semi-automatic extraction of relationships between biomedical entities from research literature in order to identify the key groups interested in creating such a benchmark.

  1. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaaz Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  2. MERA: Musical Entities Reconciliation Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo pretendemos aportar una mejora para la tarea específica del reconocimiento de entradas equivalentes en fuentes de datos relacionadas con el mundo de la música. Para ello presentamos MERA (Musical Entities Reconciliation Architecture), la arquitectura de un sistema diseñado para encontrar vínculos de equivalencia entre distintos elementos que sin embargo hacen referencia a la misma realidad. MERA está diseñado para poder adaptar el proceso de reconciliación a la naturaleza de l...

  3. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  4. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  5. Multilingual biomedical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical information from a domain-specific, multilingual corpus.

  6. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  7. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  8. Mounting human entities to control and interact with networked ship entities in a virtual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Bryan Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis research addresses the problem of mounting human entities to other non-human entities in the virtual environment. Previous human entities were exercised as individual entities in the virtual environment. Yet there are many applications (i.e. shipboard damage control, amphibious landings, helicopter vertical assaults) where human entities need to mount other vehicles within the virtual environment. The approach taken was to ...

  9. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  10. Collagenous Gastritis: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Limaiem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized histologically by the presence of a thick subepithelial collagen band associated with an inflammatory infiltrate of gastric mucosa. A 40-year-old male presented with a history of chronic intermittent abdominal pain for about 6 months. Physical examination was unremarkable, and biological tests were within normal range. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy which showed a nodular mucosa of the stomach. Biopsies of the duodenum and colon were unremarkable. However, biopsies of the gastric fundus revealed a mild chronic gastritis characterized by lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration of deep mucosa, without lymphoid follicle formation or active inflammation. No microorganisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin or Giemsa-stained sections. Subepithelial collagen in the gastric biopsies was thickened and showed entrapped capillaries. Subepithelial collagen was highlighted by Masson's trichrome staining and was negative for amyloid by Congo Red. In the areas containing thickened collagen, there were no intraepithelial lymphocytes. The final pathological diagnosis was collagenous gastritis. Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, but it is important to recognize its characteristic endoscopic and pathologic findings to make a correct diagnosis. Specific therapy for this rare entity has not yet been established. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 68-70

  11. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  12. Named entity extraction and disambiguation for informal text: the missing link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badieh Habib Morgan, Mena

    2014-01-01

    Social media content represents a large portion of all textual content appearing on the Internet. These streams of user generated content (UGC) provide an opportunity and challenge for media analysts to analyze huge amount of new data and use them to infer and reason with new information. An example

  13. Learning multiple distributed prototypes of semantic categories for named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of large labelled datasets comprising clinical text that can be exploited within the paradigm of supervised machine learning creates barriers for the secondary use of data from electronic health records. It is therefore important to develop capabilities to leverage the large amounts of unlabelled data that, indeed, tend to be readily available. One technique utilises distributional semantics to create word representations in a wholly unsupervised manner and uses existing training data to learn prototypical representations of predefined semantic categories. Features describing whether a given word belongs to a certain category are then provided to the learning algorithm. It has been shown that using multiple distributional semantic models, each employing a different word order strategy, can lead to enhanced predictive performance. Here, another hyperparameter is also varied--the size of the context window--and an experimental investigation shows that this leads to further performance gains.

  14. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of

  15. Quantum Model Theory (QMod): Modeling Contextual Emergent Entangled Interfering Entities

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present 'Quantum Model Theory' (QMod), a theory we developed to model entities that entail the typical quantum effects of 'contextuality, 'superposition', 'interference', 'entanglement' and 'emergence'. This aim of QMod is to put forward a theoretical framework that has the technical power of standard quantum mechanics, namely it makes explicitly use of the standard complex Hilbert space and its quantum mechanical calculus, but is also more general than standard quantum mechanics, in the sense that it only uses this quantum calculus locally, i.e. for each context corresponding to a measurement. In this sense, QMod is a generalization of quantum mechanics, similar to how the general relativity manifold mathematical formalism is a generalization of special relativity and classical physics. We prove by means of a representation theorem that QMod can be used for any entity entailing the typical quantum effects mentioned above. Some examples of application of QMod in concept theory and macroscopic...

  16. No Name,No Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China vows to protect minors from online game addictions and other Internet scams with a real-name registration system online gamers of all ages in Chinacan forget about completing quests or shooting virtual enemies without registering their real names

  17. Landscape Analysis of Geographical Names in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hubei Province is the hub of communications in central China, which directly determines its strategic position in the country’s development. Additionally, Hubei Province is well-known for its diverse landforms, including mountains, hills, mounds and plains. This area is called “The Province of Thousand Lakes” due to the abundance of water resources. Geographical names are exclusive names given to physical or anthropogenic geographic entities at specific spatial locations and are important signs by which humans understand natural and human activities. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS technology is adopted to establish a geodatabase of geographical names with particular characteristics in Hubei Province and extract certain geomorphologic and environmental factors. We carry out landscape analysis of mountain-related geographical names and water-related geographical names respectively. In the end, we calculate the information entropy of geographical names of each county to describe the diversity and inhomogeneity of place names in Hubei province. Our study demonstrates that geographical names represent responses to the cultural landscape and physical environment. The geographical names are more interesting in specific landscapes, such as mountains and rivers.

  18. Topological Features Based Entity Disambiguation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Chen Sun; De-Rong Shen; Tie-Zheng Nie; Ge Yu

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an unsupervised topological features based entity disambiguation solution. Most existing studies leverage semantic information to resolve ambiguous references. However, the semantic information is not always accessible because of privacy or is too expensive to access. We consider the problem in a setting that only relationships between references are available. A structure similarity algorithm via random walk with restarts is proposed to measure the similarity of references. The disambiguation is regarded as a clustering problem and a family of graph walk based clustering algorithms are brought to group ambiguous references. We evaluate our solution extensively on two real datasets and show its advantage over two state-of-the-art approaches in accuracy.

  19. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  20. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  1. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  2. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  3. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  4. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  5. Principles of Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2010-01-01

    Describing the role of engineering in medicine today, this comprehensive volume covers a wide range of the most important topics in this burgeoning field. Supported with over 145 illustrations, the book discusses bioelectrical systems, mechanical analysis of biological tissues and organs, biomaterial selection, compartmental modeling, and biomedical instrumentation. Moreover, you find a thorough treatment of the concept of using living cells in various therapeutics and diagnostics.Structured as a complete text for students with some engineering background, the book also makes a valuable refere

  6. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  7. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, is a collection of papers that discusses circulatory system models, linguistics in computer usage, and clinical applications on patient monitoring. One paper describes the use of comparative models of overall circulatory mechanics that include models of the cardiac pump, of the vascular systems, and of the overall systems behavior. Another paper describes a model in processing medical language data that employs an explicit semantic structure, becoming the basis for the computer-based, artificial intelligence of the system. One paper cites studies b

  8. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4, is a collection of papers that deals with gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and the analysis of minute samples, as well as the role of the government in regulating the production, usage, safety, and efficacy of medical devices. One paper reviews the use of mass spectrometry and computer technology in relation to gas-phase analytical methods based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instruments and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer analytical systems. Many health practitioners, government and private health agencies, the legal prof

  9. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  10. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  11. Biomedical problems of hydrotechnical construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, A.B.; El' piner, L.I.; Delitsyn, V.M.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of hydrotechnical and water-management construction on the living conditions and health of the population was examined. The results were used to develop the scientific bases and methods of biomedical predictions in several stages: evaluating biomedical conditions in territories where a change is expected, and constructing biomedical prediction proper of the effect of hydrotechnical constructions. The development of the indicated predictions make it possible to include measures on intensifying the positive and preventing or abating undesired effects on the biomedical situation when designing hydrotechnical and water-management construction.

  12. Entity resolution in the web of data

    CERN Document Server

    Christophides, Vassilis; Stefanidis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several knowledge bases have been built to enable large-scale knowledge sharing, but also an entity-centric Web search, mixing both structured data and text querying. These knowledge bases offer machine-readable descriptions of real-world entities, e.g., persons, places, published on the Web as Linked Data. However, due to the different information extraction tools and curation policies employed by knowledge bases, multiple, complementary and sometimes conflicting descriptions of the same real-world entities may be provided. Entity resolution aims to identify different descrip

  13. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can......-word brand names....

  14. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications.

  15. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  16. A Learning-Based Approach for Biomedical Word Sense Disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Al-Mubaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniques with the help of the plethora of knowledge sources like ontologies and text literature in the biomedical domain will help lessen this limitation. The proposed method utilizes the interaction model (mutual information between the context words and the senses of the target word to induce reliable learning models for sense disambiguation. The method has been evaluated with the benchmark dataset NLM-WSD with various settings and in biomedical entity species disambiguation. The evaluation results showed that the approach is very competitive and outperforms recently reported results of other published techniques.

  17. Entity Came to Rescue - Leveraging Entities to Minimize Risks in Web Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    available Freebase annotation on ClueWeb12 as well as Freebase API to estimate the entity model. It is called Latent Entity Space (LES), in which we model...improvements on the performance of Web document retrieval when combined with axiomatic retrieval model with semantic expansion, one of the state-of- the...Fortunately, Google performed entity extraction over the whole ClueWeb12 collection based on their in-house infrastructure and makes the entity annotation

  18. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  19. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, Henning; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine t

  20. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  1. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  2. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... separate legal entity) operated by any one of the foregoing as a business undertaking in a...

  3. Entity search: building bridges between two worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Balog; E. Meij; M. de Rijke

    2010-01-01

    We consider the task of entity search and examine to which extent state-of-art information retrieval (IR) and semantic web (SW) technologies are capable of answering information needs that focus on entities. We also explore the potential of combining IR with SW technologies to improve the end-to-end

  4. Code-first development with Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Barskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers with some prior experience with the Microsoft .NET framework who want to learn how to use Entity Framework. This book will get you up and running quickly, providing many examples that illustrate all the key concepts of Entity Framework.

  5. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  6. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  7. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  8. Checklists in biomedical publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardal-Refoyo JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: the authors, reviewers, editors and readers must have specific tools that help them in the process of drafting, review, or reading the articles. Objective: to offer a summary of the major checklists for different types of biomedical research articles. Material and method: review literature and resources of the EQUATOR Network and adaptations in Spanish published by Medicina Clínica and Evidencias en Pediatría journals. Results: are the checklists elaborated by various working groups. (CONSORT and TREND, experimental studies for observational studies (STROBE, accuracy (STARD diagnostic studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA and for studies to improve the quality (SQUIRE. Conclusions: the use of checklists help to improve the quality of articles and help to authors, reviewers, to the editor and readers in the development and understanding of the content.

  9. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies.

  10. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  11. NetiNeti: discovery of scientific names from text using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akella Lakshmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scientific name for an organism can be associated with almost all biological data. Name identification is an important step in many text mining tasks aiming to extract useful information from biological, biomedical and biodiversity text sources. A scientific name acts as an important metadata element to link biological information. Results We present NetiNeti (Name Extraction from Textual Information-Name Extraction for Taxonomic Indexing, a machine learning based approach for recognition of scientific names including the discovery of new species names from text that will also handle misspellings, OCR errors and other variations in names. The system generates candidate names using rules for scientific names and applies probabilistic machine learning methods to classify names based on structural features of candidate names and features derived from their contexts. NetiNeti can also disambiguate scientific names from other names using the contextual information. We evaluated NetiNeti on legacy biodiversity texts and biomedical literature (MEDLINE. NetiNeti performs better (precision = 98.9% and recall = 70.5% compared to a popular dictionary based approach (precision = 97.5% and recall = 54.3% on a 600-page biodiversity book that was manually marked by an annotator. On a small set of PubMed Central’s full text articles annotated with scientific names, the precision and recall values are 98.5% and 96.2% respectively. NetiNeti found more than 190,000 unique binomial and trinomial names in more than 1,880,000 PubMed records when used on the full MEDLINE database. NetiNeti also successfully identifies almost all of the new species names mentioned within web pages. Conclusions We present NetiNeti, a machine learning based approach for identification and discovery of scientific names. The system implementing the approach can be accessed at http://namefinding.ubio.org.

  12. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  13. Noun and knowledge retrieval for biological and non-biological entities following right occipitotemporal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruffaerts, R.; Weer, A.S. De; Grauwe, S.M.T. De; Thys, M.; Dries, E.; Thijs, V.; Sunaert, S.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Deyne, S. De; Storms, G.; Vandenberghe, R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the critical contribution of right ventral occipitotemporal cortex to knowledge of visual and functional-associative attributes of biological and non-biological entities and how this relates to category-specificity during confrontation naming. In a consecutive series of 7 patients wi

  14. 78 FR 30397 - Identification of Entity Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one entity identified as the Government of Iran under the Iranian Transactions...

  15. 12 CFR 602.24 - Responses to demands served on non-FCA employees or entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to demands served on non-FCA... Not a Named Party § 602.24 Responses to demands served on non-FCA employees or entities. If you are not an employee and are served with a demand or a subpoena in a legal proceeding directing you...

  16. Pro Entity Framework 4.0

    CERN Document Server

    Wightman, James

    2010-01-01

    Previously, SQL developers have been able to almost entirely ignore the SQLCLR and treat it as a peripheral technology-almost an extension to the main product. With the advent of LINQ and the Entity Framework, this is no longer the case, and the SQLCLR is moving to the center stage. It's a powerful product but, for many, it is an entirely new way of working with data. Pro Entity Framework 4.0 will help readers understand the implications of the Entity Framework and how it can be used to change their development practices and make their databases more powerful and flexible. Since many readers w

  17. Biomedical education for clinical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Francois; Donadey, Alain; Hadjes, Pierre; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical equipment Master's degree is recognized by the French Ministry of Health, since its creation in 1975 under the denomination of "Specialization for Hospital Biomedical Engineers". Since the new national status of technical staff in the public service by decree of September 5th of 1991, it allows to access directly to the level of Chief Hospital Engineer (first category, second class, by ordinance of October 23rd, 1992). Biomedical Engineers jobs in French hospitals are selected after an examination organized by the recruiting hospital. Master's graduates are most often the best qualified.

  18. Biomedical engineering - A means to add new dimension to medicine and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is an evolving science that seeks to insert technically oriented and trained personnel to assist medical professionals in solving technological problems in the pursuit of innovations in the delivery of health care. Consequently, engineering solutions are brought to bear on problems that previously were outside the training of physicians and beyond the understanding or appreciation of the conventionally educated electrical or mechanical engineers. This physician/scientist/engineer team has a capability to extend medicine and research far beyond the capability of a single entity operating alone. How biomedical engineering has added a new dimension to medical science at the Kennedy Space Center is described.

  19. Secure management of biomedical data with cryptographic hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations.

  20. Construction of an annotated corpus to support biomedical information extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaught John

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information Extraction (IE is a component of text mining that facilitates knowledge discovery by automatically locating instances of interesting biomedical events from huge document collections. As events are usually centred on verbs and nominalised verbs, understanding the syntactic and semantic behaviour of these words is highly important. Corpora annotated with information concerning this behaviour can constitute a valuable resource in the training of IE components and resources. Results We have defined a new scheme for annotating sentence-bound gene regulation events, centred on both verbs and nominalised verbs. For each event instance, all participants (arguments in the same sentence are identified and assigned a semantic role from a rich set of 13 roles tailored to biomedical research articles, together with a biological concept type linked to the Gene Regulation Ontology. To our knowledge, our scheme is unique within the biomedical field in terms of the range of event arguments identified. Using the scheme, we have created the Gene Regulation Event Corpus (GREC, consisting of 240 MEDLINE abstracts, in which events relating to gene regulation and expression have been annotated by biologists. A novel method of evaluating various different facets of the annotation task showed that average inter-annotator agreement rates fall within the range of 66% - 90%. Conclusion The GREC is a unique resource within the biomedical field, in that it annotates not only core relationships between entities, but also a range of other important details about these relationships, e.g., location, temporal, manner and environmental conditions. As such, it is specifically designed to support bio-specific tool and resource development. It has already been used to acquire semantic frames for inclusion within the BioLexicon (a lexical, terminological resource to aid biomedical text mining. Initial experiments have also shown that the corpus may

  1. Rongsheng names 400000DWT VLOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On July 9th,China's largest privately-run shipbuilder China Rongsheng Heavy Industries Group Holdings Limited held a naming and launching ceremony of the first newbuilding of 12 very large ore carriers (VLOC) ordered by Brazil's Vale in 2008 with a contract value of $1.6bn in total. China's first 400000 DWT VLOC naming and launching ceremony was held at the shipyard of China Rongsheng.The 400000-dwt VLOC named Vale China and launched on Saturday will be delivered to Vale by August or Spetember.

  2. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  3. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  4. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  5. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  6. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  7. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  8. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  9. XML Entity Architecture for Efficient Software Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Amol; Patwardhan, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed xml entities based architectural implementation to improve integration between multiple third party vendor software systems with incompatible xml schema. The xml entity architecture implementation showed that the lines of code change required for mapping the schema between in house software and three other vendor schema, decreased by 5.2%, indicating an improvement in quality. The schema mapping development time decreased by 3.8% and overall release time decreased by 5.3%,...

  10. Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.

  11. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  13. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  14. Dvina is a Russian Name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamill P. Volsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The note gives a brief review of the most known versions of the origin of the name Dvina and provides some arguments in favour of its Russian origin. The author offers two versions of the Russian origin of Dvina. The first one brings the name into correlation with the dialectal word dvina attested in Smolensk Region with the meaning ‘a lot, a great amount of something’. The second one, which the author considers more plausible, suggests an etymological link between the river name Dvina and the Russian numeral dva ‘two’. This second version is supported, firstly, by the physical geographic characteristics of the Northern Dvina River formed by the confluence of two other big rivers — the Sukhona and the Yug. Secondly, in the dialects of the Russian North there exists a common noun dvina designating different “double” objects: ‘twins’, ‘uterine brother’, ‘double distilled wine’. The appellative word dvina corresponds to the structural and word-formational rules of the Russian language and is present in the microtoponymy of the Russian North. The author does not rule out that the name of the Western Dvina may have originated from the old Russian word dvina since it may be a secondary name derived from Dvina, the name of the lake at the head of the Western Dvina River.

  15. A Multi-Entity Field Approximation to determine the source location of multiple atmospheric contaminant releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunzio, Andrew J.; Young, George S.; Haupt, Sue Ellen

    2012-12-01

    In the event of an accidental or intentional contaminant release, it is imperative to locate the source of the contaminant for use in hazard prediction models. In some situations more than a single contaminant release will be present, which becomes a complicating factor when contaminants from these releases significantly overlap. Here we present a Lagrangian approach to determine the source locations of multiple contaminant releases. For this approach, we assume that the concentration field is approximated by a superposition of contaminant entities, where an entity is a discrete object; namely a puff for an instantaneous release and a plume for a continuous release. The state of each entity is inferred from surface observations of the contaminant, and extrapolation of each entity's state provides an estimate of the contaminant source locations. We call this method a Multi-Entity Field Approximation (MEFA) because together the entities' concentration fields sum to approximate the observed concentration field. In this work, we outline the MEFA process for both instantaneous and continuous contaminant releases using data from two FUSION Field Trial 2007 (FFT07) Trials where contaminant fields from multiple contaminant releases overlap close to the source location.

  16. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, G.; De Vecchi, C.; Giroletti, E.; Guida, R.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Sani, G.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2006-08-01

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 μm and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi 2O 3 and Tl 2O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C 2H 2F 4 92.5%, SF 6 2.5%, C 4H 10 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  17. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); De Vecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Giroletti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Guida, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Musitelli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nardo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Necchi, M.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Pagano, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ratti, S.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vicini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Viviani, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 {mu}m and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Tl{sub 2}O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4} 92.5%, SF{sub 6} 2.5%, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  18. Towards Evidence-based Precision Medicine: Extracting Population Information from Biomedical Text using Binary Classifiers and Syntactic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kalpana; Dasot, Naman; Goyal, Pawan; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for prevention and treatment of disease that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The dissemination of individualized evidence by automatically identifying population information in literature is a key for evidence-based precision medicine at the point-of-care. We propose a hybrid approach using natural language processing techniques to automatically extract the population information from biomedical literature. Our approach first implements a binary classifier to classify sentences with or without population information. A rule-based system based on syntactic-tree regular expressions is then applied to sentences containing population information to extract the population named entities. The proposed two-stage approach achieved an F-score of 0.81 using a MaxEnt classifier and the rule- based system, and an F-score of 0.87 using a Nai've-Bayes classifier and the rule-based system, and performed relatively well compared to many existing systems. The system and evaluation dataset is being released as open source. PMID:27570671

  19. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Abdul Wahab; Azam, Farooque; Qamar, Usman

    2015-01-01

    The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  20. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  1. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  2. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  3. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  4. How Hurricanes Get Their Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅荐

    2000-01-01

    The first people who gave names to hurricanes were those who knew them best the people of Puerto Rico. The small island of Puerto Rico is in the West Indies, off the coast of Florida. This is where all the hurricanes begin that strike the east coast of the United States.

  5. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  6. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  7. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  8. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  9. Rectification of two generic names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1896-01-01

    I am sorry to say that amongst the new generic names, occurring in my recent paper on the genus Pycnonotus and some allied Genera (N. L. M. XVII), Centrolophus and Gymnocrotaphus are already preoccupied among the Fishes, the first being used by Lacépède, the second by Günther. I propose, therefore,

  10. Improving Entity Resolution with Global Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmell, Jim; Chandra, Ashok K

    2011-01-01

    Some of the greatest advances in web search have come from leveraging socio-economic properties of online user behavior. Past advances include PageRank, anchor text, hubs-authorities, and TF-IDF. In this paper, we investigate another socio-economic property that, to our knowledge, has not yet been exploited: sites that create lists of entities, such as IMDB and Netflix, have an incentive to avoid gratuitous duplicates. We leverage this property to resolve entities across the different web sites, and find that we can obtain substantial improvements in resolution accuracy. This improvement in accuracy also translates into robustness, which often reduces the amount of training data that must be labeled for comparing entities across many sites. Furthermore, the technique provides robustness when resolving sites that have some duplicates, even without first removing these duplicates. We present algorithms with very strong precision and recall, and show that max weight matching, while appearing to be a natural choi...

  11. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  12. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate Reporting Entity A... Part 420—Separate Reporting Entity Subject to the following conditions, one or more aggregating entity(ies) (e.g., parent, subsidiary, or organizational component) in a reporting entity, either...

  13. Innovations in Biomedical Engineering 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Tkacz, Ewaryst; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Piętka, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the “Innovations in Biomedical Engineering IBE’2016” Conference held on October 16–18, 2016 in Poland, discussing recent research on innovations in biomedical engineering. The past decade has seen the dynamic development of more and more sophisticated technologies, including biotechnologies, and more general technologies applied in the area of life sciences. As such the book covers the broadest possible spectrum of subjects related to biomedical engineering innovations. Divided into four parts, it presents state-of-the-art achievements in: • engineering of biomaterials, • modelling and simulations in biomechanics, • informatics in medicine • signal analysis The book helps bridge the gap between technological and methodological engineering achievements on the one hand and clinical requirements in the three major areas diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation on the other.

  14. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell-cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future.

  15. "Mater puerorum'. A medieval naming for an enigmatic children's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, S S

    1981-09-01

    The pediatric clinical entity called "Mater Puerorum' appears first in the latin translation of Rhazes' "Practica Puerorum' and in his "Continens'. His descriptions of the disease could give some likeness either to a diagnosis of night terrors, or of hyperpyretic convulsions, or of a slight form of epilepsy. Mater Puerorum is afterwards described by most pediatric authors till the Renaissance period without much originality. Rhazes being one of their main sources anyway. Mater Puerorum has been considered by Still and Radbill as a synonym for hysterical fits in children. Going back to the Arabic original naming: Ummu's Sibyan, we venture another etymology based on Babylonian-Judeo-Arabic demonology. The "Mother of the Children' could be the female demon Karina--or Lilith--which is said to come to plague the children at night. The naming Mater Puerorum could thus be ascribed to a folklore origin, rather than to hysteria.

  16. Constructing a semantic predication gold standard from the biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilicoglu Halil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic relations increasingly underpin biomedical text mining and knowledge discovery applications. The success of such practical applications crucially depends on the quality of extracted relations, which can be assessed against a gold standard reference. Most such references in biomedical text mining focus on narrow subdomains and adopt different semantic representations, rendering them difficult to use for benchmarking independently developed relation extraction systems. In this article, we present a multi-phase gold standard annotation study, in which we annotated 500 sentences randomly selected from MEDLINE abstracts on a wide range of biomedical topics with 1371 semantic predications. The UMLS Metathesaurus served as the main source for conceptual information and the UMLS Semantic Network for relational information. We measured interannotator agreement and analyzed the annotations closely to identify some of the challenges in annotating biomedical text with relations based on an ontology or a terminology. Results We obtain fair to moderate interannotator agreement in the practice phase (0.378-0.475. With improved guidelines and additional semantic equivalence criteria, the agreement increases by 12% (0.415 to 0.536 in the main annotation phase. In addition, we find that agreement increases to 0.688 when the agreement calculation is limited to those predications that are based only on the explicitly provided UMLS concepts and relations. Conclusions While interannotator agreement in the practice phase confirms that conceptual annotation is a challenging task, the increasing agreement in the main annotation phase points out that an acceptable level of agreement can be achieved in multiple iterations, by setting stricter guidelines and establishing semantic equivalence criteria. Mapping text to ontological concepts emerges as the main challenge in conceptual annotation. Annotating predications involving biomolecular

  17. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  18. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  20. What Is in a Name? How Biomedical Language May Derail Patient Understanding of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhour, Barbara G; Kressin, Nancy R

    2015-07-01

    Despite major advances in treating hypertension, >50% of all individuals diagnosed with the condition remain in poor control. A fundamental issue may be that patients may not fully understand the meaning of the term hypertension or its cause, leading to poor adherence to medications and limiting other effective self-management behaviors. We posit that the word hypertension itself may contribute to these misunderstandings, particularly in regards to the role of stress in causing hypertension, which thus suggests stress management as a primary strategy for control. The word hypertension is often interpreted by patients to mean too much tension. In conjunction with cultural framings of stress causing high blood pressure, many patients turn to stress management to control their hypertension. The word hypertension can thus cause patients to think of it as more of a psychological than physiological condition, thus discounting the value of antihypertensive medications and interfering with medication adherence. We therefore suggest that clinicians reconsider the use of the term hypertension and the ways in which they explain the condition to patients. Reorienting the language to the more patient-centered term of high blood pressure may help patients better understand the condition and to more readily embrace the available efficacious therapies.

  1. Financial Management of Economic Entity from the Perspective of Alternative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the study the financial management presented is divided into three directions, namely financial analysis, financial planning and financial strategy, focusing on increasing the quality of financial management conducted at the economic entity by identifying an easier possible use for a system of alternative decisions in order to increase the profitability. The study also aims to identify new meanings of financial accounting information system in performing the managerial act through alternative decisions, trying to highlight the need to create a management tool generator of variants possible to be adopted with an impact on their application in the economic entity as a whole. Based on qualitative research on the financial management act, it is revealed the importance of the financial management act manifested in the economic entity and also its quality improvement through simulations targeting the management through budget system.

  2. A Bootstrapping Based Approach for Open Geo-entity Relation Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracting spatial relations and semantic relations between two geo-entities from Web texts, asks robust and effective solutions. This paper puts forward a novel approach: firstly, the characteristics of terms (part-of-speech, position and distance are analyzed by means of bootstrapping. Secondly, the weight of each term is calculated and the keyword is picked out as the clue of geo-entity relations. Thirdly, the geo-entity pairs and their keywords are organized into structured information. Finally, an experiment is conducted with Baidubaike and Stanford CoreNLP. The study shows that the presented method can automatically explore part of the lexical features and find additional relational terms which neither the domain expert knowledge nor large scale corpora need. Moreover, compared with three classical frequency statistics methods, namely Frequency, TF-IDF and PPMI, the precision and recall are improved about 5% and 23% respectively.

  3. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  4. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  5. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  6. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2o0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Neves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  7. Pelvic fibromatoses--a rare gynecological entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckshee, K; Mittal, S; Agarwal, N; Chellani, M

    1988-06-01

    A rare case of pelvic fibromatoses is reported. This condition is rarely encountered in gynecological practice but when encountered, creates a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The reported patient highlights the difficulties encountered in surgical excision (done twice) and illustrates the local aggressive growth behavior of this entity.

  8. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  9. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings... applicant (or the controlling interest) is a “rural telephone company” as defined by the Communications Act... entity status in an auction in which bidding begins after the effective date of the rules. Investor is...

  10. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4) A... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS...

  11. 78 FR 31822 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... (System) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited partnerships (LPs), limited liability partnerships... 12 CFR Parts 604, 611, 612, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated...

  12. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... business is outside the United States or its equity securities are primarily traded on one or more...

  13. 31 CFR 598.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 598.303 Section 598.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS..., organization, network, group, or subgroup, or any form of business collaboration....

  14. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck.

  15. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not... winning bid on any of the licenses in this subpart. (3) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs, may use a bidding credit of 15...

  16. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter....

  17. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(i) of this chapter. A...

  18. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Creating Biomedical Technologies to Improve Health En Español | Site Map | ... 2016 VIEW MORE NEWS AND HIGHLIGHTS Design by Biomedical Undergraduate Teams Challenge RSS LISTSERV YOUTUBE FACEBOOK TWITTER ...

  19. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  20. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  1. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  2. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  3. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools.  It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.

  4. Biomedical applications of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bormann, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the emerging field of biomedical applications for magnesium-based materials, envisioning degradable implants that dissolve in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition. After outlining the background of this interest, some major aspects concerning degra

  5. Using Nanoinformatics Methods for Automatically Identifying Relevant Nanotoxicology Entities from the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel García-Remesal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets to 93.0% (routes of exposure, while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure to 87.4% (toxic effects. These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a “proof of concept” that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine.

  6. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  7. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  8. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  9. Nanomedicine: magnetic nanoparticles and their biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Reshmi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel; McIintosh, M; Zhang, Xueji; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    During this past decade, science and engineering have seen a rapid increase in interest for nanoscale materials with dimensions less than 100 nm, which lie in the intermediate state between atoms and bulk (solid) materials. Their attributes are significantly altered relative to the corresponding bulk materials as they exhibit size dependent behavior such as quantum size effects (depending on bulk Bohr radius), optical absorption and emission, coulomb staircase behavior (electrical transport), superparamagnetism and various unique properties. They are active components of ferrofluids, recording tape, flexible disk recording media along with potential future applications in spintronics: a new paradigm of electronics utilizing intrinsic charge and spin of electrons for ultra-high-density data storage and quantum computing. They are used in a gamut of biomedical applications: bioseparation of biological entities, therapeutic drugs and gene delivery, radiofrequency-induced destruction of cells and tumors (hyperthermia), and contrast-enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic nanoparticles have optimizable, controllable sizes enabling their comparison to cells (10-100 µm), viruses (20-250 nm), proteins (3-50 nm), and genes (10-100 nm). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provide necessary characterization methods that enable accurate structural and functional analysis of interaction of the biofunctional particles with the target bioentities. The goal of the present discussion is to provide a broad review of magnetic nanoparticle research with a special focus on the synthesis, functionalization and medical applications of these particles, which have been carried out during the past decade, and to examine several prospective directions.

  10. The Myths behind Flower Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰

    2014-01-01

    The Greek term for flower is Chloris. It is derived from the name of the Chloris, the goddess of vegetation, in Greek mythology, reasonably so, if we consider the great number of mythological tales linked to flowers of the Greek flowers. The use of flowers was widespread in Greece from time immemorial, since flowers are so important to us from the moment we are born. Flowers play an important role in mythology. As they morph from bud to bloom to faded and wilted petals, they assume various meanings linked to youth, life and death. They are associated with goddesses and legends, and are often attributed with certain powers and symbolism.

  11. Team names of the NBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The entry of Yao Ming into the National Basketball Association has created millions of new NBA fans in China.Although teams such as the Rockets and the Lakers have become well known in Chi- na,very few Chinese fans know the stories behind the NBA’s team names. The NBA is divided into the Eastern and Western Conferences.The two conferences are split a- long the Mississippi River,which is the traditional East-West dividing line in the United States.

  12. Santa Claus ’Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  13. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  14. Application of MRI and biomedical engineering in speech production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S R; Freitas, D R; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2009-12-01

    Speech production has always been a subject of interest both at the morphological and acoustic levels. This knowledge is useful for a better understanding of all the involved mechanisms and for the construction of articulatory models. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique that allows the study of the whole vocal tract, with good soft tissue contrast and resolution, and permits the calculation of area functions towards a better understanding of this mechanism. Thus, our aim is to demonstrate the value and application of MRI in speech production study and its relationship with engineering, namely with biomedical engineering. After vocal tract contours extraction, data were processed for 3D reconstruction culminating in model construction of some of the sounds of European Portuguese. MRI provides useful morphological data about the position and shape of the different speech articulators, and the biomedical engineering computational tools for its analysis.

  15. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  16. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as "cell" or "image" or "tissue" or "microscope" that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data.

  17. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  18. Minimize the Percentage of Noise in Biomedical Images Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET.

  19. Minimize the percentage of noise in biomedical images using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudagar, Abdul Khader Jilani

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET).

  20. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  1. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  2. Bibliographic Entity Automatic Recognition and Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)766022

    This master thesis reports an applied machine learning research internship done at digital library of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The way an author’s name may vary in its representation across scientific publications creates ambiguity when it comes to uniquely identifying an author; In the database of any scientific digital library, the same full name variation can be used by more than one author. This may occur even between authors from the same research affiliation. In this work, we built a machine learning based author name disambiguation solution. The approach consists in learning a distance function from a ground-truth data, blocking publications of broadly similar author names, and clustering the publications using a semi-supervised strategy within each of the blocks. The main contributions of this work are twofold; first, improving the distance model by taking into account the (estimated) ethnicity of the author’s full name. Indeed, names from different ethnicities, for e...

  3. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  4. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hamidi, Dr, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity.

  5. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  6. HAMMAN’S SYNDROME: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Shad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hamman's syndrome is a rare entity, also known as Macklin's syndrome, a syndrome of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. We report an unusual case of a young female patient presenting with breathlessness and chest pain of sudden onset, gradually progressive in nature and with history of bronchial asthma for last 8 years, along with other investigations. Chest x ray and computerized tomography was and later diagnosed as Hamman's syndrome

  7. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  8. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Manavitehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have been driven by a need to target the general hydrophobic nature of polyesters and their limited cell motif sites. This review provides a comprehensive investigation into advanced strategies to modify polyesters and their clinical potential for future biomedical applications.

  9. Document Exploration and Automatic Knowledge Extraction for Unstructured Biomedical Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Totaro, G.; Doshi, N.; Thapar, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    We describe our work on building a web-browser based document reader with built-in exploration tool and automatic concept extraction of medical entities for biomedical text. Vast amounts of biomedical information are offered in unstructured text form through scientific publications and R&D reports. Utilizing text mining can help us to mine information and extract relevant knowledge from a plethora of biomedical text. The ability to employ such technologies to aid researchers in coping with information overload is greatly desirable. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in automatic biomedical concept extraction [1, 2] and intelligent PDF reader tools with the ability to search on content and find related articles [3]. Such reader tools are typically desktop applications and are limited to specific platforms. Our goal is to provide researchers with a simple tool to aid them in finding, reading, and exploring documents. Thus, we propose a web-based document explorer, which we called Shangri-Docs, which combines a document reader with automatic concept extraction and highlighting of relevant terms. Shangri-Docsalso provides the ability to evaluate a wide variety of document formats (e.g. PDF, Words, PPT, text, etc.) and to exploit the linked nature of the Web and personal content by performing searches on content from public sites (e.g. Wikipedia, PubMed) and private cataloged databases simultaneously. Shangri-Docsutilizes Apache cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) [4] and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to automatically identify and highlight terms and concepts, such as specific symptoms, diseases, drugs, and anatomical sites, mentioned in the text. cTAKES was originally designed specially to extract information from clinical medical records. Our investigation leads us to extend the automatic knowledge extraction process of cTAKES for biomedical research domain by improving the ontology guided information extraction

  10. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences.

  11. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  12. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Manavitehrani; Ali Fathi; Hesham Badr; Sean Daly; Ali Negahi Shirazi; Fariba Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have be...

  13. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  14. Terahertz biomedical science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Studies Using Terahertz WavesJoo-Hiuk SonSection I Terahertz TechnologyTerahertz Sources and DetectorsHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonTabletop High-Power Terahertz Pulse Generation TechniquesYun-Shik LeeTerahertz Imaging and Tomography TechniquesHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonCompact Solid-State Electronic Terahertz Devices and CircuitsJae-Sung Rieh, Daekeun Yoon, and Jongwon Yun<

  15. ISIFC - dual Biomedical Engineering School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterlin, Nadia; Soto-Romero, Georges; Duffaud, Jacques; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The Superior Institute for Biomedical Engineering (ISIFC), created in 2001, is part of the Franche-Comté University and is accredited by the French Ministry of National Education. Its originality lies in its innovative course of studies, which trains engineers in the scientific and medical fields to get both competencies. The Institute therefore collaborates with the University Hospital Centre of Besançon (CHU), biomedical companies and National Research Centres (CNRS and INSERM). The dual expertise trainees will have acquired at the end of their 3 years course covers medical and biological skills, scientific and Technical expertises. ISIFC engineers answer to manufacturer needs for skilled scientific and technical staff in instrumentation and techniques adapted to diagnosis, therapeutics and medical control, as well as the needs of potential users for biomedical devices, whether they are doctors, hospital staff, patients, laboratories, etc... Both the skills and the knowledge acquired by an ISIFC engineer will enable him/her to fulfil functions of study, research and development in the industrial sector.

  16. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards... proposed Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards addressing the Reporting Entity. The...

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  18. Multifunctional Magnetic-fluorescent Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovich Yury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanotechnology is a fast-growing area, involving the fabrication and use of nano-sized materials and devices. Various nanocomposite materials play a number of important roles in modern science and technology. Magnetic and fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications. It is expected that the combination of magnetic and fluorescent properties in one nanocomposite would enable the engineering of unique multifunctional nanoscale devices, which could be manipulated using external magnetic fields. The aim of this review is to present an overview of bimodal “two-in-one” magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite materials which combine both magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity, in particular those with potential applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine. There is a great necessity for the development of these multifunctional nanocomposites, but there are some difficulties and challenges to overcome in their fabrication such as quenching of the fluorescent entity by the magnetic core. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites include a variety of materials including silica-based, dye-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots-magnetic nanoparticle composites. The classification and main synthesis strategies, along with approaches for the fabrication of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites, are considered. The current and potential biomedical uses, including biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic bioseparation, nanomedicine and bio- and chemo-sensoring, of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites are also discussed.

  19. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  20. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  1. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  2. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  3. What is in a name? Is food addiction a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Shae-Leigh; Pai, Nagesh

    2017-02-01

    Recently interest in the phenomenon of food addiction has increased substantially since the inclusion of gambling disorder in the DSM-5. However the phenomenon of food addiction remains controversial and the designation continues to lack clear consideration. Few researchers have offered an explicit theoretical definition of the phenomenon which is fundamental; as it not only pertains to the aetiology it also directs research and management of the phenomenon. Therefore this review explores 'what is in a name'? Specifically possible aetiologies of food addiction, eating addiction and food addiction as an eating disorder are reviewed and the potential DSM-5 classification espoused. It is evident that the phenomenon requires further research and evaluation in order to delineate whether the phenomenon constitutes a disorder and if the phenomenon is found to be a valid entity the most appropriate designation. As it is too early to draw definitive conclusions regarding the concept all plausible designations and the associated aetiologies require further investigation.

  4. On the Meaning of Name in Plato’s Cratylus Dialogue and the Epic Tales of Dede Korkut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vefa Taşdelen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being given a name and giving a name are the most basic features of human being. He gives a name to himself as well as other entities in the universe he lives; recognizes them with names and provides introduction; establishes a relationship with them over the names. Everything manifesting itself to human consciousness in the universe and having a relationship with people have a name. From this perspective, giving a name is a problem with language and the origin of language. Asking the origin of names is to ask the origin of language; asking the relationship between names with regard to objects is to ask the relationship between language and reality and increasingly truth. The first work on names hence the philosophy of language was of Plato. Cratylus dialogue among his age of maturity dialogues where he developed his idealistic philosophy was the first work on names and hence the philosophy of language.  In this dialogue, two points of view face each other. One of them is conventionalist approach of Hermogenes and the other is naturalist approach of Cratylus.   In this frame, the answer will be sought to the following questions: In Tales of Dede Korkut, (1 What is the function of names? (2 How many correct names does a thing/object have? (3 What kind of relationship can be achieved between objects and names? (4 Who gives the names?

  5. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  6. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  7. Securing a biomedical communications future: thinking strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D

    1985-11-01

    Ensuring continued growth and viability of the biomedical communication function has become a critical task of the biomedical communications director. Thinking strategically is a cognitive process which assists a director in visualizing programs and tactics which meet clients needs, creates competitive advantages for the biomedical communications unit and builds on existing unit strengths. Thinking strategically can be divided into five phases: strategic vision, strategy development, strategic plan implementation, strategic plan dissemination, and strategic plan evaluation. Each sequence leads the biomedical communications director through a process designed to increase the effectiveness of the biomedical unit and to meet the challenges posed by an environment characterized by diminished financial, material, and human resources as well as respond to threats and opportunities posed by increased competition in the biomedical communications product and marketplace.

  8. Large-Scale Collective Entity Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Vibhor; Garofalakis, Minos

    2011-01-01

    There have been several recent advancements in Machine Learning community on the Entity Matching (EM) problem. However, their lack of scalability has prevented them from being applied in practical settings on large real-life datasets. Towards this end, we propose a principled framework to scale any generic EM algorithm. Our technique consists of running multiple instances of the EM algorithm on small neighborhoods of the data and passing messages across neighborhoods to construct a global solution. We prove formal properties of our framework and experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in scaling EM algorithms.

  9. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...... for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the security analyst, however, the structured intuition has two major advantages: Firstly we get a precise...

  10. BOAT: automatic alignment of biomedical ontologies using term informativeness and candidate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Watson Wei Khong; Kim, Jung-Jae

    2012-04-01

    The biomedical sciences is one of the few domains where ontologies are widely being developed to facilitate information retrieval and knowledge sharing, but there still remains the problem that applications using different ontologies cannot share knowledge without explicit references between overlapping concepts. Ontology alignment is the task of identifying such equivalence relations between concepts across ontologies. Its application to the biomedical domain should address two open issues: (1) determining the equivalence of concept-pairs which have overlapping terms in their names, and (2) the high run-time required to align large ontologies which are typical in the biomedical domain. To address them, we present a novel approach, named the Biomedical Ontologies Alignment Technique (BOAT), which is state-of-the-art in terms of F-measure, precision and speed. A key feature of BOAT is that it considers the informativeness of each component word in the concept labels, which has significant impact on biomedical ontologies, resulting in a 12.2% increase in F-measure. Another important feature of BOAT is that it selects for comparison only concept pairs that show high likelihoods of equivalence, based on the similarity of their annotations. BOAT's F-measure of 0.88 for the alignment of the mouse and human anatomy ontologies is on par with that of another state-of-the-art matcher, AgreementMaker, while taking a shorter time.

  11. The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology, a medical entity for educational purposes to serve sick patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, G; Simon, E G; Perrotin, D; Chandenier, J

    2014-06-01

    The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is a movable entity of the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Tours University Hospital, France. In contrast to the usual prerogatives of biomedical laboratories, the Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is requested to intervene directly at bedside in various clinical departments, or even outside the hospital facility. Although its actions are of course primarily devoted to specialized diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the Mobile Team also plays an important educational role in the medical training of undergraduate or graduate students.

  12. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  13. Novel Hyperbranched Polyurethane Brushes for Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ton; Loontjens; Bart; Plum

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The objective was to make hyperbranched (HB) polyurethane brushes with reactive end groups, to coat biomedical devices and to enable the introduction of various functionalities that are needed to fulfill biomedical tasks.Biomedical materials should fulfill at least three requirements: (1) good mechanical properties, (2) good biocompatibility and (3) provided with functionalities to perform the required tasks. Since polyurethanes are able to fulfill the first 2 requirements we focused in this w...

  14. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  15. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  16. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  17. Microfabrication materials for biomedical microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Derek James

    Major hurdles to the implementation of microfabricated devices for therapeutic applications include materials processing and biocompatibility issues. This dissertation reports research on improving the materials selection and fabrication for biomedical microdevices, using a microfabricated immunoisolation biocapsule as an example. Two material classes in the microfabrication protocol were examined based on the requirements determined for biomedical microdevices: the adhesive layer for bonding devices to encapsulate delicate biological substances and the thin film structural materials for surface structures, such as the biocapsule membrane. The major requirements for the adhesive layer material included non-cytotoxicity during bonding, adhesive strength, and durability under physiological conditions. Low glassy-phase transition temperature (Tg) methacrylates were found to be suitable candidates for adhesives of biomedical microdevices. A comparison study of poly propy1methacrylate (PPMA), poly (butyl, ethyl) methacrylate (PBEMA), and the higher Tg PMMA showed that all of the methacrylates had similar biocompatibility, adhesive strength, and durability. The adhesive strengths were found to be suitable for the adhesion of biomedical microdevices, as shown by measurement using a pressurized plate test and the current use of PMMA as bone cement. None of the methacrylates showed evidence of cytotoxicity, as measured by both optical and cytometric cell culture cytotoxicity tests. A protocol for the selective placement of smooth, thin films of PPMA using a Gel-PakTM transfer substrate was developed and demonstrated. The major requirements determined for the thin film structural materials were based on processing, mechanical, and biological parameters. Several candidates were identified as for structural materials based on these requirements: polycrystalline silicon. silicon nitride, fluoropolymers, PMMA, and silicone. A new fabrication protocol was developed to allow the

  18. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  19. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  20. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  1. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  2. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  3. "That thing in New York": Impaired naming vs. preserved recognition of unique entities following an anterior temporal lobe lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Roberts; Shanti Shanker

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior temporal lobe (aTL) damage often results in semantic impairment. As such, the contribution of this region to semantic processing has received considerable attention. Two theories exist to explain aTL function based on conflicting neuropsychological investigations. The first proposes bilateral aTLs form a “hub” implicated in multimodal semantics (for review see: Jefferies, 2013). The second assumes distinct functions. The left is thought to function as a repertoire for ...

  4. Unstable solar lentigo: A defined separate entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Lisa; Barksdale, Sarah; Weedon, David; Muir, Jim

    2016-08-01

    An unstable solar lentigo is a solar lentigo with areas of melanocytic hyperplasia not extending past the margin of the lesion. They are discrete, macular, pigmented lesions arising on sun-damaged skin and a subset of typical solar lentigos. Clinically they differ from usual solar lentigines in often being solitary or larger and darker than adjacent solar lentigines. These lesions are of clinical importance as they can arise in close proximity to lentigo maligna and in a single lesion there can be demonstrated changes of solar lentigo, unstable solar lentigo and lentigo maligna. These observations led us to conjecture that unstable solar lentigos could be a precursor lesion to lentigo maligna. In this article we examine the possibility that lentigo maligna can arise within a solar lentigo through an intermediate lesion, the unstable solar lentigo. We propose that the histopathological recognition of this entity will allow for future research into its behaviour and thus management. We review difficulties in the diagnosis of single cell predominant melanocytic proliferations and the concept of unstable lentigo in view of the literature and clinical experience supporting the proposal of its recognition as a separate entity.

  5. Colorectal cancer, one entity or three

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying LI; Mao-de LAI

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanism ofcolorectal carcinogenesis has been gaining momentum for some years on account of its high incidence and impact on the lives of individuals affected. Different genetic abnormalities have been found in colorectal cancers from different sites. For example, proximal colon cancer is usually related to the nucleotide instability pathway, as mi-crosatellite instability (MSI). However, distal colon cancer is usually associated with specific chromosomal instability (CIN). The development of cancer at the rectum, though similar to that at the colon, displays its own unique features. These differences might be partially attributed to different embryological development and physiological circumstances. Environmental factors such as diet and alcohol intake also differ in their role in the development of tumors in the three segments, proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. "Proximal shift" of colon cancer has been known for some time, and survival rates of colorectal cancer are higher when rectal cancers are excluded, both of which emphasize the three different segments of colorectal cancer and their different proper-ties. Meanwhile, colonic and rectal cancers are distinctive therapeutic entities. The concept of three entities of colorectal cancer may be important in designing clinical trails or therapeutic strategies. However, the dispute about the inconsistency of data con-ceming the site-specific mechanism of colorectal carcinoma does exist, and more evidence about molecular events of carcino-genesis and targeted therapy needs to be collected to definitely confirm the conception.

  6. Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

    2011-08-31

    Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups.

  7. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect. Keywords: modern Mongolian, basic color terms, non-basic color terms, associative experiment, signal word, response word, color naming

  8. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  9. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  10. ENLIGHT and LEIR biomedical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Cirilli, M; Navin, S

    2014-07-01

    Particle therapy (including protons and carbon ions) allows a highly conformal treatment of deep-seated tumours with good accuracy and minimal dose to surrounding tissues, compared to conventional radiotherapy using X-rays. Following impressive results from early phase trials, over the last decades particle therapy in Europe has made considerable progress in terms of new institutes dedicated to charged particle therapy in several countries. Particle therapy is a multidisciplinary subject that involves physicists, biologists, radio-oncologists, engineers and computer scientists. The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) was created in response to the growing needs of the European community to coordinate such efforts. A number of treatment centres are already operational and treating patients across Europe, including two dual ion (protons and carbon ions) centres in Heidelberg (the pioneer in Europe) and Pavia. However, much more research needs to be carried out and beamtime is limited. Hence there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have a facility with greater access to relevant beamtime. Such a facility would facilitate research in radiobiology and the development of more accurate techniques of dosimetry and imaging. The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator at CERN presents such an opportunity, and relies partly on CERN's existing infrastructure. The ENLIGHT network, European Commission projects under the ENLIGHT umbrella and the future biomedical facility are discussed.

  11. Evolution of popularity in given names

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Mi Jin; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2015-01-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  12. NEMO: Extraction and normalization of organization names from PubMed affiliation strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    We propose NEMO, a system for extracting organization names in the affiliation and normalizing them to a canonical organization name. Our parsing process involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The system achieves more than 98% f-score in extracting organization names. Our process of normalization that involves clustering based on local sequence alignment metrics and local learning based on finding connected components. A high precision was also observed in normalization. NEMO is the missing link in associating each biomedical paper and its authors to an organization name in its canonical form and the Geopolitical location of the organization. This research could potentially help in analyzing large social networks of organizations for landscaping a particular topic, improving performance of author disambiguation, adding weak links in the co-author network of authors, augmenting NLM's MARS system for correcting errors in OCR output of affiliation field, and automatically indexing the P...

  13. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  14. Desiderata for ontologies to be used in semantic annotation of biomedical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Michael; Hunter, Lawrence

    2011-02-01

    A wealth of knowledge valuable to the translational research scientist is contained within the vast biomedical literature, but this knowledge is typically in the form of natural language. Sophisticated natural-language-processing systems are needed to translate text into unambiguous formal representations grounded in high-quality consensus ontologies, and these systems in turn rely on gold-standard corpora of annotated documents for training and testing. To this end, we are constructing the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-text biomedical journal articles that are being manually annotated with the entire sets of terms from select vocabularies, predominantly from the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) library. Our efforts in building this corpus has illuminated infelicities of these ontologies with respect to the semantic annotation of biomedical documents, and we propose desiderata whose implementation could substantially improve their utility in this task; these include the integration of overlapping terms across OBOs, the resolution of OBO-specific ambiguities, the integration of the BFO with the OBOs and the use of mid-level ontologies, the inclusion of noncanonical instances, and the expansion of relations and realizable entities.

  15. Semi-supervised learning of causal relations in biomedical scientific discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of daily published articles in the biomedical domain has become too large for humans to handle on their own. As a result, bio-text mining technologies have been developed to improve their workload by automatically analysing the text and extracting important knowledge. Specific bio-entities, bio-events between these and facts can now be recognised with sufficient accuracy and are widely used by biomedical researchers. However, understanding how the extracted facts are connected in text is an extremely difficult task, which cannot be easily tackled by machinery. Results In this article, we describe our method to recognise causal triggers and their arguments in biomedical scientific discourse. We introduce new features and show that a self-learning approach improves the performance obtained by supervised machine learners to 83.47% for causal triggers. Furthermore, the spans of causal arguments can be recognised to a slightly higher level that by using supervised or rule-based methods that have been employed before. Conclusion Exploiting the large amount of unlabelled data that is already available can help improve the performance of recognising causal discourse relations in the biomedical domain. This improvement will further benefit the development of multiple tasks, such as hypothesis generation for experimental laboratories, contradiction detection, and the creation of causal networks. PMID:25559746

  16. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  17. On Strong Memes in Brand Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the memetics and through a large number of examples, this paper expounds several effective methods to cre-ate strong brand name memes. It’s hoped that this paper will offer brand name designers some useful advice on how to create suc-cessful brand name memes.

  18. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden Mu

  19. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    ) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...

  20. On Sociolinguistic Theoretical Basis of Brand Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海洋; 司宇婷

    2015-01-01

    Brand names are the offspring of highly development of market economics, and play a crucial role in modern society. This paper discusses the soci-olinguistic theoretical basis of brand name. Attention should be paid to the cultural factors of brand naming, including customs and manners, religious beliefs, ethics, regional culture and so on.

  1. What’s in a Name?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The process behind naming a Chinese baby has many variations,but with so many people and few name choices,parents are looking for new options Names are very important to the Chinese. When a baby is born, or evenbeforebirth, choosing

  2. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  3. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand...

  4. The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) for biomedical research and knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontier, Michel; Baker, Christopher Jo; Baran, Joachim; Callahan, Alison; Chepelev, Leonid; Cruz-Toledo, José; Del Rio, Nicholas R; Duck, Geraint; Furlong, Laura I; Keath, Nichealla; Klassen, Dana; McCusker, James P; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Samwald, Matthias; Villanueva-Rosales, Natalia; Wilkinson, Mark D; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2014-03-06

    The Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) is an ontology to facilitate biomedical knowledge discovery. SIO features a simple upper level comprised of essential types and relations for the rich description of arbitrary (real, hypothesized, virtual, fictional) objects, processes and their attributes. SIO specifies simple design patterns to describe and associate qualities, capabilities, functions, quantities, and informational entities including textual, geometrical, and mathematical entities, and provides specific extensions in the domains of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics. SIO provides an ontological foundation for the Bio2RDF linked data for the life sciences project and is used for semantic integration and discovery for SADI-based semantic web services. SIO is freely available to all users under a creative commons by attribution license. See website for further information: http://sio.semanticscience.org.

  5. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Warren A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  7. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999.

  8. Cross language information retrieval for biomedical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemie, M.; Trieschnigg, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop report discusses the collaborative work of UT, EMC and TNO on the TREC Genomics Track 2007. The biomedical information retrieval task is approached using cross language methods, in which biomedical concept detection is combined with effective IR based on unigram language models. Furthe

  9. Locally Learning Biomedical Data Using Diffusion Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    expands, increasingly detailed biomedical data must be integrated to betterunderstand normal function and evolution of multifactorial chronic disease ...1259 approach on two standard datasets, we aimed to classify and predict disease progression in AMD patients. Drusen were classified in multispectral...early disease stages in standard and new biomedical datasets. Key words: graphs and networks, machine learning. 1. INTRODUCTION As personalized medicine

  10. Database design using entity-relationship diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bagui, Sikha

    2011-01-01

    Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database          Phase 2: Specify the Database          Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models     The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional

  11. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  12. Official Naming in Hå, Klepp and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Særheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms localize, reflect and give information about historical traditions and various phenomena in an area. They form part of the local heritage and culture. The relationship between place names, heritage and identity is often underlined in guidelines regarding official naming of streets and roads. In what way is heritage and local identity reflected in the road names of the three municipalities Hå, Klepp and Time (Southwest-Norway, and how is the special character of this area expressed in the names? More than half of the official road names in the three municipalities are either identical with a local toponym, or they consist of a word for ‘road’ and a local toponym (or an appellative describing the location. This shows that there is a strong commitment to base the official naming on local tradition and thus contribute to identity. Quite a few elements from the dialect, e.g. special pronunciation, grammatical forms or local words, appear in the names, especially in the road names from Hå, reflecting that the names are part of the local culture, and due to the fact that the dialect is unique. Consistency is a challenge, however; the same word is sometimes spelled in different ways in different names. It appears that, with some exceptions, cultural heritage and local tradition have been preferred principles and guidelines with regard to naming of roads in the three municipalities, due to a consciousness that heritage and tradition create identity.

  13. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement.

  14. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  15. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    Biomedicine is a field that has great influence on the majority of mankind. The constant development has considerably changed our way of life during the last centuries. This has been achieved through the dedication of biomedical researchers along with the tremendous ressources that over time have...... been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for biomedical studies are a recurring theme in this thesis. Data collected in some biomedical studies are positively skewed; hence methods relying on the normal distribution are not directly applicable. We investigated how data from one of these studies are suitably analyzed. We extracted 23 different summary...

  16. HOW TO NEGATE A NAME COMO NEGAR UM NOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vergilio Gallerani Cuter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, a name is always a propositional function. Wittgenstein makes a radical shift in the Fregean opposition between saturated and unsaturated entities. Any sentential component which is not itself a sentence is unsaturated. The proposition is therefore a synthesis of propositional functions. The name is just a limit case of propositional function, and as such it can be negated.O nome, no Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, é sempre uma função proposicional. Wittgenstein modifica radicalmente a oposição fregiana entre entidades saturadas e insaturadas. Toda parte sentencial que não seja ela própria uma sentença é insaturada. A proposição é, portanto, uma síntese de funções proposicionais. O nome é o caso-limite de função proposicional. Como qualquer função proposicional, ele pode perfeitamente ser negado.

  17. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  18. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  19. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  20. Biomedical Perspective of Electrochemical Nanobiosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priti Singh; Shailendra Kumar Pandey; Jyoti Singh; Sameer Srivastava; Sadhana Sachan; Sunil Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensor holds great promise in the biomedical area due to its enhanced specificity, sensi-tivity, label-free nature and cost effectiveness for rapid point-of-care detection of diseases at bedside. In this review, we are focusing on the working principle of electrochemical biosensor and how it can be employed in detecting biomarkers of fatal diseases like cancer, AIDS, hepatitis and cardiovascular diseases. Recent advances in the development of implantable biosensors and exploration of nanomaterials in fabrication of electrodes with increasing the sensitivity of biosensor for quick and easy detection of biomolecules have been elucidated in detail. Electrochemical-based detection of heavy metal ions which cause harmful effect on human health has been discussed. Key challenges associated with the electrochemical sensor and its future perspectives are also addressed.

  1. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  2. Biomedical Applications for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Dixon, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Can be utilized in either Algebra or Calculus-based courses and is available either as a standalone text or as a supplement for books like Cutnell PHYSICS, 5e or Halliday, Resnick, & Walker FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS, 6e. Math level is Algebra & Trigonometry; however, a few examples require the use of integration and differentiation. Unlike competing supplements, Tuszinski offers both a wealth of engaging biomedical applications as well as quantitative problem-solving. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The standard organization facilitates the integration of the material into most introductory courses.

  3. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  4. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  5. Comparative Analysis and Cultivation of New Agricultural Business Entities Based on Comparison of Family Farms and Professional Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; YANG; Xingxi; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Cultivating new bussiness entities is the key to speeding up improving new agricultural production and operating system.This study discussed two representative entities under the agricultural production and operating system based on household contract management,namely,family farms and cooperatives.It introduced current development status of these two entities in Chongqing region,and discussed prominent problems of understanding,management,fund,personnel,technology,information,and system in the development process.In line with common problems such as single production structure and short supply of agricultural insurance,and different problems like organizational degree,it made comparative analysis.Finally,it is concluded that different institutional arrangement and pertinent support policy according to different development characteristics.

  6. THE ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT WITHIN PUBLIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The auditors have a key role in the development of modern economics and accounting rules in progress. Auditing is a profession that has emerged over the years trying to meet the changing needs which public entities have. Public internal audit activities role is to improve public entities providing management advice for the proper administration of public revenues and expenditures. This paper presents the role of internal audit as a tool in changing the mentality of management and employees of entities.

  7. Detecting Adjacent Relativity of Engineering Drawing Entities with Container Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林福严; 邱友申; 秦吉胜

    2001-01-01

    Automatic recognition and interpretation of engineering drawing plays an important role in computer aided engineering. Detecting the positional relation between entities is an important topic in this research field. In this paper the concepts of adjacent relativity and container window of drawing entities were proposed. By means of container window, the adjacent irrelative entities can be detected quickly and effectively, which speeds up the process of adjacent relativity detection. Meanwhile, the algorithm of adjacent relativity detection was discussed.

  8. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity.

  9. WCF multi-layer services development with Entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Mike

    2014-01-01

    If you are a C#, VB.NET, or C++ developer and want to get started with WCF and Entity Framework, then this book is for you. Competence in Entity Framework will be needed to follow the examples in the book, but experience in creating WCF services using Entity Framework is not necessary. Developers and architects evaluating SOA implementation technologies for their company will find this book useful.

  10. INFORMATION AND STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN ECONOMIC ENTITIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN IOAN SABĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and decision are two key elements economic entities management. Information represents the support of decision making by those managing the economic entity, helping them take the right decision for them to achieve set objectives. Strategic decisions provide long-term success of the economic entity outlining its internal and external stand. Those responsible for making strategic decisions have the ability to influence the economic entity’s success through these decisions they take, the role of the strategy being to ensure perfect correspondence between what the economic entity can do and what it could do, given the opportunities and threats in the environment they conduct business.

  11. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Entity Registration

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains the information available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for those entities registered to do business with the Federal government...

  12. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  13. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  14. BioSig: the free and open source software library for biomedical signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Carmen; Sander, Tilmann H; Schlögl, Alois

    2011-01-01

    BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. The aim of the BioSig project is to foster research in biomedical signal processing by providing free and open source software tools for many different application areas. Some of the areas where BioSig can be employed are neuroinformatics, brain-computer interfaces, neurophysiology, psychology, cardiovascular systems, and sleep research. Moreover, the analysis of biosignals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), or respiration signals is a very relevant element of the BioSig project. Specifically, BioSig provides solutions for data acquisition, artifact processing, quality control, feature extraction, classification, modeling, and data visualization, to name a few. In this paper, we highlight several methods to help students and researchers to work more efficiently with biomedical signals.

  15. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  16. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  17. Naming in the Distributed Operating System ZGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛行; 孙钟秀

    1991-01-01

    In this paper,the naming scheme used in the heterogeneous distributed operating system ZGL is described and some of the representative techniques utilized in current distributed operating systems are examined.It is believed that the partitioning of the name space into manyn local name spaces and one global shared name space allows the ZGL system to satisfy each workstation's demand for local autonomy and still be able to facilitate transparent resource sharing.By the division of the system into clusters and the use of a combined centralized-distributed naming mechanism,the system is able to avoid both the bottleneck problem caused by a single centralized name server for the whole system and the performance degradation due to a full distributed scheme.

  18. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  19. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2013-11-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research.

  20. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  1. Thoughts about the Name of Our Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aronowitz, Teri; AbuFannouneh, AbdulMuhsen; Al Usta, Maysa'; Fraley, Hannah E; Howlett, Mary Susan L; Mtengezo, Jasintha Titani; Muchira, James Muturi; Nava, Adrianna; Thapa, Saurja; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-10-01

    This essay addresses the name of our discipline. Discussion of the use of the term, nursology, focuses on the origin of the term, its use as a name for our discipline and its use as a research method and a practice methodology. Advantages and disadvantages of nursology as the name for our discipline are gleaned from PhD program students' responses to a question posed by Reed (1997).

  2. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  3. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravij A. O.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  4. CHEMDNER: The drugs and chemical names extraction challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krallinger, Martin; Leitner, Florian; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and text mining technologies for the chemical domain (ChemNLP or chemical text mining) are key to improve the access and integration of information from unstructured data such as patents or the scientific literature. Therefore, the BioCreative organizers posed the CHEMDNER (chemical compound and drug name recognition) community challenge, which promoted the development of novel, competitive and accessible chemical text mining systems. This task allowed a comparative assessment of the performance of various methodologies using a carefully prepared collection of manually labeled text prepared by specially trained chemists as Gold Standard data. We evaluated two important aspects: one covered the indexing of documents with chemicals (chemical document indexing - CDI task), and the other was concerned with finding the exact mentions of chemicals in text (chemical entity mention recognition - CEM task). 27 teams (23 academic and 4 commercial, a total of 87 researchers) returned results for the CHEMDNER tasks: 26 teams for CEM and 23 for the CDI task. Top scoring teams obtained an F-score of 87.39% for the CEM task and 88.20% for the CDI task, a very promising result when compared to the agreement between human annotators (91%). The strategies used to detect chemicals included machine learning methods (e.g. conditional random fields) using a variety of features, chemistry and drug lexica, and domain-specific rules. We expect that the tools and resources resulting from this effort will have an impact in future developments of chemical text mining applications and will form the basis to find related chemical information for the detected entities, such as toxicological or pharmacogenomic properties.

  5. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...... on cases where trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”). The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this. It is scheduled...

  6. Parts-of-Speech Tagger Errors Do Not Necessarily Degrade Accuracy in Extracting Information from Biomedical Text

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Maurice HT; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    A recent study reported development of Muscorian, a generic text processing tool for extracting protein-protein interactions from text that achieved comparable performance to biomedical-specific text processing tools. This result was unexpected since potential errors from a series of text analysis processes is likely to adversely affect the outcome of the entire process. Most biomedical entity relationship extraction tools have used biomedical-specific parts-of-speech (POS) tagger as errors in POS tagging and are likely to affect subsequent semantic analysis of the text, such as shallow parsing. This study aims to evaluate the parts-of-speech (POS) tagging accuracy and attempts to explore whether a comparable performance is obtained when a generic POS tagger, MontyTagger, was used in place of MedPost, a tagger trained in biomedical text. Our results demonstrated that MontyTagger, Muscorian's POS tagger, has a POS tagging accuracy of 83.1% when tested on biomedical text. Replacing MontyTagger with MedPost did ...

  7. On the identity of Blanco's Cissus frutescens and its correct name in Melicope (Rutaceae) with neotypification of Cissus arborea Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The names Cissus frutescens and Cissus arborea have a long history of confusion. Cissus frutescens Blanco belongs to the genus Melicope (Rutaceae) and we herein correct a nomenclatural mistake made by T.G. Hartley in the revision of Melicope. The name Melicope confusa (Merr.) P.S. Liu was accepted for this taxon by Hartley. However, Cissus frutescens Blanco represents the earliest name for this entity and a new combination, Melicope frutescens (Blanco) Appelhans & J.Wen is herein proposed. Neotypification of Cissus arborea Blanco is also provided.

  8. Veterans administration biomedical engineer training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D E

    1981-01-01

    The Veterans administration's Department of Medical and Surgery includes in its Graduate Engineer Training Program a special program for Biomedical Engineers. The program is intended for recent graduates in biomedical engineering and provides for the VA a means of recruiting and training biomedical engineers for employment in its medical centers nationwide. This paper discusses the structure and objectives of the program, the opportunities that exist for the trainee within the program and the results of the program since its inception in 1973, and provides an outlook on the future of the program.

  9. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  10. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  11. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO ChunSheng; TIAN HuaYu; ZHUANG XiuLi; CHEN XueSi; JING XiaBin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique 'intelligent' characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  12. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  13. Comparing the performance of biomedical clustering methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiwie, Christian; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identifying groups of similar objects is a popular first step in biomedical data analysis, but it is error-prone and impossible to perform manually. Many computational methods have been developed to tackle this problem. Here we assessed 13 well-known methods using 24 data sets ranging from gene......-ranging comparison we were able to develop a short guideline for biomedical clustering tasks. ClustEval allows biomedical researchers to pick the appropriate tool for their data type and allows method developers to compare their tool to the state of the art....

  14. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique ’intelligent’ characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  15. What's in a Screen Name? Attractiveness of Different Types of Screen Names Used by Online Daters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Whitty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether different types of screen names offer advantages when it comes to attracting a partner on dating sites. In the pilot study, we conducted a content analysis of real screen names to develop a typology of screen names. In the main study, we explored whether the typology predicted online daters' ratings of names, and compared the types of names that appealed to men and to women. Men more than women were attracted to screen names that indicated physical attractiveness, and women more than men were attracted to screen names that indicated intelligence or were neutral. Similarly, men more than women were motivated to contact screen names which indicated physical attractiveness and women more than men were more motivated to contact screen names which indicated intellectual characteristics or were neutral. These findings indicate that different types of screen names may elicit different reactions.

  16. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  17. Combination HIV prevention interventions: the potential of integrated behavioral and biomedical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-12-01

    Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches, namely microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV vaccination; review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods; and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed.

  18. Prolonged ulcerative laryngitis: a new disease entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, a new disease entity, prolonged ulcerative laryngitis (PUL), with unique clinical presentation and prolonged disease course, has been recognized. Until now, very few studies dealing with this disease have been reported in the literature. From 1999 to 2008, we analyzed clinical data from a series of 39 PUL patients who were treated with an observational approach without implementing specific treatments. This disease affects adults, predominantly females. The age of patients in our series ranged from 26 to 76 years with a median of 49.5 years. This disease is characterized by ulcers and signs of acute inflammation on the membranous portion of the vocal folds with a prolonged clinical course. The recovery times of patients ranged from 4 to 20 weeks with an average of 9.4 weeks. The data in this study may reflect a natural history of this disease. PUL seems to be a self-limited disease, but the etiology of this disease is unknown. Specific infections or systemic inflammatory processes involving the larynx must be ruled out before diagnosis, and conservative treatments are suggested.

  19. Operation of a business entity in the context of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    PAYONK K.; LYASHENKO V.; KVILINSKYI O.

    2015-01-01

    The article looks into the problems connected with the operation of a business entity in the context of globalization of economic processes. Interaction of economic systems has been analyzed from the perspective of a business entity on the example of Ukraine. There have been suggested methods of assessment and benchmark definition for choosing strategic directions of a business development.

  20. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi...

  1. How Well can We Learn Interpretable Entity Types from Text?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a largely unsupervised approach to learning interpretable, domain-specific entity types from unlabeled text. It assumes that any common noun in a domain can function as potential entity type, and uses those nouns as hidden variables in a HMM. To constrain training, it extracts co-o...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section...

  3. Evaluated Entities and Parameters of Value in Academic Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetela, Puleng

    1997-01-01

    Examines how evaluation works through a text to convey the overall purpose of the writer of the text by using a developing corpus of academic research articles from a variety of disciplines. Findings indicate that the type of evaluation varies according to the type of entity and that two categories of research entity exist: those related to…

  4. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... institutions' use of unincorporated business entities organized under State law for certain business activities... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited... business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more...

  5. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of entities. 438.808 Section 438.808... Exclusion of entities. (a) General rule. FFP is available in payments under MCO contracts only if the State..., directly or indirectly, for the furnishing of health care, utilization review, medical social work,...

  6. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  7. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  8. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  9. Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungall Chris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, agreeing a set of common naming conventions is an achievable goal, particularly if those conventions are based on lessons drawn from pooled practical experience and surveys of community opinion. Results We summarize a review of existing naming conventions and highlight certain disadvantages with respect to general applicability in the biological domain. We also present the results of a survey carried out to establish which naming conventions are currently employed by OBO Foundry ontologies and to determine what their special requirements regarding the naming of entities might be. Lastly, we propose an initial set of typographic, syntactic and semantic conventions for labelling classes in OBO Foundry ontologies. Conclusion Adherence to common naming conventions is more than just a matter of aesthetics. Such conventions provide guidance to ontology creators, help developers avoid flaws and inaccuracies when editing, and especially when interlinking, ontologies. Common naming conventions will also assist consumers of ontologies to more readily understand what meanings were intended by the authors of ontologies used in annotating bodies of data.

  10. Statement of value added (dva: wealth distribution to staff and entities capital of sectors autoind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wink

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to analyze the distribution of benefit produced by companies belonging to sectors of Autoindústria and capital goods to the production of agents and working capital in the period between 2008 and 2012, through the Statement of Value Added (DVA. Methodologically we carried out a survey of descriptive purpose, documentary and bibliographic procedure and qualitative approach to the problem. The chosen population was formed by the group of entities named by Exame Magazine - Biggest and Best, 2012 edition, classified in the sectors of Autoindústria and Capital Goods. Being given sample for data accessibility and non-probabilistic, consisting of a Autoindústria the sector, by Embraer, Marcopolo and Mahle companies and in the Capital Goods sector, by companies Romi SA, Kepler-Weber SA and Bardella SA The results revealed Embraer was the entity with higher revenue figures of the group surveyed. Regarding the ability of benefit generation, the entity that became more revenues in value added was Romi on average 51% of the realized revenue. The Companies generally distributed more value added to personal than to capital.

  11. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  13. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  14. Checking the identity of entities by machine algorithms: the next step to the Hungarian National Namespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Bánki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The redundancy of entities coming from different sources caused problems during the building of the personal name authorities for the Petőfi Museum of Literature. It was a top priority to cleanse and unite classificatory records which have different data content but pertain to the same person without losing any data. As a first step in 2013, we found identities in approximately 80,000 name records so we merged the data content of these records. In the second phase a much more complicated algorithm had to be applied to show these identities. We cleansed the database by uniting approximately 36,000 records. The workflow for automatic detection of authority data tries to follow human intelligence. The database scripts normalize and examine about 20 kinds of data elements according to information about dates, localities, occupation and name variations. The result of creating pairs from the database authority records, as potential redundant elements, was a graph, which was condensed to a tree, by human efforts of the curators of the museum. With this, the limit of technological identification was reached. For further data cleansing human intelligence that can be assisted by computerized regular monitoring is needed, based upon the developed algorithm. As a result, the service containing about 620,000 authority name records will be an indispensable foundation to the establishment of the National Name Authorities. This article shows the work process of unification.

  15. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... positive and the students felt more secure; the relations between the students and the teacher was improved; the students were encouraged to learn each others' names; and they found I was professional and committed. Im sum, learning the students' names matters....... on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...

  16. NOTES ON SOME PREOCCUPIED NAMES IN ARTHROPODA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian F. Kammerer

    2006-01-01

    New replacement names for the preoccupied mite genera Absentia Huang, 2001 and Venilia Kuznetsov, 1979 are proposed (Huangiella nom. nov. and Kuznetsovia nom. nov. , respectively. ). Fourteen further new replacement names are proposed for additional preoccupied generic names in the Arthropoda. These names are: Vailimia nom. nov. , Millidgella nom. nov., and Nolavia nom. nov. in Araneae, Vadumasonium nom. nov. in Hymenoptera, Gridellia nom. nov.,Vanstaronia nom. nov. and Veraniella nom. nov. in Coleoptera, Poletaevega nom. nov. in Trilobita, Vandelia nom. nov.in Isopoda, Gandoa nom. nov. and Vanuachela nom. nov. in Decapoda, and Crasquinia nom. nov. , Oertlia nom. nov. ,and Soleaua nom. nov. in Ostracoda. Additionally, one new annelid replacement name, Omodeodrilus nom. nov., is proposed.

  17. Handbook of photonics for biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donghyun; Somekh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides ...

  18. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  19. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  20. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  1. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  2. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  3. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  4. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  5. Optomechatronics for Biomedical Optical Imaging: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Hyungsuck

    2015-01-01

    The use of optomechatronic technology, particularly in biomedical optical imaging, is becoming pronounced and ever increasing due to its synergistic effect of the integration of optics and mechatronics. The background of this trend is that the biomedical optical imaging for example in-vivo imaging related to retraction of tissues, diagnosis, and surgical operations have a variety of challenges due to complexity in internal structure and properties of biological body and the resulting optical ...

  6. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  7. Biomedical photonics handbook therapeutics and advanced biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents recent fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers,

  8. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  9. 76 FR 78146 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... P.O. Box: 25123, Dubai U.A.E. Annual Review of the Entity List This rule also amends the Entity List... Administration Regulations in effect under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. BIS continues to... economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity)....

  10. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  11. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  12. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  13. A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed.

  14. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  15. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  16. Towards a Theory of Learning for Naming Rehabilitation: Retrieval Practice, Retrieval Effort, and Spacing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Middleton

    2015-04-01

    Methods. Four PWA with naming impairment named and gave familiarity ratings to a corpus of 700 pictures of proper noun entities twice over two weeks. For each participant, we selected items the participant knew recognized but could not consistently name for assignment into the conditions, with a minimum of 36 (max=72 items per condition across participants. The design involved a 2-level factor of type of training (retrieval practice versus errorless learning, i.e., repetition and a factor of spacing, which included a massed condition (lag 1 and three spaced conditions (lags 5, 15, and 30. Lag corresponded to the number of training trials for other items that intervened between three presentations of an item for retrieval practice or repetition training. On a repetition trial, the name was presented (seen/heard and the participant repeated the name at picture onset. On a naming trial, only the picture was presented. All trials ended in feedback (i.e., the name was presented. Primary outcome was naming performance on a retention test administered 1-day following training, with a 1-week follow-up test administered to measure persistence of the effects. Results & Conclusions. Mixed regression analyses revealed that the naming condition was associated with superior performance over repetition, observed both at the retention test (p=.001 and follow-up (p=.01; Figure 1, left panel. Also, spaced training conferred superior benefits compared to massed, both at retention test (p<.001 and follow-up (p=.006; Figure 1, right panel. An analysis of the spaced lags in the naming condition revealed that though increasing lag made retrieval practice more effortful (i.e., error-prone during training, increasing lag conferred more powerful learning at retention test. The present study provides definitive evidence of the relevance of retrieval practice, retrieval effort, and spacing for optimizing existing treatments, their explanatory power, and their importance in driving future

  17. Nano/micro-scale magnetophoretic devices for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byeonghwa; Vavassori, Paolo; Sooryakumar, R.; Kim, CheolGi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there have been tremendous advances in the versatility of magnetic shuttle technology using nano/micro-scale magnets for digital magnetophoresis. While the technology has been used for a wide variety of single-cell manipulation tasks such as selection, capture, transport, encapsulation, transfection, or lysing of magnetically labeled and unlabeled cells, it has also expanded to include parallel actuation and study of multiple bio-entities. The use of nano/micro-patterned magnetic structures that enable remote control of the applied forces has greatly facilitated integration of the technology with microfluidics, thereby fostering applications in the biomedical arena. The basic design and fabrication of various scaled magnets for remote manipulation of individual and multiple beads/cells, and their associated energies and forces that underlie the broad functionalities of this approach, are presented. One of the most useful features enabled by such advanced integrated engineering is the capacity to remotely tune the magnetic field gradient and energy landscape, permitting such multipurpose shuttles to be implemented within lab-on-chip platforms for a wide range of applications at the intersection of cellular biology and biotechnology.

  18. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Arabandi, Sivaram; Brochhausen, Mathias; Calhoun, Michael; Ciccarese, Paolo; Doyle, Scott; Gibaud, Bernard; Goldberg, Ilya; Kahn, Charles E.; Overton, James; Tomaszewski, John; Gurcan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical definitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data. PMID:26167381

  19. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  20. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.