WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical imaging science

  1. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  2. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  3. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  4. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  5. Holography In Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bally, G.

    1988-01-01

    Today not only physicists and engineers but also biological and medical scientists are exploring the potentials of holographic methods in their special field of work. Most of the underlying physical principles such as coherence, interference, diffraction and polarization as well as general features of holography e.g. storage and retrieval of amplitude and phase of a wavefront, 3-d-imaging, large field of depth, redundant storage of information, spatial filtering, high-resolving, non-contactive, 3-d form and motion analysis are explained in detail in other contributions to this book. Therefore, this article is confined to the applications of holography in biomedical sciences. Because of the great number of contributions and the variety of applications [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] in this review the investigations can only be mentioned briefly and the survey has to be confined to some examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review of biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and their utilization are not mentioned. As will be demonstrated by selected examples the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare like biomedical research [9]. This fact is actually characterized and stressed by the expression "Star Wars Medicine", which becomes increasingly common as popular description for laser applications (including holography) in medicine [10]. Thus, the consequence - even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography - have to be discussed.

  6. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  7. Modern Trends in Imaging XI: Impedance Measurements in the Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick D. Coffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.

  8. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  9. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  10. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  11. Imaging sciences workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1994-11-15

    This workshop on the Imaging Sciences sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains short abstracts/articles submitted by speakers. The topic areas covered include the following: Astronomical Imaging; biomedical imaging; vision/image display; imaging hardware; imaging software; Acoustic/oceanic imaging; microwave/acoustic imaging; computed tomography; physical imaging; imaging algorithms. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Terahertz biomedical science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Studies Using Terahertz WavesJoo-Hiuk SonSection I Terahertz TechnologyTerahertz Sources and DetectorsHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonTabletop High-Power Terahertz Pulse Generation TechniquesYun-Shik LeeTerahertz Imaging and Tomography TechniquesHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonCompact Solid-State Electronic Terahertz Devices and CircuitsJae-Sung Rieh, Daekeun Yoon, and Jongwon Yun<

  13. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  14. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  15. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  16. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  17. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  18. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  19. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  20. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  2. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Lecture: Thermophotonic and Photoacoustic Radar Imaging Methods for Biomedical and Dental Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    In the first part of this presentation I will introduce thermophotonic radar imaging principles and techniques using chirped or binary-phase-coded modulation, methods which can break through the maximum detection depth/depth resolution limitations of conventional photothermal waves. Using matched-filter principles, a methodology enabling parabolic diffusion-wave energy fields to exhibit energy localization akin to propagating hyperbolic wave-fields has been developed. It allows for deconvolution of individual responses of superposed axially discrete sources, opening a new field: depth-resolved thermal coherence tomography. Several examples from dental enamel caries diagnostic imaging to metal subsurface defect thermographic imaging will be discussed. The second part will introduce the field of photoacoustic radar (or sonar) biomedical imaging. I will report the development of a novel biomedical imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection and processing coupled with a beamforming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Utilization of specific chirped modulation waveforms (``waveform engineering'') achieves dramatic signal-to-noise-ratio increase and improved axial resolution over pulsed laser photoacoustics. The talk will conclude with aspects of instrumental sensitivity of the PA Radar to optical contrast using cancerous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast enhancement agents and in-vivo tissue samples.

  3. Optomechatronics for Biomedical Optical Imaging: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cho Hyungsuck

    2015-01-01

    The use of optomechatronic technology, particularly in biomedical optical imaging, is becoming pronounced and ever increasing due to its synergistic effect of the integration of optics and mechatronics. The background of this trend is that the biomedical optical imaging for example in-vivo imaging related to retraction of tissues, diagnosis, and surgical operations have a variety of challenges due to complexity in internal structure and properties of biological body and the resulting optical ...

  4. Optomechatronics for Biomedical Optical Imaging: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyungsuck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of optomechatronic technology, particularly in biomedical optical imaging, is becoming pronounced and ever increasing due to its synergistic effect of the integration of optics and mechatronics. The background of this trend is that the biomedical optical imaging for example in-vivo imaging related to retraction of tissues, diagnosis, and surgical operations have a variety of challenges due to complexity in internal structure and properties of biological body and the resulting optical phenomena. This paper addresses the technical issues related to tissue imaging, visualization of interior surfaces of organs, laparoscopic and endoscopic imaging and imaging of neuronal activities and structures. Within such problem domains the paper overviews the states of the art technology focused on how optical components are fused together with those of mechatronics to create the functionalities required for the imaging systems. Future perspective of the optical imaging in biomedical field is presented in short.

  5. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools.  It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.

  6. Dielectrophoresis for Biomedical Sciences Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaslina Abd Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields.

  7. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  8. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-13

    1880Ü JPRS-UBB-87-OlO 13 MAY 1987 USSR Report LIFE SCIENCES BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT I App*w#d lot pubfe...Preirradiation Status and Site of Irradiation (N.P. Didenko, V.M. Perelmuter, et al.; BIOFIZIKA, No 5, Sep-Oct 86) 41 Effects of Nonionizing Microwave ...20026 radiometer (GDR) as a scaling unit. Regression equations were calculated for the controlr and experimental groups were calculated based on

  9. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, an international journal with emphasis on scientific findings in China, publishes articles dealing with biologic and toxic effects of environmental pollutants on man and other forms of life. The effects may be measured with pharmacological, biochemical, pathological, and immunological techniques. The journal also publishes reports dealing with the entry, transport, and fate of natural and anthropogenic chemicals in the biosphere, and their impact on human health and well-being.Papers describing biochemical, pharmacological, pathological, toxicological and immunological studies of pharmaceuticals (biotechnological products) are also welcome.

  10. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  11. Envisioning the Future (Biomedical Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging era? Dr. Zerhouni : We've seen an explosion of new ideas. For example, at NIH, Dr. ... triggered by ultrasound or other techniques, such as heat. MedlinePlus : Imaging technologies aren't cheap. Will NIH ...

  12. Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong; Han, Haewook; Han, Joon; Ahn, Jaewook; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Jeong, Young

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules. There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contr...

  13. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yueping; Liu, Yu; Fu, Weiling; Luo, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Terahertz (THz=10(12)Hz) radiation has attracted wide attention for its unprecedented sensing ability and its noninvasive and nonionizing properties. Tremendous strides in THz instrumentation have prompted impressive breakthroughs in THz biomedical research. Here, we review the current state of THz spectroscopy and imaging in various biomedical applications ranging from biomolecules, including DNA/RNA, amino acids/peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, to cells and tissues. We also address the potential biological effects of THz radiation during its biological applications and propose future prospects for this cutting-edge technology.

  14. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

    2006-07-15

    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

  15. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T

    1975-01-01

    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  16. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  17. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  18. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  19. Multiple energy synchrotron biomedical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, B.; Martinson, M.; Samadi, N.; Belev, G.; Karanfil, C.; Qi, P.; Chapman, D.

    2016-12-01

    A multiple energy imaging system that can extract multiple endogenous or induced contrast materials as well as water and bone images would be ideal for imaging of biological subjects. The continuous spectrum available from synchrotron light facilities provides a nearly perfect source for multiple energy x-ray imaging. A novel multiple energy x-ray imaging system, which prepares a horizontally focused polychromatic x-ray beam, has been developed at the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy bend magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The imaging system is made up of a cylindrically bent Laue single silicon (5,1,1) crystal monochromator, scanning and positioning stages for the subjects, flat panel (area) detector, and a data acquisition and control system. Depending on the crystal’s bent radius, reflection type, and the horizontal beam width of the filtered synchrotron radiation (20-50 keV) used, the size and spectral energy range of the focused beam prepared varied. For example, with a bent radius of 95 cm, a (1,1,1) type reflection and a 50 mm wide beam, a 0.5 mm wide focused beam of spectral energy range 27 keV-43 keV was obtained. This spectral energy range covers the K-edges of iodine (33.17 keV), xenon (34.56 keV), cesium (35.99 keV), and barium (37.44 keV) some of these elements are used as biomedical and clinical contrast agents. Using the developed imaging system, a test subject composed of iodine, xenon, cesium, and barium along with water and bone were imaged and their projected concentrations successfully extracted. The estimated dose rate to test subjects imaged at a ring current of 200 mA is 8.7 mGy s-1, corresponding to a cumulative dose of 1.3 Gy and a dose of 26.1 mGy per image. Potential biomedical applications of the imaging system will include projection imaging that requires any of the extracted elements as a contrast agent and multi-contrast K-edge imaging.

  20. Biomedical Image Analysis by Program "Vision Assistant" and "Labview"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces application in image analysis of biomedical images. General task is focused on analysis and diagnosis biomedical images obtained from program ImageJ. There are described methods which can be used for images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on particle analysis, pattern matching techniques. For this task was chosensophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  1. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  2. Big biomedical data as the key resource for discovery science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Arthur W; Foster, Ian; Kesselman, Carl; Madduri, Ravi; Chard, Kyle; Deutsch, Eric W; Price, Nathan D; Glusman, Gustavo; Heavner, Benjamin D; Dinov, Ivo D; Ames, Joseph; Van Horn, John; Kramer, Roger; Hood, Leroy

    2015-11-01

    Modern biomedical data collection is generating exponentially more data in a multitude of formats. This flood of complex data poses significant opportunities to discover and understand the critical interplay among such diverse domains as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics, including imaging, biometrics, and clinical data. The Big Data for Discovery Science Center is taking an "-ome to home" approach to discover linkages between these disparate data sources by mining existing databases of proteomic and genomic data, brain images, and clinical assessments. In support of this work, the authors developed new technological capabilities that make it easy for researchers to manage, aggregate, manipulate, integrate, and model large amounts of distributed data. Guided by biological domain expertise, the Center's computational resources and software will reveal relationships and patterns, aiding researchers in identifying biomarkers for the most confounding conditions and diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

  3. A Multimodal Nanocomposite for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aiguo; Paunesku, Tatjana; Zhang, Zhuoli; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jörg; Yaghmai, Vahid; Li, Debiao; Omary, Reed A.; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    A multimodal nanocomposite was designed, synthesized with super-paramagnetic core (CoFe2O4), noble metal corona (Au), and semiconductor shell (TiO2). The sizes of core, core-corona, and core-corona-shell particles were determined by TEM. This multimodal nanocrystal showed promise as a contrast agent for two of the most widely used biomedical imaging techniques: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT). Finally, these nanocomposites were coated with a peptide SN-50. This led to their ready uptake by the cultured cells and targeted the nanocomposites to the pores of nuclear membrane. Inside cells, this nanocomposite retained its integrity as shown by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Inside cells imaged by XFM we found the complex elemental signature of nanoconjugates (Ti-Co-Fe-Au) always co-registered in the 2D elemental map of the cell. PMID:24817775

  4. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Creating Biomedical Technologies to Improve Health En Español | Site Map | ... 2016 VIEW MORE NEWS AND HIGHLIGHTS Design by Biomedical Undergraduate Teams Challenge RSS LISTSERV YOUTUBE FACEBOOK TWITTER ...

  5. Biomedical Applications of NASA Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James N., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    During the period 15 September 1968 to 14 December 1968, the NASA supported Biomedical Application Team at the Research Triangle Institute has identified 6 new problems, performed significant activities on 15 of the active problems identified previously, performed 5 computer searches of the NASA aerospace literature, and maintained one current awareness search. As a partial result of these activities, one technology transfer was accomplished. As a part of continuing problem review, 13 problems were classified inactive. Activities during the quarter involved all phases of team activity with respect to biomedical problems. As has been observed in preceding years, it has been exceedingly difficult to arrange meetings with medical investigators during the fourth quarter of the calendar year. This is a result of a combination of factors. Teaching requirements, submission of grant applications and holidays are the most significant factors involved. As a result, the numbers of new problems identified and of transfers and potential transfers are relatively low during this quarter. Most of our activities have thus been directed toward obtaining information related to problems already identified. Consequently, during the next quarter we will follow up on these activities with the expectation that transfers will be accomplished on a number of them. In addition, the normal availability of researchers to the team is expected to be restored during this quarter, permitting an increase in new problem identification activities as well as follow-up with other researchers on old problems. Another activity scheduled for the next quarter is consultation with several interested biomedical equipment manufacturers to explore means of effective interaction between the Biomedical Application Team and these companies.

  6. Proceedings of the international society for optical engineering biomedical image processing 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovik, A.G.; Howard, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of biomedical image processing. Topics covered include: Filtering and reconstruction of biomedical images; analysis, classification and recognition of biomedical images; and 3-D microscopy.

  7. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room...

  8. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: Manana Sukhareva, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  9. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering,...

  10. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  11. 面向生物医学影像e-Science平台的审计监控系统%An Auditing and Monitoring System for Biomedical Image E-Science Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王土生; 杨媛媛; 张建国

    2013-01-01

    During Research in biomedical imaging and clinical applications for major diseases, it is often necessary to involve scientist of basic medicine, clinical medicine, physics and biomedical engineering for collaborative research. To do this, we built a grid-based biomedical image e-Science platform, providing data sharing and exchange between the different institutions. Due to the distribution of system and node heterogeneity, it is difficult to avoid the system hardware and software failures. Therefore, this paper designed an XMPP-based audit and monitoring system, which supports both real-time monitoring of each host, and auditing of the data business happening in e-Science. The system is running with e-Science platform, showing good convenient and soundness.%在面向重大疾病的生物医学成像与临床应用等研究中,常常需要包括基础医学、临床医学、物理学和生物医学工程多学科的科研工作者进行协同交互。为此采用网格技术构建了生物医学影像e-Science平台,实现了跨机构之间大数据的快速共享与交换。由于系统的分布性和节点的异构性,难以避免会碰到系统的软硬件故障。因此,设计了一种基于XMPP协议的审计监控系统,既对e-Science的各个主机系统资源进行实时监测,又对平台中数据业务进行审计跟踪。系统最终被部署应用在e-Science平台,具有良好的便捷性和稳健性。

  12. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  13. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences.

  14. Evaluation of Biomedical Science Students Use and Perceptions of Podcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katie; Morris, Neil P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of podcasting in higher education has escalated in recent years. The aim of this case study was to analyse undergraduate student use and perceptions of lecture audio recordings in the School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Leeds. Students completed an online survey over a two-week period based on their use of lecture audio…

  15. Theory and experiment in biomedical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    A physicist might regard a person as a collection of electrons and quarks, and a biologist might regard her as an assemblage of biochemical molecules. But according to some speakers at a recent Welch conference [1] biology is a branch of physics. Then biomedical research is a branch of applied physics. Even if one adopts a more modest perspective, it is still true that physics can contribute strongly to biomedical research. An example on the experimental side is the recent studies of G protein-coupled receptors (targeted by more than 50 percent of therapeutic drugs) using synchrotron radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance. On the theory side, one might classify models as microscopic (e.g., simulations of molecules, ions, or electrons), mesoscopic (e.g., simulations of pathways within a cell), or macroscopic (e.g., calculations of processes involving the whole body). We have recently introduced a new macroscopic method for estimating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions, and applied it in a simple model of the response to bariatric surgeries [2]. An amazing effect is that the most widely used bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass) usually leads to remission of type 2 diabetes in days, long before there is any significant weight loss (with further beneficial effects in the subsequent months and years). Our results confirm that this effect can be largely explained by the enhanced post-meal excretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin that increases insulin secretion from the pancreas, but also suggest that other mechanisms are likely to be involved, possibly including an additional insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells. [4pt] [1] Physical Biology, from Atoms to Medicine, edited by Ahmed H. Zewail (Imperial College Press, London, 2008).[0pt] [2] Roland E. Allen, Tyler D. Hughes, Jia Lerd Ng, Roberto D. Ortiz, Michel Abou Ghantous, Othmane Bouhali, Abdelilah Arredouani

  16. Biomedical science postdocs: an end to the era of expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Howard H; Justement, Louis B; Gerbi, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    After >3 decades of steady growth, the number of biological and medical science postdoctorates at doctoral degree-granting institutions recently began to decline. From 2010 through 2013, the most recent survey years, the postdoctoral population decreased from 40,970 to 38,719, a loss of 5.5%. This decline represents a notable departure from the previous long-standing increases in the number of postdoctorates in the biomedical workforce. The rate of contraction appears to be accelerating in the most recent survey years, and this has important implications for the biomedical workforce.

  17. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  18. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  19. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  20. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  1. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  2. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields.

  3. Biomedical images texture detail denoising based on PDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-nan; Pan, Jian-ji; Li, Chao; Chen, Rong; Lin, Ju-qiang; Yan, Kun-tao; Huang, Zu-fang

    2009-08-01

    Biomedical images denosing based on Partial Differential Equation are well-known for their good processing results. General denosing methods based on PDE can remove the noises of images with gentle changes and preserve more structure details of edges, but have a poor effectiveness on the denosing of biomedical images with many texture details. This paper attempts to make an overview of biomedical images texture detail denosing based on PDE. Subsequently, Three kinds of important image denosing schemes are introduced in this paper: one is image denosing based on the adaptive parameter estimation total variation model, which denosing the images based on region energy distribution; the second is using G norm on the perception scale, which provides a more intuitive understanding of this norm; the final is multi-scale denosing decomposition. The above methods involved can preserve more structures of biomedical images texture detail. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the applications of those three methods. In the end, the future trend of biomedical images texture detail denosing Based on PDE is pointed out.

  4. Identification and elimination of reflection artifacts in biomedical photoacoustic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) or optoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that acoustically detects optical absorption contrast via the PA effect, a physical phenomenon that converts absorbed optical energy into acoustic energy. PA imaging is one of the fastest growing fields in biomedical optics, and

  5. Different images of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva

      Within the science and technology centres (STC) movement there exists explicit aims and ambitions to enhance visitors' interest in and knowledge about science. Meanwhile, several researches question the choice of the scientific content in exhibitions when arguing that a too unproblematic view...... of science commonly is presented. But what images and aspects of science are visitors actually confronted with at STCs? How do staff members at STCs consider the scientific content and how do they choose what aspects of science to display in exhibitions? What ideas about visitors' learning do staff members...... images of science. Staff members at Nordic STC were therefore asked to consider to what extent they believe they display different aspects of science. The results suggest that it is possible to display different images of science depending on what aspects of science staff members choose to display...

  6. What should biomedical sciences education in dental schools achieve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M S; Chaves, J F

    1997-05-01

    Education for the first professional degree in dentistry is intended to produce graduates capable of offering a wide range of high quality dental services to the general public. More than that, it is expected that graduates will be firmly grounded in the scientific basis for their professional practices and be equipped to evaluate critically and integrate selectively new scientific findings that emerge during their professional lifetimes. In addition, they are expected to be able to work effectively with diverse patient populations and to conduct their practices with a high level of sensitivity to the ethical and psychosocial dimensions of patient care. Indiana University School of Dentistry has undergone a process of curriculum reform that has yielded a new first professional degree program. Its hallmarks are large, multidisciplinary courses (seven courses in the first two years) that are taught using a variety of strategies including problem-based learning in small groups as well as lectures. The biomedical sciences curriculum is concept-based. Students will demonstrate their understanding of science concepts and methods by applying them to the solution of research and health care problems. Biomedical sciences will be taught at a level that will provide a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the human body in health and disease, allow students to assimilate the coming revolution in molecular medicine, and selectively use new diagnostics, preventives, and therapeutics that evolve as molecular biological technologies yield solutions to current medical and dental problems. Using the biomedical sciences curriculum as a vehicle, we will also achieve the goal of training dentists as critical thinkers, problem solvers, lifelong learners, and ethical practitioners, skillful in peer and self-evaluation, and cognizant of the psychosocial as well as biomedical perspective of health and disease.

  7. Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the August 1995 meeting of the Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee (LBSAAS) are summarized. The following topics were addressed by the Subcommittee members: the activities and status of the LBSA Division; program activities of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA); the medical Countermeasures Program; and the Fettman Report on animal research activities at ARC. Also presented were a history and overview of the activities of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Committee and the Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). The meeting agenda and a list of the Subcommittee members and meeting attendees are included as appendices.

  8. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the... location changes have been made for the following panel meetings of the of the Joint Biomedical...

  9. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-12-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.

  10. Data science, learning, and applications to biomedical and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nabil R; Wieder, Robert; Ghosh, Debopriya

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented increase in the volume and variety of electronic data related to research and development, health records, and patient self-tracking, collectively referred to as Big Data. Properly harnessed, Big Data can provide insights and drive discovery that will accelerate biomedical advances, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs. However, the considerable potential of Big Data remains unrealized owing to obstacles including a limited ability to standardize and consolidate data and challenges in sharing data, among a variety of sources, providers, and facilities. Here, we discuss some of these challenges and potential solutions, as well as initiatives that are already underway to take advantage of Big Data.

  11. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference.

  12. A robust pointer segmentation in biomedical images toward building a visual ontology for biomedical article retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Simpson, Matthew; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Pointers (arrows and symbols) are frequently used in biomedical images to highlight specific image regions of interest (ROIs) that are mentioned in figure captions and/or text discussion. Detection of pointers is the first step toward extracting relevant visual features from ROIs and combining them with textual descriptions for a multimodal (text and image) biomedical article retrieval system. Recently we developed a pointer recognition algorithm based on an edge-based pointer segmentation method, and subsequently reported improvements made on our initial approach involving the use of Active Shape Models (ASM) for pointer recognition and region growing-based method for pointer segmentation. These methods contributed to improving the recall of pointer recognition but not much to the precision. The method discussed in this article is our recent effort to improve the precision rate. Evaluation performed on two datasets and compared with other pointer segmentation methods show significantly improved precision and the highest F1 score.

  13. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    QIN, HAIYAN

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produ...

  14. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    academician, Ukrainian SSSR Academy of Sciences, Physicochemical Institute, Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences, Odessa [Abstract] Polyacrylamide gel (PAAG...the canned chicken and beef products. For example, it has been demonstrated that one of the common additives in pediatric products, starch ... starch products may react with proteins leading to the formation of polycondensation products and eliminating 20-50% of the free amino acids in the

  15. Life sciences biomedical research planning for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Michaud, Roger; Miller, Ladonna; Searcy, Jim; Dickey, Bernistine

    1987-01-01

    The Biomedical Research Project (BmRP), a major component of the NASA Life Sciences Space Station Program, incorporates a laboratory for the study of the effects of microgravity on the human body, and the development of techniques capable of modifying or counteracting these effects. Attention is presently given to a representative scenario of BmRP investigations and associated engineering analyses, together with an account of the evolutionary process by which the scenarios and the Space Station design requirements they entail are identified. Attention is given to a tether-implemented 'variable gravity centrifuge'.

  16. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  17. The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelin, Johannes; Rueden, Curtis T; Hiner, Mark C; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Technology in microscopy advances rapidly, enabling increasingly affordable, faster, and more precise quantitative biomedical imaging, which necessitates correspondingly more-advanced image processing and analysis techniques. A wide range of software is available-from commercial to academic, special-purpose to Swiss army knife, small to large-but a key characteristic of software that is suitable for scientific inquiry is its accessibility. Open-source software is ideal for scientific endeavors because it can be freely inspected, modified, and redistributed; in particular, the open-software platform ImageJ has had a huge impact on the life sciences, and continues to do so. From its inception, ImageJ has grown significantly due largely to being freely available and its vibrant and helpful user community. Scientists as diverse as interested hobbyists, technical assistants, students, scientific staff, and advanced biology researchers use ImageJ on a daily basis, and exchange knowledge via its dedicated mailing list. Uses of ImageJ range from data visualization and teaching to advanced image processing and statistical analysis. The software's extensibility continues to attract biologists at all career stages as well as computer scientists who wish to effectively implement specific image-processing algorithms. In this review, we use the ImageJ project as a case study of how open-source software fosters its suites of software tools, making multitudes of image-analysis technology easily accessible to the scientific community. We specifically explore what makes ImageJ so popular, how it impacts the life sciences, how it inspires other projects, and how it is self-influenced by coevolving projects within the ImageJ ecosystem.

  18. Graduate Experience in Science Education: The Development of a Science Education Course for Biomedical Science Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Rochester's Graduate Experience in Science Education (GESE) course familiarizes biomedical science graduate students interested in pursuing academic career tracks with a fundamental understanding of some of the theory, principles, and concepts of science education. This one-semester elective course provides graduate students with…

  19. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  20. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Iacoviello, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  1. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buton, C., E-mail: clement.buton@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dawiec, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Bérar, J.F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Clémens, J.C.; Debarbieux, F. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Gastaldi, T. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Hustache, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Morel, C.; Pangaud, P. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Perez-Ponce, H. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Vigeolas, E. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France)

    2014-09-11

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and {sup 241}Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  2. The Hidden Beauty in Biomedical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Norman; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Caretakers, researchers and photographers working in a busy academic settings, every day are faced with images that are awe-inspiring for their beauty and for the terror they may represent to patients suffering from disease. Beauty in this context is a relative term. It may be seen as the delicate lacework of cells within the normal human brain reminiscent of a Jackson Pollack masterpiece, or the multitude of colors and textures formed by fungal organisms in a microbiology lab. Herein lies the juxtaposition image makers seek to represent. When contemplated in isolation, each represents a visually interesting image. However, when viewed with an awareness of the context in which the image was obtained, each image takes on the ability to evoke an alternative human emotion.

  3. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division.

  4. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  5. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  6. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow [Abstract] A study was made of the influence of tahyna virus on the...Suppression of Muscle Macrophage Function in Experimental Tahyna Virus Infection (V. V. Vargin, B. F. Semenov; VOPROSY VIRUSOLOGII, No 2, Mar-Apr 83) 14...Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Genome DNA-Copies Into Cellular DNA (I. D. Drynov, et al.; VOPROSY VIRUSOLOGII, No 2, Mar-Apr 83) 32 "Strict

  7. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Studies) p 116 MARKYAVICHYUS, V. Yu., Institute of Botany , LiSSR Academy of Sciences, Nilnius [Abstract] Three species of mold of the genus Septoria...Jul-Sep 83 (manuscript received 19 Nov 82) pp 15-17 ZVYAGIN, V. N., Scientific Research Institute of Forensic Medicine (director- A. P. Gromov...received 2 Nov 82) pp 29-31 BOYKOVA, N. V., ZARAF’YANTS, G. N., KRAVTSOVA, G. B. and PETRACHKOVA, T. V., Chair of Forensic Medicine, Toxic Chemicals

  8. Fluorescent quantum dots: synthesis, biomedical optical imaging, and biosafety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyuan; Peng, Fei; Zhong, Yiling; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The marriage of nanomaterials with biology has significantly promoted advancement of biological techniques, profoundly facilitating basic research and practical applications in biological and biomedical fields. Taking advantages of unique optical properties (e.g., strong fluorescence, robust photostability, size-tunable emission wavelengths, etc.), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), appearing as high-performance biological fluorescent nanoprobes, have been extensively explored for a variety of biomedical optical imaging applications. In this review, we present representative synthetic strategies for preparation of QDs and their applications in biomedical optical imaging, as well as risk assessments in vitro and in vivo. Briefly, we first summarize recent progress in fabrication of QDs via two rudimentary approaches, i.e., organometallic route and aqueous synthesis. Next we present representative achievement in QDs-based in vitro and in vivo biomedical optical imaging applications. We further discuss the toxicity assessment of QDs, ranging from cell studies to animal models. In the final section, we discuss challenges and perspectives for the QDs-relative bioapplications in the future.

  9. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Person: John K. Hayes, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging...

  10. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin;

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...... wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  11. Computational optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2015-01-01

    Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging in Personal Care Studies; Guojin Zhang, Roger L. McMullen, Richard Mendelsohn, and Osama M. MusaFluorescence Bioimaging with Applications to Chemistry; Ufana Riaz and S.M. AshrafNew Trends in Immunohistochemical, Genome, and Metabolomics Imaging; G. Livanos, Aditi Deshpande, C. Narayan, Ying Na, T. Quang, T. Farrahi, R. Koglin, Suman Shrestha, M. Zervakis, and George C. GiakosDeveloping a Comprehensive Taxonomy for Human Cell Types; Richard Conroy and Vinay PaiFunctional Near-Infrared S

  12. Cognitive and learning sciences in biomedical and health instructional design: A review with lessons for biomedical informatics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Arocha, Jose F; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2009-02-01

    Theoretical and methodological advances in the cognitive and learning sciences can greatly inform curriculum and instruction in biomedicine and also educational programs in biomedical informatics. It does so by addressing issues such as the processes related to comprehension of medical information, clinical problem-solving and decision-making, and the role of technology. This paper reviews these theories and methods from the cognitive and learning sciences and their role in addressing current and future needs in designing curricula, largely using illustrative examples drawn from medical education. The lessons of this past work are also applicable, however, to biomedical and health professional curricula in general, and to biomedical informatics training, in particular. We summarize empirical studies conducted over two decades on the role of memory, knowledge organization and reasoning as well as studies of problem-solving and decision-making in medical areas that inform curricular design. The results of this research contribute to the design of more informed curricula based on empirical findings about how people learn and think, and more specifically, how expertise is developed. Similarly, the study of practice can also help to shape theories of human performance, technology-based learning, and scientific and professional collaboration that extend beyond the domain of medicine. Just as biomedical science has revolutionized health care practice, research in the cognitive and learning sciences provides a scientific foundation for education in biomedicine, the health professions, and biomedical informatics.

  13. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    fluorescent nanoparticles . Generally, Noiseux et al. teach injecting multiple fluorescent nanoparticle dyes into the food sample, imaging the sample a...example, AIDS, malaria , cholera, lymphoma, and typhoid. The present disclosure can be used to capture and count microscopic cells for application as...Base plate 214 is sealed against cover 204 by the adhesive 210. Base plate 214 can have a thickness 216 of, for example, about 100 µm. At least a

  14. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  15. Art and science of authorship for biomedical research publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Harsoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Completion of research is logically followed by process of submission of the outcomes for publication. The objective of this article is to sensitise the young potential authors to improve their skill of writing so that the acceptance rate of publication is improved without significant comments and efforts of the editors of the journal. The article is based on the available literature combined with the experience of the author himself as reviewer and editor of biomedical journals. The treatment patterns of clinicians are moving towards evidence-based medical practice. Hence, a clinically relevant research question based on the contemporary knowledge gap is studied using appropriate research methodology. The writers are informed about the criteria to be fulfilled to claim authorship. Finally, emphasis is laid on the essentials of good medical writing necessary for publication. The writing for submission to biomedical journal is both an art and science in itself. A scientifically well-conducted study along with a sound knowledge of the mechanics of writing will enable the novices to achieve better acceptance rate for publication.

  16. Art and science of authorship for biomedical research publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsoor, S S

    2016-09-01

    Completion of research is logically followed by process of submission of the outcomes for publication. The objective of this article is to sensitise the young potential authors to improve their skill of writing so that the acceptance rate of publication is improved without significant comments and efforts of the editors of the journal. The article is based on the available literature combined with the experience of the author himself as reviewer and editor of biomedical journals. The treatment patterns of clinicians are moving towards evidence-based medical practice. Hence, a clinically relevant research question based on the contemporary knowledge gap is studied using appropriate research methodology. The writers are informed about the criteria to be fulfilled to claim authorship. Finally, emphasis is laid on the essentials of good medical writing necessary for publication. The writing for submission to biomedical journal is both an art and science in itself. A scientifically well-conducted study along with a sound knowledge of the mechanics of writing will enable the novices to achieve better acceptance rate for publication.

  17. Going digital: image preparation for biomedical publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, M P; Manning, R J; Paalman, M H

    1999-08-15

    Authors are more often being held responsible for readying their own data figures for digital publication by scanning them at the proper resolution and preparing them for presentation in both print and on-line journals. In this manner, the visuals can be printed at the highest quality the publisher can provide and be ready for rapid electronic distribution on the Internet. Therefore, authors must become knowledgeable in the visual preparation process in order to generate electronic images that will be as true a representation of the original image as possible. Perfecting this procedure can be a learning experience and often requires some experimentation. When accomplished, the author will have more control of exactly how the images will look before they are published. In addition to the scan resolution, the type of digital scanner and software applications used are very important, and instruction manuals should be followed closely so as to understand the full potential of the digitizing equipment. Anat Rec (New Anat): 257:128-136, 1999.

  18. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following three panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... review by the Board involve a wide range of medical specialties within the general areas of...

  19. Nonlinear Polarimetric Microscopy for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Masood

    A framework for the nonlinear optical polarimetry and polarimetric microscopy is developed. Mathematical equations are derived in terms of linear and nonlinear Stokes Mueller formalism, which comprehensively characterize the polarization properties of the incoming and outgoing radiations, and provide structural information about the organization of the investigated materials. The algebraic formalism developed in this thesis simplifies many predictions for a nonlinear polarimetry study and provides an intuitive understanding of various polarization properties for radiations and the intervening medium. For polarimetric microscopy experiments, a custom fast-scanning differential polarization microscope is developed, which is also capable of real-time three-dimensional imaging. The setup is equipped with a pair of high-speed resonant and galvanometric scanning mirrors, and supplemented by advanced adaptive optics and data acquisition modules. The scanning mirrors when combined with the adaptive optics deformable mirror enable fast 3D imaging. Deformable membrane mirrors and genetic algorithm optimization routines are employed to improve the imaging conditions including correcting the optical aberrations, maximizing signal intensities, and minimizing point-spread-functions of the focal volume. A field-programmable-gate array (FPGA) chip is exploited to rapidly acquire and process the multidimensional data. Using the nonlinear optical polarimetry framework and the home-built polarization microscope, a few biologically important tissues are measured and analyzed to gain insight as to their structure and dynamics. The structure and distribution of muscle sarcomere myosins, connective tissue collagen, carbohydrate-rich starch, and fruit fly eye retinal molecules are characterized with revealing polarization studies. In each case, using the theoretical framework, polarization sensitive data are analyzed to decipher the molecular orientations and nonlinear optical

  20. High sensitivity and high selectivity terahertz biomedical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongsin M. Kim; William Baughman; David S. Wilbert; Lee Butler; Michael Bolus; Soner Balci; Patrick Kung

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate two distinct emerging terahertz (THz) biomedical imaging techniques. One is based on the use of a new single frequency THz quantum cascade laser and the other is based on broadband THz time domain spectrocopy. The first method is employed to derive a metastasis lung tissue imaging at 3.7 THz with clear contrast between cancerous and healthy areas. The second approach is used to study an osseous tissue under several imaging modalities and achieve full THz spectroscopic imaging based on the frequency domain or on a fixed THz propagation time-delay. Sufficient contrast is achieved which facilitated the identification of regions with different cellular types and density compositions.%Terahertz (THz) imaging is a non-destructive,nonionizing imaging technology with potential applications in medicine,dentistry,pharmaceuticals,and homeland security[1-5].In these applications,THz biomedical imaging has become a particularly important and active field of research because of the potential for safer early screening of a disease.This will benefit the medical community tremendously and create considerable sociological impact.

  1. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as "cell" or "image" or "tissue" or "microscope" that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data.

  2. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-12-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  3. Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Dongrong; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-10-01

    Spectral imaging is a technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to get both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although this technology was originally developed for remote sensing, it has been extended to the biomedical engineering field as a powerful analytical tool for biological and biomedical research. This review introduces the basics of spectral imaging, imaging methods, current equipment, and recent advances in biomedical applications. The performance and analytical capabilities of spectral imaging systems for biological and biomedical imaging are discussed. In particular, the current achievements and limitations of this technology in biomedical engineering are presented. The benefits and development trends of biomedical spectral imaging are highlighted to provide the reader with an insight into the current technological advances and its potential for biomedical research.

  4. Biomedical nanomaterials for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuran; He, Sha; Cao, Weipeng; Cai, Kaiyong; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-09-01

    To date, even though various kinds of nanomaterials have been evaluated over the years in order to develop effective cancer therapy, there is still significant challenges in the improvement of the capabilities of nano-carriers. Developing a new theranostic nanomedicine platform for imaging-guided, visualized cancer therapy is currently a promising way to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. Firstly, conventional imaging technologies are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Then, advanced biomedical materials for multimodal imaging are illustrated in detail, including representative examples for various dual-modalities and triple-modalities. Besides conventional cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), current biomaterials are also summarized for novel cancer therapy based on hyperthermia, photothermal, photodynamic effects, and clinical imaging-guided surgery. In conclusion, biomedical materials for imaging-guided therapy are becoming one of the mainstream treatments for cancer in the future. It is hoped that this review might provide new impetus to understand nanotechnology and nanomaterials employed for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  5. Application of ceramic phosphors for near infrared biomedical imaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kohei; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared wavelength region between 0.8 and 2 μm is an attractive region for biomedical imaging due to the low loss in biomedical objects in the region. Rare-earth doped ceramic phosphors are known to emit efficient fluorescence in the same wavelength region. The authors have developed micro fluorescence bioimaging system for cellular or tissue imaging and macro one for in vivo imaging. This paper will review the materials synthesis for the near infrared fluorescence probes as well as the system development and demonstrative works. Er-doped or Yb/Er-doped ceramic phosphors were synthesized with required particle size. The phosphors were partly modified with polyethylene glycol to give dispersion and controlled interaction with the biological objects. By using the micro imaging system, nematodes, mouse tissue and M1 cells were observed by detecting 1.5 μm emission from Er doped in the ceramic phosphor. in vivo imaging with the same fluorescence scheme was also performed for the digestive organs of live mouse.

  6. Teaching authorship and publication practices in the biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, Francis L

    2011-06-01

    Examination of a limited number of publisher's Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a single discipline (Journal of Bacteriology). Similar elements of publication policy and accepted practices were found across the policies of these journals articulated in their Instructions for Authors. A number of these same elements were found in the professional society guidelines of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Chemical Society, as well as the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Taken together, these sources provide the basis for articulating best practices in authorship in scientific research. Emerging from this material is a definition of authorship, as well as policy statements on duplicative publication, conflict of interest disclosure, electronic access, data sharing, digital image integrity, and research requiring subjects' protection, including prior registration of clinical trials. These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines.

  7. Multi-atlas segmentation of biomedical images: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert R

    2015-08-01

    Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS), first introduced and popularized by the pioneering work of Rohlfing, et al. (2004), Klein, et al. (2005), and Heckemann, et al. (2006), is becoming one of the most widely-used and successful image segmentation techniques in biomedical applications. By manipulating and utilizing the entire dataset of "atlases" (training images that have been previously labeled, e.g., manually by an expert), rather than some model-based average representation, MAS has the flexibility to better capture anatomical variation, thus offering superior segmentation accuracy. This benefit, however, typically comes at a high computational cost. Recent advancements in computer hardware and image processing software have been instrumental in addressing this challenge and facilitated the wide adoption of MAS. Today, MAS has come a long way and the approach includes a wide array of sophisticated algorithms that employ ideas from machine learning, probabilistic modeling, optimization, and computer vision, among other fields. This paper presents a survey of published MAS algorithms and studies that have applied these methods to various biomedical problems. In writing this survey, we have three distinct aims. Our primary goal is to document how MAS was originally conceived, later evolved, and now relates to alternative methods. Second, this paper is intended to be a detailed reference of past research activity in MAS, which now spans over a decade (2003-2014) and entails novel methodological developments and application-specific solutions. Finally, our goal is to also present a perspective on the future of MAS, which, we believe, will be one of the dominant approaches in biomedical image segmentation.

  8. Recommending images of user interests from the biomedical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Steven; Xu, Songhua

    2013-03-01

    Every year hundreds of thousands of biomedical images are published in journals and conferences. Consequently, finding images relevant to one's interests becomes an ever daunting task. This vast amount of literature creates a need for intelligent and easy-to-use tools that can help researchers effectively navigate through the content corpus and conveniently locate materials of their interests. Traditionally, literature search tools allow users to query content using topic keywords. However, manual query composition is often time and energy consuming. A better system would be one that can automatically deliver relevant content to a researcher without having the end user manually manifest one's search intent and interests via search queries. Such a computer-aided assistance for information access can be provided by a system that first determines a researcher's interests automatically and then recommends images relevant to the person's interests accordingly. The technology can greatly improve a researcher's ability to stay up to date in their fields of study by allowing them to efficiently browse images and documents matching their needs and interests among the vast amount of the biomedical literature. A prototype system implementation of the technology can be accessed via http://www.smartdataware.com.

  9. Keynote Lecture: The Problems and Challenges in Biomedical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Albert

    2015-01-01

    Distressed by the perverse incentives that have generated the current hyper-competitive biomedical research environment in the United States, four of us published an open-access article in April 2014 entitled: Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws (Alberts, B., Kirschner, Marc W., Tilghman, Shirley, and  Varmus, H.; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 5773-5777 (2014)). As announced in our follow-up piece, Opinion: Addressing systemic problems in the biomedical research enterpri...

  10. The rolling evolution of biomedical science as an essential tool in modern clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The British Journal of Biomedical Science is committed to publishing high-quality original research that represents a clear advance in the practice of biomedical science, and reviews that summarise recent advances in the field of biomedical science. The overall aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for the dissemination of new and innovative information on the diagnosis and management of disease that is valuable to the practicing laboratory scientist. The Editorial that follows describes the Journal and provides a perspective of its aims and objectives.

  11. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.

  12. The Recognition of Biomedical Engineering Within the International Council for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    Forty years separate the emergence of Biomedical Engineering in a meeting in Paris at UNESCO in 1959 from its recognition together with Medical...Physics in 1999 by the International Council for Science. The main problems of definition and of identity of Biomedical Engineering as a scientific

  13. Selection of Quantum Dot Wavelengths for Biomedical Assays and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Taik Lim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon yield should be proportional to the integral of the broadband absorption. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue scatter and absorbance can sometimes offset increasing QD absorption at bluer wavelengths, and counteract this potential advantage. By using a previously validated mathematical model, we explored the effects of tissue absorbance, tissue scatter, wavelength dependence of the scatter, water-to- hemoglobin ratio, and tissue thickness on QD performance. We conclude that when embedded in biological fluids and tissues, QD excitation wavelengths will often be quite constrained, and that excitation and emission wavelengths should be selected carefully based on the particular application. Based on our results, we produced near-infrared QDs optimized for imaging surface vasculature with white light excitation and a silicon CCD camera, and used them to image the coronary vasculature in vivo. Taken together, our data should prove useful in designing fluorescent QD contrast agents optimized for specific biomedical applications.

  14. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  15. British Journal of Biomedical Science in 2015: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blann, Andrew; Nation, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 47 reports on topics relating to the various disciplines within biomedical science. Of these, the majority were in infection science (15 in microbiology and two in virology) and blood science (seven in biochemistry, four in haematology, three in immunology and one in transplantation), with a smaller number in cellular sciences (four reports) and with one review across disciplines. The present report will summarise key aspects of these publications that are of greatest relevance to laboratory scientists.

  16. From Bench to Bedside: A Communal Utility Value Intervention to Enhance Students' Biomedical Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Jessi L.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Allen, Jill M.; Muragishi, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student's perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective, we identified and tested 2…

  17. Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging: Fundamentals of Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Soo Choi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of their large size compared to small molecules and their multifunctionality, nanoparticles (NPs hold promise as biomedical imaging, diagnostic, and theragnostic agents. However, the key to their success hinges on a detailed understanding of their behavior after administration into the body. NP biodistribution, target binding, and clearance are complex functions of their physicochemical properties in serum, which include hydrodynamic diameter, solubility, stability, shape and flexibility, surface charge, composition, and formulation. Moreover, many materials used to construct NPs have real or potential toxicity or may interfere with other medical tests. In this review, we discuss the design considerations that mediate NP behavior in the body and the fundamental principles that govern clinical translation. By analyzing those nanomaterials that have already received regulatory approval, most of which are actually therapeutic agents, we attempt to predict which types of NPs hold potential as diagnostic agents for biomedical imaging. Finally, using quantum dots as an example, we provide a framework for deciding whether an NP-based agent is the best choice for a particular clinical application.

  18. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Arabandi, Sivaram; Brochhausen, Mathias; Calhoun, Michael; Ciccarese, Paolo; Doyle, Scott; Gibaud, Bernard; Goldberg, Ilya; Kahn, Charles E.; Overton, James; Tomaszewski, John; Gurcan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as “cell” or “image” or “tissue” or “microscope”) that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical definitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data. PMID:26167381

  19. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-06-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  20. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E.; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  1. A collaborative biomedical image mining framework: application on the image analysis of microscopic kidney biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudas, T; Doukas, C; Chatziioannou, A; Maglogiannis, I

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of biomedical image data is a complex procedure involving several processing phases, like data acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The proper combination and parameterization of the utilized methods are heavily relying on the given image data set and experiment type. They may thus necessitate advanced image processing and classification knowledge and skills from the side of the biomedical expert. In this work, an application, exploiting web services and applying ontological modeling, is presented, to enable the intelligent creation of image mining workflows. The described tool can be directly integrated to the RapidMiner, Taverna or similar workflow management platforms. A case study dealing with the creation of a sample workflow for the analysis of kidney biopsy microscopy images is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed framework.

  2. Omni-tomography: Next-generation Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ge; Vannier, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Omni-tomography is enabled by interior tomography that has been developed over the past five years. By omni-tomography, we envision that the next stage of biomedical imaging will be the grand fusion of many tomographic modalities into a single gantry (all in one) for simultaneous data acquisition of numerous complementary features (all at once). This integration has great synergistic potential for development of systems biology, personalized and preventive medicine, because many physiological processes are dynamic and complicated, and must be observed promptly, comprehensively, sensitively, specifically, and non-invasively. In this perspective, we first present the background for and power of omni-tomography, then discuss its important applications in vulnerable plaque characterization and intratumor heterogeneity evaluation, review its enabling theory and technology, explain for the first time the feasibility of the CT-MRI scanner as an example, and finally suggest exciting research opportunities.

  3. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, March 14, 2011, 6 p.m. to March 16, 2011, 12...

  4. Biomedical scientist training officers' evaluation of integrated (co-terminus) Applied Biomedical Science BSc programmes: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, S J; Cunningham, J M

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) portfolio for pre-registration training in 2003 allowed universities to develop integrated (co-terminus) biomedical science BSc programmes. Students undertake structured placements within clinical pathology laboratories as part of their degree. The clinical training and professional development of students is undertaken by training officers (TOs), who are experienced Health Professions Council (HPC)-registered biomedical scientists and usually also members of the IBMS. This study aims to evaluate TOs' perceptions of these integrated degrees as a means of delivering pre-registration training for biomedical scientists. A questionnaire to collect quantitative data and be completed anonymously was sent to TOs, via staff at participating universities. Items considered TOs' perceptions in four categories: how well students fitted into the laboratory team, their professional and scientific development, the impact of delivering integrated degrees on service delivery, and the commitment to training students. Surveys took place in 2007, 2008 and 2009 and involved TOs taking students from 10, 14 and 17 universities each year, respectively. The response rates to the survey were 60% in 2007, 34% in 2008 and 12% in 2009. Participants were representative in terms of age, gender and pathology discipline and had a broad range of experience with students. The overall mean score for TOs perceptions was 3.38 in 2007 which increased significantly to 3.99 in 2009 (Kruskall Wallis test chi2 = 21.13, P<0.01). Mean scores in three of the four categories were positive in 2007, although the impact on service delivery was perceived negatively. In all areas, means were significantly greater in 2009. The results indicate that TOs view the integrated degrees favourably and are happy with the scientific and professional development of students. Although designing training sessions suitable for undergraduates took extra work initially

  5. Minimize the Percentage of Noise in Biomedical Images Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET.

  6. Minimize the percentage of noise in biomedical images using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudagar, Abdul Khader Jilani

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET).

  7. Modality prediction of biomedical literature images using multimodal feature representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelka, Obioma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling approaches performed to automatically predict the modality of images found in biomedical literature. Various state-of-the-art visual features such as Bag-of-Keypoints computed with dense SIFT descriptors, texture features and Joint Composite Descriptors were used for visual image representation. Text representation was obtained by vector quantisation on a Bag-of-Words dictionary generated using attribute importance derived from a χ-test. Computing the principal components separately on each feature, dimension reduction as well as computational load reduction was achieved. Various multiple feature fusions were adopted to supplement visual image information with corresponding text information. The improvement obtained when using multimodal features vs. visual or text features was detected, analysed and evaluated. Random Forest models with 100 to 500 deep trees grown by resampling, a multi class linear kernel SVM with C=0.05 and a late fusion of the two classifiers were used for modality prediction. A Random Forest classifier achieved a higher accuracy and computed Bag-of-Keypoints with dense SIFT descriptors proved to be a better approach than with Lowe SIFT.

  8. The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play in Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an…

  9. The Faculty Costs to Educate a Biomedical Sciences Graduate Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Adam J.; Halushka, Perry V.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Academic medical centers nationwide face numerous fiscal challenges resulting from implementation of restructured healthcare delivery models, contracting state support for higher education, and increased competition for federal and other sources of biomedical research funding. In pursuing greater accountability and transparency in its fiscal…

  10. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  11. Science - Image in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavidovique, Bertrand; Lo Bosco, Giosue'

    pt. A. Information: data organization and communication. Statistical information: a Bayesian perspective / R. B. Stern, C. A. de B. Pereira. Multi-a(ge)nt graph patrolling and partitioning / Y. Elor, A. M. Bruckstein. The role of noise in brain function / S. Roy, R. Llinas. F-granulation, generalized rough entropy and image analysis / S. K. Pal. Fast redshift clustering with the Baire (ultra) metric / F. Murtagh, P. Contreras. Interactive classification oriented superresolution of multispectral images / P. Ruiz ... [et al.]. Blind processing in astrophysical data analysis / E. Salerno, L. Bedini. The extinction map of the orion molecular cloud / G. Scandariato (best student's paper), I. Pagano, M. Robberto -- pt. B. System: structure and behaviour. Common grounds: the role of perception in science and the nature of transitions / G. Bernroider. Looking the world from inside: intrinsic geometry of complex systems / L. Boi. The butterfly and the photon: new perspectives on unpredictability, and the notion of casual reality, in quantum physics / T. N. Palmer. Self-replicated wave patterns in neural networks with complex threshold / V. I. Nekorkin. A local explication of causation / G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo, A. Saggion. Evolving complexity, cognition, and consciousness / H. Liljenstrom. Self-assembly, modularity and physical complexity / S. E. Ahnert. The category of topological thermodynamics / R. M. Kiehn. Anti-phase spiking patterns / M. P. Igaev, A. S. Dmitrichev, V. I. Nekorkin -- pt. C. Data/system representation. Reality, models and representations: the case of galaxies, intelligence and avatars / J-C. Heudin. Astronomical images and data mining in the international virtual observatory context / F. Pasian, M. Brescia, G. Longo. Dame: a web oriented infrastructure for scientific data mining and exploration / S. Cavuoti ... [et al.]. Galactic phase spaces / D. Chakrabarty. From data to images: a shape based approach for fluorescence tomography / O. Dorn, K. E. Prieto

  12. Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Haiyan

    2011-07-01

    This thesis aims to rationally design nanoparticles and promote their applications in biomedical imaging and photovoltaic cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are promising fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. We have fabricated two types of MSA capped QDs: CdTe/ZnSe core/shell QDs synthesized via an aqueous method and CdTe QDs via a hydrothermal method. They present high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission band widths, high photo- and pH-stability, and low cytotoxicity. QD-IgG probes were produced and applied for labeling breast cancer marker HER2 proteins on MCF-7 cells. For the purpose of single molecule tracking using QDs as fluorescent probes, we use small affibodies instead of antibodies to produce QD-affibody probes. Smaller QD-target protein complexes are obtained using a direct immunofluorescence approach. These QD-affibody probes are developed to study the dynamic motion of single HER2 proteins on A431 cell membranes. Fluorescence blinking in single QDs is harmful for dynamic tracking due to information loss. We have experimentally studied the blinking phenomenon and the mechanism behind. We have discovered an emission bunching effect that two nearby QDs tend to emit light synchronously. The long-range Coulomb potential induced by the negative charge on the QD surface is found to be the major cause for the single QD blinking and the emission bunching in QD pairs. We have studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of CdTe QDs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The QDs treatment increases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential. The protein expression levels indicate that the mitochondria apoptosis is the main cause of HUVCEs apoptosis induced by CdTe QDs. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are scattering probes due to their tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced scattering spectrum. In order to control the yield and morphology of GNRs, we have systematically studied the effects of composition

  13. Non-contact biomedical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Guy; Gauthier, Bruno; Blouin, Alain; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The detection of ultrasound in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) usually relies on ultrasonic transducers in contact with the biological tissue through a coupling medium. This is a major drawback for important potential applications such as surgery. Here we report the use of a remote optical method, derived from industrial laser-ultrasonics, to detect ultrasound in tissues. This approach enables non-contact PAT (NCPAT) without exceeding laser exposure safety limits. The sensitivity of the method is based on the use of suitably shaped detection laser pulses and a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer in differential configuration. Reliable image reconstruction is obtained by measuring remotely the surface profile of the tissue with an optical coherence tomography system. The proposed method also allows non-contact ultrasound imaging (US) by applying a second reconstruction algorithm to the data acquired for NCPAT. Endogenous and exogenous inclusions exhibiting optical and acoustic contrasts were detected ex vivo in chicken breast and calf brain specimens. Inclusions down to 0.3 mm in size were detected at depths exceeding 1 cm. The method could expand the scope of photoacoustic and US to in-vivo biomedical applications where contact is impractical.

  14. Contribution of Electrochemistry to the Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Analytical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Jean-Michel; Patris, Stephanie; Vandeput, Marie; Sarakbi, Ahmad; Sakira, Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    All analytical techniques have experienced major progress since the last ten years and electroanalysis is also involved in this trend. The unique characteristics of phenomena occurring at the electrode-solution interface along with the variety of electrochemical methods currently available allow for a broad spectrum of applications. Potentiometric, conductometric, voltammetric and amperometric methods are briefly reviewed with a critical view in terms of performance of the developed instrumentation with special emphasis on pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  15. Keynote Lecture: The Problems and Challenges in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Albert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Distressed by the perverse incentives that have generated the current hyper-competitive biomedical research environment in the United States, four of us published an open-access article in April 2014 entitled: Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws (Alberts, B., Kirschner, Marc W., Tilghman, Shirley, and  Varmus, H.; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 5773-5777 (2014. As announced in our follow-up piece, Opinion: Addressing systemic problems in the biomedical research enterprise (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1912-1913 (2015, we have formed a 16-member steering committee to oversee a new website that is designed to collect suggestions for actions that can ameliorate the identified problems, as well as to highlight promising changes that are either underway or proposed (see http://rescuingbiomedicalresearch.org.  Despite widespread agreement concerning the problems, any substantial change in the system is bound to be controversial. Experiments are therefore needed. In my talk, I will outline some possible ideas for overcoming the inertia that prevents moving forward.We are encouraging both national and international contributions to this effort, since the problems that we have described are by no means unique to the United States.

  16. Nanoscaling laws of magnetic nanoparticles and their applicabilities in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Wook; Seo, Jung-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2008-02-01

    for biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. As demonstrated in this Account, nanoscaling laws for magnetic components are found to be critical to the design of optimized magnetic characteristics of hybrid nanoparticles and their enhanced applicability in the biomedical sciences including their utilizations as contrast enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ferromagnetic components for nano-bio hybrid structures, and translational vectors for magnetophoretic sensing of biological species. In particular, systematic modulation of saturation magnetization of nanoparticle probes is important to maximize MR contrast effects and magnetic separation of biological targets.

  17. Biomedical technical transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology is based on NASA research, using vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Additional laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Three new biomedical problems to which NASA technology is applicable are also identified. These are: a communication device for the speech impaired, the NASA development liquid-cooled garment, and miniature force transducers for heart research.

  18. Polymers in life sciences: Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the work done by prof. Titomanlio and his group in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of polymers. In particular, the main topics covered are: i) controlled drug release from pharmaceuticals based on hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs; ii) production and characterization of micro and nanoparticles based on stimuli-responsive polymers; iii) use of polymers for coronary stent gel-paving; iv) design and realization of novel methods (in-vitro and in-silico) to test polymer-based pharmaceuticals.

  19. Establishment of an index system for evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists for science foundation of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-jing; CHEN Xin; REN Xu-feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To establish a scientific, objective and applicable index system for evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists for science foundation of Shanghai. Methods: According to the principal indices that have been used in the developed countries for evaluating their talented personnel and the reality of our country, an index system was set up to evaluate the outstanding biomedical scientists for Shanghai science foundation. The following parameters were used to simplify the indices: correlation coefficient,multiple correlation coefficient, partial correlation coefficient, creditability, and discriminatory power.And analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of each index. Results and Conclusions:The established index system is scientific and applicable; it is helpful for cultivating and evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists.

  20. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2014-04-29

    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage "classical" biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods involved are applicable to other areas of biomedical optics and optoelectronics, such as microscopic imaging, spectroscopy, spectral imaging, opto-acoustic tomography, fluorescence imaging etc., all of which are with potential biomedical application. Although all described methods are novel and important, the emphasis of this review has been placed on three technologies introduced in the 1990's and still undergoing vigorous development: Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and polarization-sensitive retinal scanning.

  1. A New Voice in Science : Patient participation in decision-making on biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron-Flinterman, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    End-users are increasingly involved in decision-making concerning science and technology. This dissertation focuses on a specific kind of end-user participation: patient participation in decision-making on bio-medical research. Since patients can be considered relevant experts and stakeholders with

  2. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

  4. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  5. Biomedical technology transfer: Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The major efforts of the Stanford Biomedical Applications Team Program at the Stanford University School of Medicine for the period from October 1, 1975 to September 31, 1976 are covered. A completed EMG biotelemetry system which monitors the physiological signals of man and animals in space related research is discussed. The results of a pilot study involving lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative pressure unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology utilizes vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Extremely stable long term data using capacative pressure sensors has lead to the order of commercially manufactured monitoring systems base. Projects involving commercialization are: flexible medical electrodes, an echocardioscope, a miniature biotelemetry system, and an on-line ventricular contour detector.

  6. Graduate Experience in Science Education: the development of a science education course for biomedical science graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Dina G; DuPré, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The University of Rochester's Graduate Experience in Science Education (GESE) course familiarizes biomedical science graduate students interested in pursuing academic career tracks with a fundamental understanding of some of the theory, principles, and concepts of science education. This one-semester elective course provides graduate students with practical teaching and communication skills to help them better relate science content to, and increase their confidence in, their own teaching abilities. The 2-h weekly sessions include an introduction to cognitive hierarchies, learning styles, and multiple intelligences; modeling and coaching some practical aspects of science education pedagogy; lesson-planning skills; an introduction to instructional methods such as case studies and problem-based learning; and use of computer-based instructional technologies. It is hoped that the early development of knowledge and skills about teaching and learning will encourage graduate students to continue their growth as educators throughout their careers. This article summarizes the GESE course and presents evidence on the effectiveness of this course in providing graduate students with information about teaching and learning that they will use throughout their careers.

  7. Inclusion of policies on ethical standards in animal experiments in biomedical science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A

    2011-11-01

    Most published biomedical research involving animal models is evaluated carefully to ensure that appropriate ethical standards are met. In the current study, 500 journals randomly selected from MedLine were assessed for whether they presented animal research. Of the 138 journals that did, the instructions to authors of 85 (61.6%) included a requirement for author assurance of adherence to ethical standards during experiments involving animals. In comparison to a wider range of biologic journals, biomedical science journals were more likely to have some sort of ethical policy concerning the reporting and presentation of animal experiments.

  8. International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Usman, Juliana; Mohktar, Mas; Ahmad, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This volumes presents the proceedings of ICIBEL 2015, organized by the Centre for Innovation in Medical Engineering (CIME) under Innovative Technology Research Cluster, University of Malaya. It was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 6-8 December 2015. The ICIBEL 2015 conference promotes the latest researches and developments related to the integration of the Engineering technology in medical fields and life sciences. This includes the latest innovations, research trends and concerns, challenges and adopted solution in the field of medical engineering and life sciences. .

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  10. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  11. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  12. The placebo puzzle: examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Shawn; Cibulka, Nancy J; Palmer, Janice L; Lorenz, Rebecca A; SmithBattle, Lee

    2013-03-01

    The placebo response presents an enigma to biomedical science: how can 'inert' or 'sham' procedures reduce symptoms and produce physiological changes that are comparable to prescribed treatments? In this study, we examine this puzzle by explicating the discordant space between the prevailing biomedical paradigm, which focuses on a technical understanding of diagnosis and treatment, and a broader understanding of illness and healing as relational and embodied. Although biomedical achievements are impressive, the knowledge resulting from this paradigm is limited by its ontological and epistemological assumptions. When the body and world are objectified, illness meanings, therapeutic relationships, and healing practices are dismissed or distorted. In spite of a robust critique of the tenets of biomedicine for guiding practice, the biomedical paradigm retains a tenacious hold on evidence-based medicine and nursing, downplaying our clinical understanding of the sentient body, patients' life-worlds, and illness and healing. In reality, skilled nurses rely on multiple forms of knowledge in providing high-quality care to particular patients. Clinically wise nurses integrate their experience and knowledge of patients' priorities, fears, and illness trajectories along with biomedical findings to make astute judgments and promote health and healing.

  13. A new paradigm for graduate research and training in the biomedical sciences and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J D; Coté, G L; Walton, J R; Meininger, G A; Laine, G A

    2005-06-01

    98Emphasis on the individual investigator has fostered discovery for centuries, yet it is now recognized that the complexity of problems in the biomedical sciences and engineering requires collaborative efforts from individuals having diverse training and expertise. Various approaches can facilitate interdisciplinary interactions, but we submit that there is a critical need for a new educational paradigm for the way that we train biomedical engineers, life scientists, and mathematicians. We cannot continue to train graduate students in isolation within single disciplines, nor can we ask any one individual to learn all the essentials of biology, engineering, and mathematics. We must transform how students are trained and incorporate how real-world research and development are done-in diverse, interdisciplinary teams. Our fundamental vision is to create an innovative paradigm for graduate research and training that yields a new generation of biomedical engineers, life scientists, and mathematicians that is more diverse and that embraces and actively pursues a truly interdisciplinary, team-based approach to research based on a known benefit and mutual respect. In this paper, we describe our attempt to accomplish this via focused training in biomechanics, biomedical optics, mathematics, mechanobiology, and physiology. The overall approach is applicable, however, to most areas of biomedical research.

  14. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  15. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer

    OpenAIRE

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2014-01-01

    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage “classical” biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods invo...

  16. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  17. Using Biomedically Relevant Multimedia Content in an Introductory Physics Course for Life Science and Pre-Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Christensen, Warren; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We will describe a one-quarter pilot algebra-based introductory physics course for pre-health and life science majors. The course features videos with biomedical experts and cogent biomedically inspired physics content. The materials were used in a flipped classroom as well as an all-online environment where students interacted with multimedia…

  18. Tutorials for large classes of Common Foundation Program biomedical science students: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum J A; Roe, Sean M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the problems encountered conducting biomedical science tutorials for nursing students in large classes with a typical student: staff ratio of 45:1. The study is based on level 1 Common Foundation Program students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast at the conclusion of two phases of biomedical sciences education which include a course of 12 interactive tutorials. Survey and interview methodologies were employed to investigate difficulties encountered by students in these large tutorial classes, to ascertain what characterises a good tutor and to explore student attitudes to interactive learning. The barriers to effective teaching and learning in tutorials are discussed and subsequently, a set of guidelines is proposed to enhance learning in them. These include being aware of the ability of the student group, having a compassionate questioning style, tailoring the teaching environment to fit the aims of the class and experimenting with different tutorial formats.

  19. Biomedical Image Processing Using FCM Algorithm Based on the Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yu-hua; WANG Hui-min; LI Shi-pu

    2004-01-01

    An effective processing method for biomedical images and the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm based on the wavelet transform are investigated.By using hierarchical wavelet decomposition, an original image could be decomposed into one lower image and several detail images. The segmentation started at the lowest resolution with the FCM clustering algorithm and the texture feature extracted from various sub-bands. With the improvement of the FCM algorithm, FCM alternation frequency was decreased and the accuracy of segmentation was advanced.

  20. Integrating Contemplative Tools into Biomedical Science Education and Research Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic preparation of science researchers and/or human or veterinary medicine clinicians through the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM curriculum has usually focused on the students (1 acquiring increased disciplinary expertise, (2 learning needed methodologies and protocols, and (3 expanding their capacity for intense, persistent focus. Such educational training is effective until roadblocks or problems arise via this highly-learned approach. Then, the health science trainee may have few tools available for effective problem solving. Training to achieve flexibility, adaptability, and broadened perspectives using contemplative practices has been rare among biomedical education programs. To address this gap, a Cornell University-based program involving formal biomedical science coursework, and health science workshops has been developed to offer science students, researchers and health professionals a broader array of personal, contemplation-based, problem-solving tools. This STEM educational initiative includes first-person exercises designed to broaden perceptional awareness, decrease emotional drama, and mobilize whole-body strategies for creative problem solving. Self-calibration and journaling are used for students to evaluate the personal utility of each exercise. The educational goals are to increase student self-awareness and self-regulation and to provide trainees with value-added tools for career-long problem solving. Basic elements of this educational initiative are discussed using the framework of the Tree of Contemplative Practices.

  1. Biomedical technology transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Ongoing projects described address: (1) intracranial pressure monitoring; (2) versatile portable speech prosthesis; (3) cardiovascular magnetic measurements; (4) improved EMG biotelemetry for pediatrics; (5) ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration; (6) pediatric roentgen densitometry; (7) X-ray spatial frequency multiplexing; (8) mechanical impedance determination of bone strength; (9) visual-to-tactile mobility aid for the blind; (10) Purkinje image eyetracker and stabilized photocoalqulator; (11) neurological applications of NASA-SRI eyetracker; (12) ICU synthesized speech alarm; (13) NANOPHOR: microelectrophoresis instrument; (14) WRISTCOM: tactile communication system for the deaf-blind; (15) medical applications of NASA liquid-circulating garments; and (16) hip prosthesis with biotelemetry. Potential transfer projects include a person-portable versatile speech prosthesis, a critical care transport sytem, a clinical information system for cardiology, a programmable biofeedback orthosis for scoliosis a pediatric long-bone reconstruction, and spinal immobilization apparatus.

  2. A novel lossless robust watermarking method for copyright protection of biomedical image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohong; Zeng, Feng; Liu, Huiwen; Chen, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology promotes the development of biomedical imaging devices, more and more valuable biomedical images are transmitted through the open network, and their copyright suffers a major challenge. This paper proposes a new lossless robust watermarking method to realize biomedical image's copyright protection. For high-resolution biomedical images, the redundant theory and histogram shifting method based on image block's difference are utilized to repeatedly embed copyright watermark into different color channels. In the extracting procedure, each layer's watermark information can be extracted from watermarked image respectively, and the final watermark is judged by the voting theory. The redundant scheme and voting theory guarantees the watermark can resist against random noise's attack well. Besides, in order to reduce the watermark overhead in embedding procedure, the histogram narrowing down technique is used to tackle with those image blocks would overflows and underflows. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed the existing semi-fragile reversible watermarking scheme and provided a great robustness against moderate JPEG compression and salt-pepper and Gaussian noise.

  3. BETWEEN REASON, SCIENCE AND CULTURE: BIOMEDICAL DECISION-MAKING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, we have extensively examined clinical practice in the context of sociocultural, religious and ethnic diversity. Stemming mainly from data collected amongst physicians we reflect, in this paper, upon the norms and values which guide decision-making processes in tertiary pediatric hospital contexts. Clinical ethics is portrayed a neutral guide between competing choices and obligations of hospital units, healthcare professionals, and families, when there is a conflict or divergence in the perspectives concerning the progression of the clinical trajectory. We will chart the sharing/non-sharing of different voices in critical decision-making pathways of maternal-child hospital care. How do "universal" ethical principles accommodate the diversity of perspectives anchored within the ensemble of cultural, social, and religious institutions? Similarly to the image of cosmopolitan urban communities, health care settings are defined by a multiplicity of values brought forth by families and health care professionals from diverse backgrounds. Attempting to seize these logics entails a better grasp of the delicate relationship between the individual and the collective, between personal values and instituted norms, between majorities and minorities.

  4. Bio-medical X-ray imaging with spectroscopic pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Tipples, R; Cook, N; Watts, R; Meyer, J; Bell, A J; Melzer, T R; Butler, P H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the clinical potential of spectroscopic X-ray detectors and to undertake a feasibility study using a novel detector in a clinical hospital setting. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allowing for routine use of spectroscopic bio-medical imaging. We have coined the term MARS (Medipix All Resolution System) for bio-medical images that provide spatial, temporal, and energy information. The full clinical significance of spectroscopic X-ray imaging is difficult to predict but insights can be gained by examining both image reconstruction artifacts and the current uses of dual-energy techniques. This paper reviews the known uses of energy information in vascular imaging and mammography, clinically important fields. It then presents initial results from using Medipix-2, to image human tissues within a clinical radiology department. Detectors currently in development, such as Medipix-3, will have multiple energy thresholds allo...

  5. Toolkits and Software for Developing Biomedical Image Processing and Analysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ivo

    Solutions in biomedical image processing and analysis usually consist of much more than a single method. Typically, a whole pipeline of algorithms is necessary, combined with visualization components to display and verify the results as well as possibilities to interact with the data. Therefore, successful research in biomedical image processing and analysis requires a solid base to start from. This is the case regardless whether the goal is the development of a new method (e.g., for segmentation) or to solve a specific task (e.g., computer-assisted planning of surgery).

  6. Biomedical image analysis recipes in Matlab for life scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos

    2015-01-01

    As its title suggests, this innovative book has been written for life scientists needing to analyse their data sets, and programmers, wanting a better understanding of the types of experimental images life scientists investigate on a regular basis. Each chapter presents one self-contained biomedical experiment to be analysed. Part I of the book presents its two basic ingredients: essential concepts of image analysis and Matlab. In Part II, algorithms and techniques are shown as series of 'recipes' or solved examples that show how specific techniques are applied to a biomedical experiments like

  7. Digital histologic images: practical pointers for successful electronic submission to biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N; Sun, Y

    2009-12-01

    The advent of digital imaging and online submission of manuscripts has created new challenges for authors using histological images. Digital images are used routinely in today's histology research lab and authors must prepare illustrations that meet standards for resolution, color modes, image size, and digital file types for successful online submission to biomedical journals. Because authors may not be familiar with these requirements, our objective here is to present practical guidelines and information for successful image submission online. Ethical issues related to digital imaging and other current topics also are discussed with reference to available online resources.

  8. Resident's morning report: an opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum.

  9. Clinical and basic science teachers' opinions about the required depth of biomedical knowledge for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koens, Franciska; Custers, Eugène J F M; ten Cate, Olle T J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether basic scientists and physicians agree on the required depth of biomedical knowledge of medical students at graduation. A selection of basic science and clinical teachers rated the relevance of biomedical topics for students at graduation, illustrated by 80 example items. The items were derived from ten organ systems and designed at four levels: clinical, organ, cellular and molecular. Respondents were asked to identify for each item to what extent recently graduated medical students should have knowledge about it. In addition, they were asked to indicate whether the content of the item should be included in the medical curriculum. Analysis showed that basic scientists and physicians do not diverge at the clinical level. At the organ, cellular and molecular levels however, basic scientists judge that medical students should have more active knowledge. As expected, basic scientists also indicate that more deep level content should be included. Explanations for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  10. Discovery informatics in biological and biomedical sciences: research challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries in biological, biomedical and health sciences are increasingly being driven by our ability to acquire, share, integrate and analyze, and construct and simulate predictive models of biological systems. While much attention has focused on automating routine aspects of management and analysis of "big data", realizing the full potential of "big data" to accelerate discovery calls for automating many other aspects of the scientific process that have so far largely resisted automation: identifying gaps in the current state of knowledge; generating and prioritizing questions; designing studies; designing, prioritizing, planning, and executing experiments; interpreting results; forming hypotheses; drawing conclusions; replicating studies; validating claims; documenting studies; communicating results; reviewing results; and integrating results into the larger body of knowledge in a discipline. Against this background, the PSB workshop on Discovery Informatics in Biological and Biomedical Sciences explores the opportunities and challenges of automating discovery or assisting humans in discovery through advances (i) Understanding, formalization, and information processing accounts of, the entire scientific process; (ii) Design, development, and evaluation of the computational artifacts (representations, processes) that embody such understanding; and (iii) Application of the resulting artifacts and systems to advance science (by augmenting individual or collective human efforts, or by fully automating science).

  11. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies

  12. Biomedical applications of nanodiamonds in imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevedentseva, Elena; Lin, Yu-Chung; Jani, Mona; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Nanodiamonds have attracted remarkable scientific attention for bioimaging and therapeutic applications owing to their low toxicity with many cell lines, convenient surface properties and stable fluorescence without photobleaching. Newer techniques are being applied to enhance fluorescence. Interest is also growing in exploring the possibilities for modifying the nanodiamond surface and functionalities by attaching various biomolecules of interest for interaction with the targets. The potential of Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence properties of nanodiamonds has been explored for bioimaging and drug delivery tracing. The interest in nanodiamonds' biological/medical application appears to be continuing with enhanced focus. In this review an attempt is made to capture the scope, spirit and recent developments in the field of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

  13. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  14. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  15. Leading change: curriculum reform in graduate education in the biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were also 15 unique curricula. Departments and programs offered courses independently, and students participated in curricula that were overlapping combinations of these courses. This system created curricula that were not coordinated and that had redundant course content as well as content gaps. A partnership of key stakeholders began a curriculum reform process to completely restructure doctoral education at the Boston University School of Medicine. The key pedagogical goals, objectives, and elements designed into the new curriculum through this reform process created a curriculum designed to foster the interdisciplinary thinking that students are ultimately asked to utilize in their research endeavors. We implemented comprehensive student and peer evaluation of the new Foundations in Biomedical Sciences integrated curriculum to assess the new curriculum. Furthermore, we detail how this process served as a gateway toward creating a more fully integrated graduate experience, under the umbrella of the Program in Biomedical Sciences.

  16. A proposal to establish master's in biomedical sciences degree programs in medical school environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoglia, Nicholas A

    2009-04-01

    Most graduate schools associated with medical schools offer programs leading to the PhD degree but pay little attention to master's programs. This is unfortunate because many university graduates who are interested specifically in biomedical rather than pure science fields need further education before making decisions on whether to enter clinical, research, education, or business careers. Training for these students is done best in a medical school, rather than a graduate university, environment and by faculty who are engaged in research in the biomedical sciences. Students benefit from these programs by exploring career options they might not have previously considered while learning about disease-related subjects at the graduate level. Graduate faculty can also benefit by being compensated for their teaching with a portion of the tuition revenue, funds that can help run their laboratories and support other academic expenses. Faculty also may attract talented students to their labs and to their PhD programs by exposing them to a passion for research. The graduate school also benefits by collecting masters tuition revenue that can be used toward supporting PhD stipends. Six-year outcome data from the program at Newark show that, on completion of the program, most students enter educational, clinical, or research careers and that the graduate school has established a new and significant stream of revenue. Thus, the establishment of a master's program in biomedical sciences that helps students match their academic abilities with their career goals significantly benefits students as well as the graduate school and its faculty.

  17. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  18. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  19. Directional binary wavelet patterns for biomedical image indexing and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murala, Subrahmanyam; Maheshwari, R P; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-10-01

    A new algorithm for medical image retrieval is presented in the paper. An 8-bit grayscale image is divided into eight binary bit-planes, and then binary wavelet transform (BWT) which is similar to the lifting scheme in real wavelet transform (RWT) is performed on each bitplane to extract the multi-resolution binary images. The local binary pattern (LBP) features are extracted from the resultant BWT sub-bands. Three experiments have been carried out for proving the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Out of which two are meant for medical image retrieval and one for face retrieval. It is further mentioned that the database considered for three experiments are OASIS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database, NEMA computer tomography (CT) database and PolyU-NIRFD face database. The results after investigation shows a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and LBP with Gabor transform.

  20. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering partial differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com

  1. Should there be greater use of preprint servers for publishing reports of biomedical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Iain; Glasziou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vitek Tracz and Rebecca Lawrence declare the current journal publishing system to be broken beyond repair. They propose that it should be replaced by immediate publication followed by transparent peer review as the starting place for more open and efficient reporting of science. While supporting this general objective, we suggest that research is needed both to understand why biomedical scientists have been slow to take up preprint options, as well as to assess the relative merits of this and other alternatives to journal publishing.

  2. Spacelab Life Sciences 3 biomedical research using the Rhesus Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. W.; Searby, N. D.; Stone, L. S.; Hogan, R. P.; Viso, M.; Venet, M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a letter of agreement was signed between the French space agency, CNES, and NASA, formally initiating a joint venture called the RHESUS Project. The goal of this project is to provide a facility to fly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to support spaceflight experiments which are applicable but not practical to carry out on human subjects. Biomedical investigations in behavior/performance, immunology/microbiology, muscle physiology, cardiopulmonary physiology, bone/calcium physiology, regulatory physiology, and neurophysiology disciplines will be performed. The Rhesus Research Facility, hardware capable of supporting two adult rhesus monkeys in a microgravity environment, is being developed for a first flight on Spacelab Life Sciences in early 1996.

  3. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  4. Recent developments in fluorescence-based microscopy applied in biomedical sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present short review aims to give an overview of the most recent de velopments in fluorescence microscopy and its applications in biomedical science s. Apart from improvements in well-established methods based on conventional fl u orescence microscopy and confocal microscopy (fluorescence in situ hybridisa tion (FISH), tyramide signal amplification (TSA) in immunocytochemistry, new fluorop hores), more recently introduced techniques like fluorescence resonance energy t ransfer (FRET), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), multiphoton m icroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) will be discussed.

  5. Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telenkov, Sergey; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas; Worthington, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    We report the development of a frequency-domain biomedical photoacoustic imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection, and processing coupled with a beam-forming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Sensitivity to optical contrast was demonstrated using tissue-mimicking phantoms and in-vivo tissue samples.

  6. Predicting Transition and Adjustment to College: Biomedical and Behavioral Science Aspirants' and Minority Students' First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Han, June C.; Saenz, Victor B.; Espinosa, Lorelle L.; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Cerna, Oscar S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore key factors that impact the college transition of aspiring underrepresented minority students in the biomedical and behavioral sciences, in comparison with White, Asian students and non-science minority students. We examined successful management of the academic environment and sense of belonging during the…

  7. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  8. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs.

  9. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C Means Algorithm for Effective Biomedical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arunkumar; Balakrishnan, Nagaraj; Varatharaj, Mithya

    2016-12-01

    The traditional way of clustering plays an effective role in the field of segmentation which was developed to be more effective and also in the recent development the extraction of contextual information can be processed with ease. This paper presents a modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm that provides the better segmentation in the contour grayscale regions of the biomedical images where effective cluster is needed. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C-Means (M-FLMCM) is the proposed algorithm, proposed to overcome the disadvantage of the traditional FCM method in which the convergence time requirement is more, lack of ability to remove the noise, and the inability to cluster the contour region such as images. M-FLMCM shows promising results in the experiment with real-world biomedical images. The experiment results, with 96 % accuracy compared to the other algorithms.

  10. Lecture 10: The European Bioinformatics Institute - "Big data" for biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Dana, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Big data for biomedical sciences (Tom Hancocks) Ten years ago witnessed the completion of the first international 'Big Biology' project that sequenced the human genome. In the years since biological sciences, have seen a vast growth in data. In the coming years advances will come from integration of experimental approaches and the translation into applied technologies is the hospital, clinic and even at home. This talk will examine the development of infrastructure, physical and virtual, that will allow millions of life scientists across Europe better access to biological data Tom studied Human Genetics at the University of Leeds and McMaster University, before completing an MSc in Analytical Genomics at the University of Birmingham. He has worked for the UK National Health Service in diagnostic genetics and in training healthcare scientists and clinicians in bioinformatics. Tom joined the EBI in 2012 and is responsible for the scientific development and delivery of training for the BioMedBridges pr...

  11. Robust model-based vasculature detection in noisy biomedical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Narasimha-Iyer, Harihar; Roysam, Badrinath; Tanenbaum, Howard L

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a set of algorithms for robust detection of vasculature in noisy retinal video images. Three methods are studied for effective handling of outliers. The first method is based on Huber's censored likelihood ratio test. The second is based on the use of a alpha-trimmed test statistic. The third is based on robust model selection algorithms. All of these algorithms rely on a mathematical model for the vasculature that accounts for the expected variations in intensity/texture profile, width, orientation, scale, and imaging noise. These unknown parameters are estimated implicitly within a robust detection and estimation framework. The proposed algorithms are also useful as nonlinear vessel enhancement filters. The proposed algorithms were evaluated over carefully constructed phantom images, where the ground truth is known a priori, as well as clinically recorded images for which the ground truth was manually compiled. A comparative evaluation of the proposed approaches is presented. Collectively, these methods outperformed prior approaches based on Chaudhuri et al. (1989) matched filtering, as well as the verification methods used by prior exploratory tracing algorithms, such as the work of Can et aL (1999). The Huber censored likelihood test yielded the best overall improvement, with a 145.7% improvement over the exploratory tracing algorithm, and a 43.7% improvement in detection rates over the matched filter.

  12. A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

  13. Annotating image ROIs with text descriptions for multimodal biomedical document retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Simpson, Matthew; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Regions of interest (ROIs) that are pointed to by overlaid markers (arrows, asterisks, etc.) in biomedical images are expected to contain more important and relevant information than other regions for biomedical article indexing and retrieval. We have developed several algorithms that localize and extract the ROIs by recognizing markers on images. Cropped ROIs then need to be annotated with contents describing them best. In most cases accurate textual descriptions of the ROIs can be found from figure captions, and these need to be combined with image ROIs for annotation. The annotated ROIs can then be used to, for example, train classifiers that separate ROIs into known categories (medical concepts), or to build visual ontologies, for indexing and retrieval of biomedical articles. We propose an algorithm that pairs visual and textual ROIs that are extracted from images and figure captions, respectively. This algorithm based on dynamic time warping (DTW) clusters recognized pointers into groups, each of which contains pointers with identical visual properties (shape, size, color, etc.). Then a rule-based matching algorithm finds the best matching group for each textual ROI mention. Our method yields a precision and recall of 96% and 79%, respectively, when ground truth textual ROI data is used.

  14. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  15. An efficient sampling algorithm for uncertain abnormal data detection in biomedical image processing and disease prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Xi; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computer information processing algorithm that can be used for biomedical image processing and disease prediction. A biomedical image is considered a data object in a multi-dimensional space. Each dimension is a feature that can be used for disease diagnosis. We introduce a new concept of the top (k1,k2) outlier. It can be used to detect abnormal data objects in the multi-dimensional space. This technique focuses on uncertain space, where each data object has several possible instances with distinct probabilities. We design an efficient sampling algorithm for the top (k1,k2) outlier in uncertain space. Some improvement techniques are used for acceleration. Experiments show our methods' high accuracy and high efficiency.

  16. Near-Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bwambok, David [Louisiana State University; El-Zahab, Bilal [Lousianna State University; Challa, Santhosh [Louisiana State University; Li, Min [Lousianna State University; Chandler, Lin [Horiba Jobin Yvon Inc.; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Warner, Isiah M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS.

  17. Hegemony in the marketplace of biomedical innovation: consumer demand and stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli

    2015-04-01

    The global political economy of stem cell therapies is characterised by an established biomedical hegemony of expertise, governance and values in collision with an increasingly informed health consumer demand able to define and pursue its own interest. How does the hegemony then deal with the challenge from the consumer market and what does this tell us about its modus operandi? In developing a theoretical framework to answer these questions, the paper begins with an analysis of the nature of the hegemony of biomedical innovation in general, its close relationship with the research funding market, the current political modes of consumer incorporation, and the ideological role performed by bioethics as legitimating agency. Secondly, taking the case of stem cell innovation, it explores the hegemonic challenge posed by consumer demand working through the global practice based market of medical innovation, the response of the national and international institutions of science and their reassertion of the values of the orthodox model, and the supporting contribution of bioethics. Finally, the paper addresses the tensions within the hegemonic model of stem cell innovation between the key roles and values of scientist and clinician, the exacerbation of these tensions by the increasingly visible demands of health consumers, and the emergence of political compromise.

  18. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs.Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA.Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself.Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes.Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  19. Local mesh patterns versus local binary patterns: biomedical image indexing and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murala, Subrahmanyam; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a new image indexing and retrieval algorithm using local mesh patterns are proposed for biomedical image retrieval application. The standard local binary pattern encodes the relationship between the referenced pixel and its surrounding neighbors, whereas the proposed method encodes the relationship among the surrounding neighbors for a given referenced pixel in an image. The possible relationships among the surrounding neighbors are depending on the number of neighbors, P. In addition, the effectiveness of our algorithm is confirmed by combining it with the Gabor transform. To prove the effectiveness of our algorithm, three experiments have been carried out on three different biomedical image databases. Out of which two are meant for computer tomography (CT) and one for magnetic resonance (MR) image retrieval. It is further mentioned that the database considered for three experiments are OASIS-MRI database, NEMA-CT database, and VIA/I-ELCAP database which includes region of interest CT images. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP, LBP with Gabor transform, and other spatial and transform domain methods.

  20. Applications of 14C-AMS in biomedical sciences (Bio-14C-AMS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultrasensitive measure for tracing 14C labeled molecules in vivo or detecting the biomarker for assessment of carcinogenesis. In this review, basic principles, wide applications and new progresses of 14C-bio-AMS are presented. It has been a new advanced tool for measuring the adduction of biologcial molecules with xenobiotics, including carcinogens, drugs, agrochemicals, nicotine, etc. The successful applications have proven the effectiveness of AMS to assessing cancer risk, screening drug toxicity and studying nutrients uptake. In particular, AMS is characterized by measuring xenobiotics at very low dose levels relevant to human environmental exposure. It is sensitive and precise to an attomole (10-18 mole) or less of 14C per mg carbon. Although it has some shortcomings, undoubtedly, AMS possesses an evident merit of high sensitivity and will have widespread applications in the biomedical sciences.

  1. Additive manufacturing in biomedical sciences and the need for definitions and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Mohit P; Poh, Patrina S P; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-01-01

    The application of additive biomanufacturing represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical science, in which engineers, scientists, and clinicians are contributing to the future of health care. The combined efforts of a large number of groups around the globe have developed a strong research thrust that has resulted in a large number of publications. Reviewing this body of literature, there is an increasing trend of research groups inventing their own definitions and terminology. This has made it difficult to find and compare the results. Therefore, to move the field constructively forward, it is a conditio sine qua non to clarify various terminologies and standards. Based on this background, this article advocates tightening the terminology and has the objective of penning out definitions that will ultimately allow the development of official industry standard terms, such as American Society for Testing and Materials and or International Organization for Standardization for technologies developed for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

  2. Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hsun; Liu, I-Ju; Lu, Ruei-Min; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.

  3. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  4. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, E.L.; Getsi, J.A. (comps.)

    1982-07-01

    A major objective of the biomedical and environmental sciences (BES) research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to provide information on environmental, health, and safety considerations that can be used in the formulation and implementation of energy technology decisions. Research is directed at securing information required for an understanding of both the short- and long-term consequences of the processes involved in new energy technologies. Investigation of the mechanisms responsible for biological and ecological damage caused by substances associated with energy production and of repair mechanisms is a necessary component of this research. The research is carried out by the staff of four divisions and one program: Biology Division, Environmental Sciences Division, Health and Safety Research Division, Information Division, and the Life Sciences Synthetic Fuels Program. Research programs underway in each of these divisions are discussed. Information on the following subjects is also included: interactions with universities; interactions with industry; technology transfer; recent accomplishments in the areas of program, publications, awards, and patents; and new initiatives. (JGB)

  5. Adventurism in biomedical science: Washington University-Monsanto program in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The Washington University-Monsanto relationship has supported innovation in the biological sciences. It has done so in part by making the fence between an industrial and an academic institution more transparent and more easy to cross. A unique means of promoting intellectual adventurism may be lost, however, if this type of relationship is not structured to maximize the likelihood of obtaining products or if products are the only financial benefit that the industrial partner can derive from such interactions (for example other benefits could include governmental R&D tax credits for those relationships that satisfy some minimal criteria for size and/or length of commitment). I hope that this and other forms of industrial-university relationships that encourage discovery by providing institutional support for new ideas will flourish. Whatever their fate, the responsibility for promoting dreams must be shared by all of us: by those who are privileged to have students in their labs, by academic institutions as they seek to define their roles in the next century, by peer review boards, by national science policymakers, and perhaps by industry. I have presented the Washington University-Monsanto collaboration not as a complete answer to the question of how to promote intellectual adventurism in the biomedical sciences but rather as a concrete response to a problem that must be clearly articulated, thoroughly examined, and creatively addressed.

  6. Study on microscope hyperspectral medical imaging method for biomedical quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QingLi; XUE YongQi; XIAO GongHai; ZHANG JingFa

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system was developed based on the microscopic technology and spectral imaging technology according to the principle of spectral imager in remote sensing. The basic principle and key technologies of this system were presented and the system per-formance was also analyzed. Some methods and algorithms were proposed to preprocess and nor-malize the microscopic hyperspectral data and retrieve the transmittance spectrum of samples. As a case study, the microscopic hyperspectral imaging system was used to image the retina sections of different rats and get some significant results. Experiment results show that the system can be used for the quantitative assessment and evaluating the effect of medication in biomedical research.

  7. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  8. Developmental programming: State-of-the-science and future directions-summary from a Pennington biomedical symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 8-9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current s...

  9. Phase-preserving beam expander for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.m@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gomez, Ariel [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Rm 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Building on previous work, a phase-preserving bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator was developed with the capability of performing live animal phase contrast dynamic imaging at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source are used by many researchers to capture phase-based imaging data. These experiments have so far been limited by the small vertical beam size, requiring vertical scanning of biological samples in order to image their full vertical extent. Previous work has been carried out to develop a bent Laue beam-expanding monochromator for use at these beamlines. However, the first attempts exhibited significant distortion in the diffraction plane, increasing the beam divergence and eliminating the usefulness of the monochromator for phase-related imaging techniques. Recent work has been carried out to more carefully match the polychromatic and geometric focal lengths in a so-called ‘magic condition’ that preserves the divergence of the beam and enables full-field phase-based imaging techniques. The new experimental parameters, namely asymmetry and Bragg angles, were evaluated by analysing knife-edge and in-line phase images to determine the effect on beam divergence in both vertical and horizontal directions, using the flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator at the beamline as a baseline. The results show that by using the magic condition, the difference between the two monochromator types is less than 10% in the diffraction plane. Phase fringes visible in test images of a biological sample demonstrate that this difference is small enough to enable in-line phase imaging, despite operating at a sub-optimal energy for the wafer and asymmetry angle that was used.

  10. The role biomedical science laboratories can play in improving science knowledge and promoting first-year nursing academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Pam

    The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p

  11. Teaching of parasitology to students of veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A; Lymbery, A J; Hobbs, R P

    2002-10-02

    The teaching of an applied parasitology course suitable for both veterinary and biomedical students is described. A common lecture course is given complemented by separate and specific practical, research and problem-based learning components designed for veterinary and biomedical students. For veterinary and biomedical students, teaching of parasitology during the full course comprises a total of 46 lectures; 13 practical classes for veterinary students and five for biomedical students who also undertake an independent research project.

  12. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  13. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Lotze, Michael T; Becich, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical) informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)), Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park), and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator) launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical informatics

  14. Creating a pipeline of talent for informatics: STEM initiative for high school students in computer science, biology, and biomedical informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Dutta-Moscato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides insights into how informatics can attract highly trained students by involving them in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM training at the high school level and continuing to provide mentorship and research opportunities through the formative years of their education. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be expert in the emergent fields in front of them requires acceleration at an early time point. Both pathology (and biomedical informatics are new disciplines which would benefit from involvement by students at an early stage of their education. In 2009, Michael T Lotze MD, Kirsten Livesey (then a medical student, now a medical resident at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC, Richard Hersheberger, PhD (Currently, Dean at Roswell Park, and Megan Seippel, MS (the administrator launched the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI Summer Academy to bring high school students for an 8 week summer academy focused on Cancer Biology. Initially, pathology and biomedical informatics were involved only in the classroom component of the UPCI Summer Academy. In 2011, due to popular interest, an informatics track called Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI was launched. CoSBBI currently acts as a feeder program for the undergraduate degree program in bioinformatics at the University of Pittsburgh, which is a joint degree offered by the Departments of Biology and Computer Science. We believe training in bioinformatics is the best foundation for students interested in future careers in pathology informatics or biomedical informatics. We describe our approach to the recruitment, training and research mentoring of high school students to create a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics. We emphasize here how mentoring of high school students in pathology informatics and biomedical

  15. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everbach, E. Carr

    2005-09-01

    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  16. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  17. Programmatic Efforts at the National Institutes of Health to Promote and Support the Careers of Women in Biomedical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Bunker Whittington, Kjersten; Cassidy, Sara K B; Filart, Rosemarie; Cornelison, Terri L; Begg, Lisa; Austin Clayton, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Although women have reached parity at the training level in the biological sciences and medicine, they are still significantly underrepresented in the professoriate and in mid- and senior-level life science positions. Considerable effort has been devoted by individuals and organizations across science sectors to understanding this disparity and to developing interventions in support of women's career development. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) in 1990 with the goals of supporting initiatives to improve women's health and providing opportunities and support for the recruitment, retention, reentry, and sustained advancement of women in biomedical careers. Here, the authors review several accomplishments and flagship activities initiated by the NIH and ORWH in support of women's career development during this time. These include programming to support researchers returning to the workforce after a period away (Research Supplements to Promote Reentry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers), career development awards made through the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health program, and trans-NIH involvement and activities stemming from the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers. These innovative programs have contributed to advancement of women by supporting the professional and personal needs of women in science. The authors discuss the unique opportunities that accompany NIH partnerships with the scientific community, and conclude with a summary of the impact of these programs on women in science.

  18. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua

    2002-04-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  19. Should MD-PhD programs encourage graduate training in disciplines beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Ryan J; Hsu, Stephen I; Wilson, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of MD-PhD training programs is to produce physician-scientists with unique capacities to lead the future biomedical research workforce. The current dearth of physician-scientists with expertise outside conventional biomedical or clinical sciences raises the question of whether MD-PhD training programs should allow or even encourage scholars to pursue doctoral studies in disciplines that are deemed nontraditional, yet are intrinsically germane to major influences on health. This question is especially relevant because the central value and ultimate goal of the academic medicine community is to help attain the highest level of health and health equity for all people. Advances in medical science and practice, along with improvements in health care access and delivery, are steps toward health equity, but alone they will not come close to eliminating health inequalities. Addressing the complex health issues in our communities and society as a whole requires a biomedical research workforce with knowledge, practice, and research skills well beyond conventional biomedical or clinical sciences. To make real progress in advancing health equity, educational pathways must prepare physician-scientists to treat both micro and macro determinants of health. The authors argue that MD-PhD programs should allow and encourage their scholars to cross boundaries into less traditional disciplines such as epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, ethics, public policy, management, economics, education, social work, informatics, communications, and marketing. To fulfill current and coming health care needs, nontraditional MD-PhD students should be welcomed and supported as valuable members of our biomedical research workforce.

  20. Classification of visual signs in abdominal CT image figures in biomedical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; You, Daekeun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2014-03-01

    "Imaging signs" are a critical part of radiology's language. They not only are important for conveying diagnosis, but may also aid in indexing radiology literature and retrieving relevant cases and images. Here we report our work towards representing and categorizing imaging signs of abdominal abnormalities in figures in the radiology literature. Given a region-of-interest (ROI) from a figure, our goal was to assign a correct imaging sign label to that ROI from the following seven: accordion, comb, ring, sandwich, small bowel feces, target, or whirl. As training and test data, we created our own "gold standard" dataset of regions containing imaging signs. We computed 2997 feature attributes to represent imaging sign characteristics for each ROI in training and test sets. Following feature selection they were reduced to 70 attributes and were input to a Support Vector Machine classifier. We applied image-enhancement methods to compensate for variable quality of the images in radiology articles. In particular we developed a method for automatic detection and removal of pointers/markers (arrows, arrowheads, and asterisk symbols) on the images. These pointers/markers are valuable for approximately locating ROIs; however, they degrade the classification because they are often (partially) included in the training ROIs. On a test set of 283 ROIs, our method achieved an overall accuracy of 70% in labeling the seven signs, which we believe is a promising result for using imaging signs to search/retrieve radiology literature. This work is also potentially valuable for the creation of a visual ontology of biomedical imaging entities.

  1. Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation.

  2. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research Part 1: Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Research in the biomedical sciences at PNL is described. Activities reported include: inhaled plutonium in dogs; national radiobiology archives; statistical analysis of data from animal studies; genotoxicity of inhaled energy effluents; molecular events during tumor initiation; biochemistry of free radical induced DNA damage; radon hazards in homes; mechanisms of radon injury; genetics of radon induced lung cancer; and in vivo/in vitro radon induced cellular damage.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  5. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  6. How can we improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math education to encourage careers in Biomedical and Pathology Informatics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Uppal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Computer Science, Biology, and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI program was initiated in 2011 to expose the critical role of informatics in biomedicine to talented high school students.[1] By involving them in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM training at the high school level and providing mentorship and research opportunities throughout the formative years of their education, CoSBBI creates a research infrastructure designed to develop young informaticians. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be an expert in the emerging fields of biomedical informatics and pathology informatics requires accelerated learning at an early age.In our 4th year of CoSBBI as a part of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI Academy (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/summeracademy/, and our 2nd year of CoSBBI as an independent informatics-based academy, we enhanced our classroom curriculum, added hands-on computer science instruction, and expanded research projects to include clinical informatics. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of the program to identify areas that need improvement in order to achieve our goal of creating a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics in the era of big data and personalized medicine.

  7. How can we improve Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math education to encourage careers in Biomedical and Pathology Informatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Rahul; Mandava, Gunasheil; Romagnoli, Katrina M; King, Andrew J; Draper, Amie J; Handen, Adam L; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta

    2016-01-01

    The Computer Science, Biology, and Biomedical Informatics (CoSBBI) program was initiated in 2011 to expose the critical role of informatics in biomedicine to talented high school students.[1] By involving them in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) training at the high school level and providing mentorship and research opportunities throughout the formative years of their education, CoSBBI creates a research infrastructure designed to develop young informaticians. Our central premise is that the trajectory necessary to be an expert in the emerging fields of biomedical informatics and pathology informatics requires accelerated learning at an early age.In our 4(th) year of CoSBBI as a part of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Academy (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/summeracademy/), and our 2nd year of CoSBBI as an independent informatics-based academy, we enhanced our classroom curriculum, added hands-on computer science instruction, and expanded research projects to include clinical informatics. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of the program to identify areas that need improvement in order to achieve our goal of creating a pipeline of exceptionally well-trained applicants for both the disciplines of pathology informatics and biomedical informatics in the era of big data and personalized medicine.

  8. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Mark

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many three-dimensional (3D images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily.

  9. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.

    1999-01-21

    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  10. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David

    2013-08-01

    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data.

  11. Using Biomedically Relevant Multimedia Content in an Introductory Physics Course for Life Science and Pre-health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Christensen, Warren; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We will describe a one-quarter pilot algebra-based introductory physics course for pre-health and life science majors. The course features videos with biomedical experts and cogent biomedically inspired physics content. The materials were used in a flipped classroom as well as an all-online environment where students interacted with multimedia materials online and prior to engaging in classroom activities. Pre-lecture questions on both the medical content covered in the video media and the physics concepts in the written material were designed to engage students and probe their understanding of physics. The course featured group discussion and peer-lead instruction. Following in-class instruction, students engaged with homework assignments which explore the connections of physics and the medical field in a quantitative manner. Course surveys showed a positive response by the vast majority of students. Students largely indicated that the course helped them to make a connection between physics and the biomedical field. The biomedical focus and different course format were seen as an improvement to previous traditional physics instruction.

  12. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  13. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  14. Images of time mind, science, reality

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about Time: what it is or how to discuss it? If you have, then you may have been bewildered by the many different views and opinions in many diverse fields to be found, such as physics, mathematics, philosophy, religion, history, and science fiction novels and films. This book will help you unravel fact from fiction. It provides a broad survey of many of these views, these images of time, covering historical, cultural, philosophical, biological, mathematical and physical images of time, including classical and quantum mechanics, special and general relativity and cosmology. This book gives you more than just a review of such images. It provides the reader a basis for judging the scientific soundness of these various images. It develops the reader's critical ability to distinguish Images of Time in terms of its contextual completeness. Differentiating between metaphysical images (which cannot be scientifically validated) and those that could, in principle, be put to empirical test. Showi...

  15. Preparing for the unexpected: the pivotal role of social and behavioral sciences in trials of biomedical HIV prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl A; Andrasik, Michele; Austin, Judy

    2013-07-01

    A range of efficacies have been reported for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, including antiretroviral treatment, male circumcision, preexposure prophylaxis, microbicides, and preventive vaccines. This range of efficacies probably results from the influence of multiple inputs and processes during trials, including the strength and target of the intervention, host factors, target population characteristics, level of HIV exposure, and intervention dose. Expertise in social and behavioral sciences, in conjunction with basic science, clinical research, epidemiology, biostatistics, and community, is needed to understand the influence of these inputs and processes on intervention efficacy, improve trial design and implementation, and enable interpretation of trial results. In particular, social and behavioral sciences provide the means for investigating and identifying populations suitable for recruitment into and retention in trials and for developing and improving measures of HIV exposure and intervention dose, all within the larger sociocultural context. Integration of social and behavioral sciences early in idea generation and study design is imperative for the successful conduct of biomedical trials and for ensuring optimal data collection approaches necessary for the interpretation of findings, particularly in cases of unexpected results.

  16. Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optical bioimaging methods have a wide range of applications in the life sciences, most notably including the molecular resolution study of subcellular structures, small animal molecular imaging, and structural and functional clinical diagnostics of tissue layers and organs. We review fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent macroscopy, optical coherence tomography, optoacoustic tomography, and optical diffuse spectroscopy and tomography from the standpoint of physical fundamentals, applications, and progress.

  17. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  18. Synthesis and Ligand-Exchange Reactions of a Tri-Tungsten Cluster with Applications in Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noey, Elizabeth; Curtis, Jeff C.; Tam, Sylvia; Pham, David M.; Jones, Ella F.

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment students are exposed to concepts in inorganic synthesis and various spectroscopies as applied to a tri-tungsten cluster with applications in biomedical imaging. The tungsten-acetate cluster, Na[W[superscript 3](mu-O)[subscript 2](CH[superscript 3]COO)[superscript 9

  19. Hessian-based norm regularization for image restoration with biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Bourquard, Aurélien; Unser, Michael

    2012-03-01

    We present nonquadratic Hessian-based regularization methods that can be effectively used for image restoration problems in a variational framework. Motivated by the great success of the total-variation (TV) functional, we extend it to also include second-order differential operators. Specifically, we derive second-order regularizers that involve matrix norms of the Hessian operator. The definition of these functionals is based on an alternative interpretation of TV that relies on mixed norms of directional derivatives. We show that the resulting regularizers retain some of the most favorable properties of TV, i.e., convexity, homogeneity, rotation, and translation invariance, while dealing effectively with the staircase effect. We further develop an efficient minimization scheme for the corresponding objective functions. The proposed algorithm is of the iteratively reweighted least-square type and results from a majorization-minimization approach. It relies on a problem-specific preconditioned conjugate gradient method, which makes the overall minimization scheme very attractive since it can be applied effectively to large images in a reasonable computational time. We validate the overall proposed regularization framework through deblurring experiments under additive Gaussian noise on standard and biomedical images.

  20. Real-time three-dimensional digital image correlation for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Wu, Hua; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been successfully applied for evaluating the mechanical behavior of biological tissues. A three-dimensional (3-D) DIC system has been developed and applied to examining the motion of bones in the human foot. To achieve accurate, real-time displacement measurements, an algorithm including matching between sequential images and image pairs has been developed. The system was used to monitor the movement of markers which were attached to a precisely motorized stage. The accuracy of the proposed technique for in-plane and out-of-plane measurements was found to be -0.25% and 1.17%, respectively. Two biomedical applications were presented. In the experiment involving the foot arch, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to vertical compressive loads up to 700 N at a rate of 10 N/s and the 3-D motions of bones in the foot were monitored in real time. In the experiment involving distal tibio fibular syndesmosis, a human cadaver lower leg and foot specimen were subjected to a monotonic rotational torque up to 5 Nm at a speed of 5 deg per min and the relative displacements of the tibia and fibula were monitored in real time. Results showed that the system could reach a frequency of up to 16 Hz with 6 points measured simultaneously. This technique sheds new lights on measuring 3-D motion of bones in biomechanical studies.

  1. Mid-infrared (MIR) photonics: MIR passive and active fiberoptics chemical and biomedical, sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.

    2016-10-01

    The case for new, portable, real-time mid-infrared (MIR) molecular sensing and imaging is discussed. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum (SC) generated light 1.4-13.3 μm in a specially engineered, step-index MIR optical fiber of high numerical aperture. This was the first experimental demonstration truly to reveal the potential of MIR fibers to emit across the MIR molecular "fingerprint spectral region" and a key first step towards bright, portable, broadband MIR sources for chemical and biomedical, molecular sensing and imaging in real-time. Potential applications are in the healthcare, security, energy, environmental monitoring, chemical-processing, manufacturing and the agriculture sectors. MIR narrow-line fiber lasers are now required to pump the fiber MIR-SC for a compact all-fiber solution. Rare-earth-ion (RE-) doped MIR fiber lasers are not yet demonstrated >=4 μm wavelength. We have fabricated small-core RE-fiber with photoluminescence across 3.5-6 μm, and long excited-state lifetimes. MIR-RE-fiber lasers are also applicable as discrete MIR fiber sensors in their own right, for applications including: ship-to-ship free-space communications, aircraft counter-measures, coherent MIR imaging, MIR-optical coherent tomography, laser-cutting/ patterning of soft materials and new wavelengths for fiber laser medical surgery.

  2. Factors Affecting Image Quality in Near-field Ultra-wideband Radar Imaging for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charlotte

    Near-field ultra-wideband radar imaging has potential as a new breast imaging modality. While a number of reconstruction algorithms have been published with the goal of reducing undesired responses or clutter, an in-depth analysis of the dominant sources of clutter has not been conducted. In this thesis, time domain radar image reconstruction is demonstrated to be equivalent to frequency domain synthetic aperture radar. This reveals several assumptions inherent to the reconstruction algorithm related to radial spreading, point source antennas, and the independent summation of point scatterers. Each of these assumptions is examined in turn to determine which has the greatest impact on the resulting image quality and interpretation. In addition, issues related to heterogeneous and dispersive media are addressed. Variations in imaging parameters are tested by observing their influence on the system point spread function. Results are then confirmed by testing on simple and detailed simulation models, followed by data acquired from human volunteers. Recommended parameters are combined into a new imaging operator that is demonstrated to generate results comparable to a more accurate signal model, but with a 50 fold improvement in computational efficiency. Finally, the most significant factor affecting image quality is determined to be the estimate of tissue properties used to form the image.

  3. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  4. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  5. Novel Polysaccharide Based Polymers and Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery and Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Alireza

    controlled delivery applications of larger molecular size compounds. The starch based hydrogels, polymers and nanoparticles developed in this work have shown great potentials for controlled drug delivery and biomedical imaging applications.

  6. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  7. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  8. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  9. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  10. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: ameneses@ieee.org [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cely Barroso, Regina [Laboratory of Applied Physics on Biomedical Sciences, Physics Department, Rio de Janeiro State University, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography ({mu}CT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-{mu}CT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  11. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  12. Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for biomedical imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Joseph; Liu, Demin; Lin, Wenbin

    2011-10-18

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of hybrid materials formed by the self-assembly of polydentate bridging ligands and metal-connecting points, have been studied for a variety of applications. Recently, these materials have been scaled down to nanometer sizes, and this Account details the development of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) for biomedical applications. NMOFs possess several potential advantages over conventional nanomedicines such as their structural and chemical diversity, their high loading capacity, and their intrinsic biodegradability. Under relatively mild conditions, NMOFs can be obtained as either crystalline or amorphous materials. The particle composition, size, and morphology can be easily tuned to optimize the final particle properties. Researchers have employed two general strategies to deliver active agents using NMOFs: by incorporating active agents into the frameworks or by loading active agents into the pores and channels of the NMOFs. The modification of NMOF surfaces with either silica coatings or organic polymers improves NMOF stability, fine-tunes their properties, and imparts additional functionality. Preliminary biomedical applications of NMOFs have focused on their use as delivery vehicles for imaging contrast agents and molecular therapeutics. Because NMOFs can carry large amounts of paramagnetic metal ions, they have been extensively explored as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Both Gd(3+)- and Mn(2+)-containing NMOFs have shown excellent efficacy as T(1)-weighted contrast agents with large per metal- and per particle-based MR relaxivities. Fe(3+)-containing NMOFs have demonstrated excellent T(2)-weighted contrast enhancement. Upon intravenous injection of iron carboxylate NMOFs in Wistar rats, researchers observed negative signal enhancement in the liver and spleen, which dissipated over time, indicating the degradation and clearance of the NMOF. Through the incorporation of luminescent or high

  13. Fundamental and applied studies in nanoparticle biomedical imaging, stabilization, and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Vikram J.

    Nanoparticle carrier systems are gaining importance in the rapidly expanding field of biomedical whole animal imaging where they provide long circulating, real time imaging capability. This thesis presents a new paradigm in imaging whereby long wavelength fluorescent or photoacoustically active contrast agents are embedded in the hydrophobic core of nanocarriers formed by Flash NanoPrecipitation. The long wavelength allows for improved optical penetration depth. Compared to traditional contrast agents where fluorophores are placed on the surface, this allows for improved signal, increased stability, and molecular targeting capabilities. Several types of long wavelength hydrophobic dyes based on acene, cyanine, and bacteriochlorin scaffolds are utilized and animal results obtained for nanocarrier systems used in both fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging modes. Photoacoustic imaging is particularly promising due to its high resolution, excellent penetration depth, and ability to provide real-time functional information. Fundamental studies in nanoparticle stabilization are also presented for two systems: model alumina nanoparticles and charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles. Motivated by the need for stable suspensions of alumina-based nanocrystals for security printing applications, results are presented for the adsorption of various small molecule charged hydrophobes onto the surface of alumina nanoparticles. Results are also presented for the production of charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles via Flash NanoPrecipitation, allowing for the independent control of polymer molecular weight and nanoparticle size, which is not possible by traditional emulsion polymerization routes. Lastly, methods for processing nanoparticle systems are explored. The increasing use of nanoparticle therapeutics in the pharmaceutical industry has necessitated the development of scalable, industrially relevant processing methods. Ultrafiltration is particularly well suited for

  14. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  15. Evaluation of illumination system uniformity for wide-field biomedical hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Travis W.; Siri Luthman, A.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems collect both spatial (morphological) and spectral (chemical) information from a sample. HSI can provide sensitive analysis for biological and medical applications, for example, simultaneously measuring reflectance and fluorescence properties of a tissue, which together with structural information could improve early cancer detection and tumour characterisation. Illumination uniformity is a critical pre-condition for quantitative data extraction from an HSI system. Non-uniformity can cause glare, specular reflection and unwanted shading, which negatively impact statistical analysis procedures used to extract abundance of different chemical species. Here, we model and evaluate several illumination systems frequently used in wide-field biomedical imaging to test their potential for HSI. We use the software LightTools and FRED. The analysed systems include: a fibre ring light; a light emitting diode (LED) ring; and a diffuse scattering dome. Each system is characterised for spectral, spatial, and angular uniformity, as well as transfer efficiency. Furthermore, an approach to measure uniformity using the Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD) is introduced. The KLD is generalisable to arbitrary illumination shapes, making it an attractive approach for characterising illumination distributions. Although the systems are quite comparable in their spatial and spectral uniformity, the most uniform angular distribution is achieved using a diffuse scattering dome, yielding a contrast of 0.503 and average deviation of 0.303 over a ±60° field of view with a 3.9% model error in the angular domain. Our results suggest that conventional illumination sources can be applied in HSI, but in the case of low light levels, bespoke illumination sources may offer improved performance.

  16. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  17. Athena Wide Field Imager Key Science Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Arne; Aird, James; Comastri, Andrea; Dauser, Thomas; Merloni, Andrea; Pratt, Gabriel W; Reiprich, Thomas H; Fabian, Andy C; Georgakakis, Antonis; Güdel, Manuel; Różańska, Agata; Sanders, Jeremy S; Sasaki, Manami; Vaughan, Simon; Wilms, Jörn; Meidinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is one of two instruments for the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena). In this paper we summarise three of the many key science objectives for the WFI - the formation and growth of supermassive black holes, non-gravitational heating in clusters of galaxies, and spin measurements of stellar mass black holes - and describe their translation into the science requirements and ultimately instrument requirements. The WFI will be designed to provide excellent point source sensitivity and grasp for performing wide area surveys, surface brightness sensitivity, survey power, and absolute temperature and density calibration for in-depth studies of the outskirts of nearby clusters of galaxies and very good high-count rate capability, throughput, and low pile-up, paired with very good spectral resolution, for detailed explorations of bright Galactic compact objects.

  18. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892,(Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review...: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imagin and... Avenue, Chicago, IL. Contact Person: Ruth Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute...

  19. A learning-based similarity fusion and filtering approach for biomedical image retrieval using SVM classification and relevance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Thoma, George R

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a classification-driven biomedical image retrieval framework based on image filtering and similarity fusion by employing supervised learning techniques. In this framework, the probabilistic outputs of a multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier as category prediction of query and database images are exploited at first to filter out irrelevant images, thereby reducing the search space for similarity matching. Images are classified at a global level according to their modalities based on different low-level, concept, and keypoint-based features. It is difficult to find a unique feature to compare images effectively for all types of queries. Hence, a query-specific adaptive linear combination of similarity matching approach is proposed by relying on the image classification and feedback information from users. Based on the prediction of a query image category, individual precomputed weights of different features are adjusted online. The prediction of the classifier may be inaccurate in some cases and a user might have a different semantic interpretation about retrieved images. Hence, the weights are finally determined by considering both precision and rank order information of each individual feature representation by considering top retrieved relevant images as judged by the users. As a result, the system can adapt itself to individual searches to produce query-specific results. Experiment is performed in a diverse collection of 5 000 biomedical images of different modalities, body parts, and orientations. It demonstrates the efficiency (about half computation time compared to search on entire collection) and effectiveness (about 10%-15% improvement in precision at each recall level) of the retrieval approach.

  20. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future.

  1. Computer Science, Biology and Biomedical Informatics academy: Outcomes from 5 years of Immersing High-school Students into Informatics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Fisher, Arielle M; Becich, Michael J; Boone, David N

    2017-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh's Department of Biomedical Informatics and Division of Pathology Informatics created a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline in 2011 dedicated to providing cutting-edge informatics research and career preparatory experiences to a diverse group of highly motivated high-school students. In this third editorial installment describing the program, we provide a brief overview of the pipeline, report on achievements of the past scholars, and present results from self-reported assessments by the 2015 cohort of scholars. The pipeline continues to expand with the 2015 addition of the innovation internship, and the introduction of a program in 2016 aimed at offering first-time research experiences to undergraduates who are underrepresented in pathology and biomedical informatics. Achievements of program scholars include authorship of journal articles, symposium and summit presentations, and attendance at top 25 universities. All of our alumni matriculated into higher education and 90% remain in STEM majors. The 2015 high-school program had ten participating scholars who self-reported gains in confidence in their research abilities and understanding of what it means to be a scientist.

  2. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  3. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  4. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1981. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes research and development activities of the Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's Biomedical and Environmental Research program for the calendar year 1981. Individual reports describing the current status of projects have been entered individually into the data base.

  5. Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Richardson, Laurie L.; Reynolds, T.L.; Willis, Bette L.

    2008-01-01

    A balanced approach to coral disease investigation is critical for understanding the global decline of corals. Such an approach should involve the proper use of biomedical concepts, tools, and terminology to address confusion and promote clarity in the coral disease literature. Investigating disease in corals should follow a logical series of steps including identification of disease, systematic morphologic descriptions of lesions at the gross and cellular levels, measurement of health indices, and experiments to understand disease pathogenesis and the complex interactions between host, pathogen, and the environment. This model for disease investigation is widely accepted in the medical, veterinary and invertebrate pathology disciplines. We present standard biomedical rationale behind the detection, description, and naming of diseases and offer examples of the application of Koch's postulates to elucidate the etiology of some infectious diseases. Basic epidemiologic concepts are introduced to help investigators think systematically about the cause(s) of complex diseases. A major goal of disease investigation in corals and other organisms is to gather data that will enable the establishment of standardized case definitions to distinguish among diseases. Concepts and facts amassed from empirical studies over the centuries by medical and veterinary pathologists have standardized disease investigation and are invaluable to coral researchers because of the robust comparisons they enable; examples of these are given throughout this paper. Arguments over whether coral diseases are caused by primary versus opportunistic pathogens reflect the lack of data available to prove or refute such hypotheses and emphasize the need for coral disease investigations that focus on: characterizing the normal microbiota and physiology of the healthy host; defining ecological interactions within the microbial community associated with the host; and investigating host immunity, host

  6. Development of a bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.m@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Belev, George [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lewis, Rob [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aulakh, Gurpreet [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-03-13

    A bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator was developed and tested at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The expander will reduce scanning time for micro-computed tomography and allow dynamic imaging that has not previously been possible at this beamline. The Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline at the Canadian Light Source has produced some excellent biological imaging data. However, the disadvantage of a small vertical beam limits its usability in some applications. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging requires multiple scans to produce a full projection, and certain dynamic imaging experiments are not possible. A larger vertical beam is desirable. It was cost-prohibitive to build a longer beamline that would have produced a large vertical beam. Instead, it was proposed to develop a beam expander that would create a beam appearing to originate at a source much farther away. This was accomplished using a bent Laue double-crystal monochromator in a non-dispersive divergent geometry. The design and implementation of this beam expander is presented along with results from the micro-CT and dynamic imaging tests conducted with this beam. Flux (photons per unit area per unit time) has been measured and found to be comparable with the existing flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator in use at BMIT. This increase in overall photon count is due to the enhanced bandwidth of the bent Laue configuration. Whilst the expanded beam quality is suitable for dynamic imaging and micro-CT, further work is required to improve its phase and coherence properties.

  7. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine.

  8. WebMedSA: a web-based framework for segmenting and annotating medical images using biomedical ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Francisco; Pérez, Wilson; Tello, Andrés.; Saquicela, Victor; Espinoza, Mauricio; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Vidal, Maria-Esther; La Cruz, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging have fostered medical diagnosis based on digital images. Consequently, the number of studies by medical images diagnosis increases, thus, collaborative work and tele-radiology systems are required to effectively scale up to this diagnosis trend. We tackle the problem of the collaborative access of medical images, and present WebMedSA, a framework to manage large datasets of medical images. WebMedSA relies on a PACS and supports the ontological annotation, as well as segmentation and visualization of the images based on their semantic description. Ontological annotations can be performed directly on the volumetric image or at different image planes (e.g., axial, coronal, or sagittal); furthermore, annotations can be complemented after applying a segmentation technique. WebMedSA is based on three main steps: (1) RDF-ization process for extracting, anonymizing, and serializing metadata comprised in DICOM medical images into RDF/XML; (2) Integration of different biomedical ontologies (using L-MOM library), making this approach ontology independent; and (3) segmentation and visualization of annotated data which is further used to generate new annotations according to expert knowledge, and validation. Initial user evaluations suggest that WebMedSA facilitates the exchange of knowledge between radiologists, and provides the basis for collaborative work among them.

  9. Opportunities in Participatory Science and Citizen Science with MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment: A Virtual Science Team Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Ginny

    2009-09-01

    We report on the accomplishments of the HiRISE EPO program over the last two and a half years of science operations. We have focused primarily on delivering high impact science opportunities through our various participatory science and citizen science websites. Uniquely, we have invited students from around the world to become virtual HiRISE team members by submitting target suggestions via our HiRISE Quest Image challenges using HiWeb the team's image suggestion facility web tools. When images are acquired, students analyze their returned images, write a report and work with a HiRISE team member to write a image caption for release on the HiRISE website (http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu). Another E/PO highlight has been our citizen scientist effort, HiRISE Clickworkers (http://clickworkers.arc.nasa.gov/hirise). Clickworkers enlists volunteers to identify geologic features (e.g., dunes, craters, wind streaks, gullies, etc.) in the HiRISE images and help generate searchable image databases. In addition, the large image sizes and incredible spatial resolution of the HiRISE camera can tax the capabilities of the most capable computers, so we have also focused on enabling typical users to browse, pan and zoom the HiRISE images using our HiRISE online image viewer (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/hirise_images/). Our educational materials available on the HiRISE EPO web site (http://hirise.seti.org/epo) include an assortment of K through college level, standards-based activity books, a K through 3 coloring/story book, a middle school level comic book, and several interactive educational games, including Mars jigsaw puzzles, crosswords, word searches and flash cards.

  10. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  11. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  12. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords.

  13. Mentoring Strategies and Outcomes of Two Federally Funded Cancer Research Training Programs for Underrepresented Students in the Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E; Abraham, Latecia M; Harrison, Anita L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Hazelton, Tonya R; Varner, Heidi; Cannady, Kimberly; Frichtel, Carla S; Bagasra, Omar; Davis, Leroy; Rivers, David E; Slaughter, Sabra C; Salley, Judith D

    2016-06-01

    The US is experiencing a severe shortage of underrepresented biomedical researchers. The purpose of this paper is to present two case examples of cancer research mentoring programs for underrepresented biomedical sciences students. The first case example is a National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI) P20 grant titled "South Carolina Cancer Disparities Research Center (SC CaDRe)" Training Program, contributing to an increase in the number of underrepresented students applying to graduate school by employing a triple-level mentoring strategy. Since 2011, three undergraduate and four graduate students have participated in the P20 SC CaDRe program. One graduate student published a peer-reviewed scientific paper. Two graduate students (50 %) have completed their master's degrees, and the other two graduate students will receive their degrees in spring 2015. Two undergraduate students (67 %) are enrolled in graduate or professional school (grad./prof. school), and the other graduate student is completing her final year of college. The second case example is a prostate cancer-focused Department of Defense grant titled "The SC Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program," providing 24 students training since 2009. Additionally, 47 students made scientific presentations, and two students have published peer-reviewed scientific papers. All 24 students took a GRE test preparation course; 15 (63 %) have applied to graduate school, and 11 of them (73 %) are enrolled in grad./prof. school. Thirteen remaining students (54 %) are applying to grad./prof. school. Leveraged funding provided research-training opportunities to an additional 201 National Conference on Health Disparities Student Forum participants and to 937 Ernest E. Just Research Symposium participants at the Medical University of South Carolina.

  14. Beyond Preparation: Identity, Cultural Capital, and Readiness for Graduate School in the Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazley, J. Lynn; Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E.; Keller, Jill; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 52 college graduates as they entered a Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP). Our goal was to investigate what it means for these aspiring scientists, most of whom are from groups underrepresented in the sciences, to feel ready to apply to a doctoral program in the biomedical…

  15. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Town Alexandria. Cellular and Molecular June 4, 2012..... *VA Central Office. Medicine. Infectious... May 24, 2012..... Sheraton Suites--Old Science-B. Town Alexandria. Neurobiology-D May 24-25, 2012.... Neurobiology-A June 1, 2012..... Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. Clinical Application of June 1,...

  16. Making Bioinformatics Projects a Meaningful Experience in an Undergraduate Biotechnology or Biomedical Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Iain C.; Cummings, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Bioinformatics has emerged as an important discipline within the biological sciences that allows scientists to decipher and manage the vast quantities of data (such as genome sequences) that are now available. Consequently, there is an obvious need to provide graduates in biosciences with generic, transferable skills in bioinformatics. We present…

  17. Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…

  18. Leading Change: Curriculum Reform in Graduate Education in the Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were…

  19. [A study of development of medicine and science in the nineteenth century science fiction: biomedical experiments in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jae-Uk

    2014-12-01

    As the sciences advanced rapidly in the modern European world, outstanding achievements have been made in medicine, chemistry, biology, physiology, physics and others, which have been co-influencing each of the scientific disciplines. Accordingly, such medical and scientific phenomena began to be reflected in novels. In particular, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein includes the diverse aspects of the change and development in the medicine and science. Associated with medical and scientific information reflected in Frankenstein and Frankenstein's experiments in the text, accordingly, this research will investigate the aspects of medical and scientific development taking place in the nineteenth century in three ways. First, the medical and scientific development of the nineteenth century has been reviewed by summerizing both the information of alchemy in which Frankenstein shows his interest and the new science in general that M. Waldman introduces in the text. Second, the actual features of medical and scientific development have been examined through some examples of the experimental methods that M. Waldman implicitly uttered to Frankenstein. Third, it has been checked how the medical and scientific development is related to the main issues of mechanism and vitalism which can be explained as principles of life. Even though this research deals with the developmental process of medicine & science and origin & principles of life implied in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, its significance is that it is the interdisciplinary research focussing on how deeply medical and scientific discourse of Mary Shelley's period has been imbedded in the nineteenth century novel.

  20. Healthcare and biomedical technology in the 21st century an introduction for non-science majors

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, George R; Samuel, Solomon Praveen

    2014-01-01

    This textbook introduces students not pursuing degrees in science or engineering to the remarkable new applications of technology now available to physicians and their patients and discusses how these technologies are evolving to permit new treatments and procedures.  The book also elucidates the societal and ethical impacts of advances in medical technology, such as extending life and end of life decisions, the role of genetic testing, confidentiality, costs of health care delivery, scrutiny of scientific claims, and provides background on the engineering approach in healthcare and the scientific method as a guiding principle. This concise, highly relevant text enables faculty to offer a substantive course for students from non-scientific backgrounds that will empower them to make more informed decisions about their healthcare by significantly enhancing their understanding of these technological advancements. This book also: ·         Presents scientific concepts from modern medical science using r...

  1. Nanodiamond-Based Composite Structures for Biomedical Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M; Vlasov, Igor I; Burikov, Sergey A; Dolenko, Tatiana A; Shenderova, Olga A

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond particles are widely recognized candidates for biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, bright photoluminescence based on color centers and outstanding photostability. Recently, more complex architectures with a nanodiamond core and an external shell or nanostructure which provides synergistic benefits have been developed, and their feasibility for biomedical applications has been demonstrated. This review is aimed at summarizing recent achievements in the fabrication and functional demonstrations of nanodiamond-based composite structures, along with critical considerations that should be taken into account in the design of such structures from a biomedical point of view. A particular focus of the review is core/shell structures of nanodiamond surrounded by porous silica shells, which demonstrate a remarkable increase in drug loading efficiency; as well as nanodiamonds decorated with carbon dots, which have excellent potential as bioimaging probes. Other combinations are also considered, relying on the discussed inherent properties of the inorganic materials being integrated in a way to advance inorganic nanomedicine in the quest for better health-related nanotechnology.

  2. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  3. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research: A Perspective for Organizational Change in African Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Theresa Adebola

    2014-01-01

    In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a perspective derived from the FASEB journal publications. The author examines the thirty three peer reviewed scientific research articles in a centennial (April 2012) issue of the FASEB Journal [Volume 26(4)] using the following parameters: number of authors contributing to the paper; number of academic departments contributing to the paper; number of academic institutions contributing to the paper; funding of the research reported in the article. The articles were written by 7.97±0.61 authors from 3.46±0.3 departments of 2.79±0.29 institutions. The contributors were classified into four categories: basic sciences, clinical sciences, institutions and centers, and programs and labs. Amongst the publications, 21.2% were single disciplinary. Two tier collaboration amongst any two of the four categories were observed in 16/33 (48.5%) of the articles. Three tier and four tier collaborations were observed amongst 7/33 (21.2%) and 3/33 (9%) of the articles respectively. Therefore 26/33 (78.7%) of the articles were multidisciplinary. Collaborative efforts between basic science and clinical science departments were observed in 9/33 (27.3%) articles. Public funding through government agencies provided 85 out of a total of 143 (59.5%) grants. The collaborative and multidisciplinary nature and government support are characteristic of biomedical science in the US where research tends to result in solutions to problems and economic benefits.

  4. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of science within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  5. The importance of being elegant: a discussion of elegance in nephrology and biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Marco J; Brancaccio, Diego

    2013-06-01

    Elegance is pursued and appreciated in virtually all aspects of our lives, from fashion to visual and performing arts, from literature to architecture. While most of us praise the elegance and beauty of science when we see it, elegance is typically treated as something that need not concern our research and thus does not belong inside the laboratory. In this article, we provide an alternative perspective, according to which elegance is more than an accessory ornament of scientific theories. We endorse and defend the view that elegance is an intrinsic feature of successful scientific practice and observation, a benchmark that demarcates between good experiments and bad ones. In support of our conclusions, we present and discuss three paradigms of scientific elegance: Jenner's discovery of vaccination, Bricker and Slatopolsky's trade-off hypothesis and Brenner's hypothesis regarding the role of residual nephrons in the decline of renal function.

  6. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  7. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  8. Retrieving biomedical images through content-based learning from examples using fine granularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Xu, Songhua; Lau, Francis C. M.

    2012-02-01

    Traditional content-based image retrieval methods based on learning from examples analyze and attempt to understand high-level semantics of an image as a whole. They typically apply certain case-based reasoning technique to interpret and retrieve images through measuring the semantic similarity or relatedness between example images and search candidate images. The drawback of such a traditional content-based image retrieval paradigm is that the summation of imagery contents in an image tends to lead to tremendous variation from image to image. Hence, semantically related images may only exhibit a small pocket of common elements, if at all. Such variability in image visual composition poses great challenges to content-based image retrieval methods that operate at the granularity of entire images. In this study, we explore a new content-based image retrieval algorithm that mines visual patterns of finer granularities inside a whole image to identify visual instances which can more reliably and generically represent a given search concept. We performed preliminary experiments to validate our new idea for content-based image retrieval and obtained very encouraging results.

  9. Imaging Science Panel. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group joint meeting with Information Science Panel: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multispectral sensing is reviewed and recommendations for future research and development are proposed. specifically, two generic sensor concepts were discussed. One is the multispectral pushbroom sensor utilizing linear array technology which operates in six spectral bands including two in the SWIR region and incorporates capabilities for stereo and crosstrack pointing. The second concept is the imaging spectrometer (IS) which incorporates a dispersive element and area arrays to provide both spectral and spatial information simultaneously. Other key technology areas included very large scale integration and the computer aided design of these devices.

  10. Handbook of coherent domain optical methods biomedical diagnostics, environmental and material science

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For the first time in one set of books, coherent-domain optical methods are discussed in the framework of various applications, which are characterized by a strong light scattering. A few chapters describe basic research containing the updated results on coherent and polarized light non-destructive interactions with a scattering medium, in particular, diffraction, interference, and speckle formation at multiple scattering. These chapters allow for understanding coherent-domain diagnostic techniques presented in later chapters. A large portion of Volume I is dedicated to analysis of various aspects of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a very new and growing field of coherent optics. Two chapters on laser scanning confocal microscopy give insight to recent extraordinary results on in vivo imaging and compare the possibilities and achievements of confocol, excitation multiphoton, and OCT microscopy. This two volume reference contains descriptions of holography, interferometry and optical heterodyning techniqu...

  11. The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE high performance computing infrastructure: applications in neuroscience and neuroinformatics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtek James eGoscinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE is a national imaging and visualisation facility established by Monash University, the Australian Synchrotron, the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, and the Victorian Partnership for Advanced Computing (VPAC, with funding from the National Computational Infrastructure and the Victorian Government. The MASSIVE facility provides hardware, software and expertise to drive research in the biomedical sciences, particularly advanced brain imaging research using synchrotron x-ray and infrared imaging, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, x-ray computer tomography (CT, electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The development of MASSIVE has been based on best practice in system integration methodologies, frameworks, and architectures. The facility has: (i integrated multiple different neuroimaging analysis software components, (ii enabled cross-platform and cross-modality integration of neuroinformatics tools, and (iii brought together neuroimaging databases and analysis workflows. MASSIVE is now operational as a nationally distributed and integrated facility for neuroinfomatics and brain imaging research.

  12. NeuroTerrain – a client-server system for browsing 3D biomedical image data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissanov Jonathan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three dimensional biomedical image sets are becoming ubiquitous, along with the canonical atlases providing the necessary spatial context for analysis. To make full use of these 3D image sets, one must be able to present views for 2D display, either surface renderings or 2D cross-sections through the data. Typical display software is limited to presentations along one of the three orthogonal anatomical axes (coronal, horizontal, or sagittal. However, data sets precisely oriented along the major axes are rare. To make fullest use of these datasets, one must reasonably match the atlas' orientation; this involves resampling the atlas in planes matched to the data set. Traditionally, this requires the atlas and browser reside on the user's desktop; unfortunately, in addition to being monolithic programs, these tools often require substantial local resources. In this article, we describe a network-capable, client-server framework to slice and visualize 3D atlases at off-axis angles, along with an open client architecture and development kit to support integration into complex data analysis environments. Results Here we describe the basic architecture of a client-server 3D visualization system, consisting of a thin Java client built on a development kit, and a computationally robust, high-performance server written in ANSI C++. The Java client components (NetOStat support arbitrary-angle viewing and run on readily available desktop computers running Mac OS X, Windows XP, or Linux as a downloadable Java Application. Using the NeuroTerrain Software Development Kit (NT-SDK, sophisticated atlas browsing can be added to any Java-compatible application requiring as little as 50 lines of Java glue code, thus making it eminently re-useable and much more accessible to programmers building more complex, biomedical data analysis tools. The NT-SDK separates the interactive GUI components from the server control and monitoring, so as to support

  13. Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar citation rates: a case study of medical physics and biomedical engineering: what gets cited and what doesn't?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    There are often differences in a publication's citation count, depending on the database accessed. Here, aspects of citation counts for medical physics and biomedical engineering papers are studied using papers published in the journal Australasian physical and engineering sciences in medicine. Comparison is made between the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Papers are categorised into subject matter, and citation trends are examined. It is shown that review papers as a group tend to receive more citations on average; however the highest cited individual papers are more likely to be research papers.

  14. Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Few issues in higher education are as fundamental as the ability to search for, evaluate, and synthesize information. The need to develop information literacy, the process of finding, retrieving, organizing, and evaluating the ever-expanding collection of online information, has precipitated the need for training in skill-based competencies in higher education, as well as medical and dental education. Methods The current study evaluated the information literacy skills of first-year dental students, consisting of two, consecutive dental student cohorts (n = 160). An assignment designed to evaluate information literacy skills was conducted. In addition, a survey of student online search engine or database preferences was conducted to identify any significant associations. Subsequently, an intervention was developed, based upon the results of the assessment and survey, to address any deficiencies in information literacy. Results Nearly half of students (n = 70/160 or 43%) missed one or more question components that required finding an evidence-based citation. Analysis of the survey revealed a significantly higher percentage of students who provided incorrect responses (n = 53/70 or 75.7%) reported using Google as their preferred online search method (p < 0.01). In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of students who reported using PubMed (n = 39/45 or 86.7%) were able to provide correct responses (p < 0.01). Following a one-hour intervention by a health science librarian, virtually all students were able to find and retrieve evidence-based materials for subsequent coursework. Conclusions This study confirmed that information literacy among this student population was lacking and that integration of modules within the curriculum can help students to filter and establish the quality of online information, a critical component in the training of new health care professionals. Furthermore, incorporation of these modules early in the curriculum may be of

  15. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century,medicine has come out of the "black bag" and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiology to informatics and signal processing. Reflecting the enormous growth and change in biomedical engineering during the infancy of the 21st century, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook enters its third edition as a set of three carefully focused and

  16. The first demonstration of laser computed tomography achieved by Coherent Detection Imaging method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Masahiro; Ichimura, Tsutomu (Research Development Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Sendai (Japan). Inaba Biophoton Project); Inaba, Humio

    1991-06-01

    The first successful imaging by laser absorption computed tomography of in vitro specimens has been achieved by means of the Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) method realized with the optical heterodyne detection technique and image reconstruction from back projection of the data obtained via optical absorption measurements in a parallel beam geometry. (author).

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1983 to develop the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related pollutants with living organisms. The first section is devoted to an evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next three sections, which contain reports of health effects research in biological systems, are grouped according to the major endpoint being studied: carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and systems damage. Since some projects have multiple objectives, a section may contain data concerning other endpoints as well. The section on carcinogenesis presents results from laboratory animal dose-effect relationship studies from both nuclear and synfuels materials. These data, along with metabolism and modeling studies, provide a basis for predicting human risks in the absence of relevant human exposure. This year we include a report on our 22nd Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, which dealt with this problem of extrapolating the results of animal studies to man. Of particular importance in carcinogenesis has been the demonstration that the carcinogenic potencies of complex organic synfuel mixtures may be much lower (or, occasionally, higher) than the sum of the potencies of the individual components. The mutagenesis section is primarily concerned with the results of microbial mutagenesis studies with synfuel materials. These studies provide valuable information on the carcinogenic potential of these complex organic mixtures. With results from studies reported in the carcinogenesis section, they are also being used to establish an adequate data base for determining the correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each program for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David

    2014-01-01

    to conventional piezoelectric transducers. These kind of sensors, made of biocompatible polymers, are good candidates for the sensing element in an optoacoustic endoscope because of its high sensitivity, its shape and its non-brittle and non-electric nature. The acoustic sensitivity of the intrinsic fiber optic......We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. In this work we compare experimentally the intrinsic ultrasonic sensitivities of a PMMA mPOF with other three optical fibers: a singlemode silica optical fiber, a single-mode polymer optical fiber and a multimode graded...

  19. Performance Evaluation of DWT Compared to DCT for Compression Biomedical Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beladgham Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The image compression has for objective to reduce the volume of data required by the encoding of image, for applications of transmission or saving. For this we use the redundancies which exists within an image (a pixel has a good chance of having a luminance close to those of its neighbors or between successive images in a sequence. We limit ourselves to the exploitation of redundancies within an image and we will work on gray level images of size 512x512. For image coding we chose an encoder based on progressive coding of data, coder is EZW (EMBEDDED WAVELET ZeroTree ENCODING, Shapiro 1993, the basis of this encoder a comparison is made between two types of transforms DWT (DISCREET WAVELETS TRANSFORM and DCT (DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM just to have the type of transformation that allows us to have a better visual quality of the image after decomposition. . Visual quality image is judged by two important devaluation parameters PSNR and MSSIM.

  20. Imaging tissues for biomedical research using the high-resolution micro-tomography system nanotom® m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Schulz, Georg; Khimchenko, Anna; Bikis, Christos; Hieber, Simone E.; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; H öchel, Sebastian; Saxer, Till; Stalder, Anja K.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Thalmann, Peter; Buscema, Marzia; Rohr, Nadja; Holme, Margaret N.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (mCT) is well established in virtually all fields of biomedical research, allowing for the non-destructive volumetric visualization of tissue morphology. A variety of specimens can be investigated, ranging from soft to hard tissue to engineered structures like scaffolds. Similarly, the size of the objects of interest ranges from a fraction of a millimeter to several tens of centimeters. While synchrotron radiation-based μCT still offers unrivaled data quality, the ever-improving technology of cathodic tube-based machines offers a valuable and more accessible alternative. The Biomaterials Science Center of the University of Basel operates a nanotomOR m (phoenix|x-ray, GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany), with a 180 kV source and a minimal spot size of about 0.9 μm. Through the adjustable focus-specimen and focus-detector distances, the effective pixel size can be adjusted from below 500 nm to about 80 μm. On the high-resolution side, it is for example possible to visualize the tubular network in sub-millimeter thin dentin specimens. It is then possible to locally extract parameters such as tubule diameter, density, or alignment, giving information on cell movements during tooth formation. On the other side, with a horizontal shift of the 3,072 pixels x 2,400 pixels detector, specimens up to 35 cm in diameter can be scanned. It is possible, for example, to scan an entire human knee, albeit with inferior resolution. Lab source μCT machines are thus a powerful and flexible tool for the advancement of biomedical research, and a valuable and more accessible alternative to synchrotron radiation facilities.

  1. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  2. A General System for Automatic Biomedical Image Segmentation Using Intensity Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is important with applications to several problems in biology and medicine. While extensively researched, generally, current segmentation methods perform adequately in the applications for which they were designed, but often require extensive modifications or calibrations before being used in a different application. We describe an approach that, with few modifications, can be used in a variety of image segmentation problems. The approach is based on a supervised learning strategy that utilizes intensity neighborhoods to assign each pixel in a test image its correct class based on training data. We describe methods for modeling rotations and variations in scales as well as a subset selection for training the classifiers. We show that the performance of our approach in tissue segmentation tasks in magnetic resonance and histopathology microscopy images, as well as nuclei segmentation from fluorescence microscopy images, is similar to or better than several algorithms specifically designed for each of these applications.

  3. Parallel Processing and Bio-inspired Computing for Biomedical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image Registration (IR is an optimization problem computing optimal parameters of a geometric transform used to overlay one or more source images to a given model by maximizing a similarity measure. In this paper the use of bio-inspired optimization algorithms in image registration is analyzed. Results obtained by means of three different algorithms are compared: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA. Depending on the images type, the registration may be: area based, which is slow but more precise, and features based, which is faster. In this paper a feature based approach based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is proposed. Finally, results obtained using sequential and parallel implementations on multi-core systems for area based and features based image registration are compared.

  4. Statistics in biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new p...

  5. WE-B-210-02: The Advent of Ultrafast Imaging in Biomedical Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanter, M. [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique (France)

    2015-06-15

    In the last fifteen years, the introduction of plane or diverging wave transmissions rather than line by line scanning focused beams has broken the conventional barriers of ultrasound imaging. By using such large field of view transmissions, the frame rate reaches the theoretical limit of physics dictated by the ultrasound speed and an ultrasonic map can be provided typically in tens of micro-seconds (several thousands of frames per second). Interestingly, this leap in frame rate is not only a technological breakthrough but it permits the advent of completely new ultrasound imaging modes, including shear wave elastography, electromechanical wave imaging, ultrafast doppler, ultrafast contrast imaging, and even functional ultrasound imaging of brain activity (fUltrasound) introducing Ultrasound as an emerging full-fledged neuroimaging modality. At ultrafast frame rates, it becomes possible to track in real time the transient vibrations – known as shear waves – propagating through organs. Such “human body seismology” provides quantitative maps of local tissue stiffness whose added value for diagnosis has been recently demonstrated in many fields of radiology (breast, prostate and liver cancer, cardiovascular imaging, …). Today, Supersonic Imagine company is commercializing the first clinical ultrafast ultrasound scanner, Aixplorer with real time Shear Wave Elastography. This is the first example of an ultrafast Ultrasound approach surpassing the research phase and now widely spread in the clinical medical ultrasound community with an installed base of more than 1000 Aixplorer systems in 54 countries worldwide. For blood flow imaging, ultrafast Doppler permits high-precision characterization of complex vascular and cardiac flows. It also gives ultrasound the ability to detect very subtle blood flow in very small vessels. In the brain, such ultrasensitive Doppler paves the way for fUltrasound (functional ultrasound imaging) of brain activity with unprecedented

  6. Label-free biomedical imaging of lipids by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prasanna V; Mutlu, Ayse Sena; Wang, Meng C

    2015-01-05

    Advances in modern optical microscopy have provided unparalleled tools to study intracellular structure and function, yet visualizing lipid molecules within a cell remains challenging. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy is a recently developed imaging modality that addresses this challenge. By selectively imaging the vibration of chemical moieties enriched in lipids, this technique allows for rapid imaging of lipid molecules in vivo without the need for perturbative extrinsic labels. SRS microscopy has been effectively employed in the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. This unit provides a brief introduction to the principle of SRS microscopy, and describes methods for its use in imaging lipids in cells, tissues, and whole organisms.

  7. A Novel Light Source Design for Spectral Tuning in Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Chandrajit; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel architecture with a remote phosphor based modular and compact light source in a non-contact dermoscope prototype for skin cancer screening. The spectrum and color temperature of the output light can easily and significantly be changed depending on spectral absorption characteristics of the tissues being imaged. The new system has several advantages compared to state-of-the-art phosphor converted ultra-bright white LEDs, used in a wide range of medical imaging devices, which have a fixed spectrum and color temperature at a given operating point. In particular, the system can more easily be adapted to the requirements originating from different tissues in the human body which have wavelength dependent absorption and reflectivity. This leads to improved contrast for different kinds of imaged tissue components. The concept of such a lighting architecture can be vastly utilized in many other medical imaging devices including endoscopic systems.

  8. Advances in biomedical imaging using THz technology with applications to burn-wound assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin; Sung, Jun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing and image has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of applications where current hydration sensing techniques are insufficient. THz medical imaging is an expanding field of research and tissue hydration plays a key role in the contrast observed in THz tissue reflectance and absorbance maps. This paper outlines the most recent results in burn and corneal imaging where hydration maps were used to assess tissue status. A 3 day study was carried out in rat models where a THz imaging system was used to assess the severity and extent of burn throughout the first day of injury and at the 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. Marked difference in tissue reflectance were observed between the partial and full thickness burns and image features were identified that may be used as diagnostic markers for burn severity. Companion histological analysis performed on tissue excised on Day 3 confirms hypothesized burn severity. The results of these preliminary animal trials suggest that THz imaging may be useful in burn wound assessment where current clinical modalities have resolution and/or sensitivity insufficient for accurate diagnostics.

  9. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  10. New imaging technique using degree of polarization for the study of polarimetric properties for non-invasive biomedical diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Isabella C.; Guyot, Steve; Lemoine, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    This research proposes a new imaging technique for near real time multispectral acquisition using CCD RGB cameras of the so called "Degree Of Polarization" (DOP) in polarimetry for future clinical investigation. The aim of exploiting the DOP as the contrast element is to demonstrate that the elliptical DOP provides more information characterizing complex medium than the more traditional linear and circular ones. The system considers an incoherent input white light beam and opportunely calibrated nematic crystals (LCVR), so no mechanical tools are necessary. The particular features of the system indicate it to be the perfect candidate for a new imaging system considering in-vivo (as well as ex-vivo) non invasive superficial diagnostic for medical application as dermatologic diagnostics, since no type of sample preparation is necessary, i.e. tissue biopsy, radiation or contrast agent injection. Thus the biomedical application of this method suggests a simple, direct, fast and also easily exploitable future employment, as a desirable mean for clinical investigation but also for digital recognition in biometrics. Further new elements to improve the model of light scattering and matter-light interaction will be acquired, in particular considering a very complete characterization of the system response using latex microspheres suspension to simulate turbid media with different concentration.

  11. Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Yijin Ren

    2012-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years.Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines,particularly in the fields of orthodontics,maxillofacial surgery,plastic and reconstructive surgery,neurosurgery and forensic sciences.In most cases,3D facial imaging overcomes the limitations of traditional 2D methods and provides the clinician with more accurate information regarding the soft-tissues and the underlying skeleton.The aim of this study was to review the types of imaging methods used for facial imaging.It is important to realize the difference between the types of 3D imaging methods as application and indications thereof may differ.Since 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging will play an increasingly importanl role in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery,special emphasis should be placed on discussing CBCT applications in facial evaluations.

  12. Automated hexahedral mesh generation from biomedical image data: applications in limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, S G; Sanders, J E; Turkiyyah, G M

    1996-06-01

    A general method to generate hexahedral meshes for finite element analysis of residual limbs and similar biomedical geometries is presented. The method utilizes skeleton-based subdivision of cross-sectional domains to produce simple subdomains in which structured meshes are easily generated. Application to a below-knee residual limb and external prosthetic socket is described. The residual limb was modeled as consisting of bones, soft tissue, and skin. The prosthetic socket model comprised a socket wall with an inner liner. The geometries of these structures were defined using axial cross-sectional contour data from X-ray computed tomography, optical scanning, and mechanical surface digitization. A tubular surface representation, using B-splines to define the directrix and generator, is shown to be convenient for definition of the structure geometries. Conversion of cross-sectional data to the compact tubular surface representation is direct, and the analytical representation simplifies geometric querying and numerical optimization within the mesh generation algorithms. The element meshes remain geometrically accurate since boundary nodes are constrained to lie on the tubular surfaces. Several element meshes of increasing mesh density were generated for two residual limbs and prosthetic sockets. Convergence testing demonstrated that approximately 19 elements are required along a circumference of the residual limb surface for a simple linear elastic model. A model with the fibula absent compared with the same geometry with the fibula present showed differences suggesting higher distal stresses in the absence of the fibula. Automated hexahedral mesh generation algorithms for sliced data represent an advancement in prosthetic stress analysis since they allow rapid modeling of any given residual limb and optimization of mesh parameters.

  13. Signal and imaging sciences workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-11-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of: Medical Technologies; Non-Destructive Evaluation; Applications of Signal/Image Processing; Laser Guide Star and Adaptive Optics; Computational Electromagnetic, Acoustics and Optics; Micro-Impulse Radar Processing; Optical Applications; TANGO Space Shuttle.

  14. Comparison of no-prior and soft-prior regularization in biomedical microwave imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Golnabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave imaging for medical applications is attractive because the range of dielectric properties of different soft tissues can be substantial. Breast cancer detection and monitoring of treatment response are areas where this technology could be important because of the contrast between normal and malignant tissue. Unfortunately, the technique is unable to achieve the high spatial resolution at depth in tissue which is available from other conventional modalities such as x-ray computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We have incorporated a soft-prior regularization strategy within our microwave reconstruction algorithm and compared it with the images obtained with traditional no-prior (Levenberg-Marquardt regularization. Initial simulation and phantom results show a significant improvement of the recovered electrical properties. Specifically, errors in the microwave property estimates were improved by as much as 95%. The effects of a false-inclusion region were also evaluated and the results show that a small residual property bias of 6% in permittivity and 15% in conductivity can occur that does not otherwise degrade the property recovery accuracy of inclusions that actually exist. The work sets the stage for integrating microwave imaging with MR for improved resolution and functional imaging of the breast in the future.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  16. Science and Different Images of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2016-07-01

    They are both intersubjective and non arbitrary. What are, however, these two images, and are they really alternative? Let us note, from the onset, that the two images we just mentioned are both idealizations in the same sense of Max Weber’s “ideal types”. This means that, in order to discover their actual presence, we need having recourse to a good deal of philosophical abstraction. In other words, they are not disclosed by mere empirical recognition. For instance, we live in the commonsense view of the world, and only a complex process of reflection makes us understand that we, as human beings, share a common view of the world, which is in turn determined by the fact that our physical structure bounds us to conceive of reality in a certain way rather than in another. Think about the importance that light, for example, has not only in daily life, but even in our philosophical conceptualization of the world. The story is complicated by the fact that each image has a history, and while the manifest image dates back to pre-history, the scientific image is constantly changing shape.

  17. 78 FR 76843 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) Announcement of Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) DEBUT Challenge is open to teams of undergraduate students working on... working in teams, identifying unmet clinical needs, and designing, building and debugging solutions for... students who are studying in the United States on a visa are eligible to be part of the competing...

  18. Information Science Panel joint meeting with Imaging Science Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Specific activity in information extraction science (taken to include data handling) is needed to: help identify the bounds of practical missions; identify potential data handling and analysis scenarios; identify the required enabling technology; and identify the requirements for a design data base to be used by the disciplines in determining potential parameters for future missions. It was defined that specific analysis topics were a function of the discipline involved, and therefore no attempt was made to define any specific analysis developments required. Rather, it was recognized that a number of generic data handling requirements exist whose solutions cannot be typically supported by the disciplines. The areas of concern were therefore defined as: data handling aspects of system design considerations; enabling technology for data handling, with specific attention to rectification and registration; and enabling technology for analysis. Within each of these areas, the following topics were addressed: state of the art (current status and contributing factors); critical issues; and recommendations for research and/or development.

  19. Structure-coupled multiphysics imaging in geophysical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Luis A.; Meju, Max A.

    2011-03-01

    Multiphysics imaging or data inversion is of growing importance in many branches of science and engineering. In geophysical sciences, there is a need for combining information from multiple images acquired using different imaging devices and/or modalities because of the potential for accurate predictions. The major challenges are how to combine disparate data from unrelated physical phenomena, taking into account the different spatial scales of the measurement devices, model complexities, and how to quantify the associated uncertainties. This review paper summarizes the role played by the structural gradients-based approach for coupling fundamentally different physical fields in (mainly) geophysical inversion, develops further understanding of this approach to guide newcomers to the field, and defines the main challenges and directions for future research that may be useful in other fields of science and engineering.

  20. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center; Imagen molecular an investigation biomedica. La Unidad de Imagen Molecular del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-07-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  2. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

    2012-06-01

    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  3. Empowering schoolchildren to do astronomical science with images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeside, L.; Busschots, B.; O'Cinneide, E.; Foy, S.; Keating, J. G.

    2005-06-01

    In 1991 the TIE (Telescopes in Education) Foundation provided schoolchildren with the ability to access professional observatory telescopes remotely. TIE has raised the profile of astronomy and science among schoolchildren. Since the initiation of this facility the TIE Foundation have spread their reach from one telescope in the US to many telescopes and many schools across the globe. The VTIE (Virtual Telescopes in Education) project was launched in 2001 to build on the success of TIE. The VTIE VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) provides a Web portal through which pupils can create a scientific proposal, retrieve astronomical images, and produce a scientific paper summarizing their learning experiences of the VTIE scientific process. Since the completion of the first formative evaluations of VTIE (which involved over 250 schoolchildren) it has been observed that the participating schoolchildren have had difficulty completing and understanding the practical imaging aspects of astronomical science. Our experimental observations have revealed that the imaging tools currently available to astronomers have not ported well to schools. The VTIE imaging tools developed during our research will provide schoolchildren with the ability to store, acquire, manipulate and analyze images within the VTIE VLE. It is hypothesized herein that the provision of exclusively child-centered imaging software components will improve greatly the children's empowerment within the VTIE scientific process. Consequentially the addition of fully integrated child-centered imaging tools will contribute positively to the overall VTIE goal to promote science among schoolchildren.

  4. Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance.

  5. Biomedical imaging and therapy with physically and physiologically tailored magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit Praful

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) are emerging imaging and therapy approaches that have the potential to improve diagnostic safety and disease management of heart disease and cancer - the number 1 and 2 leading causes of deaths in the United States. MPI promises real-time, tomographic and quantitative imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) tracers distributed in vivo, and is targeted to offer a safer angiography alternative for its first clinical application. MFH uses ac-fields to dissipate heat from SPIONs that can be delivered locally to promote hyperthermia therapy (~42°C) in cancer cells. Both technologies use safe radiofrequency magnetic fields to exploit the fundamental magnetic relaxation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which must be tailored for optimal imaging in the case of MPI, and maximum hyperthermia potency in the case of MFH. Furthermore, the magnetic core and shell of SPIONs are both central to the optimization process; the shell, in particular, bridges the translational gap between the optimized core and its safe and effective use in the physiological environment. Unfortunately, existing SPIONs that were originally designed as MRI contrast agents lack the basic physical properties that enable the clinical translation of MPI and MFH. In this work, the core and shell of monodisperse SPIONs were optimized in concert to accomplish two equally important objectives: (1) biocompatibility, and (2) MPI and MFH efficacy of SPIONs in physiological environments. Critically, it was found that the physical and physiological responses of SPIONs are coupled, and impacting one can have consequences on the other. It was shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based shell when properly optimized reduced protein adsorption to SPION surface and phagocytic uptake in macrophages - both prerequisites for designing long-circulating SPIONs. In MPI, tailoring the surface coating

  6. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  7. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Randeep; Badea, Ildiko

    2013-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.

  8. Magnetosphere imager science definition team interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Johnson, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in may different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data nd help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report documents the scientific rational for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and provides a mission concept for its implementation.

  9. Magnetosphere imager science definition team: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Gallagher, D. L.; Johnson, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in many different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data and help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report summarizes the scientific rationale for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and outlines a mission concept for its implementation.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E

    2011-06-01

    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  11. Imaging, scattering, and spectroscopic systems for biomedical optics: Tools for bench top and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William J.

    Optical advances have had a profound impact on biology and medicine. The capabilities range from sensing biological analytes to whole animal and subcellular imaging and clinical therapies. The work presented in this thesis describes three independent and multifunctional optical systems, which explore clinical therapy at the tissue level, biological structure at the cell/organelle level, and the function of underlying fundamental cellular processes. First, we present a portable clinical instrument for delivering delta-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) while performing noninvasive spectroscopic monitoring in vivo. Using an off-surface probe, the instrument delivered the treatment beam to a user-defined field on the skin and performed reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies at two regions within this field. The instrument was used to monitor photosensitizer fluorescence photobleaching, fluorescent photoproduct kinetics, and blood oxygen saturation during a clinical ALA-PDT trial on superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Protoporphyrin IX and photoproduct fluorescence excited by the 632.8 nm PDT treatment laser was collected between 665 and 775 nm. During a series of brief treatment interruptions at programmable time points, white-light reflectance spectra between 475 and 775 nm were acquired. Fluorescence spectra were corrected for the effects of absorption and scattering, informed by the reflectance measurements, and then decomposed into known fluorophore contributions in real time using a robust singular-value decomposition fitting routine. Reflectance spectra additionally provided information on hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We next describe the incorporation of this instrument into clinical trials at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY). In this trial we examined the effects of light irradiance on photodynamic efficiency and pain. The rate of singlet-oxygen production depends on the product of irradiance and photosensitizer and oxygen

  12. Synthesis of bifunctional Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals and their applications in biomedical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕利; 徐贤柱; 李倩兰; 阳如春; 丁海新; 肖强

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals were successfully prepared by a simple reverse microemulsion method and subsequent calcination. Their structural, optical and magnetic properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmis-sion electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic property measurement system (MPMS). The amorphous Gd2(CO3)3:Eu3+colloidal spheres were proved as an intermediate product, and gradually transformed into crystallized Gd2O3:Eu3+with average diameter less than 100 nm. The paramagnetic property of the synthesized Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals were confirmed with its linear hysteresis plot (M-H). And Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals showed high contrast T1-enhancing modality due to the presence of the Gd3+ ions onto the particle surface. In addition, the application of the Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals as biotag for cell labeling was reported, red fluorescence from Eu3+ions observed by fluorescence micros-copy showed that the nanocrystals could permeate the cell membrane. Cytotoxicity studies of the Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals showed no adverse effect on cell viability, evidencing their high biological compatibility. Therefore, the nanoprobe formed from Gd2O3:Eu3+nanocrystals provided the dual modality of optical and magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. What is biomedical informatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Smith, Jack W; Johnson, Todd R

    2010-02-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine.

  14. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S J; Sun, X; Litchfield, J B

    1996-04-01

    The physical and chemical changes that occur in foods during growth, harvest, processing, storage, preparation, and consumption are often very difficult to measure and quantify. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a pioneering technology, originally developed in the medical field, that is now being used in a large number of disciplines to study a wide variety of materials and processes. In food science, MRI techniques allow the interior of foods to be imaged noninvasively and nondestructively. These images can then be quantified to yield information about several processes and material properties, such as mass and heat transfer, fat and ice crystallization, gelation, water mobidity, composition and volume changes, food stability and maturation, flow behavior, and temperature. This article introduces the fundamental principles of MRI, presents some of the recent advances in MRI technology, and reviews some of the current applications of MRI in food science research.

  15. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  16. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kuntz, Kip; Read, Any M.; Robertson, Ina P.; Sembay, Steve; Snowden, Steven; Thomas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  17. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K.; Read, A. M.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  18. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  19. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  20. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  1. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  2. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  3. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  4. Green fluorescent protein purification through Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatografy (IMAC and its relevance for Biomedical Science students during Biochemistry practical classes at La Trobe University – Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jose José de Melo Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed as an integrated practical of a Biomedical Science undergraduate course of Biochemistry subject, in order to demonstrate used techniques to purify of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP. To perform the experiments the main methodology applied was the by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC.  The open reading frame for enhanced GFP was sub-cloned into the pQE30 expression vector. The subsequent production of protein tagged N-terminally with hexahistidine, facilitated its purification by IMAC.  An approximate 3-fold purification of GFP was achieved. Thus, the students who completed the course gained significant experience related to fundamental techniques in molecular cloning and a sound basis in the principles of recombinant protein expression and purification.

  5. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K. (comps.)

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  6. Photoelectron microscopy in the life sciences: Imaging neuron networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercanti, D. (Istituto di Neurobiologia del CNR, Viale Marx 15, 00100 Roma (Italy)); De Stasio, G. (ISM-CNR, Via E. Fermi 38, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)); Ciotti, M.T. (Istituto di Neurobiologia del CNR, Viale Marx 15, 00100 Roma (Italy)); Capasso, C.; Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Liang, S.H.; Cole, R.K.; Guo, Z.Y.; Wallace, J. (Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (USA) Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (USA)); Margaritondo, G. (Institut de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Ecublens (Switzerland)); Cerrina, F. (Departments of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (USA) Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (USA)); Underwood, J.; Perera, R.; Kortright, J. (Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Photoemission techniques like electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis are the leading electronic probes in materials science---but their impact in the life sciences has been minimal. A critical problem is that the lateral resolution in ordinary photoemission does not exceed a few tenths of a millimeter. This space-averaged probe is nearly useless for most of the fundamental problems in biophysics and biochemistry, which deal with microstructures in the submicron range or smaller. This limit is being overcome with photoemission microscopes, such as our scanning instrument MAXIMUM. The first scanning photoelectron micrographs of a cellular system with submicron resolution are presented. Minute details of neuron networks are imaged on MAXIMUM, thereby opening the way to novel applications of photoemission in the life sciences. The details include individual neurons, axons, dendrites, and synapses, and composite large-area scanning micrographs were routinely produced with a lateral resolution of 0.5 {mu}m.

  7. Curricular impact on elementary students' images of science: Informational science text read aloud and scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tammy Colburn

    Understanding what influences images elementary students create about science has been researched for 30 years. This researcher sought to understand how the way science is presented in school influences images elementary students hold about science. The study's questions included: (1) What images of science do 2nd and 4th grade students portray through dialogue as they experience read alouds of informational science texts? (2) What images of science do 2nd and 4th grade students portray through dialogue as they experience science through inquiry with manipulative objects? and (3) What lifeworld resources influence students' images of science? Drawing upon symbolic interaction within a sociocultural framework, this qualitative study began during the summer of 2005 while students were enrolled in a summer program at their school and continued into the fall of 2007. Primary data included transcripts of students' dialogue during sessions, interviews, observations, field notes, demographic data, and assessment data. The researcher conducted 3 sessions with each of 4 groups of 3 students, spending 30 minutes observing, listening, and taping students in each session. All 12 students were interviewed after each of the 3 sessions on the same day resulting in approximately 18 hours of audiotapes. The researcher met with reading coaches, parents, and the selected students' teachers. Observations of the students and teachers in the context of their school environment were also made throughout the 2006-2007 regular school year. Emergent themes suggest that despite students using process skills in both sessions, the informational book reading sessions were ritualized such that the students viewed the experience as a reading exercise only and not being a scientist. In contrast, students in the manipulative sessions saw themselves as acting like or being scientists. Last, students in both sessions drew upon funds of knowledge accrued from sociocultural influences and home

  8. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1985 to develop information for a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of energy-related radiation and chemicals with man. Our continuing emphasis on decreasing the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies supports the DOE goal of increasing and diversifying national energy resources and decreasing risks to human health. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic needs. The first section concerns evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include health effects of radiation and health effects of chemical mixtures. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1986. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect the PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological methods for assessing health risks among nuclear workers. The next two sections, which contain reports of health-effects research in biological systems, include effects of radiation and of energy-related chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1988. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  13. Medicine's perception of reality - a split picture: critical reflections on apparent anomalies within the biomedical theory of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Ekeland, Tor-Johan; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene; Schei, Edvin; Ulvestad, Elling; Vetlesen, Arne Johan

    2016-08-01

    Escalating costs, increasing multi-morbidity, medically unexplained health problems, complex risk, poly-pharmacy and antibiotic resistance can be regarded as artefacts of the traditional knowledge production in Western medicine, arising from its particular worldview. Our paper presents a historically grounded critical analysis of this view. The materialistic shift of Enlightenment philosophy, separating subjectivity from bodily matter, became normative for modern medicine and yielded astonishing results. The traditional dichotomies of mind/body and subjective/objective are, however, incompatible with modern biological theory. Medical knowledge ignores central tenets of human existence, notably the physiological impact of subjective experience, relationships, history and sociocultural contexts. Biomedicine will not succeed in resolving today's poorly understood health problems by doing 'more of the same'. We must acknowledge that health, sickness and bodily functioning are interwoven with human meaning-production, fundamentally personal and biographical. This implies that the biomedical framework, although having engendered 'success stories' like the era of antibiotics, needs to be radically revised.

  14. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  15. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  16. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  17. Aquisição e manipulação de imagens por tomografia computadorizada da região maxilofacial visando à obtenção de protótipos biomédicos Acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region for biomedical prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Meurer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O processo de construção de protótipos biomédicos surgiu da união das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida e do diagnóstico por imagens. No entanto, este processo é complexo, em função da necessária interação entre as ciências biomédicas e a engenharia. Para que bons resultados sejam obtidos, especial atenção deve ser dispensada à aquisição das imagens por tomografia computadorizada e à manipulação dessas imagens em softwares específicos. Este artigo apresenta a experiência multidisciplinar de um grupo de pesquisadores com a aquisição e a manipulação de imagens por tomografia computadorizada do complexo maxilofacial, visando à construção de protótipos biomédicos com finalidade cirúrgica.Biomedical prototyping has resulted from a merger of rapid prototyping and imaging diagnosis technologies. However, this process is complex, considering the necessity of interaction between biomedical sciences and engineering. Good results are highly dependent on the acquisition of computed tomography images and their subsequent manipulation by means of specific softwares. The present study describes the experience of a multidisciplinary group of researchers in the acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region aiming at biomedical prototyping for surgical purposes.

  18. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Images of Science Teaching in Constructivism Science Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Youngmi; Kang, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it investigates the self-images of science teaching held by early childhood pre-service teachers who took constructivism early childhood science education courses. Second, it analyzes what aspects of those courses influenced these images. The participants were eight pre-service teachers who took these…

  19. Biomedical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    Biomedical libraries are discussed as a distinct and specialized group of special libraries and their unique services and user interactions are described. The move toward professional standards, as evidenced by the Medical Library Association's new certification program, and the current state of development for a new section of IFLA established…

  20. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  1. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research. PMID:25574289

  2. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  3. Planet Formation Imager (PFI): science vision and key requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Stefan; Ireland, Michael J; Duchene, Gaspard; Espaillat, Catherine; Hoenig, Sebastian; Juhasz, Attila; Mordasini, Chris; Olofsson, Johan; Paladini, Claudia; Stassun, Keivan; Turner, Neal; Vasisht, Gautam; Harries, Tim J; Bate, Matthew R; Gonzalez, Jean-Francois; Matter, Alexis; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Panic, Olja; Regaly, Zsolt; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Meru, Farzana; Wolf, Sebastian; Ilee, John; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Zhao, Ming; Kral, Quentin; Morlok, Andreas; Bonsor, Amy; Ciardi, David; Kane, Stephen R; Kratter, Kaitlin; Laughlin, Greg; Pepper, Joshua; Raymond, Sean; Labadie, Lucas; Nelson, Richard P; Weigelt, Gerd; Brummelaar, Theo ten; Pierens, Arnaud; Oudmaijer, Rene; Kley, Wilhelm; Pope, Benjamin; Jensen, Eric L N; Bayo, Amelia; Smith, Michael; Boyajian, Tabetha; Quiroga-Nunez, Luis Henry; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Chiavassa, Andrea; Gallenne, Alexandre; Reynold, Mark; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wittkowski, Markus; Millour, Florentin; Gandhi, Poshak; Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Herrero, Almudena Alonso; Packham, Chris; Kishimoto, Makoto; Tristram, Konrad R W; Pott, Joerg-Uwe; Surdej, Jean; Buscher, David; Haniff, Chris; Lacour, Sylvestre; Petrov, Romain; Ridgway, Steve; Tuthill, Peter; van Belle, Gerard; Armitage, Phil; Baruteau, Clement; Benisty, Myriam; Bitsch, Bertram; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Pinte, Christophe; Masset, Frederic; Rosotti, Giovanni P

    2016-01-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) project aims to provide a strong scientific vision for ground-based optical astronomy beyond the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. We make the case that a breakthrough in angular resolution imaging capabilities is required in order to unravel the processes involved in planet formation. PFI will be optimised to provide a complete census of the protoplanet population at all stellocentric radii and over the age range from 0.1 to about 100 Myr. Within this age period, planetary systems undergo dramatic changes and the final architecture of planetary systems is determined. Our goal is to study the planetary birth on the natural spatial scale where the material is assembled, which is the "Hill Sphere" of the forming planet, and to characterise the protoplanetary cores by measuring their masses and physical properties. Our science working group has investigated the observational characteristics of these young protoplanets as well as the migration mechanisms that mig...

  4. Evaluation of Pre-Service Teachers' Images of Science Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hulya; Turkmen, Hakan; Pedersen, Jon E.; Huyuguzel Cavas, Pinar

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate elementary pre-service teachers' image of science teaching, analyze the gender differences in image of science teaching, and evaluate restructured 2004 education reform by using a Draw-A-Science-Teacher-Test Checklist (DASTT-C). Two hundred thirteen (213) pre-service elementary teachers from three…

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, C.C. [ed.; Park, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    This report summarizes FY 1993 progress in biological and general life sciences research programs conducted for the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental REsearch (OHER) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This research provides knowledge of fundamental principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of exposure to energy-related radiation and chemicals. The Biological Research section contains reports of studies using laboratory animals, in vitro cell systems, and molecular biological systems. This research includes studies of the impact of radiation, radionuclides, and chemicals on biological responses at all levels of biological organization. The General Life Sciences Research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome program.

  6. The Mars Science Laboratory Mars Hand Lens Imager (MSL MAHLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minitti, Michelle E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Msl Mastcam/Mahli/Mardi Team

    2007-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission, slated to begin Martian surface operations in 2010, seeks to explore the past and present habitability of a yet-to-be-selected site on Mars. Armed with a suite of instruments capable of spectral, chemical, mineralogical, organic and isotopic analyses, MSL will comprehensively study the Martian atmosphere and rocks and soils on the Martian surface. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), the "geologist's handlens" for MSL, supports habitability studies through aiding the selection of samples for in-depth analysis and placing such samples in a geologic and geomorphic context. More broadly, the goal of MAHLI is to examine the texture, morphology, structure, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of rocks, soils, frost and ice at the microscale. MAHLI will achieve this objective using capabilities new to Martian cameras including a CCD with a Bayer Pattern Filter coupled with a focusable lens. The Bayer Pattern Filter produces RGB color images akin to those taken by the standard commercial digital camera. Placement of MAHLI by the MSL Robotic Arm (RA) at a particular distance from the sample of interest and MAHLI's internal focus mechanism combine to achieve a desired image resolution. At its closest placement (22.5 mm), MAHLI has 9 µm/pixel resolution. In practice, RA placement may be sufficiently uncertain that 9 µm/pixel will not be achieved regularly; however, resolutions in the 12-15 µm/pixel range are expected for typical high resolution images. Depending on the target distance and its surface relief, the target may not be in focus over the entire image. For those cases, MAHLI acquires a series of images taken at a range of focus positions that bracket the location of best focus. MAHLI's onboard software is capable of merging this stack of images, into a single best-focus image. MAHLI can image in natural illumination but it also possesses four, white light emitting diodes (LED) for illumination of samples in shadow or at

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1, Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in OHER biological research and general life sciences research programs conducted conducted at PNL in FLY 1991. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long- term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and newly developed energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of the ways in which radiation and chemicals cause biological damage.

  8. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  9. All Sky Imager Network for Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A.; Kendall, E. A.; Zalles, D. R.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Marshall, R. A.; Kaltenbacher, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new all sky imager network for space weather monitoring and education outreach has been developed by SRI International. The goal of this program is to install sensitive, low-light all-sky imagers across the continental United States to observe upper atmospheric airglow and aurora in near real time. While aurora borealis is often associated with the high latitudes, during intense geomagnetic storms it can extend well into the continental United States latitudes. Observing auroral processes is instrumental in understanding the space weather, especially in the times of increasing societal dependence on space-based technologies. Under the THEMIS satellite program, Canada has installed a network of all-sky imagers across their country to monitor aurora in real-time. However, no comparable effort exists in the United States. Knowledge of the aurora and airglow across the entire United States in near real time would allow scientists to quickly assess the impact of a geomagnetic storm in concert with data from GPS networks, ionosondes, radars, and magnetometers. What makes this effort unique is that we intend to deploy these imagers at high schools across the country. Selected high-schools will necessarily be in rural areas as the instrument requires dark night skies. At the commencement of the school year, we plan to give an introductory seminar on space weather at each of these schools. Science nuggets developed by SRI International in collaboration with the Center for GeoSpace Studies and the Center for Technology in Learning will be available for high school teachers to use during their science classes. Teachers can use these nuggets as desired within their own curricula. We intend to develop a comprehensive web-based interface that will be available for students and scientific community alike to observe data across the network in near real time and also to guide students towards complementary space weather data sets. This interface will show the real time extent of

  10. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research - Part 1: Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER human health, biological, general life sciences, and medical applications research programs conducted at PNL in FY 1989. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health risk estimates from existing and developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause biological damage. The sequence of this report of PNL research reflects the OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health research, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section contains reports of biological research in laboratory animals and in vitro cell systems, including research with radionuclides and chemicals. The general life sciences research section reports research conducted for the OHER human genome research program, and the medical applications section summarizes commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities at DOE facilities. 6 refs., 50 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jekova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. Combined criteria have been introduced dealing with the QRS areas and amplitudes, the waveshapes evaluated by steep slopes and sharp peaks, vectorcardiographic (VCG loop descriptors, RR intervals irregularities. Algorithms have been designed for application on a single ECG lead, a synthesized lead derived by multichannel synchronous recordings, or simultaneous multilead analysis. Some approaches are based on templates matching, cross-correlation or rely on a continuous updating of adaptive thresholds. Various beat classification methods have been designed involving discriminant analysis, the K-th nearest neighbors, fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. The efficiency of the developed methods has been assessed using internationally recognized arrhythmia ECG databases with annotated beats and rhythm disturbances. In general, high values for specificity and sensitivity competitive to those reported in the literature have been achieved.

  14. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  15. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  16. H-ATLAS: PACS imaging for the Science Demonstration Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Ibar, Edo; Cava, A; Rodighiero, G; Buttiglione, S; Temi, P; Frayer, D; Fritz, J; Leeuw, L; Baes, M; Rigby, E; Verma, A; Serjeant, S; Muller, T; Auld, R; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Maddox, S; Panuzzo, P; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Smith, D; de Zotti, G; Vaccari, M; Hopwood, R; Cooray, A; Burgarella, D; Jarvis, M

    2010-01-01

    We describe the reduction of data taken with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory in the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey, specifically data obtained for a 4x4-deg^2 region using Herschel's fast-scan (60 arcsec/s) parallel mode. We describe in detail a pipeline for data reduction using customised procedures within HIPE from data retrieval to the production of science-quality images. We found that the standard procedure for removing Cosmic-Ray glitches also removed parts of bright sources and so implemented an effective two-stage process to minimise these problems. The pronounced 1/f noise is removed from the timelines using 3.4- and 2.5-arcmin boxcar high-pass filters at 100 and 160-um. Empirical measurements of the point-spread function (PSF) are used to determine the encircled energy fraction as a function of aperture size. For the 100- and 160-um bands, the effective PSFs are ~9 and ~13 arcsec (FWHM), and the 90-per-cent encircled energy radii are 13...

  17. [Projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Shingo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iseki, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi Kasanuki Noboru; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Kitamori, Takehiko; Tei, Yuichi; Nakaoka, Ryusuke; Haishima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Division of Medical Devices has been conducting the projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. The TWIns has been studying to aim at establishment of preclinical evaluation methods by "Engineering Based Medicine", and established Regulatory Science Institute for Medical Devices. School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo has been studying to aim at establishment of assessment methodology for innovative minimally invasive therapeutic devices, materials, and nanobio diagnostic devices. This report reviews the exchanges of personnel, the implement systems and the research progress of these projects.

  18. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  19. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  20. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  1. The Performance of Discret Bandelet Transform Coupled by SPIHT Coder to Improve the Visuel Quality of Biomedical Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beladgham Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for a good representation is a central problem of image processing, this paper explores a new transform type to solve this problem. Color Image compression is now essential for applications such as transmission and storage in data. In the field of medical diagnostics, interested parties have resorted increasingly to color medical imaging. It is well established that the accuracy and completeness of diagnosis are initially connected with the image quality. This paper introduces an algorithm for color medical image compression based on the bandelet transform coupled with SP?HT coding algorithm;bandelet transform is a new method based on capturing the complex geometric content in image. The goal of this paper is to examine the capacity of this transform proposed to offer an optimal representation for image geometric, In order to enhance the compression by our algorithm, we have compared the results obtained with bandelet transform application in satellite image field. For this reason, we evaluated two parameters known for their calculation speed. The first parameter is the PSNR; the second is MSSIM (structural similarity to measure the quality of compressed image. We concluded that the results obtained are very satisfactory for color medical image domain.

  2. Contrast-enhanced continuous-terahertz-wave imaging based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Zuo, Shasha; Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-04-18

    We present a novel contrast-enhanced continuous-terahertz-wave imaging modality based on magnetic induction heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), which yields a highly sensitive increment in the reflection terahertz (THz) signal in SPIO solution upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field. In the differential and relative refection change focal-plane images before and after alternating magnetic field exposure, a dramatic contrast is demonstrated between water with and without SPIOs. This low-cost, simple, and stable contrast-enhanced continuous-THz-wave imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and real-time imaging application.

  3. "Am I Like a Scientist?": Primary Children's Images of Doing Science in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junqing; Jocz, Jennifer Ann; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of evidence highlights how inquiry-based science can enhance students' epistemic and conceptual understanding of scientific concepts, principles, and theories. However, little is known about how students view themselves as learners of science. In this paper, we explore primary children's images of doing science in school and…

  4. The OPFOS microscopy family: High-resolution optical-sectioning of biomedical specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, Jan A N; Adriaens, Dominique; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recently emerging (Laser) Light Sheet based Fluorescence Microscopy field (LSFM). The techniques used in this field allow to study and visualize biomedical objects non-destructively in high-resolution through virtual optical sectioning with sheets of laser light. Fluorescence originating in the cross section of the sheet and sample is recorded orthogonally with a camera. In this paper, the first implementation of LSFM to image biomedical tissue in three dimensions - Orthogonal-Plane Fluorescence Optical Sectioning microscopy (OPFOS) - is discussed. Since then many similar and derived methods have surfaced (SPIM, Ultramicroscopy, HR-OPFOS, mSPIM, DSLM, TSLIM...) which we all briefly discuss. All these optical sectioning methods create images showing histological detail. We illustrate the applicability of LSFM on several specimen types with application in biomedical and life sciences.

  5. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  6. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  7. Innovations in Biomedical Engineering 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Tkacz, Ewaryst; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Piętka, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the “Innovations in Biomedical Engineering IBE’2016” Conference held on October 16–18, 2016 in Poland, discussing recent research on innovations in biomedical engineering. The past decade has seen the dynamic development of more and more sophisticated technologies, including biotechnologies, and more general technologies applied in the area of life sciences. As such the book covers the broadest possible spectrum of subjects related to biomedical engineering innovations. Divided into four parts, it presents state-of-the-art achievements in: • engineering of biomaterials, • modelling and simulations in biomechanics, • informatics in medicine • signal analysis The book helps bridge the gap between technological and methodological engineering achievements on the one hand and clinical requirements in the three major areas diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation on the other.

  8. On the Crisis in Biomedical Education: Is There an Overproduction of Biomedical PhDs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Judith E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The debate over whether there is an oversupply of doctorates in the biomedical sciences is examined, and a case study of doctoral graduates and postdoctoral fellows at the Tulane University (Louisiana) Medical Center is reported. It is concluded that there is no biomedical doctoral glut and that doctoral program downsizing would have serious…

  9. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  10. 光声成像技术在生物医学中的研究进展%Development of Photoacoustic Imaging Technology in Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常金凤; 李成; 李荧

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of nondestructive testing technology, photoacoustic imaging technology, which is characterized by high resolution and high contrast, has been one of the development directions in the field of biomedical technologies. From the view of photoacoustic imaging systems, photoacoustic detec-tors and image reconstruction algorithms, the photoacoustic imaging technology is analyzed in this paper. Then the current photoacoustic imaging systems are illustrated in accordance with photoacoustic com-puted tomography, photoacoustic microscopy and photoacoustic endoscopy. The research advance of pho-toacoustic detectors, relating to multi-elememnt probes, array probes, MEMS probes and diaphragm-type Fabry-Perot probes, is discussed. Also, the application characteristics of typical image reconstruction algorithms are compared. As a result, the major research orientations of the photoacoustic imaging tech-nology, including higher resolution, greater detective depth, hard real-time, miniaturization technology and low-cost design, are demonstrated in consideration of potential future applications.%光声成像是近年来发展较快的无损检测技术,其高分辨率、高对比度的特点使其成为生物医学检测技术的主要发展方向之一。文中从光声成像系统、光声探测器和图像重建算法的角度,对光声成像技术进行了分析。在此基础上,分别结合光声计算层析成像、光声显微成像和光声内窥成像对光声成像系统进行了阐述,探讨了光声探测器在多探头、阵列式、MEMS微型化和光纤F-P腔等方面的研究进展,比较了典型图像重建算法的应用特点,并指出了基于光声技术的生物医学无损成像系统的高分辨率、大探测深度、实时性强、小型化、低成本的研究方向。

  11. From Science History and Applications Developments of Life System to Bio-Imaging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-min; LOU Wei; HE Guo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents brief science history and application developments of imaging technology,and discusses the bio-imaging technology. Real-time image measurement techniques and parallel processing of a realistic example is given. Finally coming converging technology of nano-bio-Info-cgno (NBIC) is extended for future trend.

  12. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  13. Picturing science: The who, what, and where of images in children's award-winning science trade books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Donna Lee

    Educators, students, and parents are among those who have stereotypical preconceived ideas about science and scientists. The study reports on a content analysis of graphic images in 303 of the "Outstanding Science Trade Books for Students K-12" from the years 1973 through 2005. Using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, all of the images in these books were analyzed according to the presence of humans, the characteristics of those humans (gender, race, age) the style of the graphics, the setting of the images, and the actions performed in the images. The results reveal that Caucasian males are still presented most frequently as scientists. Males appear in more total illustrations than do females (66% to 44%); the main characters are more often male than female (48 to 24); and biographies are most often written about males than females (75% to 25%). Images of Caucasians appear in more books than do people of color (54.5% to 45.5%); Caucasians appear in more total images than do people of color (84.3% to 15.7%); more main characters are Caucasians than people of color (87.5% to 12.5%); and more Caucasians are the subject of biographies than are people of color (72 to 7). Children appear in less than half of the total images, although they make up over 50% of the main characters in the sample. The images found in the sampled texts are wide-ranging as far as the setting in which science takes place; they definitely dispel the stereotype of science only occurring in a laboratory. Moreover, as a body of images, there are illustrations or photographs which capture people engaged in active scientific processes such as making observations, measuring, gathering data and samples, experimenting, and recording information.

  14. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    process. From the initial step of taking the image, the information in the image needs to be translated through image analysis before data analysis can be applied to treat the image quantitatively and answer the questions at hand. In this work, a number of studies were carried out to investigate possible...... applications of novel X-ray imaging modalities within food science. The first two studies mainly concern the image acquisition process of taking the image. Using dark-eld radiography, raw, frozen and defrosted fruit were distinguished, and structural changes in barley seeds during germination were monitored...

  15. Lab-on-a-chip techniques, circuits, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghallab, Yehya H

    2010-01-01

    Here's a groundbreaking book that introduces and discusses the important aspects of lab-on-a-chip, including the practical techniques, circuits, microsystems, and key applications in the biomedical, biology, and life science fields. Moreover, this volume covers ongoing research in lab-on-a-chip integration and electric field imaging. Presented in a clear and logical manner, the book provides you with the fundamental underpinnings of lab-on-a-chip, presents practical results, and brings you up to date with state-of-the-art research in the field. This unique resource is supported with over 160 i

  16. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  17. The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Shelley A; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroeck, Brent L; Ghez, Andrea M; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B; Philips, Andrew C; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L; Wincensten, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefl...

  18. Brucellar spondylitis: evaluation by NMR imaging, CT and biomedical radiography - a case report; Espondilite por brucelose - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Juliana C. de; Marins, Jose Luiz C.; Pereira, Rubens Marcondes [Centro Radiologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1999-03-01

    A 50-year-old white woman presented with a 4-month history of low pain with lower extremity irradiation. Image studies showed inflammatory changes of the vertebral bodies and invertebral disk at L3-L4 level. Considering she had no previous spinal surgery, negative tests for tuberculosis and a positive history of exposure to brucellosis, further studies were done, and the serologic tests were positive for brucellar antibodies. Follow-up studies within the first two months demonstrated the progressive spinal changes in brucellar spondylitis. (author)

  19. Abstract Proceedings Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop CASIS Workshop 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R

    2006-11-07

    These abstracts cover the following topics: (1) Analysis of massive datasets; (2) Nondestructive evaluation; (3) Imaging methodology; (4) NIF optics inspection; (5) Model-based signal processing and estimation; and (6) Image processing and analysis.

  20. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  1. Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Ren, Yijin

    2012-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years. Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines, particularly in the fields of orthodontics, maxillofacial surgery, plastic and reconstructive surge

  2. Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_images.zip File size: 18.3 MB Sim...a SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Handbook of photonics for biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donghyun; Somekh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides ...

  4. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  5. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peric, I.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  6. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  7. Biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last years computational methods lead to new approaches that can be applied within medical practice. Based on the tremendous advances in medical imaging and high-performance computing, virtual testing is able to help in medical decision processes or implant designs. Current challenges in medicine and engineering are related to the application of computational methods to clinical medicine and the study of biological systems at different scales. Additionally manufacturers will be able to use computational tools and methods to predict the performance of their medical devices in virtual patients. The physical and animal testing procedures could be reduced by virtual prototyping of medical devices. Here simulations can enhance the performance of alternate device designs for a range of virtual patients. This will lead to a refinement of designs and to safer products. This book summarizes different aspects of approaches to enhance function, production, initialization and complications of different types o...

  8. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  9. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  10. Print and Image Integration of Science Texts and Reading Comprehension: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling; Yang, Wen-Gin

    2007-01-01

    Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) was the foundation for this study that explored the effect of science text and image integration on grade 9 students' reading comprehension. Two texts in Chinese on the moon phase with different print and image integration were compared--a traditional textbook (TT) used in Taiwanese junior high schools and a…

  11. Image Processing: A State-of-the-Art Way to Learn Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Teachers participating in the Image Processing for Teaching Process, begun at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in 1989, find this technology ideal for encouraging student discovery, promoting constructivist science or math experiences, and adapting in classrooms. Because image processing is not a computerized text, it…

  12. Biomedical Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Naomi

    2010-03-01

    The near infrared region of the optical spectrum provides a window into the human body that can be exploited for diagnostics and therapeutics, offering an opportunity to merge these concepts. We have shown that the strong light-absorbing and light-scattering properties of noble metal nanoparticles can be controlled by manipulating their shape: in a core-shell geometry, the metallic shell layer can be easily tuned to this spectral region. This `nanoshell' geometry has proven to be ideal for enhancing both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for cancer. Nanoshells can serve as light scattering beacons, strong enhancers of fluorescent markers for optical tomography, and impart a highly effective, targeted therapeutic response via their unparalleled light-to-heat conversion properties. This latter effect has been used to induce cell death and tumor remission in animals at greater than 90% efficacy, and is currently in clinical trials. This nanoparticle platform can be combined with MRI contrast agents for the enhancement of dual imaging modalities, and also shows promise as a light-controlled nonviral vector for intracellular gene delivery.

  13. Education and research in biomedical engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Z

    2006-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This review paper presents the biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) and its partner institutions. In the first parts the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering Education Program is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches most of them carried out in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of BUTE.

  14. An evaluation of an enquiry based learning strategy for the science of imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Naylor@shu.ac.uk [Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Diagnostic radiography is a science based health course. Due to the variation in science background of the students at entry level the imaging science modules can be problematic. Enquiry based learning (EBL) was introduced as teaching strategy in an imaging science module in order to promote learner autonomy and enhance the student experience. The module was evaluated using a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The impact of working as a team was a strong theme emerging from the evaluation of the project, with the majority of students viewing teamwork as beneficial to their learning. It was identified that they gained support from the team, and this assisted their learning. The enhancement of transferable skills and the promotion of learner autonomy were achieved. Areas for further investigation are the utilisation of peer assessment and a science event for the summative assessment.

  15. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science.

  16. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  17. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, www.fosep.org) was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  18. The Potential Improvement of Team-Working Skills in Biomedical and Natural Science Students Using a Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzian, Forough L.; Farewell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled.…

  19. Satellite image eavesdropping: a multidisciplinary science education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, Jean-Michel [Association Projet Aurore, UFR-ST La Bouloie, 16, route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2005-11-01

    Amateur reception of satellite images gathers a wide number of concepts and technologies which makes it attractive as an educational tool. We here introduce the reception of images emitted from NOAA series low-altitude Earth-orbiting satellites. We tackle various issues including the identification and prediction of the pass time of visible satellites, the building of the radio-frequency receiver and antenna after modelling their radiation pattern, and then the demodulation of the resulting audio signal for finally displaying an image of the Earth as seen from space.

  20. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  1. Mobile Phone Images and Video in Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Sakunthala Yatigammana; Wishart, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a study into how mobile phones could be used to enhance teaching and learning in secondary school science. It describes four lessons devised by groups of Sri Lankan teachers all of which centred on the use of the mobile phone cameras rather than their communication functions. A qualitative methodological approach was used to…

  2. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  3. Cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector: From image science to image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Traylor Building, Room 718, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    The development of large-area flat-panel X-ray detectors (FPDs) has spurred investigation in a spectrum of advanced medical imaging applications, including tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Recent research has extended image quality metrics and theoretical models to such applications, providing a quantitative foundation for the assessment of imaging performance as well as a general framework for the design, optimization, and translation of such technologies to new applications. For example, cascaded systems models of the Fourier domain metrics, such as noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), have been extended to these modalities to describe the propagation of signal and noise through the image acquisition and reconstruction chain and to quantify the factors that govern spatial resolution, image noise, and detectability. Moreover, such models have demonstrated basic agreement with human observer performance for a broad range of imaging conditions and imaging tasks. These developments in image science have formed a foundation for the knowledgeable development and translation of CBCT to new applications in image-guided interventions-for example, CBCT implemented on a mobile surgical C-arm for intraoperative 3D imaging. The ability to acquire high-quality 3D images on demand during surgical intervention overcomes conventional limitations of surgical guidance in the context of preoperative images alone. A prototype mobile C-arm developed in academic-industry partnership demonstrates CBCT with low radiation dose, sub-mm spatial resolution, and soft-tissue visibility potentially approaching that of diagnostic CT. Integration of the 3D imaging system with real-time tracking, deformable registration, endoscopic video, and 3D visualization offers a promising addition to the surgical arsenal in interventions ranging from head-and-neck/skull base surgery to spine, orthopaedic, thoracic, and abdominal surgeries. Cadaver studies show the potential for significant boosts in surgical

  4. Cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector: From image science to image-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2011-08-01

    The development of large-area flat-panel X-ray detectors (FPDs) has spurred investigation in a spectrum of advanced medical imaging applications, including tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). Recent research has extended image quality metrics and theoretical models to such applications, providing a quantitative foundation for the assessment of imaging performance as well as a general framework for the design, optimization, and translation of such technologies to new applications. For example, cascaded systems models of the Fourier domain metrics, such as noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), have been extended to these modalities to describe the propagation of signal and noise through the image acquisition and reconstruction chain and to quantify the factors that govern spatial resolution, image noise, and detectability. Moreover, such models have demonstrated basic agreement with human observer performance for a broad range of imaging conditions and imaging tasks. These developments in image science have formed a foundation for the knowledgeable development and translation of CBCT to new applications in image-guided interventions—for example, CBCT implemented on a mobile surgical C-arm for intraoperative 3D imaging. The ability to acquire high-quality 3D images on demand during surgical intervention overcomes conventional limitations of surgical guidance in the context of preoperative images alone. A prototype mobile C-arm developed in academic-industry partnership demonstrates CBCT with low radiation dose, sub-mm spatial resolution, and soft-tissue visibility potentially approaching that of diagnostic CT. Integration of the 3D imaging system with real-time tracking, deformable registration, endoscopic video, and 3D visualization offers a promising addition to the surgical arsenal in interventions ranging from head-and-neck/skull base surgery to spine, orthopaedic, thoracic, and abdominal surgeries. Cadaver studies show the potential for significant boosts in

  5. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2013-11-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research.

  6. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  7. "Science in Tales": Analysis of the images of scientist in young people's fictional literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pujalte, Alejandro; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    In the research field on the "images of scientists" that appear in fictional literature, we focus on a set of tales produced by students of secondary school. Our aim is to connect some traits of the stereotypical scientist that appear in those texts with the traits underlying other cultural productions, since those productions may constitute the probable source of the stereotype. Many common representations of the scientist emerge from an image of science that is inadequate from the point of view of science teaching. It correlates to a lack of interest towards science courses. This lack of interest would contribute to stagnation in the number of students pursuing science and technology careers in Ibero-America in general and especially in Argentina.

  8. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs.

  9. The diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research may be influenced by biomedical funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Peirson, B R; Kropp, Heather; Damerow, Julia; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2017-03-30

    Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results. Critics have argued that a focus on model organisms has unduly constrained the diversity of experimental organisms. The availability of large electronic databases of scientific literature, combined with interest in quantitative methods among philosophers of science, presents new opportunities for data-driven investigations into organism choice in biomedical research. The diversity of organisms used in NIH-funded research may be considerably lower than in the broader biomedical sciences, and may be subject to greater constraints on organism choice.

  10. Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dai Lam; Le, Van Hong; Linh Pham, Hoai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Luong, Thien Tai; Thu Ha, Phuong; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of syntheses and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Three families of oxide MNPs, magnetite, manganite and spinel ferrite materials, were prepared in various ways: coprecipitation, sol-gel and high energy mechanical milling. Basic properties of MNPs were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Physical Properties Measurement Systems (PPMS). As for biomedical application, the aim was to design a novel multifunctional, nanosized magnetofluorescent water-dispersible Fe3O4-curcumin conjugate, and its ability to label, target and treat tumor cells was described. The conjugate possesses a magnetic nano Fe3O4 core, chitosan (CS) or Oleic acid (OL) as an outer shell and entrapped curcumin (Cur), serving the dual function of naturally autofluorescent dye as well as antitumor model drug. Fe3O4-Cur conjugate exhibited a high loading cellular uptake with the help of a macrophage, which was clearly visualized dually by Fluorescence Microscope and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM), as well as by magnetization measurement (PPMS). A preliminary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study also showed a clear contrast enhancement by using the conjugate. As for the environmental aspect, the use of magnetite MNPs for the removal of heavy toxic metals, such as Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb), from contaminated water was studied.

  11. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  12. Science means business: medical imaging shows colour of money

    CERN Multimedia

    Macfie, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Doctors have used x-ray machines for 100 years, but they remain an imprecise and limited diagnostic tool. But a team of Canterbury University researchers is aiming to revolutionise medical x-ray technology with high-precision colour imaging. (1,5 page)

  13. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The Masters of Engineering program with concentration in Biomedical Engineering at Tennessee State University was established in fall 2000. Under... biomedical engineering . The lab is fully equipped with 10 Pentium5-based, 2 Pentium4-based laptops for mobile experiments at remote locations, 8 Biopac...students (prospective graduate students in biomedical engineering ) are regularly using this lab. This summer, 8 new prospective graduate students

  14. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  15. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  16. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging and Related Field Methods: Building the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Steffen, Konrad; Wessman, Carol

    1999-01-01

    The proposal requested funds for the computing power to bring hyperspectral image processing into undergraduate and graduate remote sensing courses. This upgrade made it possible to handle more students in these oversubscribed courses and to enhance CSES' summer short course entitled "Hyperspectral Imaging and Data Analysis" provided for government, industry, university and military. Funds were also requested to build field measurement capabilities through the purchase of spectroradiometers, canopy radiation sensors and a differential GPS system. These instruments provided systematic and complete sets of field data for the analysis of hyperspectral data with the appropriate radiometric and wavelength calibration as well as atmospheric data needed for application of radiative transfer models. The proposed field equipment made it possible to team-teach a new field methods course, unique in the country, that took advantage of the expertise of the investigators rostered in three different departments, Geology, Geography and Biology.

  18. Thermal Infrared Imager on Hayabusa2: Science and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2015-04-01

    Thermal Infrared Imager TIR was developed and calibrated for Haya-busa2 asteroid explorer, aiming at the investigation of thermo-physical properties of C-class near-Earth sub-km sized asteroid (162173) 1999JU3. TIR is based on the 2D micro-bolometer array with germani-um lens to image the surface of asteroid in 8 to 12 μm wavelength (1), measuring the thermal emission off the asteroid surface. Its field of view is 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels. At least 40 (up to 100) images will be taken during asteroid rotation once a week, mainly from the Home Position which is about 20km sunward from asteroid surface. Therefore TIR will image the whole asteroid with spatial resolution of scien-tific objectives of TIR include the mapping of asteroid surface condi-tions (regional distribution of thermal inertia), since the surface physical conditions are strongly correlated with thermal inertia. It is so informa-tive on understanding the re-accretion or surface sedimentation process-es of the asteroid to be the current form. TIR data will be used for searching for those sites having the typical particle size of 1mm for best sample collection, and within the proper thermal condition for space-craft safe operation. After launch of Hayabusa2, TIR has been tested successfully, covering from -100 to 150 °C using a single parameter settings (2). This implies that TIR is actually able to map the surface other than the sunlit areas. Performance of TIR was found basically the same as those in the pre-launch test, when the temperature of TIR is well controlled. References: (1) Fukuhara T. et al., (2011) Earth Planet. Space 63, 1009-1018; (2) Okada T. et al., (2015) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 46, #1331.

  19. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  20. Imaging techniques for elements and element species in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Becker, J Sabine

    2012-05-01

    Revealing the uptake, transport, localization and speciation of both essential and toxic elements in plants is important for understanding plant homeostasis and metabolism, subsequently, providing information for food and nutrient studies, agriculture activities, as well as environmental research. In the last decade, emerging techniques for elemental imaging and speciation analysis allowed us to obtain increasing knowledge of elemental distribution and availabilities in plants. Chemical imaging techniques include mass spectrometric methods such as secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF), and so forth. On the other hand, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) based on synchrotron radiation is capable of in situ investigation of local atomic structure around the central element of interest. This technique can also be operated in tandem with SRXRF to image each element species of interest within plant tissue. In this review, the principles and state-of-the-art of these techniques regarding sample preparation, advantages and limitations, and improvement of sensitivity and spatial resolution are discussed. New results with respect to elemental distribution and speciation in plants revealed by these techniques are presented.

  1. A dedicated high resolution PET imager for plant sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Ke; Wen, Jie; Komarov, Sergey; O'Sullivan, Joseph A; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    PET provides in vivo molecular and functional imaging capability that is crucial to studying the interaction of plant with changing environment at the whole-plant level. We have developed a dedicated plant PET imager that features high spatial resolution, housed in a fully controlled environment provided by a plant growth chamber (PGC). The system currently contains two types of detector modules: 84 microPET R4 block detectors with 2.2 mm crystals to provide a large detecting area; and 32 Inveon block detectors with 1.5 mm crystals to provide higher spatial resolution. Outputs of the four microPET block detectors in a modular housing are concatenated by a custom printed circuit board to match the output characteristics of an Inveon detector. All the detectors are read out by QuickSilver electronics. The detector modules are configured to full rings with a 15 cm diameter trans-axial field of view (FOV) for dynamic tomographic imaging of small plants. Potentially, the Inveon detectors can be reconfigured to qua...

  2. A study on knowledge and practice regarding biomedical waste management among staff nurses and nursing students of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are the centre of cure and also the important centres of infectious waste generation. Effective management of Biomedical Waste (BMW is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice in managing the biomedical wastes among nursing staff and student nurses in RIMS, Ranchi. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at RIMS, Ranchi from Oct 2013 to March 2014 (6 months. It was a descriptive, hospital based, cross-sectional study. A total of 240 nurses participated in the present study, randomly chosen from various departments A pre-designed, pre-tested, structured proforma was used for data collection after getting their informed consent. Self-made scoring system was used to categorize the participants as having good, average and poor scores. Data was tabulated and analyzed using percentages and chi-square test. Results: The knowledge regarding general information about BMW management was assessed(with scores 0-8,it was found  that level of knowledge was better in student nurses than staff nurses as student nurses scored good(6-8correct answers in more than half of the questions (65%.Whereas staff nurses scored good in only 33.33% questions. When the practical information regarding the BMW management is assessed (with scores 0-8, it was found that staff nurses had relatively better practice regarding BMW management than students as they scored good(6-8correct answers in 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusion: Though overall knowledge of study participants was good but still they need good quality training to improve their current knowledge about BMW. 

  3. 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering which was held on September 23-26, 2015 in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. ICNBME-2015 continues the series of International Conferences in the field of nanotechnologies and biomedical engineering. It aims at bringing together scientists and engineers dealing with fundamental and applied research for reporting on the latest theoretical developments and applications involved in the fields. Topics include Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials Plasmonics and metamaterials Bio-micro/nano technologies Biomaterials Biosensors and sensors systems Biomedical instrumentation Biomedical signal processing Biomedical imaging and image processing Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering Clinical engineering, health technology management and assessment; Health informatics, e-health and telemedicine Biomedical engineering education Nuclear and radiation safety and security Innovations and technology transfer...

  4. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO’s Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Banks, Maria E.; Baugh, Nicole; Becker, Kris; Boyd, Aaron; Bergstrom, James W.; Beyer, Ross A.; Bortolini, Edward; Bridges, Nathan T.; Byrne, Shane; Castalia, Bradford; Chuang, Frank C.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Daubar, Ingrid; Davatzes, Alix K.; Deardorff, Donald G.; DeJong, Alaina; Alan Delamere, W.; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Dundas, Colin M.; Eliason, Eric M.; Espinoza, Yisrael; Fennema, Audrie; Fishbaugh, Kathryn E.; Forrester, Terry; Geissler, Paul E.; Grant, John A.; Griffes, Jennifer L.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Hansen, Candice J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heyd, Rodney; Jaeger, Windy L.; Jones, Dean; Kanefsky, Bob; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; King, Robert; Kirk, Randolph L.; Kolb, Kelly J.; Lasco, Jeffrey; Lefort, Alexandra; Leis, Richard; Lewis, Kevin W.; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Mattson, Sarah; McArthur, Guy; Mellon, Michael T.; Metz, Joannah M.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Motazedian, Tahirih; Okubo, Chris H.; Ortiz, Albert; Philippoff, Andrea J.; Plassmann, Joseph; Polit, Anjani; Russell, Patrick S.; Schaller, Christian; Searls, Mindi L.; Spriggs, Timothy; Squyres, Steven W.; Tarr, Steven; Thomas, Nicolas; Thomson, Bradley J.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Van Houten, Charlie; Verba, Circe; Weitz, Catherine M.; Wray, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ˜0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions.

  5. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  6. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  7. Functional requirements for a central research imaging data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Gruetz, Romanus; Dickmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current situation at many university medical centers regarding the management of biomedical research imaging data leaves much to be desired. In contrast to the recommendations of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Council of Sciences and Humanities regarding the professional management of research data, there are commonly many individual data pools for research data in each institute and the management remains the responsibility of the researcher. A possible solution for this situation would be to install local central repositories for biomedical research imaging data. In this paper, we developed a scenario based on abstracted use-cases for institutional research undertakings as well as collaborative biomedical research projects and analyzed the functional requirements that a local repository would have to fulfill. We determined eight generic categories of functional requirements, which can be viewed as a basic guideline for the minimum functionality of a central repository for biomedical research imaging data.

  8. Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haakil Lee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT or positron emission (PET scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H including carbon (13C or phosphorus (31P. In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region ofinterest (ROI or voxel or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI. Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism.

  9. Single-image rectification technique in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, Higinio; Puente, Iván; Eguía, Pablo; Arias, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    Many researchers have been working in Spain to document the communal graves of those assassinated during the Spanish Civil War. This article shows the results obtained with two low-cost photogrammetric techniques for the basic documentation of forensic studies. These low-cost techniques are based on single-image rectification and the correction of the original photo displacement due to the projection and perspective distortions introduced by the lens of the camera. The capability of image rectification is tested in an excavation in the village of Loma de Montija (Burgos, Spain). The results of both techniques are compared with the more accurate data obtained from a laser scanner system RIEGL LMS-Z390i to evaluate the error in the lengths. The first technique uses a camera situated on a triangle-shaped pole at a height of 5 m and the second positions the camera over the grave using a linearly actuated device. The first technique shows measurement errors less than 6%, whereas the second shows greater errors (between 8% and 14%) owing to the positioning of the carbon-fiber cross on an uneven surface.

  10. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment.

  11. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Walth, Gregory; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M.; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S.; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R.; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L.; Wincentsen, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefly discuss the necessity of an advanced data management system and data reduction pipeline.

  12. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  13. Preservice Teachers' Images of Scientists: Do Prior Science Experiences Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Todd M.; Tippett, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study that used the Draw-a-Scientist Test as a visual tool for exploring preservice teachers' beliefs about scientists. A questionnaire was also administered to 165 students who were enrolled in elementary (K-8) and secondary (8-12) science methods courses. Taken as a whole, the images drawn by…

  14. Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Images about Science Teaching in Their Future Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Ridvan; Demirdogen, Betul; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore pre-service chemistry teachers' images of science teaching in their future classrooms. Also, association between instructional style, gender, and desire to be a teacher was explored. Sixty six pre-service chemistry teachers from three public universities participated in the data collection for this study. A…

  15. New Media, Old Images: Constructing Online Representations of Women and Men in Science, Engineering and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendick, Heather; Moreau, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at online representations of women and men in science, engineering and technology. We show that these representations largely re/produce dominant gender discourses. We then focus on the question: How are gender cliched images re/produced online? Drawing on a discursive analysis of data from six interviews with web authors, we…

  16. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  17. 2010 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference, and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS) offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested or actively working in the fields of nuclear science, radiation instrumentation, software and their applications, to meet and discuss with colleagues from around the world. The program emphasizes the latest developments in technology and instrumentation and their implementation in experiments for space sciences, accelerators, other radiation environments, and homeland security. The Medical Imaging Conference (MIC) is the foremost international scientific meeting on the physics, engineering and mathematical aspects of nuclear medicine based imaging. As the field develops, multi-modality approaches are becoming more and more important. The content of the MIC reflects this, with a growing emphasis on the methodologies of X-ray, optical and MR imaging as they relate to nuclear imaging techniques. In addition, specialized topics will be addressed in the Short Courses and Workshops programs. The Workshop on Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors (RTSD) represents the largest forum of scientists and engineers developing new semiconductor radiation detectors and imaging arrays. Room-temperature solid-state radiation detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron radiation are finding increasing applications in such diverse fields as medicine, homeland security, astrophysics and environmental remediation. The objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the state of the art of material development for semiconductor, scintillator, and organic materials for detection, materials characterization, device fabrication and technology, electronics and applications.

  18. Alien or Alike? How the Perceived Similarity between the Typical Science Teacher and a Student's Self-Image Correlates with Choosing Science at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Taconis, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    By applying the self-to-prototype matching theory to students' academic choices, this study links the unpopularity of science in many industrialized countries with the perceived gap between typical persons representing science (e.g. physics teachers) on the one hand and students' self-image on the other. A sample of N = 308 Dutch and German…

  19. Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O'Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of…

  20. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  1. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  2. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  3. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  4. An intelligent monitoring and management system for cross-enterprise biomedical data sharing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai by using grid-based or cloud-based distributed architecture and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. However, when the platform integrates more and more nodes over different networks, the first challenge is that how to monitor and maintain all the hosts and services operating cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in the e-Science platform, such as DICOM and Web based image communication services, messaging services and XDS ITI transaction services. In this presentation, we presented a system design and implementation of intelligent monitoring and management which can collect system resource status of every node in real time, alert when node or service failure occurs, and can finally improve the robustness, reliability and service continuity of this e-Science platform.

  5. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  6. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies.

  7. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  8. Alien or Alike? How the Perceived Similarity Between the Typical Science Teacher and a Student's Self-Image Correlates with Choosing Science at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Taconis, Ruurd

    2012-12-01

    By applying the self-to-prototype matching theory to students' academic choices, this study links the unpopularity of science in many industrialized countries with the perceived gap between typical persons representing science (e.g. physics teachers) on the one hand and students' self-image on the other. A sample of N = 308 Dutch and German students described both themselves and typical teachers representing different school subjects using 65 trait adjectives. The following hypotheses were tested: The typical hard sciences teacher and the typical languages teacher will be perceived as differing in their personal characteristics. The typical physics teachers will be perceived as being less similar to students' own self-image than teachers representing languages. Actual choices students make during secondary school should correlate with the perceived fit between students' self-image and the prototype of teachers representing different school subjects, especially in the less frequent and less popular choices of a math or physics major/profile. The findings supported these hypotheses. The discussion stresses that students acquire not only knowledge about science but also about science culture (sensu Aikenhead) in their science classes and that students' image of science teachers can influence their academic choices.

  9. Biomedical Visual Computing: Case Studies and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Johnson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computational geometric modeling, imaging, and simulation let researchers build and test models of increasing complexity, generating unprecedented amounts of data. As recent research in biomedical applications illustrates, visualization will be critical in making this vast amount of data usable; it\\'s also fundamental to understanding models of complex phenomena. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  11. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  12. Use of images in Social Studies and Science lessons: Teaching through visual semiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Haas Prieto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learners access the school curriculum through meanings created among a variety of semiotic modes (diagrams, photographs, drawings, writing, etc., this learning enables them to join a worldview as they do in each curricular discipline. From a pedagogical and semiotic gaze to classroom interaction, we focus on the use of images in teaching, in relation to their potential to create meaning in social studies and science lessons. This article is part of Fondecyt 1130684 and systematizes methodological tools from Social Semiotics and multimodality used to explore the semiotic potential of a set images used by teachers of elementary and secondary in a public school. From an audiovisual corpus of lessons of a complete curricular unit, we analyze Social Studies and Science videos from the two subjects in 3rd, 6th grade of elementary and 1st grade of secondary school. Through a Multimodal Discourse Analysis using the concepts of ideational or representational metafunction and the categories of Visual Grammar Design, we show examples of situated images anylisis. The results show how the meaning in the image is modified when teachers use them in face to face interaction. This analysis should help teachers to select and deploy images in terms of improving the learning process and teaching materials they prepare for students.

  13. Welcome to health information science and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    Health Information Science and Systems is an exciting, new, multidisciplinary journal that aims to use technologies in computer science to assist in disease diagnoses, treatment, prediction and monitoring through the modeling, design, development, visualization, integration and management of health related information. These computer-science technologies include such as information systems, web technologies, data mining, image processing, user interaction and interface, sensors and wireless networking and are applicable to a wide range of health related information including medical data, biomedical data, bioinformatics data, public health data.

  14. [Biomedical engineering today : An overview from the viewpoint of the German Biomedical Engineering Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötelburg, C; Becks, T; Stieglitz, T

    2010-08-01

    Biomedical engineering is characterized by the interdisciplinary co-operation of technology, science, and ways of thinking, probably more than any other technological area. The close interaction of engineering and information sciences with medicine and biology results in innovative products and methods, but also requires high standards for the interdisciplinary transfer of ideas into products for patients' benefits. This article describes the situation of biomedical engineering in Germany. It displays characteristics of the medical device industry and ranks it with respect to the international market. The research landscape is described as well as up-to-date research topics and trends. The national funding situation of research in biomedical engineering is reviewed and existing innovation barriers are discussed.

  15. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  16. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eHabuchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the super-resolution microscopy. I discuss the applications of super-resolution microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-nanotechnology.

  17. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  18. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2004-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  19. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  20. Integrating behavioral and biomedical research in HIV interventions: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Dianne M; Grossman, Cynthia I; Erbelding, Emily J

    2013-06-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated overwhelming success of biomedical tools to prevent the spread of HIV infection. However, the complex and somewhat disparate results of some of these trials have highlighted the need for effective integration of biomedical and behavioral sciences in the design and implementation of any future intervention trial. Integrating behavioral and biomedical sciences will require appropriate behavioral theories that can be used in the context of biomedical clinical trials and multidisciplinary teams working together from the earliest stages of trial design through to completion. It is also clear that integration of behavioral science will be necessary to implement prevention at the population level and reverse the HIV epidemic.

  1. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research.

  2. The Present State and Future Perspective of Biomedical Engineering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The Present State and Future Perspective of Biomedical Engineering in Japan Shunsuke Sato (Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering...21st century is a century of life sciences. Biomedical engineering is a field of integrated science and biotechnology, a paradigm where the basic... biomedical engineering and technological development in Japan. The number of members of the society was 900 at the time of establishment, but has

  3. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field. PMID:23234267

  4. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Jonathan C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  5. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-12-12

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  6. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-08-30

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.

  7. Teacher argumentation in the secondary science classroom: Images of two modes of scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ron E.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine scientific arguments constructed by secondary science teachers during instruction. The analysis focused on how arguments constructed by teachers differed based on the mode of inquiry underlying the topic. Specifically, how did the structure and content of arguments differ between experimentally and historically based topics? In addition, what factors mediate these differences? Four highly experienced high school science teachers were observed daily during instructional units for both experimental and historical science topics. Data sources include classroom observations, field notes, reflective memos, classroom artifacts, a nature of science survey, and teacher interviews. The arguments were analyzed for structure and content using Toulmin's argumentation pattern and Walton's schemes for presumptive reasoning revealing specific patterns of use between the two modes of inquiry. Interview data was analyzed to determine possible factors mediating these patterns. The results of this study reveal that highly experienced teachers present arguments to their students that, while simple in structure, reveal authentic images of science based on experimental and historical modes of inquiry. Structural analysis of the data revealed a common trend toward a greater amount of scientific data used to evidence knowledge claims in the historical science units. The presumptive reasoning analysis revealed that, while some presumptive reasoning schemes remained stable across the two units (e.g. 'causal inferences' and 'sign' schemes), others revealed different patterns of use including the 'analogy', 'evidence to hypothesis', 'example', and 'expert opinion' schemes. Finally, examination of the interview and survey data revealed five specific factors mediating the arguments constructed by the teachers: view of the nature of science, nature of the topic, teacher personal factors, view of students, and pedagogical decisions. These

  8. Introducing the B I P (Biomedical Instrumentation Package). Many Important Electronic Functions in One Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described are the use and purposes of the Biomedical Instrumentation Package (BIP) in science classrooms. Science activities are suggested and equipment use is described. A sample laboratory activity, which includes materials, procedure, and discussion, is provided. (SA)

  9. The Impact of Transiting Planet Science on the Next Generation of Direct-Imaging Planet Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Joseph C

    2008-01-01

    Within the next five years, a number of direct-imaging planet search instruments, like the VLT SPHERE instrument, will be coming online. To successfully carry out their programs, these instruments will rely heavily on a-priori information on planet composition, atmosphere, and evolution. Transiting planet surveys, while covering a different semi-major axis regime, have the potential to provide critical foundations for these next-generation surveys. For example, improved information on planetary evolutionary tracks may significantly impact the insights that can be drawn from direct-imaging statistical data. Other high-impact results from transiting planet science include information on mass-to-radius relationships as well as atmospheric absorption bands. The marriage of transiting planet and direct-imaging results may eventually give us the first complete picture of planet migration, multiplicity, and general evolution.

  10. The Impact of Transiting Planet Science on the Next Generation of Direct-Imaging Planet Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Joseph C.

    2009-02-01

    Within the next five years, a number of direct-imaging planet search instruments, like the VLT SPHERE instrument, will be coming online. To successfully carry out their programs, these instruments will rely heavily on a-priori information on planet composition, atmosphere, and evolution. Transiting planet surveys, while covering a different semi-major axis regime, have the potential to provide critical foundations for these next-generation surveys. For example, improved information on planetary evolutionary tracks may significantly impact the insights that can be drawn from direct-imaging statistical data. Other high-impact results from transiting planet science include information on mass-to-radius relationships as well as atmospheric absorption bands. The marriage of transiting planet and direct-imaging results may eventually give us the first complete picture of planet migration, multiplicity, and general evolution.

  11. Contesting nonfiction: Fourth graders making sense of words and images in science information book discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfatti, Monica A.

    Recently developed common core standards echo calls by educators for ensuring that upper elementary students become proficient readers of informational texts. Informational texts have been theorized as causing difficulty for students because they contain linguistic and visual features different from more familiar narrative genres (Lemke, 2004). It has been argued that learning to read informational texts, particularly those with science subject matter, requires making sense of words, images, and the relationships among them (Pappas, 2006). Yet, conspicuously absent in the research are empirical studies documenting ways students make use of textual resources to build textual and conceptual understandings during classroom literacy instruction. This 10-month practitioner research study was designed to investigate the ways a group of ethnically and linguistically diverse fourth graders in one metropolitan school made sense of science information books during dialogically organized literature discussions. In this nontraditional instructional context, I wondered whether and how young students might make use of science informational text features, both words and images, in the midst of collaborative textual and conceptual inquiry. Drawing on methods of constructivist grounded theory and classroom discourse analysis, I analyzed student and teacher talk in 25 discussions of earth and life science books. Digital voice recordings and transcriptions served as the main data sources for this study. I found that, without teacher prompts or mandates to do so, fourth graders raised a wide range of textual and conceptual inquiries about words, images, scientific figures, and phenomena. In addition, my analysis yielded a typology of ways students constructed relationships between words and images within and across page openings of the information books read for their sense-making endeavors. The diversity of constructed word-image relationships aided students in raising, exploring

  12. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  13. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  14. Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamonds: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, D; Rinaldi, F; Ingallina, C; Carafa, M; Rossi, M; Terranova, M L; Marianecci, C

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamonds are a novel class of nanomaterials which have raised much attention for application in biomedical field, as they combine the possibility of being produced on large scale using relatively inexpensive synthetic processes, of being fluorescent as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen vacancies, of having their surfaces functionalized, and of having good biocompatibility. Among other applications, we mainly focus on drug delivery, including cell interaction, targeting, cancer therapy, gene and protein delivery. In addition, nanodiamonds for bone and dental implants and for antibacterial use is discussed. Techniques for detection and imaging of nanodiamonds in biological tissues are also reviewed, including electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Raman mapping, atomic force microscopy, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, either in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo. Toxicological aspects related to the use of nanodiamonds are also discussed. Finally, patents, preclinical and clinical trials based on the use of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications are reviewed.

  15. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  16. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  17. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  18. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  19. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  20. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.