WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical experimental processes

  1. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  2. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  3. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  4. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  5. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  6. Data Analysis in Experimental Biomedical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitriy

    This thesis covers two non-related topics in experimental biomedical research: data analysis in thrombin generation experiments (collaboration with Novo Nordisk A/S), and analysis of images and physiological signals in the context of neurovascular signalling and blood flow regulation in the brain...... to critically assess and compare obtained results. We reverse engineered the data analysis performed by CAT, a de facto standard assay in the field. This revealed a number of possibilities to improve its methods of data analysis. We found that experimental calibration data is described well with textbook...

  7. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  8. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  9. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  10. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  11. Proceedings of the international society for optical engineering biomedical image processing 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovik, A.G.; Howard, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of biomedical image processing. Topics covered include: Filtering and reconstruction of biomedical images; analysis, classification and recognition of biomedical images; and 3-D microscopy

  12. Software for biomedical engineering signal processing laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Willis J; Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990's we developed a special computer program called UW DigiScope to provide a mechanism for anyone interested in biomedical digital signal processing to study the field without requiring any other instrument except a personal computer. There are many digital filtering and pattern recognition algorithms used in processing biomedical signals. In general, students have very limited opportunity to have hands-on access to the mechanisms of digital signal processing. In a typical course, the filters are designed non-interactively, which does not provide the student with significant understanding of the design constraints of such filters nor their actual performance characteristics. UW DigiScope 3.0 is the first major update since version 2.0 was released in 1994. This paper provides details on how the new version based on MATLAB! works with signals, including the filter design tool that is the programming interface between UW DigiScope and processing algorithms.

  13. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo; Arredondo, Luis; Gonzalez, AgustIn

    2007-01-01

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home

  14. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Arredondo, Luis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de ValparaIso, Casilla 123-V, ValparaIso (Chile); Gonzalez, AgustIn [Department of Electronics, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Casilla 110-V, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home.

  15. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo; Arredondo, Luis; González, Agustín

    2007-11-01

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home.

  16. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsoon; Park, Donghyeon; Choi, Yonghwa; Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-05

    With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC_T) and Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Last

  17. Radiation processing technology for preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Yamanaka, H. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Radiation processing technology for the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials was studied from the aspect of a development of the technology and its application. Electron beam irradiation technology was applied to the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials such as thin polymer films in diagnosis, in which enzyme and antibody were used as a bioactive substance. Electron beam cast-polymerization and electron beam repeat surface-polymerization, that are surface irradiation techniques of homogeneous hydrophilic monomer solution containing enzymes made it possible to form the immobilized antibody films. In this technique, the films with various thicknesses (50-500 [mu]m) were obtained by regulating the electron beam energy. The thin polymer films immobilizing anti-[alpha]-fetoprotein were evaluated from the aspect of immunoagents for diagnosis of liver cancer. (Author).

  18. Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.

    1988-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics

  19. Applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan

    1987-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristic reaction means such as corsslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become an important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this techique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics. (author)

  20. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  1. Gamma irradiation of melt processed biomedical PDLLA/HAP nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, Susan; Kheirkhah, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Poly(D-L lactide) PDLLA/hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites at various compositions were prepared by melt-compounding process and then subjected to gamma irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. The morphology of the nanocomposites, characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), displayed HAP nanoparticles at various sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm distributed almost evenly within the polymer matrix. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the irradiated nanocomposites showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity along with a melting peak split. The double melting peak suggested formation of different crystalline structures in the radiation exposed nanocomposites. Also the cold crystallization peak shifted to lower temperatures and became much sharper upon irradiation, indicating higher crystallization rate. The irradiated nanocomposites showed lower tensile strength and elongation at break, suggesting occurrence of some chain scission reactions in the PLA. - Highlights: • Biomedical polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites prepared by melt-compounding were gamma irradiated. • Transmission electron microscopy showed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles evenly distributed within polylactic acid ranging from 10 to 100 nm. • A halo appeared around hydroxyapatite particles showing interfacial interactions between polylactic acid and the particles. • Double melting peak appeared for polylactic acid in DSC thermograms upon gamma irradiation of the nanocomposites

  2. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agricultur...

  3. Ultra low-power biomedical signal processing : An analog wavelet filter approach for pacemakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlík Haddad, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe novel signal processing methodologies and analog integrated circuit techniques for low-power biomedical systems. Physiological signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electromyogram (EMG) are mostly

  4. Ultra low-power biomedical signal processing: An analog wavelet filter approach for pacemakers

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlík Haddad, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe novel signal processing methodologies and analog integrated circuit techniques for low-power biomedical systems. Physiological signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electromyogram (EMG) are mostly non-stationary. The main difficulty in dealing with biomedical signal processing is that the information of interest is often a combination of features that are well localized temporally (e.g., spikes) and other...

  5. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  6. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  7. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-06-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data. Numbers of ICR mouse-used papers gradually increased from 1961 to 2014, but small decreases were observed in 2015 and 2016. The largest number of ICR-used papers were published in the medicine-pharmacy field, followed by natural science and art-kinesiology fields. There were no ICR mouse-used papers in other fields. Furthermore, ICR mice have been widely employed in cell biology studies within the natural science field as well as in biochemistry and pathology in the medicine-pharmacy field. Few ICR mouse-used papers were published in exercise biochemistry and exercise nutrition in the art-kinesiology field. Regardless in most fields, the total numbers of published papers involving ICR mice were higher in 2014 than in other years, although the numbers in some fields including dentistry, veterinary science, and dermatology were high in 2016. Taken together, the present study shows that various ICR stocks, including Korl:ICR mice, are widely employed as experimental animals in various biomedical research fields.

  8. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-07-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments.

  9. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments. (author)

  10. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, Daniel; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN’s competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR an...

  11. BioSig: the free and open source software library for biomedical signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Carmen; Sander, Tilmann H; Schlögl, Alois

    2011-01-01

    BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. The aim of the BioSig project is to foster research in biomedical signal processing by providing free and open source software tools for many different application areas. Some of the areas where BioSig can be employed are neuroinformatics, brain-computer interfaces, neurophysiology, psychology, cardiovascular systems, and sleep research. Moreover, the analysis of biosignals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), or respiration signals is a very relevant element of the BioSig project. Specifically, BioSig provides solutions for data acquisition, artifact processing, quality control, feature extraction, classification, modeling, and data visualization, to name a few. In this paper, we highlight several methods to help students and researchers to work more efficiently with biomedical signals.

  12. PURPOSE – PROCESS – PEOPLE A LEAN APPROACH TO BIOMEDICAL MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Kahlen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Opportunities to improve production processes and access to markets through the implementation of lean manufacturing in biomedical manufacturing are presented. The importance of a unified definition of manufacturing, to which biomedical manufacturing is party, is emphasized, and the theory of “lean”, summarized as “purpose, process, people”, is elaborated. The requirements for the creation of value through the creation of flow and the elimination of wastes are highlighted in the context of biomedical manufacturing. Finally, case studies are presented to illustrate the approaches to “purpose, process, people”.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geleenthede vir die verbetering van produksieprosesse en marktoegang via die implementering van skraalvervaardiging in die biomediese vervaardigingsbedryf word voorgehou. Aandag word geskenk aan die betekenis van terme soos “skraal, doel, proses, menes” in die konteks van biomediese vervaardiging. Waardeskepping, vloei en vermorsing word onder die loep geneem. Gevallestudies word ter illustrasie van begrippe aangebied.

  13. Pattern recognition and expert image analysis systems in biomedical image processing (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, A.; Suetens, P.; Wu, Q.; Baird, M.; F. M., C.

    1987-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of pattern recoanition techniques (P.R.) used in biomedical image processing and problems related to the different P.R. solutions. Also the use of knowledge based systems to overcome P.R. difficulties, is described. This is illustrated by a common example ofabiomedical image processing application.

  14. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Winter, Lucile M F

    2017-09-04

    Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  15. A theoretical-experimental methodology for assessing the sensitivity of biomedical spectral imaging platforms, assays, and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging technologies have been used for many years by the remote sensing community. More recently, these approaches have been applied to biomedical problems, where they have shown great promise. However, biomedical spectral imaging has been complicated by the high variance of biological data and the reduced ability to construct test scenarios with fixed ground truths. Hence, it has been difficult to objectively assess and compare biomedical spectral imaging assays and technologies. Here, we present a standardized methodology that allows assessment of the performance of biomedical spectral imaging equipment, assays, and analysis algorithms. This methodology incorporates real experimental data and a theoretical sensitivity analysis, preserving the variability present in biomedical image data. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied in several ways: to compare the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms, to compare the response of different imaging platforms, and to assess the level of target signature required to achieve a desired performance. Results indicate that it is possible to compare even very different hardware platforms using this methodology. Future applications could include a range of optimization tasks, such as maximizing detection sensitivity or acquisition speed, providing high utility for investigators ranging from design engineers to biomedical scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Advances in biomedical signal and image processing – A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rajeswari

    Full Text Available Biomedical signal and image processing establish a dynamic area of specialization in both academic as well as research aspects of biomedical engineering. The concepts of signal and image processing have been widely used for extracting the physiological information in implementing many clinical procedures for sophisticated medical practices and applications. In this paper, the relationship between electrophysiological signals, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, electroencephalogram (EEG and functional image processing and their derived interactions have been discussed. Examples have been investigated in various case studies such as neurosciences, functional imaging, and cardiovascular system, by using different algorithms and methods. The interaction between the extracted information obtained from multiple signals and modalities seems to be very promising. The advanced algorithms and methods in the area of information retrieval based on time-frequency representation have been investigated. Finally, some examples of algorithms have been discussed in which the electrophysiological signals and functional images have been properly extracted and have a significant impact on various biomedical applications. Keywords: Biomedical signals and images, Processing, Analysis

  17. An ultra low energy biomedical signal processing system operating at near-threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzink, J.; Konijnenburg, M.; Ashouei, M.; Breeschoten, A.; Berset, T.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Groot, H. de; Barat, F.; David, J.; Ginderdeuren, J. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage-scalable digital signal processing system designed for the use in a wireless sensor node (WSN) for ambulatory monitoring of biomedical signals. To fulfill the requirements of ambulatory monitoring, power consumption, which directly translates to the WSN battery lifetime

  18. ParaBTM: A Parallel Processing Framework for Biomedical Text Mining on Supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuting; Wu, Chengkun; Yang, Xi; Wang, Wei; Zhu, En; Yin, Jianping

    2018-04-27

    A prevailing way of extracting valuable information from biomedical literature is to apply text mining methods on unstructured texts. However, the massive amount of literature that needs to be analyzed poses a big data challenge to the processing efficiency of text mining. In this paper, we address this challenge by introducing parallel processing on a supercomputer. We developed paraBTM, a runnable framework that enables parallel text mining on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer. It employs a low-cost yet effective load balancing strategy to maximize the efficiency of parallel processing. We evaluated the performance of paraBTM on several datasets, utilizing three types of named entity recognition tasks as demonstration. Results show that, in most cases, the processing efficiency can be greatly improved with parallel processing, and the proposed load balancing strategy is simple and effective. In addition, our framework can be readily applied to other tasks of biomedical text mining besides NER.

  19. A software package for biomedical image processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, J.G.M.; Mealha, O.

    1988-01-01

    The decreasing cost of computing power and the introduction of low cost imaging boards justifies the increasing number of applications of digital image processing techniques in the area of biomedicine. There is however a large software gap to be fulfilled, between the application and the equipment. The requirements to bridge this gap are twofold: good knowledge of the hardware provided and its interface to the host computer, and expertise in digital image processing and analysis techniques. A software package incorporating these two requirements was developed using the C programming language, in order to create a user friendly image processing programming environment. The software package can be considered in two different ways: as a data structure adapted to image processing and analysis, which acts as the backbone and the standard of communication for all the software; and as a set of routines implementing the basic algorithms used in image processing and analysis. Hardware dependency is restricted to a single module upon which all hardware calls are based. The data structure that was built has four main features: hierchical, open, object oriented, and object dependent dimensions. Considering the vast amount of memory needed by imaging applications and the memory available in small imaging systems, an effective image memory management scheme was implemented. This software package is being used for more than one and a half years by users with different applications. It proved to be an excellent tool for helping people to get adapted into the system, and for standardizing and exchanging software, yet preserving flexibility allowing for users' specific implementations. The philosophy of the software package is discussed and the data structure that was built is described in detail

  20. Noise-assisted data processing with empirical mode decomposition in biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Alexandros; Constantinou, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is described in order to investigate the performance of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in biomedical signals, and especially in the case of electrocardiogram (ECG). Synthetic ECG signals corrupted with white Gaussian noise are employed and time series of various lengths are processed with EMD in order to extract the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). A statistical significance test is implemented for the identification of IMFs with high-level noise components and their exclusion from denoising procedures. Simulation campaign results reveal that a decrease of processing time is accomplished with the introduction of preprocessing stage, prior to the application of EMD in biomedical time series. Furthermore, the variation in the number of IMFs according to the type of the preprocessing stage is studied as a function of SNR and time-series length. The application of the methodology in MIT-BIH ECG records is also presented in order to verify the findings in real ECG signals.

  1. Morphological image processing for quantitative shape analysis of biomedical structures: effective contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    A contrast enhancement approach utilizing a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing is introduced. The method is quantitatively evaluated and then applied to some medical images. Image processing methods significantly contribute to visualization of images captured by biomedical modalities (such as mammography, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and light and electron microscopy). Quantitative interpretation of the deluge of complicated biomedical images, however, poses many research challenges, one of which is to enhance structural features that are scarcely perceptible to the human eye. This study introduces a contrast enhancement approach based on a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing. The proposed method is applied to medical images for the enhancement of structural features. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated quantitatively by the contrast improvement ratio (CIR). The CIR of the proposed method is 12.1, versus 4.7 and 0.1 for two conventional contrast enhancement methods, clearly indicating the high contrasting capability of the method

  2. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  3. Real-Time Processing Library for Open-Source Hardware Biomedical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cantero, Alberto J; Castro-García, Juan A; Lebrato-Vázquez, Clara; Gómez-González, Isabel M; Merino-Monge, Manuel

    2018-03-29

    Applications involving data acquisition from sensors need samples at a preset frequency rate, the filtering out of noise and/or analysis of certain frequency components. We propose a novel software architecture based on open-software hardware platforms which allows programmers to create data streams from input channels and easily implement filters and frequency analysis objects. The performances of the different classes given in the size of memory allocated and execution time (number of clock cycles) were analyzed in the low-cost platform Arduino Genuino. In addition, 11 people took part in an experiment in which they had to implement several exercises and complete a usability test. Sampling rates under 250 Hz (typical for many biomedical applications) makes it feasible to implement filters, sliding windows and Fourier analysis, operating in real time. Participants rated software usability at 70.2 out of 100 and the ease of use when implementing several signal processing applications was rated at just over 4.4 out of 5. Participants showed their intention of using this software because it was percieved as useful and very easy to use. The performances of the library showed that it may be appropriate for implementing small biomedical real-time applications or for human movement monitoring, even in a simple open-source hardware device like Arduino Genuino. The general perception about this library is that it is easy to use and intuitive.

  4. Harnessing Biomedical Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify Medicinal Plant Knowledge from Historical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Law, Wayne; Balick, Michael J; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2017-01-01

    The growing amount of data describing historical medicinal uses of plants from digitization efforts provides the opportunity to develop systematic approaches for identifying potential plant-based therapies. However, the task of cataloguing plant use information from natural language text is a challenging task for ethnobotanists. To date, there have been only limited adoption of informatics approaches used for supporting the identification of ethnobotanical information associated with medicinal uses. This study explored the feasibility of using biomedical terminologies and natural language processing approaches for extracting relevant plant-associated therapeutic use information from historical biodiversity literature collection available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. The results from this preliminary study suggest that there is potential utility of informatics methods to identify medicinal plant knowledge from digitized resources as well as highlight opportunities for improvement.

  5. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  6. NOBLE - Flexible concept recognition for large-scale biomedical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin; Legowski, Elizabeth; Corrigan, Julia; Chavan, Girish; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2016-01-14

    Natural language processing (NLP) applications are increasingly important in biomedical data analysis, knowledge engineering, and decision support. Concept recognition is an important component task for NLP pipelines, and can be either general-purpose or domain-specific. We describe a novel, flexible, and general-purpose concept recognition component for NLP pipelines, and compare its speed and accuracy against five commonly used alternatives on both a biological and clinical corpus. NOBLE Coder implements a general algorithm for matching terms to concepts from an arbitrary vocabulary set. The system's matching options can be configured individually or in combination to yield specific system behavior for a variety of NLP tasks. The software is open source, freely available, and easily integrated into UIMA or GATE. We benchmarked speed and accuracy of the system against the CRAFT and ShARe corpora as reference standards and compared it to MMTx, MGrep, Concept Mapper, cTAKES Dictionary Lookup Annotator, and cTAKES Fast Dictionary Lookup Annotator. We describe key advantages of the NOBLE Coder system and associated tools, including its greedy algorithm, configurable matching strategies, and multiple terminology input formats. These features provide unique functionality when compared with existing alternatives, including state-of-the-art systems. On two benchmarking tasks, NOBLE's performance exceeded commonly used alternatives, performing almost as well as the most advanced systems. Error analysis revealed differences in error profiles among systems. NOBLE Coder is comparable to other widely used concept recognition systems in terms of accuracy and speed. Advantages of NOBLE Coder include its interactive terminology builder tool, ease of configuration, and adaptability to various domains and tasks. NOBLE provides a term-to-concept matching system suitable for general concept recognition in biomedical NLP pipelines.

  7. Experimental study of collective processes in REB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, L Yu; Sominskij, G G [St. Petersburg Technical University (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The role of collective processes at relativistic electron beam formation and transportation was studied experimentally by using new low-disturbing techniques. In particular, local mirror-like enhancements of the external magnetic field were introduced and their influence of the beam space charge oscillations was investigated. The amplitude-frequency characteristics of the space charge oscillations in different parts of the drift channel were measured by a set of high-frequency probes. On the base of the collected experimental data two possible mechanisms of development of the beam space charge oscillations are discussed: the two-stream instability and the diocotron instability. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  9. Intuitive web-based experimental design for high-throughput biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  10. Composite film fabricated on biomedical material with corona streamer plasma processing to mitigate bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

    2011-10-01

    Composite films might control bacterial adhesion and concomitant biofouling that afflicts biomedical materials. Different size molecules of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with nominal molecular weights 600, 2000, and 20000 g/mol were used to synthesize composite films with plasma processing and dip-coating procedures on surgical-grade 316L stainless steel. Before dip-coating, the substrate was pre-coated with plasma-polymerized di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (pp-EO2V) in an atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma reactor. The PEG dip-coating step followed immediately in the same chamber due to the finite lifetime of radicals associated with freshly deposited pp-EO2V. Morphology of the composite film was investigated with an ESEM. FTIR confirmed incorporation of pp-EO2V and PEG species into the composite film. More investigations on the composite film were conducted by XPS measurements. Adhesion of the composite film was evaluated with a standard peel-off test. Stability of the composite film in buffer solution was evaluated by AFM. AFM was also used to measure the film roughness and thickness. Polar and non-polar contact angle measurements were included.

  11. A novel photochemical machining process for magnesium aerospace and biomedical microengineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D M; Simpkins, M; Almond, H

    2010-01-01

    Research was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating perforated (filigree) magnesium microcomponents with metal wire widths of the order of the metal thickness using a photochemical machining (PCM) process. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated for the first time that metal wire widths of 0.15 mm can be achieved within a 2D, 0.25 mm thick magnesium foil to fabricate microcomponents for use as micro air vehicle (MAV) wings or stents through a bespoke PCM process. This etching process differs significantly from the industrial etching process used currently to manufacture magnesium letterpress printing plates and embossing dies

  12. Measurement of OH, NO, O and N atoms in helium plasma jet for ROS/RNS controlled biomedical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Kamakura, Taku; Ono, Ryo

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas are of emerging interest for new plasma applications such as cancer treatment, cell activation and sterilization. In those biomedical processes, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are said that they play significant role. It is though that active species give oxidative stress and induce biomedical reactions. In this study, we measured OH, NO, O and N atoms using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement and found that voltage polarity affect particular ROS. When negative high voltage was applied to the plasma jet, O atom density was tripled compared to the case of positive applied voltage. In that case, O atom density was around 3 × 1015 [cm-3] at maximum. In contrast, OH and NO density did not change their density depending on the polarity of applied voltage, measured as in order of 1013 and 1014 [cm-3] at maximum, respectively. From ICCD imaging measurement, it could be seen that negative high voltage enhanced secondary emission in plasma bullet propagation and it can affect the effective production of particular ROS. Since ROS/RNS dose can be a quantitative criterion to control plasma biomedical application, those measurement results is able to be applied for in vivo and in vitro plasma biomedical experiments. This study is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  13. Characterization of Powder Metallurgy Processed Pure Magnesium Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Březina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium with its mechanical properties and nontoxicity is predetermined as a material for biomedical applications; however, its high reactivity is a limiting factor for its usage. Powder metallurgy is one of the promising methods for the enhancement of material mechanical properties and, due to the introduced plastic deformation, can also have a positive influence on corrosion resistance. Pure magnesium samples were prepared via powder metallurgy. Compacting pressures from 100 MPa to 500 MPa were used for samples’ preparation at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the obtained compacts was analyzed in terms of microscopy. The three-point bendisng test and microhardness testing were adopted to define the compacts’ mechanical properties, discussing the results with respect to fractographic analysis. Electrochemical corrosion properties analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy carried out in HBSS (Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution and enriched HBSS were correlated with the metallographic analysis of the corrosion process. Cold compacted materials were very brittle with low strength (up to 50 MPa and microhardness (up to 50 HV (load: 0.025 kg and degraded rapidly in both solutions. Hot pressed materials yielded much higher strength (up to 250 MPa and microhardness (up to 65 HV (load: 0.025 kg, and the electrochemical characteristics were significantly better when compared to the cold compacted samples. Temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C and high compacting pressures from 300 MPa to 500 MPa had a positive influence on material bonding, mechanical and electrochemical properties. A compacting temperature of 500 °C had a detrimental effect on material compaction when using pressure above 200 MPa.

  14. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  15. Processing and surface modification of novel natural-origin architectures aimed for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone dos Santos

    In the last decades, tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutical tool aimed at developing substitutes that are able to restore proper function of the damaged organs/tissues. Nature-inspired routes involving natural origin polymer-based systems represent an attractive alternative to produce novel materials by mimicking the tissue environment required for tissue regeneration. Moreover, further modifications of these systems allow the adjustment of their properties in accordance with the requirements for successful biomedical applications. The main goal of the present thesis is to develop and modify natural origin polymer-based systems using simple methodologies such as sol-gel, surface modification by means of plasma treatment and blending of chitosan with proteins (soy protein isolate and silk fibroin). A sol-gel method was used to improve the bulk properties of chitosan by the incorporation of an inorganic component at the sub-nanometric level. Chitosan/siloxane hybrid materials were synthesised, where essentially urea bridges covalently bond the chitosan to the polysiloxane network. These bifunctional materials exhibit interesting photoluminescence features and a bioactive behaviour. In most situations in the biomedical field, the surface of a biomaterial is in direct contact with living tissues. Therefore, the surface characteristics play a fundamental role on the implant biocompatibility. In this thesis, nitrogen and argon plasma treatment was applied on chitosan membranes in order to improve their surface properties. The applied modifications promoted differences on surface chemistry, wettability and roughness, which reflected in a significant improvement of fibroblast adhesion and proliferation onto chitosan membranes. Besides the surface modification, blending of chitosan with proteins such as soy protein isolate and silk fibroin was also used to modify the bulk properties of chitosan. In situ cross-linking with glutaraldehyde solutions was

  16. Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Assessment of Phase Equilibria in the PLLA/Dioxane/Water Ternary System for Applications in the Biomedical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Flavia; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Torino, Enza

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of thermodynamic of phase separation plays a key role in tuning the desired features of biomedical devices. In particular, phase separation of ternary solution is of remarkable interest in processes to obtain biodegradable and biocompatible architectures applied as artificial devices to repair, replace, or support damaged tissues or organs. In these perspectives, thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) is the most widely used technique to obtained porous morphologies and, in addition, among different ternary systems, polylactic acid (PLLA)/dioxane/water has given promising results and has been largely studied. However, to increase the control of TIPS-based processes and architectures, an investigation of the basic energetic phenomena occurring during phase separation is still required. Here we propose an experimental investigation of the selected ternary system by using isothermal titration calorimetric approach at different solvent/antisolvent ratio and a thermodynamic explanation related to the polymer-solvents interactions in terms of energetic contribution to the phase separation process. Furthermore, relevant information about the phase diagrams and interaction parameters of the studied systems are furnished in terms of liquid-liquid miscibility gap. Indeed, polymer-solvents interactions are responsible for the mechanism of the phase separation process and, therefore, of the final features of the morphologies; the knowledge of such data is fundamental to control processes for the production of membranes, scaffolds and several nanostructures. The behavior of the polymer at different solvent/nonsolvent ratios is discussed in terms of solvation mechanism and a preliminary contribution to the understanding of the role of the hydrogen bonding in the interface phenomena is also reported. It is the first time that thermodynamic data of a ternary system are collected by mean of nano-isothermal titration calorimetry (nano-ITC). Supporting

  17. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  18. An image fiber based fluorescent probe with associated signal processing scheme for biomedical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishakh, M; Murukeshan, V M; Seah, L K

    2008-01-01

    A dual-modality image fiber based fluorescent probe that can be used for depth sensitive imaging and suppression of fluorescent emissions with nanosecond lifetime difference is proposed and illustrated in this paper. The system can give high optical sectioning and employs an algorithm for obtaining phase sensitive images. The system can find main application in in vivo biomedical diagnostics for detecting biochemical changes for distinguishing malignant tissue from healthy tissue

  19. Experimental approach to fission process of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-07-01

    From experimental views, it seems likely that the mechanism of nuclear fission process remains unsolved even after the Bohr and Weeler`s study in 1939. Especially, it is marked in respect of mass distribution in unsymmetric nuclear fission. The energy dependency of mass distribution can be explained with an assumption of 2-mode nuclear fission. Further, it was demonstrated that the symmetrical fission components and the unsymmetrical ones have different saddle and fission points. Thus, the presence of the 2-mode fission mechanism was confirmed. Here, transition in the nuclear fission mechanism and its cause were investigated here. As the cause of such transition, plausible four causes; a contribution of multiple-chance fission, disappearance of shell effects, beginning of fission following collective excitation due to GDR and nuclear phase transition were examined in the condition of excitation energy of 14.0 MeV. And it was suggested that the transition in the nuclear fission concerned might be related to phase transition. In addition, the mechanism of nuclear fission at a low energy and multi-mode hypothesis were examined by determination of the energy for thermal neutron fission ({sup 233,235}U and {sup 239}Pu) and spontaneous nuclear fission ({sup 252}Cf). (M.N.)

  20. Does enhancing consciousness for strategic planning processes support the effectiveness of problem-based learning concepts in biomedical education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arling V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary skills gain increasing importance in university and professional contexts. To support these interdisciplinary skills, problem-based learning (PBL is regularly used in a course for biomedical education. In this study, we investigated whether enhancing consciousness for planning processes can support the effectiveness of PBL concepts in an intervention-control group design. Results indicated clear evidence for this: planning skills were associated with better PBL performance. Concluding, self-reflection of planning skills is useful to increase outcome performance of students in PBL courses.

  1. A scoping review protocol on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers in the manuscript review process in biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, Ketevan; Cauchi, Daniel; Cobo, Erik; Boutron, Isabelle; Moher, David; Hren, Darko

    2017-10-22

    The primary functions of peer reviewers are poorly defined. Thus far no body of literature has systematically identified the roles and tasks of peer reviewers of biomedical journals. A clear establishment of these can lead to improvements in the peer review process. The purpose of this scoping review is to determine what is known on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers. We will use the methodological framework first proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and subsequently adapted by Levac et al and the Joanna Briggs Institute. The scoping review will include all study designs, as well as editorials, commentaries and grey literature. The following eight electronic databases will be searched (from inception to May 2017): Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers will use inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the 'Population-Concept-Context' framework to independently screen titles and abstracts of articles considered for inclusion. Full-text screening of relevant eligible articles will also be carried out by two reviewers. The search strategy for grey literature will include searching in websites of existing networks, biomedical journal publishers and organisations that offer resources for peer reviewers. In addition we will review journal guidelines to peer reviewers on how to perform the manuscript review. Journals will be selected using the 2016 journal impact factor. We will identify and assess the top five, middle five and lowest-ranking five journals across all medical specialties. This scoping review will undertake a secondary analysis of data already collected and does not require ethical approval. The results will be disseminated through journals and conferences targeting stakeholders involved in peer review in biomedical research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  2. Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Edin, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anna Emelie; Petrovic, Katarina; Soroka, Inna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2018-02-09

    The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genetic process mining : an experimental evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the aims of process mining is to retrieve a process model from an event log. The discovered models can be used as objective starting points during the deployment of process-aware information systems (Dumas et al., eds., Process-Aware Information Systems: Bridging People and Software Through

  4. Corrosion resistance after mechanical deformation of the Ti30Ta experimental alloy for using in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Kerolene Barboza da; Konatu, Reginaldo Toshihiro; Oliveira, Liliane Lelis de; Nakazato, Roberto Zenhei; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves, E-mail: rosifini@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-10-15

    In this study the corrosion resistance of Ti30Ta experimental alloy was evaluated when submitted to different deformation rates. Alloys were processed in arc melting, furnace, forged and treated. The samples were machined in accordance with ASTME9-09 standard to carry out compression tests. The influence of deformation was evaluated by optical microscopy and XRD, and Electrochemical parameters were analyzed in the most severe condition of deformation (22%). Corrosion resistance exhibited the same behavior for two conditions, 22% and without deformation. (author)

  5. Experimental demonstration of microscopic process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, R.D.; Hurrell, S.J.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.; Crawford, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Microscopic process monitoring (MPM) is a material control strategy designed to use standard process control data to provide expanded safeguards protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The MPM methodology identifies process events by recognizing significant patterns of changes in on-line measurements. The goals of MPM are to detect diversions of nuclear material and to provide information on process status useful to other facility safeguards operations

  6. [Biomedical informatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  7. Safety Assessment of Commonly Used Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications: Impact on Inflammatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Yossef

    Nanotechnology offers great promise in the biomedical field. Current knowledge of nanoparticles' (NPs) safety and possible mechanisms of various particle types' toxicity is insufficient. The role of particle properties and the route of particles administration in toxic reactions remain unexplored. In this thesis, we aimed to inspect the interrelationship between particle size, chemical composition and toxicological effects of four candidate NPs for drug delivery systems: gold (Au), chitosan, silica, and poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Mice model was combined with in vitro study to explore NPs' safety. We investigated mice survival, weight, behavior, and pro-inflammatory changes. NF-kappaB induction was assessed in vitro using the Luciferase Assay System. As observed in mice, Au NPs had a higher toxicity profile at a shorter duration than the other NPs. This was significantly in concordance with pro-inflammatory changes which may be the key routes of Au NPs toxicity. Although silica NPs induced NF-kappaB, they were less toxic to the mice than Au NPs and did not lead to the pro-inflammatory changes. Chitosan NPs were toxic to the mice but failed to cause significant NF-kappaB induction and pro-inflammatory changes. These findings indicate that chitosan NPs might not have the same pathophysiologic mechanism as the Au NPs. Comparative analysis in this model demonstrated that PLGA NPs is the safest drug delivery candidate to be administered subcutaneously.

  8. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

  9. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  10. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  11. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  12. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data.

  13. Vacuum Arc Melting Processes for Biomedical Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai De-Chang; Chiang Chen-Hsueh

    2015-01-01

    This study primarily involved using a vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process to prepare a nitinol shape-memory alloy with distinct ratios of alloy components (nitinol: 54.5 wt% to 57 wt%). An advantage of using the VAR process is the adoption of a water-cooled copper crucible, which effectively prevents crucible pollution and impurity infiltration. Optimising the melting production process enables control of the alloy component and facilitates a uniformly mixed compound during subsequent processi...

  14. Vacuum Arc Melting Processes for Biomedical Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study primarily involved using a vacuum arc remelting (VAR process to prepare a nitinol shape-memory alloy with distinct ratios of alloy components (nitinol: 54.5 wt% to 57 wt%. An advantage of using the VAR process is the adoption of a water-cooled copper crucible, which effectively prevents crucible pollution and impurity infiltration. Optimising the melting production process enables control of the alloy component and facilitates a uniformly mixed compound during subsequent processing. This study involved purifying nickel and titanium and examining the characteristics of nitinol alloy after alloy melt, including its microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transition temperature, and chemical components.

  15. Reaching for the cloud: on the lessons learned from grid computing technology transfer process to the biomedical community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yassene; Dickmann, Frank; Sax, Ulrich; von Voigt, Gabriele; Smith, Matthew; Rienhoff, Otto

    2010-01-01

    Natural scientists such as physicists pioneered the sharing of computing resources, which led to the creation of the Grid. The inter domain transfer process of this technology has hitherto been an intuitive process without in depth analysis. Some difficulties facing the life science community in this transfer can be understood using the Bozeman's "Effectiveness Model of Technology Transfer". Bozeman's and classical technology transfer approaches deal with technologies which have achieved certain stability. Grid and Cloud solutions are technologies, which are still in flux. We show how Grid computing creates new difficulties in the transfer process that are not considered in Bozeman's model. We show why the success of healthgrids should be measured by the qualified scientific human capital and the opportunities created, and not primarily by the market impact. We conclude with recommendations that can help improve the adoption of Grid and Cloud solutions into the biomedical community. These results give a more concise explanation of the difficulties many life science IT projects are facing in the late funding periods, and show leveraging steps that can help overcoming the "vale of tears".

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-27.5Nb alloy made by CLAD® additive manufacturing process for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Laheurte, P; Acquier, P; Joguet, D; Peltier, L; Petithory, T; Anselme, K; Mille, P

    2017-06-01

    Biocompatible beta-titanium alloys such as Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb are good candidates for implantology and arthroplasty applications as their particular mechanical properties, including low Young's modulus, could significantly reduce the stress-shielding phenomenon usually occurring after surgery. The CLAD® process is a powder blown additive manufacturing process that allows the manufacture of patient specific (i.e. custom) implants. Thus, the use of Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb alloy formed by CLAD® process for biomedical applications as a mean to increase cytocompatibility and mechanical biocompatibility was investigated in this study. The microstructural properties of the CLAD-deposited alloy were studied with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The conservation of the mechanical properties of the Ti-27.5Nb material after the transformation steps (ingot-powder atomisation-CLAD) were verified with tensile tests and appear to remain close to those of reference material. Cytocompatibility of the material and subsequent cell viability tests showed that no cytotoxic elements are released in the medium and that viable cells proliferated well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys in the biomedical field: processes, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Francesco; Calignano, Flaviana; Aversa, Alberta; Marchese, Giulio; Lombardi, Mariangela; Biamino, Sara; Ugues, Daniele; Manfredi, Diego

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties and biocompatibility of titanium alloy medical devices and implants produced by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies - in particular, selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and laser metal deposition (LMD) - have been investigated by several researchers demonstrating how these innovative processes are able to fulfil medical requirements for clinical applications. This work reviews the advantages given by these technologies, which include the possibility to create porous complex structures to improve osseointegration and mechanical properties (best match with the modulus of elasticity of local bone), to lower processing costs, to produce custom-made implants according to the data for the patient acquired via computed tomography and to reduce waste.

  18. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, Karin; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Warner, Colin; Johnson, Helen L; Roeder, Christophe; Choi, Jinho D; Funk, Christopher; Malenkiy, Yuriy; Eckert, Miriam; Xue, Nianwen; Baumgartner, William A; Bada, Michael; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2012-08-17

    We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications.

  19. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-27.5Nb alloy made by CLAD® additive manufacturing process for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Laheurte, P.; Acquier, P.; Joguet, D.; Peltier, L.; Petithory, T.; Anselme, K.; Mille, P.

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatible beta-titanium alloys such as Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb are good candidates for implantology and arthroplasty applications as their particular mechanical properties, including low Young's modulus, could significantly reduce the stress-shielding phenomenon usually occurring after surgery. The CLAD® process is a powder blown additive manufacturing process that allows the manufacture of patient specific (i.e. custom) implants. Thus, the use of Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb alloy formed by CLAD® process for biomedical applications as a mean to increase cytocompatibility and mechanical biocompatibility was investigated in this study. The microstructural properties of the CLAD-deposited alloy were studied with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The conservation of the mechanical properties of the Ti-27.5Nb material after the transformation steps (ingot-powder atomisation-CLAD) were verified with tensile tests and appear to remain close to those of reference material. Cytocompatibility of the material and subsequent cell viability tests showed that no cytotoxic elements are released in the medium and that viable cells proliferated well. - Highlights: • Biomimetic implants can be provided from additive manufacturing with beta-titanium alloys. • We studied the properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated with a laser deposition process. • TiNb alloy processed by LMD consists of only beta phase due to rapid cooling. • No preferential crystallographic texture is observed with EBSD analyses. • TiNb samples showed a combination of high strength and low Young's modulus.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-27.5Nb alloy made by CLAD® additive manufacturing process for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M. [LEM3, Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Laheurte, P., E-mail: pascal.laheurte@univ-lorraine.fr [LEM3, Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Acquier, P. [IREPA Laser, Institut Carnot Mica, Parc d' Innovation, 67400 Illkirch (France); Joguet, D. [LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort Montbéliard, Sevenans, 90010 Belfort (France); Peltier, L. [LEM3, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers, 57078 Metz (France); Petithory, T.; Anselme, K. [IS2M, CNRS UMR7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Mille, P. [LGECO Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, 67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2017-06-01

    Biocompatible beta-titanium alloys such as Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb are good candidates for implantology and arthroplasty applications as their particular mechanical properties, including low Young's modulus, could significantly reduce the stress-shielding phenomenon usually occurring after surgery. The CLAD® process is a powder blown additive manufacturing process that allows the manufacture of patient specific (i.e. custom) implants. Thus, the use of Ti-27.5(at.%)Nb alloy formed by CLAD® process for biomedical applications as a mean to increase cytocompatibility and mechanical biocompatibility was investigated in this study. The microstructural properties of the CLAD-deposited alloy were studied with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The conservation of the mechanical properties of the Ti-27.5Nb material after the transformation steps (ingot-powder atomisation-CLAD) were verified with tensile tests and appear to remain close to those of reference material. Cytocompatibility of the material and subsequent cell viability tests showed that no cytotoxic elements are released in the medium and that viable cells proliferated well. - Highlights: • Biomimetic implants can be provided from additive manufacturing with beta-titanium alloys. • We studied the properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated with a laser deposition process. • TiNb alloy processed by LMD consists of only beta phase due to rapid cooling. • No preferential crystallographic texture is observed with EBSD analyses. • TiNb samples showed a combination of high strength and low Young's modulus.

  2. SIproc: an open-source biomedical data processing platform for large hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Sebastian; Chang, Shengyuan; Saki, Sam; Daeinejad, Davar; He, Ziqi; Mankar, Rupali; Mayerich, David

    2017-04-10

    There has recently been significant interest within the vibrational spectroscopy community to apply quantitative spectroscopic imaging techniques to histology and clinical diagnosis. However, many of the proposed methods require collecting spectroscopic images that have a similar region size and resolution to the corresponding histological images. Since spectroscopic images contain significantly more spectral samples than traditional histology, the resulting data sets can approach hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes in size. This makes them difficult to store and process, and the tools available to researchers for handling large spectroscopic data sets are limited. Fundamental mathematical tools, such as MATLAB, Octave, and SciPy, are extremely powerful but require that the data be stored in fast memory. This memory limitation becomes impractical for even modestly sized histological images, which can be hundreds of gigabytes in size. In this paper, we propose an open-source toolkit designed to perform out-of-core processing of hyperspectral images. By taking advantage of graphical processing unit (GPU) computing combined with adaptive data streaming, our software alleviates common workstation memory limitations while achieving better performance than existing applications.

  3. An Interface for Biomedical Big Data Processing on the Tianhe-2 Supercomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wu, Chengkun; Lu, Kai; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shengkang; Guo, Guixin; Du, YunFei

    2017-12-01

    Big data, cloud computing, and high-performance computing (HPC) are at the verge of convergence. Cloud computing is already playing an active part in big data processing with the help of big data frameworks like Hadoop and Spark. The recent upsurge of high-performance computing in China provides extra possibilities and capacity to address the challenges associated with big data. In this paper, we propose Orion-a big data interface on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer-to enable big data applications to run on Tianhe-2 via a single command or a shell script. Orion supports multiple users, and each user can launch multiple tasks. It minimizes the effort needed to initiate big data applications on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer via automated configuration. Orion follows the "allocate-when-needed" paradigm, and it avoids the idle occupation of computational resources. We tested the utility and performance of Orion using a big genomic dataset and achieved a satisfactory performance on Tianhe-2 with very few modifications to existing applications that were implemented in Hadoop/Spark. In summary, Orion provides a practical and economical interface for big data processing on Tianhe-2.

  4. Influence of process parameters on plasma electrolytic surface treatment of tantalum for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.sowa@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Woszczak, Maja; Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dercz, Grzegorz [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty Street 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Korotin, Danila M. [M.N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zhidkov, Ivan S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, Ernst Z. [M.N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cholakh, Seif O. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Basiaga, Marcin [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Gen. de Gaulle’a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Simka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.simka@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 2-step plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of tantalum was investigated. • PEO coatings surface composition were reflected by the composition of anodizing baths. • Hydrophobic surfaces were obtained from acetate and formate containing baths. • Bioactive phases were identified. - Abstract: This work aims to quantify the effect of anodization voltage and electrolyte composition used during DC plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), operated as a 2-step process, on the surface properties of the resulting oxide coatings on tantalum. The first step consisted of galvanostatic anodization (150 mA cm{sup −2}) of the tantalum workpiece up to several limiting voltages (200, 300, 400 and 500 V). After attaining the limiting voltage, the process was switched to voltage control, which resulted in a gradual decrease of the anodic current density. The anodic treatment was realized in a 0.5 M Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 2}){sub 2} solution, which was then modified by the addition of 1.15 M Ca(HCOO){sub 2} as well as 1.15 M and 1.5 M Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}. The increasing voltage of anodization led to the formation of thicker coatings, with larger pores and enriched with electrolytes species to a higher extent. The solutions containing HCOO{sup −} and CH{sub 3}COO{sup −} ions caused the formation of coatings which were slightly hydrophobic (high contact angle). In the case of the samples anodized up to 500 V, scattered crystalline deposits were observed. Bioactive phases, such as hydroxyapatite, were detected in the treated oxide coatings by XRD and XPS.

  5. Sampling Strategies and Processing of Biobank Tissue Samples from Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutke, Andreas; Wanke, Rüdiger

    2018-03-06

    In translational medical research, porcine models have steadily become more popular. Considering the high value of individual animals, particularly of genetically modified pig models, and the often-limited number of available animals of these models, establishment of (biobank) collections of adequately processed tissue samples suited for a broad spectrum of subsequent analyses methods, including analyses not specified at the time point of sampling, represent meaningful approaches to take full advantage of the translational value of the model. With respect to the peculiarities of porcine anatomy, comprehensive guidelines have recently been established for standardized generation of representative, high-quality samples from different porcine organs and tissues. These guidelines are essential prerequisites for the reproducibility of results and their comparability between different studies and investigators. The recording of basic data, such as organ weights and volumes, the determination of the sampling locations and of the numbers of tissue samples to be generated, as well as their orientation, size, processing and trimming directions, are relevant factors determining the generalizability and usability of the specimen for molecular, qualitative, and quantitative morphological analyses. Here, an illustrative, practical, step-by-step demonstration of the most important techniques for generation of representative, multi-purpose biobank specimen from porcine tissues is presented. The methods described here include determination of organ/tissue volumes and densities, the application of a volume-weighted systematic random sampling procedure for parenchymal organs by point-counting, determination of the extent of tissue shrinkage related to histological embedding of samples, and generation of randomly oriented samples for quantitative stereological analyses, such as isotropic uniform random (IUR) sections generated by the "Orientator" and "Isector" methods, and vertical

  6. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  7. The process of installing REDCap, a web based database supporting biomedical research: the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipin, M; Mare, I; Hazelhurst, S; Kramer, B

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and research data are essential for patient care, research and healthcare system planning. REDCapTM is a web-based tool for research data curatorship developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, USA. The Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg South Africa identified the need for a cost effective data management instrument. REDCap was installed as per the user agreement with Vanderbilt University in August 2012. In order to assist other institutions that may lack the in-house Information Technology capacity, this paper describes the installation and support of REDCap and incorporates an analysis of user uptake over the first year of use. We reviewed the staffing requirements, costs of installation, process of installation and necessary infrastructure and end-user requests following the introduction of REDCap at Wits. The University Legal Office and Human Research Ethics Committee were consulted regarding the REDCap end-user agreement. Bi-monthly user meetings resulted in a training workshop in August 2013. We compared our REDCap software user numbers and records before and after the first training workshop. Human resources were recruited from existing staff. Installation costs were limited to servers and security certificates. The total costs to provide a functional REDCap platform was less than $9000. Eighty-one (81) users were registered in the first year. After the first training workshop the user numbers increased by 59 in one month and the total number of active users to 140 by the end of August 2013. Custom software applications for REDCap were created by collaboration between clinicians and software developers. REDCap was installed and maintained at limited cost. A small number of people with defined skills can support multiple REDCap users in two to four hours a week. End user training increased in the number of users, number of projects created and the number of projects moved to production.

  8. Processing and characterization of amorphous magnesium based alloy for application in biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanco Matias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses are attractive due to their single-phase, chemically homogeneous alloy system and the absence of second-phase, which could impair the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, one of the unsolved problems for the manufacturability and the applications of bulk metallic glasses is that their glass-forming ability is very sensitive to the preparation techniques and impurity of components since oxygen in the environment would markedly deteriorate the glass-forming ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish proper processing conditions to obtain a magnesium-based amorphous ternary alloy and its characterization. The final composition was prepared using two binary master alloys by melting in an induction furnace. Carbon steel crucible was used in argon atmosphere with and without addition of SF6 gas in order to minimize the oxygen contamination. The microstructure, amorphous nature, thermal properties and chemical analysis of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, respectively. The oxygen content of the as-cast samples was chemically analyzed by using carrier gas hot extraction (O/N Analyzer TC-436/LECO and was kept bellow 25 ppm (without SF6 and 10 ppm (with SF6. Bulk samples were produced by rapid cooling in a cooper mold until 1.5 mm thickness, with amorphous structures being observed up to 2.5 mm.

  9. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists

  10. Melt-processable hydrophobic acrylonitrile-based copolymer systems with adjustable elastic properties designed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Trescher, K; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Hiebl, B; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-based polymer systems (PAN) are comprehensively explored as versatile biomaterials having various potential biomedical applications, such as membranes for extra corporal devices or matrixes for guided skin reconstruction. The surface properties (e.g. hydrophilicity or charges) of such materials can be tailored over a wide range by variation of molecular parameters such as different co-monomers or their sequence structure. Some of these materials show interesting biofunctionalities such as capability for selective cell cultivation. So far, the majority of AN-based copolymers, which were investigated in physiological environments, were processed from the solution (e.g. membranes), as these materials are thermo-sensitive and might degrade when heated. In this work we aimed at the synthesis of hydrophobic, melt-processable AN-based copolymers with adjustable elastic properties for preparation of model scaffolds with controlled pore geometry and size. For this purpose a series of copolymers from acrylonitrile and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) was synthesized via free radical copolymerisation technique. The content of nBA in the copolymer varied from 45 wt% to 70 wt%, which was confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the P(AN-co-nBA) copolymers determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) decreased from 58 degrees C to 20 degrees C with increasing nBA-content, which was in excellent agreement with the prediction of the Gordon-Taylor equation based on the Tgs of the homopolymers. The Young's modulus obtained in tensile tests was found to decrease significantly with rising nBA-content from 1062 MPa to 1.2 MPa. All copolymers could be successfully processed from the melt with processing temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 170 degrees C, whereby thermally induced decomposition was only observed at temperatures higher than 320 degrees C in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, the melt processed P

  11. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  12. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  13. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  14. A combined experimental and computational study of deformation in grains of biomedical grade 316LVM stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.; Connolley, T.; McHugh, P.E.; Cuddy, H.; Motz, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work three-dimensional crystal plasticity finite element models are used to simulate the tensile deformation of a thin 316LVM stainless steel specimen. Such models are of interest for predicting the mechanical response of cardiovascular stents, typically made from thin struts of this material. Detailed experimental analysis of the mechanical response of the specimen during deformation is performed using scanning electron microscopy, digital photogrammetry and orientation imaging microscopy to examine microscale strain distribution, plastic slip and grain reorientation. At the macroscale, the models are found to give good predictions of the stress-strain response of the specimen, and at the microscale the models are found to give good predictions of the strain distribution and the active slip systems in the different grains. The models are less successful in predicting grain reorientations. This, however, is shown to be quite sensitive to the choice of latent hardening ratio

  15. A combined experimental and computational study of deformation in grains of biomedical grade 316LVM stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X. [National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Connolley, T. [National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); McHugh, P.E. [National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland) and Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland)]. E-mail: peter.mchugh@nuigalway.ie; Cuddy, H. [National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Motz, C. [Erich Schmid Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2006-10-15

    In this work three-dimensional crystal plasticity finite element models are used to simulate the tensile deformation of a thin 316LVM stainless steel specimen. Such models are of interest for predicting the mechanical response of cardiovascular stents, typically made from thin struts of this material. Detailed experimental analysis of the mechanical response of the specimen during deformation is performed using scanning electron microscopy, digital photogrammetry and orientation imaging microscopy to examine microscale strain distribution, plastic slip and grain reorientation. At the macroscale, the models are found to give good predictions of the stress-strain response of the specimen, and at the microscale the models are found to give good predictions of the strain distribution and the active slip systems in the different grains. The models are less successful in predicting grain reorientations. This, however, is shown to be quite sensitive to the choice of latent hardening ratio.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Admittance-Based Piezoelectric Sensor Diagnostic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyejin; Park, Tongil; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on the use of active-sensing piezoelectric (PZT) materials have received considerable attention. The validation of the PZT functionality during SHM operation is critical to successfully implementing a reliable SHM system. In this study, we investigated several parameters that affect the admittance-based sensor diagnostic process. We experimentally identified the temperature dependency of the active-sensor diagnostic process. We found that the admittance-based sensor diagnostic process can differentiate the adhesion conditions of bonding materials that are used to install a PZT on a structure, which is important when designing a sensor diagnostic process for an SHM system.

  17. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug......There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...

  18. Experimental data processing techniques by a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kiyokata; Tsuda, Kenzo; Abe, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Shimura, Hitoshi; Hyodo, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Shigeru.

    1989-01-01

    A personal computer (16-bit, about 1 MB memory) can be used at a low cost in the experimental data processing. This report surveys the important techniques on A/D and D/A conversion, display, store and transfer of the experimental data. It is also discussed the items to be considered in the software. Practical softwares programed BASIC and Assembler language are given as examples. Here, we present some techniques to get faster process in BASIC language and show that the system composed of BASIC and Assembler is useful in a practical experiment. The system performance such as processing speed and flexibility in setting operation condition will depend strongly on programming language. We have made test for processing speed by some typical programming languages; BASIC(interpreter), C, FORTRAN and Assembler. As for the calculation, FORTRAN has the best performance which is comparable to or better than Assembler even in the personal computer. (author)

  19. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of corn straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shengqiang Shen; Shuhua Yang; Xinguang Shi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was performed to analyze the pyrolysis process of corn straw. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the component of pyrolysis gas of corn straw was tested using the gas chromatograph analyzer. Experimental results showed that, as the reaction temperature increases, the component of H 2 and CH 4 increases, whereas the component of CO and CO 2 decreases. Finally, the mechanism of pyrolysis process of corn straw was revealed from the point of view of the molecular structure...

  20. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  1. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography

  2. Compound image segmentation of published biomedical figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Jiang, Xiangying; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Shatkay, Hagit

    2018-04-01

    Images convey essential information in biomedical publications. As such, there is a growing interest within the bio-curation and the bio-databases communities, to store images within publications as evidence for biomedical processes and for experimental results. However, many of the images in biomedical publications are compound images consisting of multiple panels, where each individual panel potentially conveys a different type of information. Segmenting such images into constituent panels is an essential first step toward utilizing images. In this article, we develop a new compound image segmentation system, FigSplit, which is based on Connected Component Analysis. To overcome shortcomings typically manifested by existing methods, we develop a quality assessment step for evaluating and modifying segmentations. Two methods are proposed to re-segment the images if the initial segmentation is inaccurate. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method compared with other methods. The system is publicly available for use at: https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~compbio/FigSplit. The code is available upon request. shatkay@udel.edu. Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics.

  3. Experimental analysis of humidification process by air passing through seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; Abugderah, M.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of humidification process by air passing through seawater is presented. The main objective of this work was to determine the humid air behaviour through single-stage of heating-humidifying processes. This experimental work studied the influence of the operating conditions such as the water temperature, the headwater difference, the air velocity and the inlet air temperature to evaporator chamber on the vapour content difference and humidification efficiency. Two cases of different inlet conditions of ambient and heated air cases are studied. The experimental results show that, the vapour content difference and the humidification efficiency of the system is strongly affected by the saline water temperature in the evaporator chamber, headwater difference and the air velocity. The inlet air temperature to evaporator chamber variation was found to have a small affect on the vapour content difference. The obtained maximum vapour content difference of the air was about 222 gr w /kg a at 75 deg. C for water and air. The obtained vapour content is high compared to that obtained in literature for single-stage and very similar for multi-stage

  4. Regularization of the double period method for experimental data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. A.; Kalitkin, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    In physical and technical applications, an important task is to process experimental curves measured with large errors. Such problems are solved by applying regularization methods, in which success depends on the mathematician's intuition. We propose an approximation based on the double period method developed for smooth nonperiodic functions. Tikhonov's stabilizer with a squared second derivative is used for regularization. As a result, the spurious oscillations are suppressed and the shape of an experimental curve is accurately represented. This approach offers a universal strategy for solving a broad class of problems. The method is illustrated by approximating cross sections of nuclear reactions important for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Tables recommended as reference data are obtained. These results are used to calculate the reaction rates, which are approximated in a way convenient for gasdynamic codes. These approximations are superior to previously known formulas in the covered temperature range and accuracy.

  5. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  6. Design and experimental study on desulphurization process of ship exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Hao, Shan; Zhou, Junbo; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    This desulfurization process involves removing sulfur oxides with seawater or alkaline aqueous solutions and then treating the effluent by aeration and pH adjustment before discharging it into the ocean. In the desulfurization system, the spray tower is the key equipment and the venturi tubes are the pretreatment device. The two stages of plates are designed to fully absorb sulfur oxides in exhaust gases. The spiral nozzles atomize and evenly spray the desulfurizers into the tower. This study experimentally investigated the effectiveness of this desulfurization process and the factors influencing it under laboratory conditions, with a diesel engine exhaust used to represent ship exhaust. The experimental results show that this process can effectively absorb the SO2 in the exhaust. When the exhaust flow rate was 25 m3/h and the desulfurizer flow rate was 4 L/min, the sulfur removal efficiency (SRE) reached 99.7%. The flow rate, alkalinity, and temperature of seawater were found to have significant effects on the SRE. Adjusting seawater flow rate (SWR) and alkalinity within certain ranges can substantially improve the SRE.

  7. Experimental software for modeling and interpreting educational data analysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Zorina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems, tasks and processes of educational data mining are considered in this article. The objective is to create a fundamentally new information system of the University using the results educational data analysis. One of the functions of such a system is knowledge extraction from accumulated in the operation process data. The creation of the national system of this type is an iterative and time-consuming process requiring the preliminary studies and incremental prototyping modules. The novelty of such systems is that there is a lack of those using this methodology of the development, for this purpose a number of experiments was carried out in order to collect data, choose appropriate methods for the study and to interpret them. As a result of the experiment, the authors were available sources available for analysis in the information environment of the home university. The data were taken from the semester performance, obtained from the information system of the training department of the Institute of IT MTU MIREA, the data obtained as a result of the independent work of students and data, using specially designed Google-forms. To automate the collection of information and analysis of educational data, an experimental software package was created. As a methodology for developing the experimental software complex, a decision was made using the methodologies of rational-empirical complexes (REX and single-experimentation program technologies (TPEI. The details of the program implementation of the complex are described in detail, conclusions are given about the availability of the data sources used, and conclusions are drawn about the prospects for further development.

  8. Experimental investigation of the processes of dehumidification of coniferous biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes the results of experimental studies of the moisture removal processes in the temperature range from 333 K to 413 K from coniferous woods which are typical for many regions. There are obtained the dependences of the mass rate of moisture removal on time and temperature. The effect of the evaporation of bound moisture was identified for the wood species studied. There are calculated the accommodation coefficient and the partial pressure at the evaporation surface for each type of biomass.

  9. Data taking and processing system for nuclear experimental physics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y.; Kimura, H.; Katori, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    A multi input, multi mode, multi user data taking and processing system was developed. This system has following special features. 1) It is multi computer system which is constitute with two special processors and two mini computers. 2) The pseudo devices are introduced to make operating procedurs simply and easily. Especially, the selection or modification of 1 - 8 coincidence mode can be done very easily and quickly. 3) A 16 Kch spectrum storage has 8 partitions. Every partitions having floating size are handled automatically by the data taking software SHINE. 4) On line real time data processing can be done. Useing the FORTRAN language, user may prepare the processing software apart from the data taking software. Under the RSX-11D system software, this software runs concurrently with the data taking software by a multi programming mode. 5) The data communication between arbitraly external devices and this system can be done. With this communication procedures, not only the data transfer between computers, but also the control of the experimental devices are realized. Like the real time processing software, this software can be prepared by users and be ran concurrently with other softwares. 6) For data monitoring, two different graphic displays are used complementally. One is a refresh typed high speed display. The other is a storage typed large screen display. Raw datas are displayed on the former. Processed datas or multi parametric large volume datas are displayed on the later one. (author)

  10. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  11. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  12. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing......The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and mass transfer in a butter cookie product, and evaluation of quality assessment methods. The pilot plant oven is a special batch oven designed to emulate continuous convection tunnel oven baking. The design, construction, and validation of the oven has been part of the project and is described...

  13. An experimental evaluation of alarm processing and display characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.Jr.; Persensky, J.; Wachtel, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance. operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition. operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. Numerous strengths

  14. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  15. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  17. Experimental study of bubbly flow using image processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycfu@vt.edu; Liu, Yang, E-mail: liu130@vt.edu

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental study of bubbly flows at relatively high void fractions using an advanced image processing method. Bubble overlapping is a common problem in such flows and the past studies often treat the overlapping bubbles as a whole, which introduces considerable measurement uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid method combining intersection point detection and watershed segmentation is used to separate the overlapping bubbles. In order to reconstruct bubbles from separated segments, a systematic procedure is developed which can preserve more features captured in the raw image compared to the simple ellipse fitting method. The distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, number density and velocity are obtained from the extracted bubble information. High-speed images of air-water bubbly flows are acquired and processed for eight test runs conducted in a 30 mm × 10 mm rectangular channel. The developed image processing scheme can effectively separate overlapping bubbles and the results compare well with the measurements by the gas flow meter and double-sensor conductivity probe. The development of flows in transverse and mainstream directions are analyzed and compared with the prediction made by the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and the bubble number density transport equation.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  19. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  20. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  1. A novel biomedical image indexing and retrieval system via deep preference learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Orgun, Mehmet A; Yu, Zhezhou

    2018-05-01

    The traditional biomedical image retrieval methods as well as content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods originally designed for non-biomedical images either only consider using pixel and low-level features to describe an image or use deep features to describe images but still leave a lot of room for improving both accuracy and efficiency. In this work, we propose a new approach, which exploits deep learning technology to extract the high-level and compact features from biomedical images. The deep feature extraction process leverages multiple hidden layers to capture substantial feature structures of high-resolution images and represent them at different levels of abstraction, leading to an improved performance for indexing and retrieval of biomedical images. We exploit the current popular and multi-layered deep neural networks, namely, stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAE) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) to represent the discriminative features of biomedical images by transferring the feature representations and parameters of pre-trained deep neural networks from another domain. Moreover, in order to index all the images for finding the similarly referenced images, we also introduce preference learning technology to train and learn a kind of a preference model for the query image, which can output the similarity ranking list of images from a biomedical image database. To the best of our knowledge, this paper introduces preference learning technology for the first time into biomedical image retrieval. We evaluate the performance of two powerful algorithms based on our proposed system and compare them with those of popular biomedical image indexing approaches and existing regular image retrieval methods with detailed experiments over several well-known public biomedical image databases. Based on different criteria for the evaluation of retrieval performance, experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the state

  2. Experimental study on intermediate level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Tadashi; Abe, Hirotoshi; Okazawa, Takao; Hattori, Seiichi; Maki, Yasuro

    1977-01-01

    In the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, multilayer package will be adopted. The multilayer package consists of cement-solidified waste and a container such as a drum - can with concrete liner or a concrete container. So, on the waste to be cement-solidified in such container, experimental study was carried out as follows. (1) Cement-solidification method. (2) Mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste. The mechanical behaviour of the containers was studied by the finite element method and experiment, and the function of pressure-balancing valves was also studied. The following data on processing intermediate level radioactive wastes were obtained. (1) In the case of cement-solidified waste, the data to select the suitable solidifying material and the standard mixing proportion were determined. (2) The basic data concerning the uniaxial compressive strength of cement-solidified waste, the mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste packed in a drum under high hydrostatic pressure, the shock response of cement-solidified waste at the time of falling and so on were obtained. (3) The pressure-balancing valves worked at about 0.5 Kg/cm 2 pressure difference inside and outside a container, and the deformation of a drum cover was 10 to 13 mm. In case of the pressure difference less than 0,5 Kg/cm 2 , the valves shut, and water flow did occur. (auth.)

  3. Hierarchical adaptive experimental design for Gaussian process emulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Large computer simulators have usually complex and nonlinear input output functions. This complicated input output relation can be analyzed by global sensitivity analysis; however, this usually requires massive Monte Carlo simulations. To effectively reduce the number of simulations, statistical techniques such as Gaussian process emulators can be adopted. The accuracy and reliability of these emulators strongly depend on the experimental design where suitable evaluation points are selected. In this paper a new sequential design strategy called hierarchical adaptive design is proposed to obtain an accurate emulator using the least possible number of simulations. The hierarchical design proposed in this paper is tested on various standard analytic functions and on a challenging reservoir forecasting application. Comparisons with standard one-stage designs such as maximin latin hypercube designs show that the hierarchical adaptive design produces a more accurate emulator with the same number of computer experiments. Moreover a stopping criterion is proposed that enables to perform the number of simulations necessary to obtain required approximation accuracy.

  4. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

  5. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  6. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  7. Biomedical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEvolution of MEMSApplications of MEMSBioMEMS ApplicationsMEMS ResourcesText Goals and OrganizationMiniaturization and ScalingBioMEMS MaterialsTraditional MEMS and Microelectronic MaterialsPolymeric Materials for MEMSBiomaterialsMicrofabrication Methods and Processes for BioMEMSIntroductionMicrolithographyDopingMicromachiningWafer Bonding, Assembly, and PackagingSurface TreatmentConversion Factors for Energy and Intensity UnitsLaboratory ExercisesMicrofluidicsIntroduction and Fluid PropertiesConcepts in MicrofluidicsFluid-Transport Phenomena and PumpingFlow ControlLaboratory Exercis

  8. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  9. Biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last years computational methods lead to new approaches that can be applied within medical practice. Based on the tremendous advances in medical imaging and high-performance computing, virtual testing is able to help in medical decision processes or implant designs. Current challenges in medicine and engineering are related to the application of computational methods to clinical medicine and the study of biological systems at different scales. Additionally manufacturers will be able to use computational tools and methods to predict the performance of their medical devices in virtual patients. The physical and animal testing procedures could be reduced by virtual prototyping of medical devices. Here simulations can enhance the performance of alternate device designs for a range of virtual patients. This will lead to a refinement of designs and to safer products. This book summarizes different aspects of approaches to enhance function, production, initialization and complications of different types o...

  10. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  11. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  12. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John D; Blanchard, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of John Enderle, Susan Blanchard and Joe Bronzino, leaders in the field have contributed chapters on the most relevant subjects for biomedical engineering students. These chapters coincide with courses offered in all biomedical engineering programs so that it can be used at different levels for a variety of courses of this evolving field. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the biomedical field. Also contained within are the fundamental principles underlying biomedical engineering design, analysis, and modeling procedures. The numerous examples, drill problems and exercises are used to reinforce concepts and develop problem-solving skills making this book an invaluable tool for all biomedical students and engineers. New to this edition: Computational Biology, Medical Imaging, Genomics and Bioinformatics. * 60% update from first edition to reflect the developing field of biomedical engineering * New chapters o...

  13. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  14. Figure mining for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Iossifov, Ivan

    2009-08-15

    Figures from biomedical articles contain valuable information difficult to reach without specialized tools. Currently, there is no search engine that can retrieve specific figure types. This study describes a retrieval method that takes advantage of principles in image understanding, text mining and optical character recognition (OCR) to retrieve figure types defined conceptually. A search engine was developed to retrieve tables and figure types to aid computational and experimental research. http://iossifovlab.cshl.edu/figurome/.

  15. Blinding Applicants in a First-Stage Peer-Review Process of Biomedical Research Grants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Guillamón, Imma; Ribera, Aida; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Carrion, Carme; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Pons, Joan M. V.

    2017-01-01

    To blind or not researcher's identity has often been a topic of debate in the context of peer-review process for scientific publication and research grant application. This article reports on how knowing the name and experience of researchers/institutions influences the qualification of a proposal. We present our experience of managing the…

  16. Optimal molecular profiling of tissue and tissue components: defining the best processing and microdissection methods for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Hipp, Jason D; Balis, Ulysses J; Tangrea, Michael A; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Bova, G Steven

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of well-preserved pure cell populations is a prerequisite for sound studies of the molecular basis of any tissue-based biological phenomenon. This updated chapter reviews current methods for obtaining anatomically specific signals from molecules isolated from tissues, a basic requirement for productive linking of phenotype and genotype. The quality of samples isolated from tissue and used for molecular analysis is often glossed over or omitted from publications, making interpretation and replication of data difficult or impossible. Fortunately, recently developed techniques allow life scientists to better document and control the quality of samples used for a given assay, creating a foundation for improvement in this area. Tissue processing for molecular studies usually involves some or all of the following steps: tissue collection, gross dissection/identification, fixation, processing/embedding, storage/archiving, sectioning, staining, microdissection/annotation, and pure analyte labeling/identification and quantification. We provide a detailed comparison of some current tissue microdissection technologies and provide detailed example protocols for tissue component handling upstream and downstream from microdissection. We also discuss some of the physical and chemical issues related to optimal tissue processing and include methods specific to cytology specimens. We encourage each laboratory to use these as a starting point for optimization of their overall process of moving from collected tissue to high-quality, appropriately anatomically tagged scientific results. Improvement in this area will significantly increase life science quality and productivity. The chapter is divided into introduction, materials, protocols, and notes subheadings. Because many protocols are covered in each of these sections, information relating to a single protocol is not contiguous. To get the greatest benefit from this chapter, readers are advised to read through the entire

  17. Use of graph algorithms in the processing and analysis of images with focus on the biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdimalova, M; Roznovjak, R; Weismann, P; El Falougy, H; Kubikova, E

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is a known problem in the field of image processing. A great number of methods based on different approaches to this issue was created. One of these approaches utilizes the findings of the graph theory. Our work focuses on segmentation using shortest paths in a graph. Specifically, we deal with methods of "Intelligent Scissors," which use Dijkstra's algorithm to find the shortest paths. We created a new software in Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 integrated development environment Visual C++ in the language C++/CLI. We created a format application with a graphical users development environment for system Windows, with using the platform .Net (version 4.5). The program was used for handling and processing the original medical data. The major disadvantage of the method of "Intelligent Scissors" is the computational time length of Dijkstra's algorithm. However, after the implementation of a more efficient priority queue, this problem could be alleviated. The main advantage of this method we see in training that enables to adapt to a particular kind of edge, which we need to segment. The user involvement has a significant influence on the process of segmentation, which enormously aids to achieve high-quality results (Fig. 7, Ref. 13).

  18. Compensatory neurofuzzy model for discrete data classification in biomedical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Rahime

    2015-03-01

    Biomedical data is separated to two main sections: signals and discrete data. So, studies in this area are about biomedical signal classification or biomedical discrete data classification. There are artificial intelligence models which are relevant to classification of ECG, EMG or EEG signals. In same way, in literature, many models exist for classification of discrete data taken as value of samples which can be results of blood analysis or biopsy in medical process. Each algorithm could not achieve high accuracy rate on classification of signal and discrete data. In this study, compensatory neurofuzzy network model is presented for classification of discrete data in biomedical pattern recognition area. The compensatory neurofuzzy network has a hybrid and binary classifier. In this system, the parameters of fuzzy systems are updated by backpropagation algorithm. The realized classifier model is conducted to two benchmark datasets (Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and Pima Indian Diabetes dataset). Experimental studies show that compensatory neurofuzzy network model achieved 96.11% accuracy rate in classification of breast cancer dataset and 69.08% accuracy rate was obtained in experiments made on diabetes dataset with only 10 iterations.

  19. Experimental review of exclusive processes in two photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1986-07-01

    Recent experimental results on exclusive final stated produced in photon-photon interactions are reviewed. Comparisons between experiments and with perturbative QCD calculations are made for meson and baryon pair production. New results on vector meson pair (rho 0 rho 0 ,rho 0 omega,rho 0 phi,...) production and production of multiparticle (KKππ,K*Kπ,...) final states are summarized. 34 refs

  20. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  1. Multi-window dialogue system of data processing for experimental setup VASSILISSA in PAW environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.N.; Vakatov, D.V.; Veselski, M.; Eremin, A.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Khasanov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-window dialogue system for processing data acquired from experimental setup VASSILISSA is presented. The system provides friendly user's interface for experimental data conversion, selection and preparing for graphic analysis with PAW. 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a Ti-35Nb-3Zr-2Ta biomedical alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengjie; Wang, Liqiang; Xue, Xiaobing; Lu, Weijie; Qin, Jining; Zhang, Di

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an equal channel angular pressing method is employed to refine grains and enhance mechanical properties of a new β Ti-35Nb-3Zr-2Ta biomedical alloy. After the 4th pass, the ultrafine equiaxed grains of approximately 300 nm and 600 nm are obtained at pressing temperatures of 500 and 600°C respectively. The SEM images of billets pressed at 500°C reveal the evolution of shear bands and finally at the 4th pass intersectant networks of shear bands, involving initial band propagation and new band broadening, are formed with the purpose of accommodating large plastic strain. Furthermore, a unique herringbone microstructure of twinned martensitic variants is observed in TEM images. The results of microhardness measurements and uniaxial tensile tests show a significant improvement in microhardness and tensile strength from 534 MPa to 765 MPa, while keeping a good level of ductility (~16%) and low elastic modulus (~59 GPa). The maximum superelastic strain of 1.4% and maximum recovered strain of 2.7% are obtained in the billets pressed at 500°C via the 4th pass, which exhibits an excellent superelastic behavior. Meanwhile, the effects of different accumulative deformations and pressing temperatures on superelasticity of the ECAP-processed alloys are investigated. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this endangered aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin

    2012-01-01

    Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.

  4. Effect of process control agent on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-Sn-Nb alloy produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, A; Hodgson, P D; Wen, C E

    2010-04-01

    The influence of different amounts and types of process control agent (PCA), i.e., stearic acid and ethylene bis-stearamide, on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-16Sn-4Nb (wt.%) alloy was investigated. Alloy synthesis was performed on elemental metal powders using high-energy ball milling for 5h. Results indicated that varying the PCA content during ball milling led to a drastic change in morphology and particle-size distribution of the ball-milled powders. Porous titanium alloy samples sintered from the powders ball milled with the addition of various amounts of PCA also revealed different pore morphology and porosity. The Vickers hardness of the sintered titanium alloy samples exhibited a considerable increase with increasing PCA content. Moreover, the addition of larger amounts of PCA in the powder mixture resulted in a significant increase in the elastic modulus and peak stress for the sintered porous titanium alloy samples under compression. It should also be mentioned that the addition of PCA introduced contamination (mainly carbon and oxygen) into the sintered porous product. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  6. Tailoring consent to context: designing an appropriate consent process for a biomedical study in a low income setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Tekola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the approach that should be followed for gaining consent. The study was conducted prior to a family-based genetic study among people with podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis in southern Ethiopia.We adapted a method of rapid assessment validated in The Gambia. The methodology was entirely qualitative, involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Discussions were conducted with podoconiosis patients and non-patients in the community, fieldworkers, researchers, staff of the local non-governmental organisation (NGO working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis, and community leaders. We found that the extent of use of everyday language, the degree to which expectations of potential participants were addressed, and the techniques of presentation of information had considerable impact on comprehension of information provided about research. Approaching podoconiosis patients via locally trusted individuals and preceding individual consent with community sensitization were considered the optimal means of communication. Prevailing poverty among podoconiosis patients, the absence of alternative treatment facilities, and participants' trust in the local NGO were identified as potential barriers for obtaining genuine informed consent.Researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of consent processes in providing appropriate information in a comprehensible manner and in supporting voluntary decision-making on a study-by-study basis.

  7. An experimental facility for microwave induced plasma processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, D.S.; Ramachandran, K.; Bhide, A.L.; Venkatramani, N.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave induced plasma processing offers many advantages over conventional processes. However this technology is in the development stage. This report gives a detailed information about a microwave plasma processing facility (2.45 GHz, 700 W) set up in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The equipment details and the results obtained on deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films and surface modification of polymer PET (polyethylene terephthalate) using this facility are given in this report. (author)

  8. Experimental evaluation of the primary damage process: neutron energy effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the neutron energy dependnece of the primary damage stage depends upon a number of theoretical concepts. This state can only be observed after low- or perhaps ambient-temperature, low-fluence irradiations. The primary recoil energy spectrum, which determines the character of the displacement cascades, can be calculated if dosimetry has provided an accurate neutron spectrum. A review of experimental results relating neutron-energy effects shows that damage energy or damage energy cross section has often been a reliable correlation parameter for primary damage state experiments. However, the forthcoming emphasis on higher irradiation temperatures, more complex alloys and microstructural evolution has fostered a search for additional meaningful correlation parameters.

  9. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania

    1983-01-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  10. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

    2009-02-27

    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  11. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  12. Experimental Study On The Optimization Of Extraction Process Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. Materials and Methods: CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of ...

  13. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Indeed, deep drawing is one of the widely used sheet metal forming process ... and quality of business process by the use of statistical tools (Chen and Lyu, 2009). ... Selection of control factors and their levels are made on the basis of some.

  14. An experimental evaluation of passage-based process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the area of process mining, the ILP Miner is known for the fact that it always returns a Petri net that perfectly fits a given event log. Like for most process discovery algorithms, its complexity is linear in the size of the event log and exponential in the number of event classes (i.e.,

  15. Fissile material holdup monitoring in the PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is an incineration system designed to thermally process mixed transuranic (TRU) waste and TRU contaminated low-level waste. The TRU isotopic composition is that of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) which necessitates that criticality prevention measures by incorporated into the plant design and operation. Criticality safety in the PREPP process is assured through the utilization of mass and moderation control in conjunction with favorable vessel geometries. The subject of this paper concerns the Pu mass holdup instrumentation system which is an integral part of the inprocess mass control strategy. Plant vessels and components requiring real-time mass holdup measurements were selected based on their evaluated potential for achieving physically credible Pu mass loadings and associated parameters which could lead to a criticality event. If the parameters requisite to a criticality occurrence could not physically be achieved under credible plant conditions, the particular location only required periodic portable holdup monitoring. Based on these analyses five real-time holdup monitoring locations were identified for criticality assurance purposes. An additional real-time instrument is part of the system but serves primarily in the capacity of providing operational support data. 1 fig

  16. Experimental investigation of processes in primary circuit relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Z.; Simo, T.; Konecny, A.

    1989-01-01

    The protective condenser (direct contact condenser) is one of the basic components of the primary circuit relief system of WWER power plants. The steam flowing from the surge tank through relief valves into the subcooled water condensates in the protective condenser vessel. Two simple physical models were designed and constructed for investigation of bubbling through (contact condensation). An experimental program was performed with the aim of determining the distribution of temperatures in the axis of the steam jet and its vicinity, determining the velocity field of water into vicinity of steam jets, observing the geometrical shape of jets and their interaction and determining important values for mathematical model. (orig.)

  17. Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebbal Habib

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.

  18. Experimental study on pyrolysis incineration process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Liu Xiaoqin

    1993-01-01

    In order to treat combustible radioactive wastes containing plastics and rubber in a considerable amount, a pyrolysis incineration process has been developed. Laboratory study and pilot test for the technology were performed. The results obtained in pilot test show that the waste containing a larger amount of plastics and rubber can be burnt perfectly in given technologic conditions, with a high volume-reduction factor obtained, and the process is easy to control

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of the Fast-SAGD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyundon

    The SAGD process has been tested in the field, and is now in a commercial stage in Western Canadian oil sands areas. The Fast-SAGD method can partly solve the drilling difficulty and reduce costs in a SAGD operation requiring paired parallel wells one above the other. This method also enhances the thermal efficiency in the reservoir. In this research, the reservoir parameters and operating conditions for the SAGD and Fast-SAGD processes are investigated by numerical simulation in the three Alberta oil sands areas. Scaled physical model experiments, which are operated by an automated process control system, are conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. The results of the study indicate that the shallow Athabasca-type reservoir, which is thick with high permeability (high kxh), is a good candidate for SAGD application, whereas Cold Lake- and Peace River-type reservoirs, which are thin with low permeability, are not as good candidates for conventional SAGD implementation. The simulation results indicate improved energy efficiency and productivity in most cases for the Fast-SAGD process; in those cases, the project economics were enhanced compared to the SAGD process. Both Cold Lake- and Peace River-type reservoirs are good candidates for a Fast-SAGD application rather than a conventional SAGD application. This new process demonstrates improved efficiency and lower costs for extracting heavy oil from these important reservoirs. A new economic indicator, called simple thermal efficiency parameter (STEP), was developed and validated to evaluate the performance of a SAGD project. STEP is based on cumulative steam-oil ratio (CSOR), calendar day oil rate (CDOR) and recovery factor (RF) for the time prior to the steam-oil ratio (SOR) attaining 4. STEP can be used as a financial metric quantitatively as well as qualitatively for this type of thermal project. An automated process control system was set-up and validated, and has the capability of

  20. Experimental tests and theoretical predictions for electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati

    1987-01-01

    In sect. 2, I will briefly recall the basic ingredients of the standard model and I will define the relevant parameters. Low-energy processes which enter into the determination of neutral-current couplings to fermions (in particular sin 2 θ W ) are presented in sect. 3. Radiative corrections to these processes are discussed in sect. 4. In sect. 5 the measurements of the W and Z 0 masses at the SPS collider are described and compared with theoretical predictions including one-loop radiative corrections. (orig./BBO)

  1. XCEDE: an extensible schema for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Syam; Aucoin, Nicole; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Keator, David B; Marcus, Daniel S; Pieper, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The XCEDE (XML-based Clinical and Experimental Data Exchange) XML schema, developed by members of the BIRN (Biomedical Informatics Research Network), provides an extensive metadata hierarchy for storing, describing and documenting the data generated by scientific studies. Currently at version 2.0, the XCEDE schema serves as a specification for the exchange of scientific data between databases, analysis tools, and web services. It provides a structured metadata hierarchy, storing information relevant to various aspects of an experiment (project, subject, protocol, etc.). Each hierarchy level also provides for the storage of data provenance information allowing for a traceable record of processing and/or changes to the underlying data. The schema is extensible to support the needs of various data modalities and to express types of data not originally envisioned by the developers. The latest version of the XCEDE schema and manual are available from http://www.xcede.org/ .

  2. Handbook of photonics for biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donghyun; Somekh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides ...

  3. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  4. Written Composition Process, Evaluation Difficulties and Modalities: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Celestino; Garci, Jesus Nicasio; Gonzalez-Castro, Paloma; Alvarez, David; Cerezo, Rebeca; Bernardo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The underlying processes used in written compositions are currently a very interesting subject. Participants in this study were 326 people between 10 and 16 years of age, divided into two groups and compared by means of a "writing log". One group was provided assistance in the writing task by means of a graphic organiser, whilst the other was not…

  5. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  6. A Study of the Information Literacy of Biomedical Graduate Students: Based on the Thesis Topic Discovery Process in Molecular Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhao-Yen Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical information environment is in a state of constant and rapid change due to the increase in research data and rapid technological advances. In Taiwan, few research has investigated the information literacy of biomedical graduate students. This exploratory study examined the information literacy abilities and training of biomedical graduate students in Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews based on the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology were conducted with 20 molecular biological graduate students. The interview inquired about their information-seeking channels and information literacy education. The findings show that the biomedical graduate students developed a workable thesis topic with their advisors. Through various information-seeking channels and retrieval strategies, they obtained and critically evaluated information to address different information needs for their thesis research. Through seminars, annual conferences and papers, the interviewees were informed of current developments in their field. Subsequently, through written or oral communications, they were able to integrate and exchange the information. Most interviewees cared about the social, economic, legal, and ethical issues surrounding the use of information. College courses and labs were the main information literacy education environment for them to learn about research skills and knowledge. The study concludes four areas to address for the information literacy of biomedical graduate students, i.e., using professional information, using the current information, efficiency in assessing the domain information, and utilization of diverse information channels. Currently, the interviewees showed rather low usage of library resources, which is a concern for biomedical educators and libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  7. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  8. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New experimental developments for s- and p-process research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, R.; Ershova, O.; Glorius, J.; Göbel, K.; Langer, C.; Meusel, O.; Plag, R.; Schmidt, S.; Sonnabend, K.; Heil, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all of the heavy elements are produced via neutron-induced processes in a multitude of stellar production sites. The remaining minor part is produced via photon- and proton-induced reactions. The predictive power of the underlying stellar models is currently limited because they contain poorly constrained physics components such as convection, rotation or magnetic fields. An important tool to determine such components is the comparison of observed with modeled abundance distributions based on improved nuclear physics input. The FRANZ facility at the Goethe University Frankfurt, which is currently under construction will provide unprecedented neutron fluxes and proton currents available for nuclear astrophysics. It will be possible to investigate important branchpoint nuclei of the s-process nucleosynthesis path and proton-induced reactions important for p-process modeling. At the GSI close to Darmstadt radioactive isotopes can be investigated in inverse kinematics. This allows experiments such as proton-induced cross section measurements using a heavy-ion storage ring or measurements of gamma-induced reactions using the Coulomb dissociation method. The future FAIR facility will allow similar experiments on very exotic nuclei, since orders of magnitude higher radioactive ions beams will be possible.

  10. Catalytic Reactive Distillation for the Esterification Process: Experimental and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallaiah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, methyl acetate has been synthesized using esterification of acetic acid with methanol in a continuous packed bed catalytic reactive distillation col- umn in the presence of novel Indion 180 ion exchange resin solid catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various operating conditions like reboiler temperature, reflux ratio, and different feed flow rates of the acetic acid and methanol. The non-ideal pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model has been developed for esterification of acetic acid with methanol in the presence of Indion 180 catalyst. The developed kinetic model was used for the simulation of the reactive distillation column for the synthesis of methyl acetate using equilibrium stage model in Aspen Plus version 7.3. The simulation results were compared with experimental results, and found that there is a good agreement between them. The sensitivity analyses were also carried out for the different parameters of bot- tom flow rate, feed temperatures of acetic acid and methanol, and feed flow rate of acetic acid and methanol.

  11. An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model for the Evaluation of College Experimental Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qingli

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…

  12. An experimental investigation of emotional reasoning processes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive models of depression emphasize how distorted thoughts and interpretations contribute to low mood. Emotional reasoning is considered to be one such interpretative style. We used an experimental procedure to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning characterize depression. Participants who were currently experiencing a major depressive episode (n = 27) were compared with those who were non-depressed (n = 25 who had never been depressed and n = 26 previously but not currently depressed) on an emotional reasoning task. Although there were some trends for depressed participants to show greater levels of emotional reasoning relative to non-depressed participants, none of these differences attained significance. Interestingly, previously depressed participants engaged in more non-self-referent emotional reasoning than never-depressed participants. Emotional reasoning does not appear to characterize mild to moderate levels of depression. The lack of significant differences in emotional reasoning between currently depressed and non-depressed participants may have been a consequence of the fact that participants in our currently depressed group were, for the most part, only mildly depressed. Non-self-referent emotional reasoning may nevertheless be a risk factor for subsequent depressive episodes, or else serve as a 'cognitive scar' from previous episodes. In contrast with the predictions of cognitive models of depression, emotional reasoning tendencies may not be especially prominent in currently depressed individuals. Depressed individuals vary greatly in the degree to which they engage in emotional reasoning. Individuals with remitted depression may show elevated of levels non-self-referent emotional reasoning compared with those who have never had a depressive episode, that is, rely on their emotions when forming interpretations about situations. Our findings require replication using alternative indices of emotional reasoning. Our currently

  13. Experimental investigation of the ribbon-array ablation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenghong; Xu Rongkun; Chu Yanyun; Yang Jianlun; Xu Zeping; Ye Fan; Chen Faxin; Xue Feibiao; Ning Jiamin; Qin Yi; Meng Shijian; Hu Qingyuan; Si Fenni; Feng Jinghua; Zhang Faqiang; Chen Jinchuan; Li Linbo; Chen Dingyang; Ding Ning; Zhou Xiuwen

    2013-01-01

    Ablation processes of ribbon-array loads, as well as wire-array loads for comparison, were investigated on Qiangguang-1 accelerator. The ultraviolet framing images indicate that the ribbon-array loads have stable passages of currents, which produce axially uniform ablated plasma. The end-on x-ray framing camera observed the azimuthally modulated distribution of the early ablated ribbon-array plasma and the shrink process of the x-ray radiation region. Magnetic probes measured the total and precursor currents of ribbon-array and wire-array loads, and there exists no evident difference between the precursor currents of the two types of loads. The proportion of the precursor current to the total current is 15% to 20%, and the start time of the precursor current is about 25 ns later than that of the total current. The melting time of the load material is about 16 ns, when the inward drift velocity of the ablated plasma is taken to be 1.5 × 10 7 cm/s.

  14. Radioactive waste management of experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible DUPIC fuel from spent PWR fuel material. Real spent PWR fuel was used in IMEF M6 hot cell to carry out DUPIC experiment. Afterwards, about 200 kg-U of spent PWR fuel is supposed to be used till 2006. This study has been conducted in some hot cells of PIEF and M6 cell of IMEF. There are various forms of nuclear material such as rod cut, powder, green pellet, sintered pellet, fabrication debris, fuel rod, fuel bundle, sample, and process waste produced from various manufacturing experiment of DUPIC fuel. After completing test, the above nuclear wastes and test equipment etc. will be classified as radioactive waste, transferred to storage facility and managed rigorously according to domestic and international laws until the final management policy is determined. It is desirable to review management options in advance for radioactive waste generated from manufacturing experiment of DUPIC nuclear fuel as well as residual nuclear material and dismantled equipment. This paper includes basic plan for DUPIC radwaste, arising source and estimated amount of radioactive waste, waste classification and packing, transport cask, transport procedures

  15. Experimental design for dynamics identification of cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vu; Rundell, Ann E; Buzzard, Gregery T

    2014-03-01

    We address the problem of using nonlinear models to design experiments to characterize the dynamics of cellular processes by using the approach of the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE), which was introduced in W. Dong et al. (PLoS ONE 3(8):e3105, 2008) and independently in M.M. Donahue et al. (IET Syst. Biol. 4:249-262, 2010). In this approach, existing data is used to define a probability distribution on the parameters; the next measurement point is the one that yields the largest model output variance with this distribution. Building upon this approach, we introduce the Expected Dynamics Estimator (EDE), which is the expected value using this distribution of the output as a function of time. We prove the consistency of this estimator (uniform convergence to true dynamics) even when the chosen experiments cluster in a finite set of points. We extend this proof of consistency to various practical assumptions on noisy data and moderate levels of model mismatch. Through the derivation and proof, we develop a relaxed version of MINE that is more computationally tractable and robust than the original formulation. The results are illustrated with numerical examples on two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models of biomolecular and cellular processes.

  16. Experimental examination of the healing process of telescopic esophageal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Tóth, I; Barna, T; Bráth, E; Gyáni, K; Mikó, I

    2003-01-01

    The basis of telescopic anastomosis is old, only the practical details of it have changed and improved. The telescopic anastomosis technique is successfully applied in our practice for reconstruction of gastrectomy and esophageal resection. The reason for this study was that data about the healing process of telescopic anastomosis had not been found in the literature. We used four groups of mongrel dogs for our experiments: Group A (n = 3) received 20 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 7 days; Group B (n = 3) received 10 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days; Group C (n = 3) received 20 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days; Group D (n = 3) received 30 mm-long invaginations with a survival time of 21 days. At the end of the above survival times we removed the anastomosing area, measured the bursting pressures and performed morphological and histological examinations. In each case we also performed an anastomosis exactly the same as a completely healed anastomosis and its pressure tolerance was measured (0 day). The pressure tolerance within the anastomosis rises gradually and independently of the length of the invaginated esophageal part. Anastomosis leakage did not occur. The invaginated esophageal part did not suffer any damage. The muscular wall of the intragastric part of the esophagus became covered by the mucosa of the stomach during the healing process and it joined with the esophageal mucosa at the edge of the free end of the esophagus.

  17. Social learning and the replication process: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel

    2015-06-07

    Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  19. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, collecting close to 1 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the first...

  20. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, and collected so far over 5 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the...

  1. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  2. An experimental study of high-hydrogen welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fydrych, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation results of determination of the diffusible hydrogen content in deposited metal obtained by means of two most often used methods-the glycerin method and the mercury method. Relation has been defined between results of those methods in the area characteristic of low-hydrogen as well as high-hydrogen welding processes. Relations available in the literature do not include the diffusible hydrogen content in deposited metal greater than 35 ml/100 g. Extending the scope of analysis of the diffusible hydrogen quantity to an 80 ml/100 g level considerably simplifies carrying out the steel weldability assessment with the use of high-hydrogen processes and with welding in water environment.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre la determinación del contenido de hidrógeno difusible en el material aportado mediante dos métodos: el de la glicerina (el más utilizado y el del mercurio. El contenido de dicho hidrógeno se ha definido a partir de los resultados de esos métodos en una zona con bajo contenido en hidrógeno, así como procesos de soldadura con alto contenido en hidrógeno. No hay datos disponibles en la literatura para contenidos de hidrógeno difusible en metal depositado mayores de 35 ml/100 g. Ampliando el análisis de la cantidad de dicho hidrógeno hasta los 80 ml/100 g, se simplifica considerablemente la realización de ensayos de soldabilidad del acero en procesos de alto contenido en hidrógeno así como en la soldadura en medio acuoso.

  3. Humanized mice: the importance of preclinical experimental models in biomedical research; Ratones humanizados; la importancia de modelos experimentales preclinicos en las investigaciones biomedicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorcano Noval, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    The emergence of skin substitutes and cultures of epidermal cells as experimental therapies for the treatment of injuries resulted primarily from the need for rapid permanent coverage of extensive burns. For example, in the United States, some 2.000.000 burns a year currently require medical attention. Of these, approximately 70.000 require hospitalization and approximately 15.000 are referred to specialized burn centers and require some sort of skin graft procedure. (Author)

  4. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  5. Plasma exhaust purification: Experimental basis for a process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Gunther, K.; Nolte, K.

    1987-01-01

    At KfK a process for the recovery of D,T from a noble gas stream containing up to 16 mol % of tritiated (Q/sub 2/, Q/sub 2/O, NQ/sub 3/, CQ/sub 4/ with Q = D,T) and non-tritiated impurities (He, Ar, O/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, etc) is presently under investigation. In a first step CO is oxidized to CO/sub 2/ over a hopcalite bed at 120 0 C. Next, molecular oxygen and oxygen from water are gettered on a U bed at 250 - 300 0 C. The gases are then send through a Pd/Ag diffuser, where NQ/sub 3/ is decomposed quantitatively into N/sub 2/ and Q/sub 2/, the latter permeating out of the loop together with residual molecular Q/sub 2/ originally present in the noble gas stream. Finally, the gaseous mixture, now consisting of He, AR, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ and CQ/sub 4/, is passed over a Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst held at 450 - 500 0 C. On this catalyst CQ/sub 4/ is decomposed into the elements, the reaction becoming quantitative (DF/sub CQ/4/sub / > 1.3 x 10/sup 6/) if the produced hydrogen is continuously removed from the loop via the Pd/Ag diffuser

  6. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  7. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  8. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  9. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  10. Reviewing Manuscripts for Biomedical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmel, Gus M

    2010-01-01

    Writing for publication is a complex task. For many professionals, producing a well-executed manuscript conveying one's research, ideas, or educational wisdom is challenging. Authors have varying emotions related to the process of writing for scientific publication. Although not studied, a relationship between an author's enjoyment of the writing process and the product's outcome is highly likely. As with any skill, practice generally results in improvements. Literature focused on preparing manuscripts for publication and the art of reviewing submissions exists. Most journals guard their reviewers' anonymity with respect to the manuscript review process. This is meant to protect them from direct or indirect author demands, which may occur during the review process or in the future. It is generally accepted that author identities are masked in the peer-review process. However, the concept of anonymity for reviewers has been debated recently; many editors consider it problematic that reviewers are not held accountable to the public for their decisions. The review process is often arduous and underappreciated, one reason why biomedical journals acknowledge editors and frequently recognize reviewers who donate their time and expertise in the name of science. This article describes essential elements of a submitted manuscript, with the hopes of improving scientific writing. It also discusses the review process within the biomedical literature, the importance of reviewers to the scientific process, responsibilities of reviewers, and qualities of a good review and reviewer. In addition, it includes useful insights to individuals who read and interpret the medical literature. PMID:20740129

  11. NDE in biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Aditya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary field, marking the conjunction of Medical and Engineering disciplines. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy

  12. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  13. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  14. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  15. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  16. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction of Simple Circuits on Experimental Process Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma ULUKÖK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental and control groups were composed of 30 sophomores majoring in Classroom Teaching for this study investigating the effects of computer-assisted instruction of simple circuits on the development of experimental process skills. The instruction includes experiments and studies about simple circuits and its elements (serial, parallel, and mixed conncetions of resistors covered in Science and Technology Laboratory II course curriculum. In this study where quantitative and qualitative methods were used together, the control list developed by the researchers was used to collect data. Results showed that experimental process skills of sophomores in experimental group were more developed than that of those in control group. Thus, it can be said that computer-assisted instruction has a positive impact on the development of experimental process skills of students.

  17. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  19. Outline of an experimental apparatus for the study on the advanced voloxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi; Torikai, Seishi; Kitamura, Masafumi; Yamazaki, Kazunobu.

    1990-02-01

    The experimental apparatus (VULCAN, the capacity; 2 kg-UO 2 /batch) was constructed to study on the advanced voloxidation process, which was proposed to reduce amount of tritium released from fuel reprocessing facilities. Using this equipment, a process study was conducted on behaviors of oxidation-reduction of simulated fuels and of release of tritium, and on confinement function of rotary seal of the reactor. An outline of the experimental apparatus is described. (author)

  20. Mathematical processing of experimental data on neutron yield from separate fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, B.G.; Rabinovich, A.D.; Ryazanov, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The algorithm is described for processing the multi-dimensional experiments on measurements of prompt emission of neutrons from separate fission fragments. While processing the data the effect of a number of experimental corrections is correctly taken into account; random coincidence background, neutron spectrum, neutron detector efficiency, instrument angular resolution. On the basis of the described algorithm a program for BESM-4 computer is realized and the treatment of experimental data is performed according to the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf

  1. An improved rank based disease prediction using web navigation patterns on bio-medical databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying machine learning techniques to on-line biomedical databases is a challenging task, as this data is collected from large number of sources and it is multi-dimensional. Also retrieval of relevant document from large repository such as gene document takes more processing time and an increased false positive rate. Generally, the extraction of biomedical document is based on the stream of prior observations of gene parameters taken at different time periods. Traditional web usage models such as Markov, Bayesian and Clustering models are sensitive to analyze the user navigation patterns and session identification in online biomedical database. Moreover, most of the document ranking models on biomedical database are sensitive to sparsity and outliers. In this paper, a novel user recommendation system was implemented to predict the top ranked biomedical documents using the disease type, gene entities and user navigation patterns. In this recommendation system, dynamic session identification, dynamic user identification and document ranking techniques were used to extract the highly relevant disease documents on the online PubMed repository. To verify the performance of the proposed model, the true positive rate and runtime of the model was compared with that of traditional static models such as Bayesian and Fuzzy rank. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed ranking model is better than the traditional models.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering which was held on September 23-26, 2015 in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. ICNBME-2015 continues the series of International Conferences in the field of nanotechnologies and biomedical engineering. It aims at bringing together scientists and engineers dealing with fundamental and applied research for reporting on the latest theoretical developments and applications involved in the fields. Topics include Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials Plasmonics and metamaterials Bio-micro/nano technologies Biomaterials Biosensors and sensors systems Biomedical instrumentation Biomedical signal processing Biomedical imaging and image processing Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering Clinical engineering, health technology management and assessment; Health informatics, e-health and telemedicine Biomedical engineering education Nuclear and radiation safety and security Innovations and technology transfer...

  3. Thermoforming of film-based biomedical microdevices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmüller, R.K.; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Rivron, N.C.; Gottwald, Eric; Saile, Volker; van den Berg, Albert; Wessling, Matthias; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    For roughly ten years now, a new class of polymer micromoulding processes comes more and more into the focus both of the microtechnology and the biomedical engineering community. These processes can be subsumed under the term "microthermoforming". In microthermoforming, thin polymer films are heated

  4. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  5. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  7. On the design of experimental separation processes for maximum accuracy in the estimation of their parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, Y.

    1980-07-01

    The optimal design of experimental separation processes for maximum accuracy in the estimation of process parameters is discussed. The sensitivity factor correlates the inaccuracy of the analytical methods with the inaccuracy of the estimation of the enrichment ratio. It is minimized according to the design parameters of the experiment and the characteristics of the analytical method

  8. Experimental investigation on No-Vent Fill (NVF) process using liquid Nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Seo, Man Su; Yoo, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    For a long-term space mission, filling process of cryogenic liquid propellant is operated on a space vehicle in space. A vent process during transfer and filling of cryogenic propellant is needed to maintain the fuel tank pressure at a safe level due to its volatile characteristic. It is possible that both liquid and vapor phases of the cryogenic propellant are released simultaneously to outer space when the vent process occurs under low gravity environment. As a result, the existing filling process with venting not only accompanies wasting liquid propellant, but also consumes extra fuel to compensate for the unexpected momentum originated from the vent process. No-Vent Fill (NVF) method, a filling procedure without a venting process of cryogenic liquid propellant, is an attractive technology to perform a long-term space mission. In this paper, the preliminary experimental results of the NVF process are described. The experimental set-up consists of a 9-liter cryogenic liquid receiver tank and a supply tank. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used to simulate the behavior of cryogenic propellant. The whole situation in the receiver tank during NVF is monitored. The major experimental parameter in the experiment is the mass flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The experimental results demonstrate that as the mass flow rate is increased, NVF process is conducted successfully. The quality and the inlet temperature of the injected LN2 are affected by the mass flow rate. These parameters determine success of NVF.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  10. Luminescent nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Jana M; van Vreden, Caryn; Reilly, David J; Brown, Louise J; Rabeau, James R; King, Nicholas J C

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, nanodiamonds have emerged from primarily an industrial and mechanical applications base, to potentially underpinning sophisticated new technologies in biomedical and quantum science. Nanodiamonds are relatively inexpensive, biocompatible, easy to surface functionalise and optically stable. This combination of physical properties are ideally suited to biological applications, including intracellular labelling and tracking, extracellular drug delivery and adsorptive detection of bioactive molecules. Here we describe some of the methods and challenges for processing nanodiamond materials, detection schemes and some of the leading applications currently under investigation.

  11. Processing considerations with plasma-based ion implantation of polymers: theoretical aspects, limitations, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-01-01

    Processing of polymers using plasma-based ion implantation techniques (PBII) has general implications in terms of plasma specifications and pulse characteristics. In particular, the different aspects of the processing of polymer layers are discussed as functions of plasma density, pulse duration, and layer characteristics (thickness and permittivity). Clearly, severe limitations (true implantation energy, arcing) may appear for high-density plasmas as well as for long pulse durations, when processing polymer layers with thickness in the mm range. A review of the experimental results of ion implantation in polymeric materials via PBII processing is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of processing polymer layers with the PBII technique, but with severe limitations resulting from the process itself

  12. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  13. Globalizing and crowdsourcing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-12-01

    Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing of medical research has emerged as a novel paradigm for many biomedical disciplines to rapidly collect, process and interpret data from high-throughput and high-dimensional experiments. The novelty and promise of these approaches have led to fundamental discoveries about RNA mechanisms, microbiome dynamics and even patient interpretation of test results. However, these methods require robust training protocols, uniform sampling methods and experimental rigor in order to be useful for subsequent research efforts. Executed correctly, crowdfunding and crowdsourcing can leverage public resources and engagement to generate support for scientific endeavors that would otherwise be impossible due to funding constraints and or the large number of participants needed for data collection. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of scientific studies that utilized crowdsourcing and crowdfunding to generate data. We also discuss our own experiences conducting citizen-science research initiatives (MetaSUB and PathoMap) in ensuring data robustness, educational outreach and public engagement. We demonstrate the efficacy of crowdsourcing mechanisms for revolutionizing microbiome and metagenomic research to better elucidate the microbial and genetic dynamics of cities around the world (as well as non-urban areas). Crowdsourced studies have been able to create an improved and unprecedented ability to monitor, design and measure changes at the microbial and macroscopic scale. Thus, the use of crowdsourcing strategies has dramatically altered certain genomics research to create global citizen-science initiatives that reveal new discoveries about the world's genetic dynamics. The effectiveness of crowdfunding and crowdsourcing is largely dependent on the study design and methodology. One point of contention for the present discussion is the validity and scientific rigor of data that are generated by non-scientists. Selection bias, limited sample

  14. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  15. Biomedical Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Biomedical Image Registration, WBIR 2018, held in Leiden, The Netherlands, in June 2018. The 11 full and poster papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 17 submitted papers. The pap...

  16. Biomedical Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, N.; Combi, C.; Tucker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the special topic of Methods of Information in Medicine on data mining in biomedicine, with selected papers from two workshops on Intelligent Data Analysis in bioMedicine (IDAMAP) held in Verona (2006) and Amsterdam (2007). Methods: Defining the field of biomedical data

  17. Careers in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, R E; Rotger, V I; Herrera, M C

    2010-01-01

    Although biomedical engineering was started in Argentina about 35 years ago, it has had a sustained growth for the last 25 years in human resources, with the emergence of new undergraduate and postgraduate careers, as well as in research, knowledge, technological development, and health care.

  18. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  19. Biomedical research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The biomedical research Panel believes that the Calutron facility at Oak Ridge is a national and international resource of immense scientific value and of fundamental importance to continued biomedical research. This resource is essential to the development of new isotope uses in biology and medicine. It should therefore be nurtured by adequate support and operated in a way that optimizes its services to the scientific and technological community. The Panel sees a continuing need for a reliable supply of a wide variety of enriched stable isotopes. The past and present utilization of stable isotopes in biomedical research is documented in Appendix 7. Future requirements for stable isotopes are impossible to document, however, because of the unpredictability of research itself. Nonetheless we expect the demand for isotopes to increase in parallel with the continuing expansion of biomedical research as a whole. There are a number of promising research projects at the present time, and these are expected to lead to an increase in production requirements. The Panel also believes that a high degree of priority should be given to replacing the supplies of the 65 isotopes (out of the 224 previously available enriched isotopes) no longer available from ORNL

  20. Experimental demonstration of selective quantum process tomography on an NMR quantum information processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Akshay; Rehal, Diksha; Singh, Amandeep; Arvind, Dorai, Kavita

    2018-02-01

    We present the NMR implementation of a scheme for selective and efficient quantum process tomography without ancilla. We generalize this scheme such that it can be implemented efficiently using only a set of measurements involving product operators. The method allows us to estimate any element of the quantum process matrix to a desired precision, provided a set of quantum states can be prepared efficiently. Our modified technique requires fewer experimental resources as compared to the standard implementation of selective and efficient quantum process tomography, as it exploits the special nature of NMR measurements to allow us to compute specific elements of the process matrix by a restrictive set of subsystem measurements. To demonstrate the efficacy of our scheme, we experimentally tomograph the processes corresponding to "no operation," a controlled-NOT (CNOT), and a controlled-Hadamard gate on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with high fidelities.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Phase Sensitive Parametric Processes in a Nano-Engineered Silicon Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning; Fadil, Ahmed; Pu, Minhao

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally phase-sensitive processes in nano-engineered silicon waveguides for the first time. Furthermore, we highlight paths towards the optimization of the phase-sensitive extinction ratio under the impact of two-photon and free-carrier absorption.......We demonstrate experimentally phase-sensitive processes in nano-engineered silicon waveguides for the first time. Furthermore, we highlight paths towards the optimization of the phase-sensitive extinction ratio under the impact of two-photon and free-carrier absorption....

  2. Liquid Crystals, PIV and IR-Photography in Selected Technical and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiek, Jan; Jewartowski, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC), Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Infrared Imaging Themography (IR) and True-Colour Digital Image Processing (TDIP) have been successfully used in non-intrusive technical, industrial and biomedical studies and applications. These four tools (based on the desktop computers) have come together during the past two decades to produce a powerful advanced experimental technique as a judgment of quality of information that cannot be obtained from any other imaging procedure. The brief summary of the history of this technique is reviewed, principal methods and tools are described and some examples are presented. With this objective, a new experimental technique have been developed and applied to the study of heat and mass transfer and for biomedical diagnosis. Automated evaluation allows determining the heat and flow visualisation and locate the area of suspicious tissue of human body.

  3. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes; Diseno experimental para la caracterizacion de los procesos de hidratacion de la bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J.M.

    2001-07-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Application of an automated natural language processing (NLP) workflow to enable federated search of external biomedical content in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Robin; Szalkowski, Debbie; Butler, James; Kuo, Michelle S; Chang, Meiping; Chang, Man; Freeman, Darren; McQuay, Sarah; Patel, Jagruti; McGlashen, Michael; Cornell, Wendy D; Xu, Jinghai James

    2016-05-01

    External content sources such as MEDLINE(®), National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and conference websites provide access to the latest breaking biomedical information, which can inform pharmaceutical and biotechnology company pipeline decisions. The value of the sites for industry, however, is limited by the use of the public internet, the limited synonyms, the rarity of batch searching capability and the disconnected nature of the sites. Fortunately, many sites now offer their content for download and we have developed an automated internal workflow that uses text mining and tailored ontologies for programmatic search and knowledge extraction. We believe such an efficient and secure approach provides a competitive advantage to companies needing access to the latest information for a range of use cases and complements manually curated commercial sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Assessing the practice of biomedical ontology evaluation: Gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amith, Muhammad; He, Zhe; Bian, Jiang; Lossio-Ventura, Juan Antonio; Tao, Cui

    2018-04-01

    With the proliferation of heterogeneous health care data in the last three decades, biomedical ontologies and controlled biomedical terminologies play a more and more important role in knowledge representation and management, data integration, natural language processing, as well as decision support for health information systems and biomedical research. Biomedical ontologies and controlled terminologies are intended to assure interoperability. Nevertheless, the quality of biomedical ontologies has hindered their applicability and subsequent adoption in real-world applications. Ontology evaluation is an integral part of ontology development and maintenance. In the biomedicine domain, ontology evaluation is often conducted by third parties as a quality assurance (or auditing) effort that focuses on identifying modeling errors and inconsistencies. In this work, we first organized four categorical schemes of ontology evaluation methods in the existing literature to create an integrated taxonomy. Further, to understand the ontology evaluation practice in the biomedicine domain, we reviewed a sample of 200 ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) BioPortal-the largest repository for biomedical ontologies-and observed that only 15 of these ontologies have documented evaluation in their corresponding inception papers. We then surveyed the recent quality assurance approaches for biomedical ontologies and their use. We also mapped these quality assurance approaches to the ontology evaluation criteria. It is our anticipation that ontology evaluation and quality assurance approaches will be more widely adopted in the development life cycle of biomedical ontologies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster in Biomedical Optics: honouring Professor Valery Tuchin, Saratov University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruikang K.; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-07-01

    To honour Professor Valery Tuchin, one of the pioneers in biomedical optics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics invites manuscript submissions on topics in biomedical optics, for publication in a Special section in May 2005. Papers may cover a variety of topics related to photon propagation in turbid media, spectroscopy and imaging. This Special cluster will reflect the diversity, breadth and impact of Professor Tuchin's contributions to the field of biomedical optics over the course of his distinguished career. Biomedical optics is a recently emerged discipline providing a broad variety of optical techniques and instruments for diagnostic, therapeutic and basic science applications. Together with contributions from other pioneers in the field, Professor Tuchin's work on fundamental and experimental aspects in tissue optics contributed enormously to the formation of this exciting field. Although general submissions in biomedical optics are invited, the Special cluster Editors especially encourage submissions in areas that are explicitly or implicitly influenced by Professor Tuchin's contributions to the field of biomedical optics. Manuscripts submitted to this Special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal, in accordance with the following schedule: Deadline for receipt of contributed papers: 31 November 2004 Deadline for acceptance and completion of refereeing process: 28 February 2005 Publication of special issue: May 2005 Please submit your manuscript electronically to jphysd@iop.org or via the Web site at www.iop.org/Journals. Otherwise, please send a copy of your typescript, a set of original figures and a cover letter to: The Publishing Administrator, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, United Kingdom. Further information on how to submit may be obtained upon request by e-mailing the

  7. Finding and accessing diagrams in biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts.

  8. Analysis of experimental researches of wood gasification process in a continuous layer

    OpenAIRE

    Lys, Stepan; Rymar, Tetyana; Yurasova, Oksana; Bura, Mykhaylo

    2017-01-01

    For today are known quite a bit methods redoing of wood and its wastes in energy, but one of the most perspective is gasification. The construction of the gazogene, on which the row of experiments is conducted with the aim of determination of conformity to law of influence of entrance factors which influence on the process of gasification and on quality of synthesis-gas, was worked out for this purpose. The statistical processing of experimental data enables to define ...

  9. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  10. The UO2 pellets plant experimental background of the established process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio Arroyo, E.; Alonso Folgueras, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    An account of the UO 2 research and development carried out at the JEN is first given. This includes a 10 tons/year pellet Plant construction. Experimental background of the process is established, pointing out both milling advantages and risks, granulation devices, automatic press selection, binder removing and sintering furnaces. Origin, surface area, grain size and 0/U rate are considered as raw material reception parameters, although this process shows a wide scope. (Author) 13 refs

  11. Experimental photonic generation of chirped pulses using nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a chirped microwave pulses generator based on the processing of an incoherent optical signal by means of a nonlinear dispersive element. Different capabilities have been demonstrated such as the control of the time-bandwidth product and the frequency tuning increasing the flexibility of the generated waveform compared to coherent techniques. Moreover, the use of differential detection improves considerably the limitation over the signal-to-noise ratio related to incoherent processing.

  12. Investigation of the process energy demand in polymer extrusion: A brief review and an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeykoon, Chamil; Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Vera-Sorroche, Javier; Coates, Phil D.; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Howell, Ken B.; Deng, Jing; Li, Kang; Price, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption and losses in polymer extrusion are discussed. • This compares energy consumption in polymer extrusion at different conditions. • The role of power factor on energy efficiency in polymer extrusion is explored. • Empirical models on extruder energy consumption are provided. • Computer modelling of energy consumption of polymer extrusion is performed. - Abstract: Extrusion is one of the fundamental production methods in the polymer processing industry and is used in the production of a large number of commodities in a diverse industrial sector. Being an energy intensive production method, process energy efficiency is one of the major concerns and the selection of the most energy efficient processing conditions is a key to reducing operating costs. Usually, extruders consume energy through the drive motor, barrel heaters, cooling fans, cooling water pumps, gear pumps, etc. Typically the drive motor is the largest energy consuming device in an extruder while barrel/die heaters are responsible for the second largest energy demand. This study is focused on investigating the total energy demand of an extrusion plant under various processing conditions while identifying ways to optimise the energy efficiency. Initially, a review was carried out on the monitoring and modelling of the energy consumption in polymer extrusion. Also, the power factor, energy demand and losses of a typical extrusion plant were discussed in detail. The mass throughput, total energy consumption and power factor of an extruder were experimentally observed over different processing conditions and the total extruder energy demand was modelled empirically and also using a commercially available extrusion simulation software. The experimental results show that extruder energy demand is heavily coupled between the machine, material and process parameters. The total power predicted by the simulation software exhibits a lagging offset compared with the

  13. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  14. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  15. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  16. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  17. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  18. Experimental design and instability analysis of coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of drugs and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Zhang, Leilei; Li, Guangbin; Roberts, Cynthia J; Yin, Xiezhen; Xu, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy requires multilayered microparticles that encapsulate several imaging and therapeutic agents in the same carrier. However, commonly used microencapsulation processes have multiple limitations such as low encapsulation efficiency and loss of bioactivity for the encapsulated biological cargos. To overcome these limitations, we have carried out both experimental and theoretical studies on coaxial electrospray of multilayered microparticles. On the experimental side, an improved coaxial electrospray setup has been developed. A customized coaxial needle assembly combined with two ring electrodes has been used to enhance the stability of the cone and widen the process parameter range of the stable cone-jet mode. With this assembly, we have obtained poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles with fine morphology and uniform size distribution. On the theoretical side, an instability analysis of the coaxial electrified jet has been performed based on the experimental parameters. The effects of process parameters on the formation of different unstable modes have been studied. The reported experimental and theoretical research represents a significant step toward quantitative control and optimization of the coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy.

  19. Modeling of air-gap membrane distillation process: A theoretical and experimental study

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2013-06-03

    A one dimensional (1-D) air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) model for flat sheet type modules has been developed. This model is based on mathematical equations that describe the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a single-stage AGMD process. It can simulate AGMD modules in both co-current and counter-current flow regimes. The theoretical model was validated using AGMD experimental data obtained under different operating conditions and parameters. The predicted water vapor flux was compared to the flux measured at five different feed water temperatures, two different feed water salinities, three different air gap widths and two MD membranes with different average pore sizes. This comparison showed that the model flux predictions are strongly correlated with the experimental data, with model predictions being within +10% of the experimentally determined values. The model was then used to study and analyze the parameters that have significant effect on scaling-up the AGMD process such as the effect of increasing the membrane length, and feed and coolant flow rates. The model was also used to analyze the maximum thermal efficiency of the AGMD process by tracing changes in water production rate and the heat input to the process along the membrane length. This was used to understand the gain in both process production and thermal efficiency for different membrane surface areas and the resultant increases in process capital and water unit cost. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  1. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  2. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  3. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  4. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to ensure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  5. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to assure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Experimental Investigation into Vibration Characteristics for Damage Minimization in a Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suwatthikul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lapping machines are used in a hard disk rough lapping process where a workpiece (a wafer row bar is locked with a robot arm and rubbed on a lap plate. In this process, the lap plate’s condition and lifetime are among important concerned factors. The lifetime can be too short due to the plate being accidentally scratched by the workpiece during lapping. This problem leads to undesired consequences such as machine downtime and excessive plate material usage. This paper presents an experimental investigation into vibration characteristics of passed and failed lapping scenarios and discusses a potential solution to minimize the serious damage so-called “plate scratch” which intermittently occurs in such process. The experimental results show that, by in situ monitoring vibration and utilizing artificial intelligence, damage minimization can be possible.

  7. Data acquisition, processing and display of experimental data for the Tokamak de Varennes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, E.S.; Larsen, J.M.; Lee, A.; Somers, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak de Varennes is to be a national facility for research into magnetic nuclear fusion. A centralised computer system is currently under development to facilitate the remote control, acquisition, processing and display of experimental data. The software (GALE-V) consists of a set of tasks to build data structures which mirror the physical arrangement of each experiment and provide the bases for the interpretation and presentation of the data to each experimenter. Data retrieval is accomplished through the graphics subsystem, and an interface for user-written data processing programs allows for the varied needs of data analysis of each experiment. Other facilities being developed provide the tools for a user to retrieve, process and view the data in a simple manner

  8. Experimental analysis of influence of different lubricants types on the multi-phase ironing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LUBRICANTS TYPES ON THE MULTI-PHASE IRONING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  10. Experimental validation of thermo-chemical algorithm for a simulation of pultrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkanov, E.; Akishin, P.; Miazza, N. L.; Galvez, S.; Pantelelis, N.

    2018-04-01

    To provide better understanding of the pultrusion processes without or with temperature control and to support the pultrusion tooling design, an algorithm based on the mixed time integration scheme and nodal control volumes method has been developed. At present study its experimental validation is carried out by the developed cure sensors measuring the electrical resistivity and temperature on the profile surface. By this verification process the set of initial data used for a simulation of the pultrusion process with rod profile has been successfully corrected and finally defined.

  11. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the process experimental pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process

  12. An Experimental Study of Force Involved in Manual Rebar Bending Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Sasi; Vishnu, Rajendran S.; Harish, Mohan T.; Bhavani, Rao R.

    2018-02-01

    The work presents an experimental method of understanding the force applied during a manual rebar bending process. The study tracks the force with the variation of the angle of bend and the elapsed time from the start to the end of a complete manual rebar bending process. A sample of expert rebar bending labourers are used for conducting the experiment and the data processed to set a performance standard. If a simulator based rebar bending training can be provided for a novice, this standard can be used as a matrix to define how close a novice rebar bender is closing to the expertise.

  13. Experimental Study on Meso-Scale Milling Process Using Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P. H.; Nam, T. S.; Li, Cheng Jun; Lee, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the characteristics of micro- and meso-scale milling processes in which compressed cold air, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MoS 2 nanofluid MQL are used. For process characterization, the micro and meso-scale milling experiments are conducted using desktop meso-scale machine tool system and the surface roughness is measured. The experimental results show that the use of compressed chilly air and nanofluid MQL in the micro- and meso-scale milling processes is effective in improving the surface finish

  14. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of a quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process. 2 refs., 7 figs

  15. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  16. Kennedy's Biomedical Laboratory Makes Multi-Tasking Look Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    years). The lab has also actively collaborated with the US Army Institute for Surgical Research, the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, and the USN Naval Experimental Diving Unit. Because the lab often evaluates various forms of commercial-off-the-shelf life support equipment, the laboratory works closely with private companies, both domestic and foreign. The European companies seem to be more proactive and participatory with the advancement of personal protective equipment. Because these companies have viewed the space program's unique need for advanced forms of personal protective equipment, some have responded with new designs based on the prediction that these advances will soon find markets in the commercial sector. Using much of the same skills and equipment, the laboratory also addresses physiological testing of humans by supporting flight experiments and personnel involved with ground processing. While Johnson Space Center is primarily responsible for flight experiments, the Kennedy's Biomedical Lab provides the local support. However, as stated above, there are many challenges facing KSC workers that gain the attention of this lab in the measurement of the problem and the selection and testing of countermeasures. These include respiratory protection, whole body suits, hearing protection and heat stress, among many others.

  17. Experimental verification of the energetic model of the dry mechanical reclamation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of the dry mechanical reclamation process, which constituted the bases for the verification of the energetic model of this process, developed by the author on the grounds of the Rittinger’s deterministic hypothesis of the crushing process, are presented in the paper. Used foundry sands with bentonite, with water-glass from the floster technology and used sands with furan FL 105 resin were used in the reclamation tests. In the mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation a wide range of time variations and reclamation conditions influencing intensity of the reclamation process – covering all possible parameters used in industrial devices - were applied. The developed theoretical model constitutes a new tool allowing selecting optimal times for the reclamation treatment of the given spent foundry sand at the assumed process intensity realized in rotor reclaimers - with leaves or rods as grinding elements mounted horizontally on the rotor axis.

  18. An approach to eliminate stepped features in multistage incremental sheet forming process: Experimental and FEA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirala, Harish Kumar; Jain, Prashant K.; Tandon, Puneet [PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh (India); Roy, J. J.; Samal, M. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a recently developed manufacturing technique. In ISF, forming is done by applying deformation force through the motion of Numerically controlled (NC) single point forming tool on the clamped sheet metal blank. Single Point Incremental sheet forming (SPISF) is also known as a die-less forming process because no die is required to fabricate any component by using this process. Now a day it is widely accepted for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal components. The formability of SPISF process improves by adding some intermediate stages into it, which is known as Multi-stage SPISF (MSPISF) process. However during forming in MSPISF process because of intermediate stages stepped features are generated. This paper investigates the generation of stepped features with simulation and experimental results. An effective MSPISF strategy is proposed to remove or eliminate this generated undesirable stepped features.

  19. Experimental study of the pressure discharge process for the hydraulic control rod drive system stepped cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinhua; Bo, Hanliang; Zheng, Wenxiang

    2002-01-01

    The pressure discharge process from the stepped cylinder of the Hydraulic Control Rod Drive System (HCRDS) was studied experimentally in the HCRDS experimental loop for the 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200). The results showed that the differential pressure between the outside and the inside of the stepped cylinder increased rapidly to the desired value so that the force induced by the differential pressure which pushes the out tube of stepped cylinder was large enough. Therefore, if the hydraulic control rod were jammed, the pressure could push the hydraulic control rod to overcome the frictional resistance to insert the control rod into the reactor core. The experimental results verified that this design would solve the problem of hydraulic control rod jamming during an accident. (author)

  20. The Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Ballizing Process of Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyl T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of experimental and numerical research of ballizing process of the steel tubes. Ballizing process is a method of burnishing technology of an internal diameter by precisely forcing a ball through a slightly undersized pre-machined tubes. Ballizing process is a fast, low-cost process for sizing and finishing tubes. It consists of pressing a slightly oversized ball through an unfinished tube to quickly bring the hole to desired size. The ball is typically made from a very hard material such as tungsten carbide or bearing steel. Ballizing process is by cold surface plastic forming of the surface structure, thereby leaving a layer of harder material and reducing its roughness. After theoretical and experimental analysis it was determined that the smaller the diameter of the balls, the bigger intensity of stress and strain and strain rate. The paper presents influence of ballizing process on the strain and stress state and on the surface roughness reduction rate of the steel tubes.

  1. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  2. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  3. A hybrid model based on neural networks for biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shaowu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Biomedical relation extraction can automatically extract high-quality biomedical relations from biomedical texts, which is a vital step for the mining of biomedical knowledge hidden in the literature. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are two major neural network models for biomedical relation extraction. Neural network-based methods for biomedical relation extraction typically focus on the sentence sequence and employ RNNs or CNNs to learn the latent features from sentence sequences separately. However, RNNs and CNNs have their own advantages for biomedical relation extraction. Combining RNNs and CNNs may improve biomedical relation extraction. In this paper, we present a hybrid model for the extraction of biomedical relations that combines RNNs and CNNs. First, the shortest dependency path (SDP) is generated based on the dependency graph of the candidate sentence. To make full use of the SDP, we divide the SDP into a dependency word sequence and a relation sequence. Then, RNNs and CNNs are employed to automatically learn the features from the sentence sequence and the dependency sequences, respectively. Finally, the output features of the RNNs and CNNs are combined to detect and extract biomedical relations. We evaluate our hybrid model using five public (protein-protein interaction) PPI corpora and a (drug-drug interaction) DDI corpus. The experimental results suggest that the advantages of RNNs and CNNs in biomedical relation extraction are complementary. Combining RNNs and CNNs can effectively boost biomedical relation extraction performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Simulation of In-Situ Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margot Gerritsen; Tony Kovscek

    2008-04-30

    This final technical report describes work performed for the project 'Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Numerical Simulator of In-Situ Combustion Processes', DE-FC26-03NT15405. In summary, this work improved our understanding of in-situ combustion (ISC) process physics and oil recovery. This understanding was translated into improved conceptual models and a suite of software algorithms that extended predictive capabilities. We pursued experimental, theoretical, and numerical tasks during the performance period. The specific project objectives were (i) identification, experimentally, of chemical additives/injectants that improve combustion performance and delineation of the physics of improved performance, (ii) establishment of a benchmark one-dimensional, experimental data set for verification of in-situ combustion dynamics computed by simulators, (iii) develop improved numerical methods that can be used to describe in-situ combustion more accurately, and (iv) to lay the underpinnings of a highly efficient, 3D, in-situ combustion simulator using adaptive mesh refinement techniques and parallelization. We believe that project goals were met and exceeded as discussed.

  5. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  6. Magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sora, Sergiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to establish and to optimize the conditions for chemical synthesis of nanosized magnetic core-shell iron oxide. The core is magnetite and for the shell we used gold in order to obtain different nanoparticles. Iron oxides was synthesized by sonochemical process using ferrous salts, favoring the synthesis at low-temperature, low costs, high material purity and nanostructure control. After synthesis, some investigation techniques as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UVVis absorbance spectroscopy, have been used to see the characteristics of the nanoparticles. For in vitro applications, it is important to prevent any aggregation of the nanoparticles, and may also enable efficient excretion and protection of the cells from toxicity. For biomedical applications like magnetic biofunctional material vectors to target tissues, the particles obtained have to be spherical with 10 nm average diameter. Key words: magnetite, nanocomposite, core-shell, sonochemical method

  7. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  8. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  9. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  10. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  11. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  12. The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications. Part II: milled bone powders, reprecipitated hydroxyapatite and the potential uses of these materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A; Gieland, U; Mucha, H

    2000-11-01

    Further studies on the processing and use of animal-bone-derived calcium phosphate materials in biomedical applications are presented. Bone powders sourced either from the direct crushing and milling of bovine, ovine and cervine bone or after being subjected to defatting and acid digestion/NaOH reprecipitation and sodium hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide treatment of animal bones were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 13C solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometric techniques. Bone powders were trialled for their potential use as a substrate for phosphine coupling and enzyme immobilization as well as a feedstock powder for plasma spraying on titanium metal substrates. Results indicated that enzyme immobilization by phosphine coupling could be successfully achieved on milled cervine bone with the immobilized enzyme retaining some activity. It was found that the presence of impurities normally carried down with the processing of the bone materials (viz., fat and collagen) played an important role in influencing the adsorbency and reactivity of the powders. Plasma spraying studies using reprecipitated bovine-derived powders produced highly adherent coatings on titanium metal, the composition of which was mostly hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) with low levels of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca3(PO4)2) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9) also detected. In general, animal derived calcium phosphate materials constitute a potentially cheaper source of calcium phosphate materials for biomedical applications and make use of a largely under-utilized resource from abattoir wastes. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  13. Experimental Investigation into Suitable Process Conditions for Plastic Injection Molding of Thin-Sheet Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study performs an experimental investigation into the effects of the process parameters on the surface quality of injection molded thin-sheet thermoplastic components. The investigations focus specifically on the shape, number and position of the mold gates, the injection pressure and the injection rate. It can be seen that the gravity force entering point improved filling of the cavity for the same forming time and injection pressure. Moreover, it shows the same injection pressure and packing time, the taper-shape gate yields a better surface appearance than the sheet-shape gate. The experimental results provide a useful source of reference in suitable the process conditions for the injection molding of thin-sheet plastic components.

  14. A computer program for processing experimental Compton profile of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program COMPRO has been developed for processing experimental Compton profile data of solids and liquids generated by inelastic gamma ray scattering using a solid state detector and a multichannel analyser. It also calculates the fourier transform of the profile yielding the one electron autocorrelation function in position space. The theory behind the method of calculation is outlined and the various data processing steps needed to be applied on the raw experimental data have been discussed in detail. A flow chart of the program is given and the various subroutines of the program, method of feeding the input data and the method of presenting the final result are briefly described. The procedure is illustrated by measurement on a polycrystalline sample of manganese. The actual listing of the program along with the test run input data and the test run output data is also given. (M.G.B.)

  15. Experimental Characterization Of The Interaction Between Carbon Fiber Composite Prepregs During The Preforming Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weizhao; Zhang, Zixuan; Lu, Jie; Wang, Q Jane; Su, Xuming; Zeng, Danielle; Mirdamadi, Mansour; Cao, Jian

    2016-04-06

    Carbon fiber composites have received growing attention because of their high performance. One economic method to manufacturing the composite parts is the sequence of forming followed by the compression molding process. In this sequence, the preforming procedure forms the prepreg, which is the composite with the uncured resin, to the product geometry while the molding process cures the resin. Slip between different prepreg layers is observed in the preforming step and this paper reports a method to characterize the properties of the interaction between different prepreg layers, which is critical to predictive modeling and design optimization. An experimental setup was established to evaluate the interactions at various industrial production conditions. The experimental results were analyzed for an in-depth understanding about how the temperature, the relative sliding speed, and the fiber orientation affect the tangential interaction between two prepreg layers. The interaction factors measured from these experiments will be implemented in the computational preforming program.

  16. Experimental Study on Ice Forming Process of Cryogenic Liquid Releasing underwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Xingdong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chuanlin; Zhang, Haoran; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Cryogenic liquid releasing into water would be a process combines hyperactive boiling with ice forming. There are still few researches on the experimental study on the environmental conditions for deciding ice forming speed and liquid surviving state. In this paper, to advance our understanding of ice forming deciding factors in the process of LN2 releasing underwater, a visualization experimental system is built. The results show that the pressure difference significantly influences the ice forming speed and liquid surviving distance, which is observed by the experiment and theoretically analysed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Adding nucleating agent is helpful to provide ice nucleus which can accelerate the ice forming speed. Water flowing has some effect on changing pressure difference, which can affect the ice forming speed and liquid surviving distance.

  17. APPLICATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF A TUNGSTEN CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY MICROEMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. RAMOS

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - In this work, we applied an experimental planning methodology in order to correlate the necessary amounts with the description of the a tungsten extraction process by microemulsions. The result is a mathematical modelling carried out using the Sheffe Net method, where the mixtures concentration values are represented inside an equilateral triangle. The tungsten concentration process occurs in two stages: extraction and reextraction. The extraction stage was determined by monitoring: phase relative volume (Vr, extraction percentage (%E and tungsten concentration in the microemulsion phase (Ctm e. The reextraction phase was determined by monitoring: reextraction percentage (%Re and tungsten concentration in the aqueous phase (Ctaq. Finally, we obtained equations that relate the extraction / reextraction properties to the composition of specific points inside the extraction region, obeying the error limits specified for the acceptance of each parameter. The results were evaluated through the construction of isoresponse diagrams and correlation graphics between experimental values and those obtained through use of equations.

  18. Process analysis of two-layered tube hydroforming with analytical and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedkashi, S. M. Hossein; Panahizadeh R, Valiollah; Xu, Haibin; Kim, Sang Yun; Moon, Young Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Two-layered tubular joints are suitable for special applications. Designing and manufacturing of two layered components require enough knowledge about the tube material behavior during the hydroforming process. In this paper, hydroforming of two-layered tubes is investigated analytically, and the results are verified experimentally. The aim of this study is to derive an analytical model which can be used in the process design. Fundamental equations are written for both of the outer and inner tubes, and the total forming pressure is obtained from these equations. Hydroforming experiments are carried out on two different combinations of materials for inner and outer tubes; case 1: copper/aluminum and case 2: carbon steel/stainless steel. It is observed that experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical model obtained for estimation of forming pressure able to avoid wrinkling.

  19. Nano- and microfabrication for industrial and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.

    2016-01-01

    Nano- and Microfabrication for Industrial and Biomedical Applications, Second Edition, focuses on the industrial perspective on micro- and nanofabrication methods, including large-scale manufacturing, the transfer of concepts from lab to factory, process tolerance, yield, robustness, and cost. The

  20. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  1. Experimental evaluation of contour J integral and energy dissipated in the fracture process zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 129, October (2014), s. 14-25 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060; GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : experimental stress analysis * thin wall material * cohesive zone * J integral * fracture process zone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794414000988

  2. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  3. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: temporal characterization of the induction and reversion process in an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvetti, Natalia R.; Canal, Ana M.; Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Ortega, Hugo H.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous experimental models have been developed for the study of the polycystic ovarian syndrome in the rat. In the present study, the syndrome was induced by exposure to constant light. The process was evaluated during its induction and also during its reversion. The estral cycle was analyzed through the vaginal cytology; reproductive parameters were evaluated by mating, as well as the ovarian morphology. All the animals developed the syndrome after 13 weeks of permanent light. The histolog...

  4. A sense of life: computational and experimental investigations with models of biochemical and evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bud; Daruwala, Raoul-Sam; Zhou, Yi; Ugel, Nadia; Policriti, Alberto; Antoniotti, Marco; Paxia, Salvatore; Rejali, Marc; Rudra, Archisman; Cherepinsky, Vera; Silver, Naomi; Casey, William; Piazza, Carla; Simeoni, Marta; Barbano, Paolo; Spivak, Marina; Feng, Jiawu; Gill, Ofer; Venkatesh, Mysore; Cheng, Fang; Sun, Bing; Ioniata, Iuliana; Anantharaman, Thomas; Hubbard, E Jane Albert; Pnueli, Amir; Harel, David; Chandru, Vijay; Hariharan, Ramesh; Wigler, Michael; Park, Frank; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Lazebnik, Yuri; Winkler, Franz; Cantor, Charles R; Carbone, Alessandra; Gromov, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    We collaborate in a research program aimed at creating a rigorous framework, experimental infrastructure, and computational environment for understanding, experimenting with, manipulating, and modifying a diverse set of fundamental biological processes at multiple scales and spatio-temporal modes. The novelty of our research is based on an approach that (i) requires coevolution of experimental science and theoretical techniques and (ii) exploits a certain universality in biology guided by a parsimonious model of evolutionary mechanisms operating at the genomic level and manifesting at the proteomic, transcriptomic, phylogenic, and other higher levels. Our current program in "systems biology" endeavors to marry large-scale biological experiments with the tools to ponder and reason about large, complex, and subtle natural systems. To achieve this ambitious goal, ideas and concepts are combined from many different fields: biological experimentation, applied mathematical modeling, computational reasoning schemes, and large-scale numerical and symbolic simulations. From a biological viewpoint, the basic issues are many: (i) understanding common and shared structural motifs among biological processes; (ii) modeling biological noise due to interactions among a small number of key molecules or loss of synchrony; (iii) explaining the robustness of these systems in spite of such noise; and (iv) cataloging multistatic behavior and adaptation exhibited by many biological processes.

  5. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users' progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software.

  6. Experimental studies of processes with vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are important for tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, I.; Markelj, S.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.

    2006-01-01

    We are currently conducting a series of different laboratory experimental studies of processes involving vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are relevant to fusion edge plasma. A general overview of our activities is presented together with results of studies of hydrogen recombination on surfaces. This includes vibrational spectroscopy of molecules formed by recombination on metal surfaces exposed to the partially dissociated hydrogen gas and recombination after hydrogen permeation through metal membrane. The goal of these studies is to provide numerical parameters needed for edge plasma modelling and better understanding of plasma wall interaction processes. (author)

  7. Experimental Study of Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using MBR-RO Combined Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hwang, Jiannyang; Leng, Ting; Xue, Gaifeng; Chang, Hongbing

    A membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) combined process was used for advanced treatment of coking wastewater from secondary biological treatment. MBR and RO units' treatment efficiency for the pollution removal were conducted, and effects of raw water conductivity and trans-membrane pressure on water yield and desalination rate in RO unit were investigated in detail. The experimental results proved that MBR-RO combined process ran steadily with good treatment effect, which could obtain stable effluent water quality and met the requirement of "Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment" (GB 50050-2007).

  8. Fine structural observation on repair processes in experimental ulcer of the rat gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takiko

    1982-01-01

    Experimental stomach ulcer of the rat was produced by clamping method. Repair processes of the epithelial and glandular cells were examined by LM, SEM, TEM and autoradiograph with 3 H-thymidine at various times after removal of the clamp. The epithelial cells in the vicinity of the defect consisted of the surface cells with a few mucous granuls, parietal cells, endocrine cells and fibrillovesicular cells of Hammond and LaDuer during repair processes. The chief cells appeared after 12 days. After 5 weeks, the defect was completely covered with the epithelium. All kind of the epithelial cells except fibrillovesicular cells can incorporate thymidine precursor during regeneration. (author)

  9. Experimental study on combined cold forging process of backward cup extrusion and piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Robinson; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    A reduction in material usage of cold forged components while maintaining the functional requirements can be achieved using hollow or tubular preforms. These preforms are used to meet lightweight requirements and to decrease production costs of cold formed components. To increase production efficiency in common multi-stage cold forming processes, manufacturing of hollow preforms by combining the processes backward cup extrusion and piercing was established and will be discussed in this paper. Corresponding investigations and experimental studies are reported in this article. The objectives of the experimental investigations have been the detection of significant process parameters, determination of process limits for the combined processes and validation of the numerical investigations. In addition, the general influence concerning surface quality and diameter tolerance of hollow performs are discussed in this paper. The final goal is to summarize a guideline for industrial application, moreover, to transfer the knowledge to industry, as regards what are required part geometries to reduce the number of forming stages as well as tool cost.

  10. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  11. Prediction of Cutting Force in Turning Process-an Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarasu, S. K.; Shankar, S.; Thomas, A. Tony; Sridhar, G.

    2018-02-01

    This Paper deals with a prediction of Cutting forces in a turning process. The turning process with advanced cutting tool has a several advantages over grinding such as short cycle time, process flexibility, compatible surface roughness, high material removal rate and less environment problems without the use of cutting fluid. In this a full bridge dynamometer has been used to measure the cutting forces over mild steel work piece and cemented carbide insert tool for different combination of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The experiments are planned based on taguchi design and measured cutting forces were compared with the predicted forces in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed design. The percentage contribution of each process parameter had been analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Both the experimental results taken from the lathe tool dynamometer and the designed full bridge dynamometer were analyzed using Taguchi design of experiment and Analysis of Variance.

  12. Theory and experiment in biomedical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    A physicist might regard a person as a collection of electrons and quarks, and a biologist might regard her as an assemblage of biochemical molecules. But according to some speakers at a recent Welch conference [1] biology is a branch of physics. Then biomedical research is a branch of applied physics. Even if one adopts a more modest perspective, it is still true that physics can contribute strongly to biomedical research. An example on the experimental side is the recent studies of G protein-coupled receptors (targeted by more than 50 percent of therapeutic drugs) using synchrotron radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance. On the theory side, one might classify models as microscopic (e.g., simulations of molecules, ions, or electrons), mesoscopic (e.g., simulations of pathways within a cell), or macroscopic (e.g., calculations of processes involving the whole body). We have recently introduced a new macroscopic method for estimating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions, and applied it in a simple model of the response to bariatric surgeries [2]. An amazing effect is that the most widely used bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass) usually leads to remission of type 2 diabetes in days, long before there is any significant weight loss (with further beneficial effects in the subsequent months and years). Our results confirm that this effect can be largely explained by the enhanced post-meal excretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin that increases insulin secretion from the pancreas, but also suggest that other mechanisms are likely to be involved, possibly including an additional insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells. [4pt] [1] Physical Biology, from Atoms to Medicine, edited by Ahmed H. Zewail (Imperial College Press, London, 2008).[0pt] [2] Roland E. Allen, Tyler D. Hughes, Jia Lerd Ng, Roberto D. Ortiz, Michel Abou Ghantous, Othmane Bouhali, Abdelilah Arredouani

  13. Experimental study on the healing process following laser welding of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Mencucci, Rita; Menchini, Ugo; Ambrosini, Stefano; Vannelli, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study evaluating the application of laser welding of the cornea and the subsequent healing process is presented. The welding of corneal wounds is achieved after staining the cut walls with a solution of the chromophore indocyanine green, and irradiating them with a diode laser (810 nm) operating at low power (60 to 90 mW). The result is a localized heating of the cut, inducing controlled welding of the stromal collagen. In order to optimize this technique and to study the healing process, experimental tests, simulating cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty, were performed on rabbits: conventional and laser-induced suturing of corneal wounds were thus compared. A follow-up study 7 to 90 days after surgery was carried out by means of objective and histological examinations, in order to optimize the welding technique and to investigate the subsequent healing process. The analyses of the laser-welded corneas evidenced a faster and more effective restoration of the architecture of the stroma. No thermal damage of the welded stroma was detected, nor were there foreign body reactions or other inflammatory processes. Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  14. Chatter reduction in boring process by using piezoelectric shunt damping with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ufuk; Cigeroglu, Ender; Budak, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    Chatter is a self-excited type of vibration that develops during machining due to process-structure dynamic interactions resulting in modulated chip thickness. Chatter is an important problem as it results in poor surface quality, reduced productivity and tool life. The stability of a cutting process is strongly influenced by the frequency response function (FRF) at the cutting point. In this study, the effect of piezoelectric shunt damping on chatter vibrations in a boring process is studied. In piezoelectric shunt damping method, an electrical impedance is connected to a piezoelectric transducer which is bonded on cutting tool. Electrical impedance of the circuit consisting of piezoceramic transducer and passive shunt is tuned to the desired natural frequency of the cutting tool in order to maximize damping. The optimum damping is achieved in analytical and finite element models (FEM) by using a genetic algorithm focusing on the real part of the tool point FRF rather than the amplitude. Later, a practical boring bar is considered where the optimum circuit parameters are obtained by the FEM. Afterwards, the effect of the optimized piezoelectric shunt damping on the dynamic rigidity and absolute stability limit of the cutting process are investigated experimentally by modal analysis and cutting tests. It is both theoretically and experimentally shown that application of piezoelectric shunt damping results in a significant increase in the absolute stability limit in boring operations.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of the "Deli" cast sheet process used in experimental cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Merski, Jerome A; Oldham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Manufacture of cigarettes results in tobacco by-products, some of which can be processed and added back to cigarettes. Such additions (known as reconstituted tobacco or reconstituted leaf) have been shown to reduce tar yields. A new process (termed "Deli" cast sheet) is a potential refinement of the reconstitution process. Compare toxicity of smoke from experimental cigarettes made with reconstituted leaf with that from cigarettes made with Deli cast sheet. Analytical chemistry, Salmonella mutagenicity and cytotoxicity assays were used to evaluate the composition biological activity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes made with Deli cast sheet or with reconstituted leaf. The effect of different amounts of guar and propylene glycol in Deli cast sheet was also evaluated. Small increases in the amount of nitrogen oxides were found as a result of inclusion of the Deli cast sheet when compared with reconstituted leaf; no differences in cytotoxicity or mutagenicity were found. The Deli process neither significantly modified chemical composition of smoke nor affected its biological activity, as measured by the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity assays used here.

  16. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  17. Experimental Research on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Alloys: Process, Densification and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wei, Zhengying; Wei, Pei; Chen, Shenggui; Lu, Bingheng; Du, Jun; Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Shuzhe

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a set of experiments was designed to investigate the effect of process parameters on the relative density of the AlSi10Mg parts manufactured by SLM. The influence of laser scan speed v, laser power P and hatch space H, which were considered as the dominant parameters, on the powder melting and densification behavior was also studied experimentally. In addition, the laser energy density was introduced to evaluate the combined effect of the above dominant parameters, so as to control the SLM process integrally. As a result, a high relative density (> 97%) was obtained by SLM at an optimized laser energy density of 3.5-5.5 J/mm2. Moreover, a parameter-densification map was established to visually select the optimum process parameters for the SLM-processed AlSi10Mg parts with elevated density and required mechanical properties. The results provide an important experimental guidance for obtaining AlSi10Mg components with full density and gradient functional porosity by SLM.

  18. High-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on the pyrometallurgical processing of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.

  19. Mediator infrastructure for information integration and semantic data integration environment for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, Jeffrey S; Ross, Edward; Little, David; Sanders, Brian; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents current progress in the development of semantic data integration environment which is a part of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN; http://www.nbirn.net) project. BIRN is sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A goal is the development of a cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research that supports advance data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization, and other computing and information processing services over the Internet. Each participating institution maintains storage of their experimental or computationally derived data. Mediator-based data integration system performs semantic integration over the databases to enable researchers to perform analyses based on larger and broader datasets than would be available from any single institution's data. This paper describes recent revision of the system architecture, implementation, and capabilities of the semantically based data integration environment for BIRN.

  20. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; A Iglič; Mazare, A; Schmuki, P; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Mozetič, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO 2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO 2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO 2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  1. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  2. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  3. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  4. Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences publishes in all aspects of biomedical research sciences. Both basic and clinical research papers are welcomed. Vol 23 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Phytochemical And ...

  5. African Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of biomedical Research was founded in 1998 as a joint project ... of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications Group, ... analysis of multidrug resistant aerobic gram-negative clinical isolates from a ... Dental formula and dental abnormalities observed in the Eidolon helvum ...

  6. Experimental data processing technique for nonstationary heat transfer on fuel rod simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.P.; Nikonov, A.P.; Belyukin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Non-stationary heat-transfer data processing is considered in connection with experimental studies of the emergency cooling whereat fuel rod imitators both with direct and indirect shell heating were used. The objective of data processing was obtaining the temperature distribution within the imitator, the heat flux removed by the coolant and the shell-coolant heat-transfer coefficient. The special attention was paid to the temperature distribution calculation at the data processing during the reflooding experiments. In this case two factors are assumed to be known: the time dependency of temperature variation at a certain point within the imitator cross-section and the heat flux at some point of the same cross-section. The initial data preparation for calculations, employing the procedure of smoothing by cubic spline functions, is considered as well, with application of an algorithm reported in the literature, which is efficient for the given functional dependency wherein the deviation in each point is known [ru

  7. Specialized, multi-user computer facility for the high-speed, interactive processing of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maples, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    A proposal has been made to develop a specialized computer facility specifically designed to deal with the problems associated with the reduction and analysis of experimental data. Such a facility would provide a highly interactive, graphics-oriented, multi-user environment capable of handling relatively large data bases for each user. By conceptually separating the general problem of data analysis into two parts, cyclic batch calculations and real-time interaction, a multi-level, parallel processing framework may be used to achieve high-speed data processing. In principle such a system should be able to process a mag tape equivalent of data, through typical transformations and correlations, in under 30 sec. The throughput for such a facility, assuming five users simultaneously reducing data, is estimated to be 2 to 3 times greater than is possible, for example, on a CDC7600

  8. Specialized, multi-user computer facility for the high-speed, interactive processing of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maples, C.C.

    1979-05-01

    A proposal has been made at LBL to develop a specialized computer facility specifically designed to deal with the problems associated with the reduction and analysis of experimental data. Such a facility would provide a highly interactive, graphics-oriented, multi-user environment capable of handling relatively large data bases for each user. By conceptually separating the general problem of data analysis into two parts, cyclic batch calculations and real-time interaction, a multilevel, parallel processing framework may be used to achieve high-speed data processing. In principle such a system should be able to process a mag tape equivalent of data through typical transformations and correlations in under 30 s. The throughput for such a facility, for five users simultaneously reducing data, is estimated to be 2 to 3 times greater than is possible, for example, on a CDC7600. 3 figures

  9. Experimental and computer simulation results of the spot welding process using SORPAS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jader, M A; Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    The highly competitive nature of the automotive industry drives demand for improvements and increased precision engineering in resistance spot welding. Currently there are about 4300 weld points on the average steel vehicle. Current industrial monitoring systems check the quality of the nugget after processing 15 cars, once every two weeks. The nuggets are examined off line using a destructive process, which takes approximately 10 days to complete causing a long delay in the production process. This paper presents a simulation of the spot welding growth curves, along with a comparison to growth curves performed on an industrial spot welding machine. The correlation of experimental results shows that SORPAS simulations can be used as an off line measurement to reduce factory energy usage. The first section in your paper

  10. An experimental approach to estimate operator’s information processing capacity for diagnosing tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Shin, Seung Ki; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Main control room operator’s information processing capacity is determined. • The relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors is described. • The information processing capacity results from the subjective and physiological measures are nearly identical. - Abstract: The objectives of this research are: (1) to determine information processing capacity of an operator in a main control room and (2) to describe the relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors. This research centers on the relationship, as experimentally determined, between an operator’s mental workload and information flow during accident diagnosis tasks at nuclear power plants. Based on this relationship, the operator’s information processing capacity is established. In this paper, the information processing capacity is defined as the operator’s ability to manage the amount of bits in a second when diagnosing tasks or accidents. If the operator’s performance decreases rapidly as the information flow rate (bit/s) increases, it is possible to determine the operator’s information processing capacity. The cognitive information of a diagnosis task can be quantified using an information flow model and the operator’s mental workload is measured by subjective and physiological measures. NASA-TLX (Task Load indeX) is selected as the subjective method and an eye tracking system is used as the physiological measure for the workload. In addition, the information processing capacity related to human factors is investigated. Once the information processing capacity of operators is known, then it will be possible to apply it to predict the operators’ performance, design diagnosis tasks, and design human–machine interface

  11. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-01

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  12. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  13. Role of deep inelastic processes in nuclear physics: experimental and theoretical aspects of deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1979-03-01

    The collective modes excited in deep-inelastic reactions and their natural hierarchy provided by their characteristic relaxation times is described. The relaxation of the mass asymmetry mode is discussed in terms of a diffusion process. Charge distributions and angular distributions as a function of Z calculated with this model are in good agreement with experimental data. This diffusion model also treats the transfer of energy and angular momentum in terms of particle transfer, and is successfully compared with experimental γ-ray multiplicities as a function of both Q-value and mass asymmetry. The angular momentum transfer is again considered in connection with the sequential fission of heavy, deep-inelastic fragments and the excitation of collective modes in the exit channel is considered. The role of the giant E1 mode in the equilibration of the neutron-to-proton ratio is discussed. 39 references

  14. Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting Modern Standards ... like to see in biomedical science in Nigeria; 5) their knowledge of ten state-of-the-arts ... KEY WORDS: biomedical science, state-of-the-arts, technical staff ...

  15. Journal of Biomedical Investigation: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Biomedical Investigation: Editorial Policies. Journal Home ... The focus of the Journal of Biomedical Research is to promote interdisciplinary research across all Biomedical Sciences. It publishes ... Business editor – Sam Meludu.

  16. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters in Drilling LM25 Composites Coated with Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes Using Sonication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites are widely used in automobile components such as cardan shaft of Chevrolet corvette, disc brake and engine push rod. In this experiment a Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites (HMMC are fabricated and drilled. Drilling is the process of making slots in disc brake and thread in the engine parts. The surface quality of the drilled specimen depends on the speed, feed, drill type and the thrust force. Thrust force plays the major role in drilling the specimen. In this experiment HMMCs are fabricated using two processes-called, sonication and casting. Sonication is the process of coating the carbon nanotubes over the silicon carbide particles (SiCp. Semisolid stir casting is used to reinforce the coated SiCp in the LM 25 alloy. A drilling process is performed on HMMC to analyse the extent to which the input parameters influence the thrust force and Ovality. The tools used for drilling are solid carbide tools of three different diameters. Taguchi’s experimental design is adopted for the drilling operation. A mathematical model is used to determine the influence of input parameters on the outputs thrust force and ovality. This paper proves the combination of N3, f1 and d1 of the carbide tool results in the lowest value of thrust force and ovality while drilling HMMCs. In this work the HMMC is prepared by coating the abrasive nature, silicon carbide particle and there is a good interfacial bonding between the reinforced particle and matrix and the drilling process becomes smoother. The new being of this article is the treated ceramics, SiCp with carbon nanotubes. This HMMC shows the improved mechanical properties compared to other metal matrix composites surveyed in the literatures.

  18. Development of an experimental approach to study coupled soil-plant-atmosphere processes using plant analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Andrew C.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Heck, Katharina; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere, soils, and vegetation near the land-atmosphere interface are in a state of continuous dynamic interaction via a myriad of complex interrelated feedback processes which collectively, remain poorly understood. Studying the fundamental nature and dynamics of such processes in atmospheric, ecological, and/or hydrological contexts in the field setting presents many challenges; current experimental approaches are an important factor given a general lack of control and high measurement uncertainty. In an effort to address these issues and reduce overall complexity, new experimental design considerations (two-dimensional intermediate-scale coupled wind tunnel-synthetic aquifer testing using synthetic plants) for studying soil-plant-atmosphere continuum soil moisture dynamics are introduced and tested in this study. Validation of these experimental considerations, particularly the adoption of synthetic plants, is required prior to their application in future research. A comparison of three experiments with bare soil surfaces or transplanted with a Stargazer lily/limestone block was used to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approaches. Results demonstrate that coupled wind tunnel-porous media experimentation, used to simulate field conditions, reduces complexity, and enhances control while allowing fine spatial-temporal resolution measurements to be made using state-of-the-art technologies. Synthetic plants further help reduce system complexity (e.g., airflow) while preserving the basic hydrodynamic functions of plants (e.g., water uptake and transpiration). The trends and distributions of key measured atmospheric and subsurface spatial and temporal variables (e.g., soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature, air velocity) were comparable, showing that synthetic plants can be used as simple, idealized, nonbiological analogs for living vegetation in fundamental hydrodynamic studies.

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT GRINDING PROCESS OF CEMENT CLINKER IN A BALL MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova M.M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of theoretical and experimental research of grinding process of bulk materials in a ball mill. The new method of determination of energy efficiently mode of operation of ball mills in a process of a cement clinker grinding is proposed and experimentally tested.

  20. Customization of biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homo, Julien; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Benbrahim, Allel; Grabar, Natalia; Dupuch, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Within the biomedical area over one hundred terminologies exist and are merged in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, which gives over 1 million concepts. When such huge terminological resources are available, the users must deal with them and specifically they must deal with irrelevant parts of these terminologies. We propose to exploit seed terms and semantic distance algorithms in order to customize the terminologies and to limit within them a semantically homogeneous space. An evaluation performed by a medical expert indicates that the proposed approach is relevant for the customization of terminologies and that the extracted terms are mostly relevant to the seeds. It also indicates that different algorithms provide with similar or identical results within a given terminology. The difference is due to the terminologies exploited. A special attention must be paid to the definition of optimal association between the semantic similarity algorithms and the thresholds specific to a given terminology.

  1. Biomedical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Cruz, Marcos A E; Tovani, Camila B; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications. The chemical and physical properties of the surface of these materials allow their use in diagnosis, biosensing and bioimaging devices, drug delivery systems, and bone substitute implants. The toxicology of these particles is also discussed in the light of a new field referred to as nanotoxicology that studies the surface effects emerging from nanostructured materials.

  2. Computational modeling of the pressurization process in a NASP vehicle propellant tank experimental simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, G. P.; Hochstein, J. I.; Wendl, M. C.; Hardy, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    A multidimensional computational model of the pressurization process in a slush hydrogen propellant storage tank was developed and its accuracy evaluated by comparison to experimental data measured for a 5 ft diameter spherical tank. The fluid mechanic, thermodynamic, and heat transfer processes within the ullage are represented by a finite-volume model. The model was shown to be in reasonable agreement with the experiment data. A parameter study was undertaken to examine the dependence of the pressurization process on initial ullage temperature distribution and pressurant mass flow rate. It is shown that for a given heat flux rate at the ullage boundary, the pressurization process is nearly independent of initial temperature distribution. Significant differences were identified between the ullage temperature and velocity fields predicted for pressurization of slush and those predicted for pressurization of liquid hydrogen. A simplified model of the pressurization process was constructed in search of a dimensionless characterization of the pressurization process. It is shown that the relationship derived from this simplified model collapses all of the pressure history data generated during this study into a single curve.

  3. Biomedical hydrogels biochemistry, manufacture and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels are very important for biomedical applications because they can be chemically manipulated to alter and control the hydrogel's interaction with cells and tissues. Their flexibility and high water content is similar to that of natural tissue, making them extremely suitable for biomaterials applications. Biomedical hydrogels explores the diverse range and use of hydrogels, focusing on processing methods and novel applications in the field of implants and prostheses. Part one of this book concentrates on the processing of hydrogels, covering hydrogel swelling behaviour, superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels and regulation of novel hydrogel products, as well as chapters focusing on the structure and properties of hydrogels and different fabrication technologies. Part two covers existing and novel applications of hydrogels, including chapters on spinal disc and cartilage replacement implants, hydrogels for ophthalmic prostheses and hydrogels for wound healing applications. The role of hydrogels in imag...

  4. Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Electron Beam Selective Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Yan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam selective melting (EBSM is a promising additive manufacturing (AM technology. The EBSM process consists of three major procedures: ① spreading a powder layer, ② preheating to slightly sinter the powder, and ③ selectively melting the powder bed. The highly transient multi-physics phenomena involved in these procedures pose a significant challenge for in situ experimental observation and measurement. To advance the understanding of the physical mechanisms in each procedure, we leverage high-fidelity modeling and post-process experiments. The models resemble the actual fabrication procedures, including ① a powder-spreading model using the discrete element method (DEM, ② a phase field (PF model of powder sintering (solid-state sintering, and ③ a powder-melting (liquid-state sintering model using the finite volume method (FVM. Comprehensive insights into all the major procedures are provided, which have rarely been reported. Preliminary simulation results (including powder particle packing within the powder bed, sintering neck formation between particles, and single-track defects agree qualitatively with experiments, demonstrating the ability to understand the mechanisms and to guide the design and optimization of the experimental setup and manufacturing process.

  5. Development of a fast, lean and agile direct pelletization process using experimental design techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Stavros N; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2017-04-01

    A novel hot melt direct pelletization method was developed, characterized and optimized, using statistical thinking and experimental design tools. Mixtures of carnauba wax (CW) and HPMC K100M were spheronized using melted gelucire 50-13 as a binding material (BM). Experimentation was performed sequentially; a fractional factorial design was set up initially to screen the factors affecting the process, namely spray rate, quantity of BM, rotor speed, type of rotor disk, lubricant-glidant presence, additional spheronization time, powder feeding rate and quantity. From the eight factors assessed, three were further studied during process optimization (spray rate, quantity of BM and powder feeding rate), at different ratios of the solid mixture of CW and HPMC K100M. The study demonstrated that the novel hot melt process is fast, efficient, reproducible and predictable. Therefore, it can be adopted in a lean and agile manufacturing setting for the production of flexible pellet dosage forms with various release rates easily customized between immediate and modified delivery.

  6. Experimental Analysis and Process Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Tuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Removal of carbon dioxide via selective adsorption is a key process to obtain consumer-grade natural gas from biogas and, more generally, CO2 capture and sequestration from gaseous mixtures. The aim of this work is the characterization and classification of a natural alternative to synthetic zeolites that could be used as a carbon dioxide adsorbent. Tuff particulate, easily available as a byproduct of the construction industry, was tested with different laboratory procedures to verify its suitability for CO2 removal applications. Relevant physical and adsorption properties were measured during an intensive experimental campaign. Porosity, pore size distribution, and specific surface area were obtained with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Adsorption isotherms and saturation curves were obtained using two custom experimental apparatuses. The selective adsorption was finally modeled using an original phenomenological parameterization, and a simplified simulation of the process was performed using a computational fluid dynamic approach, validated against observed data. Results show that natural zeolites represent a very promising and sustainable alternative to synthetic zeolites in pressure swing adsorption processes for CO2 removal.

  7. Modelling and experimental investigation of waste tyre pyrolysis process in a laboratory reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudniak Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of waste tyre pyrolysis process is developed in this work. Tyre material decomposition based on a simplified reaction mechanism leads to main product lumps: noncondensable (gas, condensable (pyrolytic oil and solid (char. The model takes into account kinetics of heat and mass transfer in the grain of the shredded rubber material as well as surrounding gas phase. The main reaction routes were modelled as the pseudo-first order reactions with a rate constant calculated from the Arrhenius type equation using literature values of activation energy determined for main tyre constituents based on TG/DTG measurements and tuned pre-exponential parameter values obtained by fitting theoretical predictions to the experimental results obtained in our laboratory reactor. The model was implemented within the CFD software (ANSYS Fluent. The results of numerical simulation of the pyrolysis process revealed non-uniformity of sample’s porosity and temperature. The simulation predictions were in satisfactory agreement with the experimentally measured mass loss of the tyre sample during pyrolysis process investigated in a laboratory reactor.

  8. Experimental Study of Nuclear Security System Components for Achieving the Intrusion Process via Sensor's Network System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kafas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cluster sensors are one of nuclear security system components which are used to detect any intrusion process of the nuclear sites. In this work, an experimental measuring test for sensor performance and procedures are presented. Sensor performance testing performed to determine whether a particular sensor will be acceptable in a proposed design. We have access to a sensors test field in which the sensor of interest is already properly installed and the parameters have been set to optimal levels by preliminary testing. The glass-breakage (G.B) and open door (O.D) sensors construction, operation and design for the investigated nuclear site are explained. Intrusion tests were carried out inside the field areas of the sensors to evaluate the sensor performance during the intrusion process. Experimental trials were performed for achieving the intrusion process via sensor network system. The performance and intrusion senses of cluster sensors inside the internal zones was recorded and evaluated. The obtained results explained that the tested and experimented G.B sensors have a probability of detection P (D) value 65% founded, and 80% P (D) of Open-door sensor

  9. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  10. Biocompatible Nanoemulsions for Improved Aceclofenac Skin Delivery: Formulation Approach Using Combined Mixture-Process Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailović, Tanja; Ðorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranđelović, Danijela; Cekić, Nebojša; Lukić, Milica; Pantelić, Ivana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for effective aceclofenac (ACF) skin delivery utilizing sucrose esters [sucrose palmitate (SP) and sucrose stearate (SS)] as additional stabilizers and penetration enhancers. To find the suitable surfactant mixtures and levels of process variables (homogenization pressure and number of cycles - high pressure homogenization manufacturing method) that result in drug-loaded nanoemulsions with minimal droplet size and narrow size distribution, a combined mixture-process experimental design was employed. Based on optimization data, selected nanoemulsions were evaluated regarding morphology, surface charge, drug-excipient interactions, physical stability, and in vivo skin performances (skin penetration and irritation potential). The predicted physicochemical properties and storage stability were proved satisfying for ACF-loaded nanoemulsions containing 2% of SP in the blend with 0%-1% of SS and 1%-2% of egg lecithin (produced at 50°C/20 cycles/800 bar). Additionally, the in vivo tape stripping demonstrated superior ACF skin absorption from these nanoemulsions, particularly from those containing 2% of SP, 0.5% of SS, and 1.5% of egg lecithin, when comparing with the sample costabilized by conventional surfactant - polysorbate 80. In summary, the combined mixture-process experimental design was shown as a feasible tool for formulation development of multisurfactant-based nanosized delivery systems with potentially improved overall product performances.

  11. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  12. Experimental study of deceleration process of traveling wave direct energy converter for advanced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Hormasa; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takada, Kousuke; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Advanced fusion is attractive in the view point of utilization of high efficiency direct energy conversion from fusion produced ions. Deuterium-helium-3 reaction is the most possible, however, the energy of created fast proton is so enormous that conventional electro-static converters cannot be applied. Use of a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC), the principle of which was inverse process of a linear accelerator, was proposed for recovering energy of the fast protons. In order to realize the TWDEC, the authors are continuing experimental study by employing a small-scale simulator. A TWDEC consists of a modulator and a decelerator. Fast proton beam extracted from a reactor is introduced in the modulator where radio frequency (RF) electrostatic field modulate the beam velocity, and hence, the protons are bunched and density-modulated in the downstream. The density-modulated protons flow into the decelerator where a number of electrodes connected to a transmission circuit are axially aligned. The flowing protons induce RF current which creates RF traveling voltage on the electrodes. The RF traveling field between aligned electrodes decelerates the protons, thus their energy is recovered into RF power. In this paper, deceleration process of TWDEC is experimentally examined. In our experimental simulator, because of the small beam current, the induced potential, i.e. the deceleration field is so weak that the beam cannot be decelerated. Thus, we examined the process by dividing into two: one was induction of the deceleration field by the modulated beam, which was called as passive decelerator. The other was energy recovery through interaction between the deceleration field and the modulated beam. In this latter experiment, the deceleration field was supplied externally, and we called this as active decelerator. As for the active decelerator mode, we performed higher beam energy experiment than previous one. As the beam energy increases, the divergence of

  13. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented

  14. Integrated assessment of thermal hydraulic processes in W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas.kaliatka@lei.lt; Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The model of Ingress of Coolant Event experiment facility was developed using the RELAP5 code. • Calculation results were compared with Ingress of Coolant Event experiment data. • Using gained experience, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X facility was developed. • Performed analysis approved pressure increase protection system for LOCA event. - Abstract: Energy received from the nuclear fusion reaction is one of the most promising options for generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future. However, physical and technical problems existing in this technology are complicated. Several experimental nuclear fusion devices around the world have already been constructed, and several are under construction. However, the processes in the cooling system of the in-vessel components, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system of nuclear fusion devices are not widely studied. The largest amount of radioactive materials is concentrated in the vacuum vessel of the fusion device. Vacuum vessel is designed for the vacuum conditions inside the vessel. Rupture of the in-vessel components of the cooling system pipe may lead to a sharp pressure increase and possible damage of the vacuum vessel. To prevent the overpressure, the pressure increase protection system should be designed and implemented. Therefore, systematic and detailed experimental and numerical studies, regarding the thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system, are important and relevant. In this article, the numerical investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling systems of in-vessel components, vacuum vessels and pressure increase protection system of fusion devices is presented. Using the experience gained from the modelling of “Ingress of Coolant Event” experimental facilities, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experimental fusion device was developed. The integrated analysis of the

  15. Experimental verification of preset time count rate meters based on adaptive digital signal processing algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental verifications of two optimized adaptive digital signal processing algorithms implemented in two pre set time count rate meters were per formed ac cording to appropriate standards. The random pulse generator realized using a personal computer, was used as an artificial radiation source for preliminary system tests and performance evaluations of the pro posed algorithms. Then measurement results for background radiation levels were obtained. Finally, measurements with a natural radiation source radioisotope 90Sr-90Y, were carried out. Measurement results, con ducted without and with radio isotopes for the specified errors of 10% and 5% showed to agree well with theoretical predictions.

  16. Induction methods and formation process of experimental myopia in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Duo Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myopia, especially high myopia, is one of the most important eye diseases in the world. For many years the researchers established a variety of animal models and animal experiments to explore the mechanism of development of myopia. Guinea pig is one of the most commonly used myopia models in recent years. It has obvious advantages in many aspects, and it is a kind of experimental animals which is worth to be further applied to different kinds of myopic experiments and to be studied thoroughly. This article reviews the induction methods and the forming process of the guinea pig myopia model.

  17. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar...

  18. Nanodiamonds of Laser Synthesis for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevedentseva, E; Peer, D; Uvarov, V; Zousman, B; Levinson, O

    2015-02-01

    In recent decade detonation nanodiamonds (DND), discovered 50 years ago and used in diverse technological processes, have been actively applied in biomedical research as a drug and gene delivery carrier, a contrast agent for bio-imaging and diagnostics and an adsorbent for protein separation and purification. In this work we report about nanodiamonds of high purity produced by laser assisted technique, compare them with DND and consider the prospect and advantages of their use in the said applications.

  19. Design of biomedical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Design. Fundamental Design Tools. Design Team Management, Reporting, and Documentation. Product Definition. Product Documentation. Product Development. Hardware Development Methods and Tools. Software Development Methods and Tools. Human Factors. Industrial Design. Biomaterials and Material Testing. Safety Engineering: Devices and Processes. Testing. Analysis of Test Data. Reliability and Liability. Food and Drug Administration. Regulations and Standards. Licensing, Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Secrets. Manufacturing and Quality Control. Miscellaneous Issues. Product Issues. Professional Issues. Design Case Studies. Future Design Issues.

  20. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  1. Examining pitch and numerical magnitude processing in congenital amusia: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2016-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a developmental disorder associated with deficits in pitch height discrimination or in integrating pitch sequences into melodies. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated whether there is an association between pitch and numerical processing deficits in congenital amusia. Since pitch height discrimination is considered a form of magnitude processing, we investigated whether individuals with amusia present an impairment in numerical magnitude processing, which would reflect damage to a generalized magnitude system. Alternatively, we investigated whether the numerical processing deficit would reflect a disconnection between nonsymbolic and symbolic number representations. This study was conducted with 11 adult individuals with congenital amusia and a control comparison group of 6 typically developing individuals. Participants performed nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude comparisons and number line tasks. Results were available from previous testing using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and a pitch change detection task (PCD). Compared to the controls, individuals with amusia exhibited no significant differences in their performance on both the number line and the nonsymbolic magnitude tasks. Nevertheless, they showed significantly worse performance on the symbolic magnitude task. Moreover, individuals with congenital amusia, who presented worse performance in the Meter subtest, also presented less precise nonsymbolic numerical representation. The relationship between meter and nonsymbolic numerical discrimination could indicate a general ratio processing deficit. The finding of preserved nonsymbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and mental number line representations, with impaired symbolic number processing, in individuals with congenital amusia indicates that (a) pitch height and numerical magnitude processing may not share common neural representations, and (b) in addition to pitch processing, individuals with

  2. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  3. Experimental investigation on influence of porous material properties on drying process by a hot air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Filippeschi, S

    2012-01-01

    The drying process of porous media is a subject of scientific interest, and different mathematical approaches can be found in the literature. A previous paper by the same authors showed that the celebrated Martin correlation for hot air jet heat and mass transfer yields different degrees of accuracy (from 15% to 65%, increasing at high values of input power) if tested on different fabrics, the remaining conditions being the same. In this paper the fabric drying has been experimentally investigated more in depth. A dedicated experimental apparatus for hot jet drying was assembled and operated, in which a hot jet impinges perpendicularly onto a wet fabric. A calibrated orifice was adopted to measure the jet flow rate, with an accuracy better than 3%. The drying power was determined by continuously weighing with a precision scale a moistened patch exposed to the drying jet. The effect of the time of the exposure and the initial amount of water has been evaluated for each sample. During the hot jet exposure, the temperature distribution over the wet patch has been observed by an infrared thermo-camera. A mathematical model of water transport inside and outside the fabric was developed, in order to evidence the governing transport resistances. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the experimental results, and showed the necessity to modify correlations and models accounting for fabric properties.

  4. Absorption process of a falling film on a tubular absorber: An experimental and numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Raisul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak Campus Malaysia, CDT 250, 98009 Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical analysis of the combined heat and mass transfer processes that take place in the absorber of vapor absorption cooling systems. The effect of the main operating variables such as solution inlet temperature, solution flow rate, coolant inlet temperature, coolant flow rate and absorber vapor pressure on the performance of absorber is experimentally investigated. A mathematical model that takes account of the geometrical details of the solution and coolant flow is developed following the traditional heat exchanger analysis to obtain additional information on the performance of the absorber. The governing equations are solved analytically using Laplace Transformation technique. The variations of the concentration of solution and the temperature of the coolant and solution after each horizontal tube are analyzed. There is satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the analytical model and the experimental results. The serpentine arrangement of the coolant flow in the absorber tubes results in a temperature and concentration variation of the solution mainly along the height of the absorber. (author)

  5. Solar desalination using humidification-dehumidification processes. Part II. An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A.S.; Fath, H.E.S.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Soliman, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a humidification-dehumidification desalination (HDD) process using solar energy at the weather conditions of Suez City, Egypt, is presented. A test rig is designed and constructed to conduct this investigation under different environmental and operating conditions. The test rig consists of a solar water heater (concentrator solar collector type), solar air heater (flat plate solar collector type), humidifier tower and dehumidifier exchanger. Different variables are examined including the feed water flow rate, the air flow rate, the cooling water flow rate in the dehumidifier and the weather conditions. Comparisons between the experimental results and other published results are presented. It is found that the results of the developed mathematical model by the same authors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The tested results show that the productivity of the system is strongly affected by the saline water temperature at the inlet to the humidifier, dehumidifier cooling water flow rate, air flow rate and solar intensity. The wind speed and ambient temperature variation were found to have a very small effect on the system productivity. A general correlation is developed to predict the unit productivity under different operating conditions. The results of this correlation have a reasonable confidence level (maximum error ±6%)

  6. Experimental study and artificial neural network modeling of tartrazine removal by photocatalytic process under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebti, Aicha; Souahi, Fatiha; Mohellebi, Faroudja; Igoud, Sadek

    2017-07-01

    This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO 2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks. While negligible mineralization is demonstrated, the experimental results show that under sunlight irradiation, 85% of tartrazine is removed after 300 min using only 0.3 g/L of TiO 2 powder. Therefore, irradiation time is prolonged and almost 66% of total organic carbon is reduced after 15 hours. ANN 5-8-1 with Bayesian regulation back-propagation algorithm and hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function is found to be able to predict the response with high accuracy. In addition, the connection weights approach is used to assess the importance contribution of each input variable on the ANN model response. Among the five experimental parameters, the irradiation time has the greatest effect on the removal efficiency of tartrazine.

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of Conventional Materials at Experimental Conditions of Deep Drawing Technological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, N.; Pashkouleva, D.; Kavardzhikov, V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigations on the mechanical behaviour of body-centred-cubic (BCC) and face-centred-cubic (FCC)-conventionally structured sheet metalic-metalic materials under stress-strain conditions of a deep drawing process determined by a coefficient close to the limiting one for Steel 08 and punch diameter of 50 mm. The mechanical characteristics of the investigated materials are identified by one-dimensional tension tests. The materials' responses, as results of identical loading conditions, are described by the change of blank sizes and characteristics of the forming processes. The chosen deformation path ensures obtaining a qualitative steel piece and leads to failures of aluminium and brass blanks. The reported results could be useful for investigations and predictions of the mechanical responses of such type metallic structures applying microscopic instrumented observations and numerical simulations.

  8. Asymmetrical Responses of Ecosystem Processes to Positive Versus Negative Precipitation Extremes: a Replicated Regression Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, A. J.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heightened climatic variability due to atmospheric warming is forecast to increase the frequency and severity of climate extremes. In particular, changes to interannual variability in precipitation, characterized by increases in extreme wet and dry years, are likely to impact virtually all terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to date experimental approaches have yet to explicitly test how ecosystem processes respond to multiple levels of climatic extremity, limiting our understanding of how ecosystems will respond to forecast increases in the magnitude of climate extremes. Here we report the results of a replicated regression experimental approach, in which we imposed 9 and 11 levels of growing season precipitation amount and extremity in mesic grassland during 2015 and 2016, respectively. Each level corresponded to a specific percentile of the long-term record, which produced a large gradient of soil moisture conditions that ranged from extreme wet to extreme dry. In both 2015 and 2016, asymptotic responses to water availability were observed for soil respiration. This asymmetry was driven in part by transitions between soil moisture versus temperature constraints on respiration as conditions became increasingly dry versus increasingly wet. In 2015, aboveground net primary production (ANPP) exhibited asymmetric responses to precipitation that largely mirrored those of soil respiration. In total, our results suggest that in this mesic ecosystem, these two carbon cycle processes were more sensitive to extreme drought than to extreme wet years. Future work will assess ANPP responses for 2016, soil nutrient supply and physiological responses of the dominant plant species. Future efforts are needed to compare our findings across a diverse array of ecosystem types, and in particular how the timing and magnitude of precipitation events may modify the response of ecosystem processes to increasing magnitudes of precipitation extremes.

  9. Cloud Based Metalearning System for Predictive Modeling of Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vukićević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and storage of biomedical data enabled many opportunities for predictive modeling and improvement of healthcare processes. On the other side analysis of such large amounts of data is a difficult and computationally intensive task for most existing data mining algorithms. This problem is addressed by proposing a cloud based system that integrates metalearning framework for ranking and selection of best predictive algorithms for data at hand and open source big data technologies for analysis of biomedical data.

  10. Action GRID: assessing the impact of Nanotechnology on biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Hermosilla-Gimeno, Isabel; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Maojo, Victor; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando J

    2008-11-06

    Recent advances in Nanotechnology are slowly extending their influence in biomedical research and clinical practice (nanomedicine). The authors have recently been granted with an European Commission research project, Action-GRID. This initiative will review current developments in nanomedicine, and analyze the area of nanoinformatics. Its main outcome will be the identification of needs and the discussion of future challenges and priorities for Biomedical Informatics in terms of information processing in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Vibration Propagation in PMMA Components in Ultrasonic Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic bonding has an increasing application in the micro assembly of polymeric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS with high requirements for fusion precision. In the ultrasonic bonding process, the propagation of ultrasonic vibration in polymer components is related to the interfacial fusion, which can be used as a monitoring parameter to control ultrasonic energy. To study the vibration propagation in viscoelastic polymer components, finite element analysis on the bonding of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA micro connector to substrate for microfluidic system is carried out. Curves of propagated vibration amplitude corresponding to interfacial temperatures are obtained. The ultrasonic vibration propagated in PMMA components are measured through experiments. The theoretical and experimental results are contrasted to analyze the change mechanism of vibration propagation related to temperature. Based on the ultrasonic bonding process controlled by the feedback of vibration propagation, interfacial fusions at different vibration propagation states are obtained through experiments. Interfacial fusion behavior is contrasted to the propagated vibration amplitude in theoretical and experimental studies. The relation between vibration propagation and fusion degree is established with the proper parameter range for the obtained high quality bonding.

  12. Experimental device, corresponding forward model and processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis for tomographic image reconstruction applied to eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, P.Y.; Madaoui, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of eddy current non destructive evaluation using a tomographic image reconstruction process, the success of the reconstruction depends not only on the choice of the forward model and of the inversion algorithms, but also on the ability to extract the pertinent data from the raw signal provided by the sensor. We present in this paper, an experimental device designed for imaging purposes, the corresponding forward model, and a pre-processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis. These three steps implemented with an inversion algorithm, will allow in the future to perform image reconstruction of 3-D flaws. (authors)

  13. Processing-microstructure relationships in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers: Experimental and numerical modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun

    Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) are a class of promising engineering materials for high-demanding structural applications. Their excellent mechanical properties are highly correlated to the underlying molecular orientation states, which may be affected by complex flow fields during melt processing. Thus, understanding and eventually predicting how processing flows impact molecular orientation is a critical step towards rational design work in order to achieve favorable, balanced physical properties in finished products. This thesis aims to develop deeper understanding of orientation development in commercial TLCPs during processing by coordinating extensive experimental measurements with numerical computations. In situ measurements of orientation development of LCPs during processing are a focal point of this thesis. An x-ray capable injection molding apparatus is enhanced and utilized for time-resolved measurements of orientation development in multiple commercial TLCPs during injection molding. Ex situ wide angle x-ray scattering is also employed for more thorough characterization of molecular orientation distributions in molded plaques. Incompletely injection molded plaques ("short shots") are studied to gain further insights into the intermediate orientation states during mold filling. Finally, two surface orientation characterization techniques, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) are combined to investigate the surface orientation distribution of injection molded plaques. Surface orientation states are found to be vastly different from their bulk counterparts due to different kinematics involved in mold filling. In general, complex distributions of orientation in molded plaques reflect the spatially varying competition between shear and extension during mold filling. To complement these experimental measurements, numerical calculations based on the Larson-Doi polydomain model

  14. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s-1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  15. Effect of sintering processing on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shibo; Chu, Aimin; Wu, Haijiang; Cai, Chunbo; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy is prepared by powder metallurgy method. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h has more β-matrix and tiny α-precipitation. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h possesses good mechanical properties. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h exhibits better corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy was prepared by Powder Metallurgy (PM) method using titanium hydride powder, niobium powder, zirconium powder, and tin powder as raw materials. The effect of sintering processing on microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance was investigated in details. The alloy possessed dominant β-matrix and a little α-precipitation. The mechanical properties of the alloy sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h were better than those of the alloys with other sintering processing, which would avoid stress shielding and thus prevent bone resorption in orthopedic implants applications. As long-term stability in biological environment is required, the electrochemical behaviors in a simulated body fluid (Hank’s solution and simulated saliva solution) were also evaluated. Potentiodynamic polarization curves exhibited that the sample sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h had better corrosion properties than those of other sintering processing. The good corrosion resistance combined with better mechanical biocompatibility made the Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy suitable for use as orthopedic implants

  16. The Influence of the Electrolyte Nature and PEO Process Parameters on Properties of Anodized Ti-15Mo Alloy Intended for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Banakh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO of Ti-15Mo alloys conducted in electrolytes containing Ca and P compounds can be an efficient process with which to obtain bioactive coatings. This paper reports on the influence of the nature of the electrolyte, its concentration, and PEO process parameters on the properties of anodized layers on Ti-15Mo. A wide range of Ca- and P-containing alkaline and acidic solutions was employed to incorporate Ca and P ions into the anodized layer. The efficiency of the incorporation was evaluated by the Ca/P ratio in the coating as compared to that in the electrolyte. It was found that alkaline solutions are not suitable electrolytes for the formation of good quality, uniform PEO coatings. Only acidic electrolytes are appropriate for obtaining well-adherent homogeneous layers on Ti-15Mo. However, the maximum Ca/P ratios reached in the coatings were rather low (close to 1. The variation of electrical signal (negative-to-positive current ratio, frequency and time of electrolysis do not result in a substantial change of this value. The processing time, however, did influence the coating thickness. Despite their low Ca/P ratio, the anodized layers demonstrate good biological activity, comparable to pure microrough titanium.

  17. Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamonds: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, D; Rinaldi, F; Ingallina, C; Carafa, M; Rossi, M; Terranova, M L; Marianecci, C

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamonds are a novel class of nanomaterials which have raised much attention for application in biomedical field, as they combine the possibility of being produced on large scale using relatively inexpensive synthetic processes, of being fluorescent as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen vacancies, of having their surfaces functionalized, and of having good biocompatibility. Among other applications, we mainly focus on drug delivery, including cell interaction, targeting, cancer therapy, gene and protein delivery. In addition, nanodiamonds for bone and dental implants and for antibacterial use is discussed. Techniques for detection and imaging of nanodiamonds in biological tissues are also reviewed, including electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Raman mapping, atomic force microscopy, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, either in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo. Toxicological aspects related to the use of nanodiamonds are also discussed. Finally, patents, preclinical and clinical trials based on the use of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications are reviewed.

  18. Emerging applications of nanoparticles: Biomedical and environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shivani; Sachdeva, M.; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology finds a wide range of applications from energy production to industrial fabrication processes to biomedical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be engineered to possess unique compositions and functionalities to empower novel tools and techniques that have not existed previously in biomedical research. The unique size and shape dependent physicochemical properties along with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a wide variety of potential applications in the field of diagnostics and medicines. In the plethora of scientific and technological fields, environmental safety is also a big concern. For this purpose, nanomaterials have been functionalized to cope up the existing pollution, improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new pollution, and making alternative and more cost effective energy sources.

  19. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  20. IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is a scientific conference dedicated to mathematical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of biological and biomedical imaging, across all scales of observation. It fosters knowledge transfer among different imaging communities and contributes to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging. ISBI is a joint initiative from the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The 2018 meeting will include tutorials, and a scientific program composed of plenary talks, invited special sessions, challenges, as well as oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed papers. High-quality papers are requested containing original contributions to the topics of interest including image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological, and statistical modeling. Accepted 4-page regular papers will be published in the symposium proceedings published by IEEE and included in IEEE Xplore. To encourage attendance by a broader audience of imaging scientists and offer additional presentation opportunities, ISBI 2018 will continue to have a second track featuring posters selected from 1-page abstract submissions without subsequent archival publication.

  1. An optimal big data workflow for biomedical image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelle Tchagna Kouanou

    Full Text Available Background and objective: In the medical field, data volume is increasingly growing, and traditional methods cannot manage it efficiently. In biomedical computation, the continuous challenges are: management, analysis, and storage of the biomedical data. Nowadays, big data technology plays a significant role in the management, organization, and analysis of data, using machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques. It also allows a quick access to data using the NoSQL database. Thus, big data technologies include new frameworks to process medical data in a manner similar to biomedical images. It becomes very important to develop methods and/or architectures based on big data technologies, for a complete processing of biomedical image data. Method: This paper describes big data analytics for biomedical images, shows examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses new methods used in processing, and offers conclusions. We argue for adapting and extending related work methods in the field of big data software, using Hadoop and Spark frameworks. These provide an optimal and efficient architecture for biomedical image analysis. This paper thus gives a broad overview of big data analytics to automate biomedical image diagnosis. A workflow with optimal methods and algorithm for each step is proposed. Results: Two architectures for image classification are suggested. We use the Hadoop framework to design the first, and the Spark framework for the second. The proposed Spark architecture allows us to develop appropriate and efficient methods to leverage a large number of images for classification, which can be customized with respect to each other. Conclusions: The proposed architectures are more complete, easier, and are adaptable in all of the steps from conception. The obtained Spark architecture is the most complete, because it facilitates the implementation of algorithms with its embedded libraries. Keywords: Biomedical images, Big

  2. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  3. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  4. An experimental approach to estimation of human information processing capacity for diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae

    2006-02-15

    The objectives of this research are 1) to determine the human's information processing capacity and 2) to describe the relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors. This research centers on the relationship, as experimentally determined, between an operator's mental workload and information flow during accident diagnosis tasks at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The relationship between the information flow rate and operator's mental workload is investigated experimentally. According to this relationship, the operator's information processing capacity can be established. Once the information processing capacity of a main control room (MCR) operator in a NPP is known, it is possible to apply it 1) to predict the operator's performance, 2) to design diagnosis tasks, and 3) to design human-machine interface. In advanced MCR, an operator's mental activity is more important than his or her physical activity. The mental workload is the portion of the operator's limited capacity that is actually required to perform a particular task. A high mental workload may cause an operator to make a mistake and consequently affect that the safe operation of NPPs. Thus, to predict an operator's performance is very important for the nuclear safety. The information processing capacity is the operator's ability to manage the amount of bits per second when an operator is diagnosing tasks or accidents. We can estimate the information processing capacity using the relationship between the information flow rate and human performance. That is, if the operator's performance decreases rapidly as the information flow rate (bit/sec) is increased, it is possible to determine the operator's information processing capacity. A diagnosis task is one of the most complex and mentally demanding tasks as well as a crucial part in maintaining the safe operation of NPPs. Diagnosis tasks refer to the overall tasks of finding the

  5. An experimental approach to estimation of human information processing capacity for diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Tae

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this research are 1) to determine the human's information processing capacity and 2) to describe the relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors. This research centers on the relationship, as experimentally determined, between an operator's mental workload and information flow during accident diagnosis tasks at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The relationship between the information flow rate and operator's mental workload is investigated experimentally. According to this relationship, the operator's information processing capacity can be established. Once the information processing capacity of a main control room (MCR) operator in a NPP is known, it is possible to apply it 1) to predict the operator's performance, 2) to design diagnosis tasks, and 3) to design human-machine interface. In advanced MCR, an operator's mental activity is more important than his or her physical activity. The mental workload is the portion of the operator's limited capacity that is actually required to perform a particular task. A high mental workload may cause an operator to make a mistake and consequently affect that the safe operation of NPPs. Thus, to predict an operator's performance is very important for the nuclear safety. The information processing capacity is the operator's ability to manage the amount of bits per second when an operator is diagnosing tasks or accidents. We can estimate the information processing capacity using the relationship between the information flow rate and human performance. That is, if the operator's performance decreases rapidly as the information flow rate (bit/sec) is increased, it is possible to determine the operator's information processing capacity. A diagnosis task is one of the most complex and mentally demanding tasks as well as a crucial part in maintaining the safe operation of NPPs. Diagnosis tasks refer to the overall tasks of finding the root of cause of the faults or accidents. In this

  6. The use of AMS to the biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) began making AMS measurements in 1989. Biomedical experiments were originally limited by sample preparation techniques, but we expect the number of biomedical samples to increase five-fold. While many of the detailed techniques for making biomedical measurements resemble those used in other fields, biological tracer experiments differ substantially from the observational approaches of earth science investigators. The role of xenobiotius in initiating mutations in cells is of particular interest. One measure of the damage caused to the genetic material is obtained by counting the number of adducts formed by a chemical agent at a given dose. AMS allows direct measurement of the number of adducts through stoichiometric quantification of the 14 C label attached to the DNA after exposure to a labelled carcinogen. Other isotopes of interest include tritium, 36 Cl, 79 SE, 41 Ca, 26 Al and 129 I. Our experiments with low dose environmental carcinogens reflect the protocols which will become a common part of biomedical AMS. In biomedical experiments, the researcher defines the carbon to be analyzed through dissection and/or chemical purification; thus the sample is ''merely'' combusted and graphitized at the AMS facility. However, since biomedical samples can have a 14 C range of five orders of magnitude, preparation of graphite required construction of a special manifold to prevent cross-contamination. Additionally, a strain of 14 C-depleted C57BL/6 mice is being developed to further reduce background in biomedical experiments. AMS has a bright and diverse future in radioisotope tracing. Such work requires a dedicated amalgamation of AMS scientists and biomedical researchers who will redesign experimental protocols to maximize the AMS technique and minimize the danger of catastrophic contamination. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  9. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  10. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  11. Summer Biomedical Engineering Institute 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloatch, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The five problems studied for biomedical applications of NASA technology are reported. The studies reported are: design modification of electrophoretic equipment, operating room environment control, hematological viscometry, handling system for iridium, and indirect blood pressure measuring device.

  12. Experimental investigation and oral bioavailability enhancement of nano-sized curcumin by using supercritical anti-solvent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammed; Ahmad, Iqbal; Warsi, Musarrat H; Mohapatra, Sharmistha; Ahmad, Niyaz; Akhter, Sohail; Ali, Asgar; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2015-10-01

    The biomedical applications of curcumin (CUR) are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. In this work, CUR nanoparticles were successfully prepared by combining the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process with Tween 80 as a solubilizing agent and permeation enhancer. Different processing parameters that can govern the mean particle size and size distribution of nanoparticles were well investigated by manipulating the types of solvents, mixing vessel pressure, mixing vessel temperature, CO2 flow rate, solution flow rate and solution concentration. Solid state characterization was done by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction study. Solubility and dissolution profile of SAS-processed CUR were found to be significantly increased in comparison with native CUR. Further, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral dose (100mg/kg) administration of CUR (before/after SAS-processed) in male Wistar rats. From the plasma concentration vs. time profile graph, oral bioavailability of SAS-processed CUR was found to be increased approximately 11.6-fold (p<0.001) as compared to native CUR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  14. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  15. A review of combined experimental and computational procedures for assessing biopolymer structure-process-property relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Greta; Krishnaji, Sreevidhya T; Kinahan, Michelle E; Giesa, Tristan; Wong, Joyce Y; Kaplan, David L; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-11-01

    Tailored biomaterials with tunable functional properties are desirable for many applications ranging from drug delivery to regenerative medicine. To improve the predictability of biopolymer materials functionality, multiple design parameters need to be considered, along with appropriate models. In this article we review the state of the art of synthesis and processing related to the design of biopolymers, with an emphasis on the integration of bottom-up computational modeling in the design process. We consider three prominent examples of well-studied biopolymer materials - elastin, silk, and collagen - and assess their hierarchical structure, intriguing functional properties and categorize existing approaches to study these materials. We find that an integrated design approach in which both experiments and computational modeling are used has rarely been applied for these materials due to difficulties in relating insights gained on different length- and time-scales. In this context, multiscale engineering offers a powerful means to accelerate the biomaterials design process for the development of tailored materials that suit the needs posed by the various applications. The combined use of experimental and computational tools has a very broad applicability not only in the field of biopolymers, but can be exploited to tailor the properties of other polymers and composite materials in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental study of fluidization behavior using flow visualization and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Flavio T. van der; Sefidvash, Farhang; Cornelius, Vanderli

    2000-01-01

    A program of experimental study of fluidization of heavy spherical pellets with water using image processing technique has been started in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Fluidization for application in nuclear reactors requires very detailed knowledge of its behavior as the reactivity is closely dependent on the porosity of the fluidized bed. A small modular nuclear reactor concept with suspended core is under study. A modified version of the reactor involves the choice of is to make conical the shape of the reactor core to produce a non-fluctuating bed and consequently guarantee the dynamic stability of the reactor. A 5 mm diameter steel ball are fluidized with water in a conical Plexiglass tube. A pump circulate the water in a loop feeding the room temperature water from the tank into the fluidization system and returning it back to the tank. A controllable valve controls the flow velocity. A high velocity digital CCD camera captures the images of the pellets moving in the fluidized tube. At different flow velocities, the individual pellets can be tracked by processing the sequential frames. A DVT digital tape record stores the images and by acquisition through interface board into a microcomputer. A special program process the data later on. Different algorithm of image treatment determines the velocity fields of the pellets. The behavior of the pellets under different flow velocity and porosity are carefully studied. (author)

  17. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  18. Development and evaluation of a magnesium–zinc–strontium alloy for biomedical applications — Alloy processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, and biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Ren-guo; Cipriano, Aaron F.; Zhao, Zhan-yong; Lock, Jaclyn; Tie, Di; Zhao, Tong; Cui, Tong; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    A new biodegradable magnesium–zinc–strontium (Mg–Zn–Sr) alloy was developed and studied for medical implant applications. This first study investigated the alloy processing (casting, rolling, and heat treatment), microstructures, mechanical properties, and degradation properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Aging treatment of the ZSr41 alloy at 175 °C for 8 h improved the mechanical properties when compared to those of the as-cast alloy. Specifically, the aged ZSr41 alloy had an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa, Vickers hardness of 71.5 HV, and elongation at failure of 12.8%. The mechanical properties of the ZSr41 alloy were superior as compared with those of pure magnesium and met the requirements for load-bearing medical implants. Furthermore, the immersion of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF showed a degradation mode that progressed cyclically, alternating between pitting and localized corrosion. The steady-state average degradation rate of the aged ZSr41 alloy in SBF was 0.96 g/(m 2 ·hr), while the pH of SBF immersion solution increased. The corrosion current density of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF solution was 0.41 mA/mm 2 , which was much lower than 1.67 mA/mm 2 for pure Mg under the same conditions. In summary, compared to pure Mg, the mechanical properties of the new ZSr41 alloy improved while the degradation rate decreased due to the addition of Zn and Sr alloying elements and specific processing conditions. The superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the new ZSr41 alloy make it a promising alloy for next-generation implant applications. - Highlights: • Developed a new biodegradable magnesium–zinc–strontium (Mg–Zn–Sr) alloy for medical implant applications • Reported Mg–Zn–Sr alloy processing and microstructure characterization • Improved mechanical properties of Mg alloy after aging treatment • Improved degradation properties of Mg alloy in simulated body fluid

  19. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  20. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  1. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300 degrees C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss

  2. A study on corrosion resistance of the Ti-10Mo experimental alloy after different processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.P.R.; Santana, F.A.; Rosa, L.A.A.; Cursino, S.A.; Codaro, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the experimental Ti-10Mo (wt.%) alloy as-cast and treated. These alloys were divided into three groups for analysis: as-cast, after solution heat treatment at 1000 deg. C in argon atmosphere and remelting in centrifugal machine (investment casting). The microstructure formed from each condition was studied using optical microscopy. Corrosion behavior of titanium-molybdenum alloys in fluoridated physiological serum (0.15 M NaCl+0.03 M NaF [pH=6]) was studied and compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In all electrodes systems, similar electrochemical response was obtained. In naturally aerated physiological serum, the corrosion rate is mainly controlled by dissolution process of a complex passive film. This film appears to be formed by titanium species with different oxidation states. Experimental Ti-10Mo alloy exhibit the lowest passive current densities, in particular, samples after heat treatment

  3. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300{degrees}C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; Mohamad, M.A.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m 2 . The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m 2 in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m 2 in June

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez 43522 (Egypt); Mohamad, M.A. [Solar Energy Department, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m{sup 2}. The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m{sup 2} in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m{sup 2} in June. (author)

  6. Combining experimental and simulation data of molecular processes via augmented Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Simon; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Clementi, Cecilia; Noé, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Accurate mechanistic description of structural changes in biomolecules is an increasingly important topic in structural and chemical biology. Markov models have emerged as a powerful way to approximate the molecular kinetics of large biomolecules while keeping full structural resolution in a divide-and-conquer fashion. However, the accuracy of these models is limited by that of the force fields used to generate the underlying molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data. Whereas the quality of classical MD force fields has improved significantly in recent years, remaining errors in the Boltzmann weights are still on the order of a few [Formula: see text], which may lead to significant discrepancies when comparing to experimentally measured rates or state populations. Here we take the view that simulations using a sufficiently good force-field sample conformations that are valid but have inaccurate weights, yet these weights may be made accurate by incorporating experimental data a posteriori. To do so, we propose augmented Markov models (AMMs), an approach that combines concepts from probability theory and information theory to consistently treat systematic force-field error and statistical errors in simulation and experiment. Our results demonstrate that AMMs can reconcile conflicting results for protein mechanisms obtained by different force fields and correct for a wide range of stationary and dynamical observables even when only equilibrium measurements are incorporated into the estimation process. This approach constitutes a unique avenue to combine experiment and computation into integrative models of biomolecular structure and dynamics.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  8. Experimental constraints on dynamic fragmentation as a dissipative process during seismic slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Troy; Griffith, W Ashley

    2017-09-28

    Various fault damage fabrics, from gouge in the principal slip zone to fragmented and pulverized rocks in the fault damage zone, have been attributed to brittle deformation at high strain rates during earthquake rupture. Past experimental work has shown that there exists a critical threshold in stress-strain rate space through which rock failure transitions from failure along a few discrete fracture planes to intense fragmentation. We present new experimental results on Arkansas Novaculite (AN) and Westerly Granite (WG) in which we quantify fracture surface area produced by dynamic fragmentation under uniaxial compressive loading and examine the controls of pre-existing mineral anisotropy on dissipative processes at the microscale. Tests on AN produced substantially greater new fracture surface area (approx. 6.0 m 2  g -1 ) than those on WG (0.07 m 2  g -1 ). Estimates of the portion of energy dissipated into brittle fracture were significant for WG (approx. 5%), but appeared substantial in AN (10% to as much as 40%). The results have important implications for the partitioning of dissipated energy under extreme loading conditions expected during earthquakes and the scaling of high-speed laboratory rock mechanics experiments to natural fault zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Development and evaluation of a magnesium-zinc-strontium alloy for biomedical applications--alloy processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ren-guo; Cipriano, Aaron F; Zhao, Zhan-yong; Lock, Jaclyn; Tie, Di; Zhao, Tong; Cui, Tong; Liu, Huinan

    2013-10-01

    A new biodegradable magnesium-zinc-strontium (Mg-Zn-Sr) alloy was developed and studied for medical implant applications. This first study investigated the alloy processing (casting, rolling, and heat treatment), microstructures, mechanical properties, and degradation properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Aging treatment of the ZSr41 alloy at 175 °C for 8h improved the mechanical properties when compared to those of the as-cast alloy. Specifically, the aged ZSr41 alloy had an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa, Vickers hardness of 71.5 HV, and elongation at failure of 12.8%. The mechanical properties of the ZSr41 alloy were superior as compared with those of pure magnesium and met the requirements for load-bearing medical implants. Furthermore, the immersion of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF showed a degradation mode that progressed cyclically, alternating between pitting and localized corrosion. The steady-state average degradation rate of the aged ZSr41 alloy in SBF was 0.96 g/(m(2)·hr), while the pH of SBF immersion solution increased. The corrosion current density of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF solution was 0.41 mA/mm(2), which was much lower than 1.67 mA/mm(2) for pure Mg under the same conditions. In summary, compared to pure Mg, the mechanical properties of the new ZSr41 alloy improved while the degradation rate decreased due to the addition of Zn and Sr alloying elements and specific processing conditions. The superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the new ZSr41 alloy make it a promising alloy for next-generation implant applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental studies on the krypton absorption in liquid CO2 (KALC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Beaujean, H.W.R.; Fowler, V.L.; Gilliam, T.M.; Inman, D.J.; Levins, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of experiments to quantify krypton removal from simulated High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor reprocessing off-gas by the KALC process. The Experimental Engineering Section Off-Gas Decontamination Facility used in the campaign provides engineering-scale experiments with nominal gas and liquid flows of 5 scfm and 0.5 gpm respectively. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium mass transfer experiments for the CO 2 --O 2 --Kr system are described. Data analysis indicates values of HTU for krypton on the order of 0.5 ft for decontamination factors from 100 to 10,000. Recent flooding information for the packed columns is combined with previous data and is shown to be well represented by an empirical flooding equation

  11. Summary of innovative concepts for industrial process improvement: An experimental technology exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lee, V.E.; Buel, L.M. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of one-page technical briefs that summarize the highlights of thirty-eight innovations that were presented at the seventh Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Denver, Colorado on April 20--21, 1995. Sixteen of the innovations were funded through the Innovative Concepts Program, and twenty-two innovations represent other state or federally funded programs. The concepts in this year`s fair addressed innovations that can substantially improve industrial processes. Each tech brief describes the need for the proposed concept; the concept being proposed; and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. A contact block is also included with each flier.

  12. Impact parameter sensitive study of inner-shell atomic processes in the experimental storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumberidze, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Zhang, R. T.; Trotsenko, S.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; DuBois, R. D.; Beyer, H. F.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Brandau, C.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Chen, W.; Forstner, O.; Gao, B.; Gassner, T.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Kumar, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petridis, N.; Schury, D.; Spillmann, U.; Trageser, C.; Trassinelli, M.; Tu, X.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for low-energy (heavy-) ion-atom collisions. The experiment was performed with bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms, resulting in a symmetric collision system. This choice of the projectile charge states was made in order to compare the effect of a filled K-shell with the empty one. The projectile and target X-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35-70 fm.

  13. Experimental Lamb mode identification in a plate containing a hole using dual signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Youbi, Faysal El; Moulin, Emmanuel; Leyla, Najib Abou

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Lamb mode amplitude variation as a function of the damage evolution is still the most difficult step in the process of damage monitoring using embedded Lamb wave-based systems. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple system based on the generation of two different frequencies in order to better identify Lamb mode amplitude and to avoid false data interpretation in plates containing a hole of variable diameter. This identification is based on a simple relation between the short-time Fourier transform and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Experimentally, a 3 mm thick aluminium plate is used and the two frequencies have been chosen equal to 400 kHz and 600 kHz in order to generate the two first fundamental Lamb waves

  14. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-07-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice.

  15. Detection of outliers by neural network on the gas centrifuge experimental data of isotopic separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Monica de Carvalho Vasconcelos

    2004-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the neural network technique aiming at the detection of outliers on a set of gas centrifuge isotope separation experimental data. In order to evaluate the application of this new technique, the result obtained of the detection is compared to the result of the statistical analysis combined with the cluster analysis. This method for the detection of outliers presents a considerable potential in the field of data analysis and it is at the same time easier and faster to use and requests very less knowledge of the physics involved in the process. This work established a procedure for detecting experiments which are suspect to contain gross errors inside a data set where the usual techniques for identification of these errors cannot be applied or its use/demands an excessively long work. (author)

  16. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors' perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants' list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 "highly rated" competency-related statements and another 86 "included" items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  17. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Galipeau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well.  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  18. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D.; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future. PMID:28979768

  19. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, G.; De Vecchi, C.; Giroletti, E.; Guida, R.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Sani, G.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2006-08-01

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 μm and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi 2O 3 and Tl 2O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C 2H 2F 4 92.5%, SF 6 2.5%, C 4H 10 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  20. Processing and evaluation of riverine waveforms acquired by an experimental bathymetric LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate mapping of fluvial environments with airborne bathymetric LiDAR is challenged not only by environmental characteristics but also the development and application of software routines to post-process the recorded laser waveforms. During a bathymetric LiDAR survey, the transmission of the green-wavelength laser pulses through the water column is influenced by a number of factors including turbidity, the presence of organic material, and the reflectivity of the streambed. For backscattered laser pulses returned from the river bottom and digitized by the LiDAR detector, post-processing software is needed to interpret and identify distinct inflections in the reflected waveform. Relevant features of this energy signal include the air-water interface, volume reflection from the water column itself, and, ideally, a strong return from the bottom. We discuss our efforts to acquire, analyze, and interpret riverine surveys using the USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL) in a variety of fluvial environments. Initial processing of data collected in the Trinity River, California, using the EAARL Airborne Lidar Processing Software (ALPS) highlighted the difficulty of retrieving a distinct bottom signal in deep pools. Examination of laser waveforms from these pools indicated that weak bottom reflections were often neglected by a trailing edge algorithm used by ALPS to process shallow riverine waveforms. For the Trinity waveforms, this algorithm had a tendency to identify earlier inflections as the bottom, resulting in a shallow bias. Similarly, an EAARL survey along the upper Colorado River, Colorado, also revealed the inadequacy of the trailing edge algorithm for detecting weak bottom reflections. We developed an alternative waveform processing routine by exporting digitized laser waveforms from ALPS, computing the local extrema, and fitting Gaussian curves to the convolved backscatter. Our field data indicate that these techniques improved the

  1. Mathematical experimental modeling for muffle furnace drying process of municipal sewage sludge in Beijing and Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has experienced rapid urbanization, which also leads to a lot of environmental problems including those of sewage sludge. As the amount of sewage sludge increases, conventional methods of treatment, such as compost and landfill, are facing the problems of limitations in demands or land. Considering that the demand of constructive materials in China keeps increasing, reusing municipal sewage sludge (MSS) in cement manufactory plant as fuels and raw materials is another practicable way to deal with it. The aim of this study is to describe the process of the heating of sewage sludge under different atmospheres of nitrogen and oxygen, and to find out some relation between the moisture of MSS and the heating time under different surrounding temperature by means of a mathematical model. In this study, we compared 4 kinds of MSS sampled in Beijing and Osaka. First of all, we defined the differences in those fundamental physical properties, such as concentration of various elements, calorific values and so on. Then the macroscopical thermal properties of the sludges were observed by means of thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Both pyrolysis and combustion of 4 samples of MSS were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 10K/m. Visual observation of the heating profiles shows three stages in the heating process, which have been characterized. At last, we focused on batch processing drying tests using muffle furnace under temperature of 200, 250 and 300 degrees Celsius. The volatile matters loss besides moisture during heating process was evaluated and the experimental drying curves were matched with a mathematical model. (author)

  2. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethical behaviour of authors in biomedical journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Joan C

    2002-03-01

    Biomedical journals communicate new information that changes health-care decisions. If authors ignore the fundamental values of honesty and trust, that information becomes flawed, and society or patients may be harmed. By describing two cases of unethical behaviour by authors, and using them as a focus to review acceptable ethics in publication, this article aims to educate readers who have not considered the ethical implications in writing manuscripts for biomedical journals. Two cases of unethical behaviour by authors occurred when the results of new drug trials were reported. They were discovered after publication in a biomedical journal, and in the review process after the submission of a manuscript for publication respectively. In the first case, duplicate publication was identified because the same control data were used, but not acknowledged, in three publications by the same investigators. In the second, ghost writing by a pharmaceutical company writer was suspected because of the atypical presentation of a senior author's work. The editor consulted with the authors of both reports. In the first case, the authors concurred about the duplication, and the editors of the three journals wrote editorials to record the duplicate publications. The second case of ghost writing was unconfirmed by the authors, but the submission was withdrawn, and the article was later published in another journal. These cases draw attention to recently recognized types of scientific misconduct that influence the perception of scientific work. Duplicate publication and ghost writing not only deceive the reader, but may also conceal flawed study design and conflict of interest.

  4. Innovations in biomedical nanoengineering: nanowell array biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YoungTae; Jeong, Sunil; Lee, JuKyung; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured biosensors have pioneered biomedical engineering by providing highly sensitive analyses of biomolecules. The nanowell array (NWA)-based biosensing platform is particularly innovative, where the small size of NWs within the array permits extremely profound sensing of a small quantity of biomolecules. Undoubtedly, the NWA geometry of a gently-sloped vertical wall is critical for selective docking of specific proteins without capillary resistances, and nanoprocessing has contributed to the fabrication of NWA electrodes on gold substrate such as molding process, e-beam lithography, and krypton-fluoride (KrF) stepper semiconductor method. The Lee group at the Mara Nanotech has established this NW-based biosensing technology during the past two decades by engineering highly sensitive electrochemical sensors and providing a broad range of detection methods from large molecules (e.g., cells or proteins) to small molecules (e.g., DNA and RNA). Nanosized gold dots in the NWA enhance the detection of electrochemical biosensing to the range of zeptomoles in precision against the complementary target DNA molecules. In this review, we discuss recent innovations in biomedical nanoengineering with a specific focus on novel NWA-based biosensors. We also describe our continuous efforts in achieving a label-free detection without non-specific binding while maintaining the activity and stability of immobilized biomolecules. This research can lay the foundation of a new platform for biomedical nanoengineering systems.

  5. Successful aging: considering non-biomedical constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carver LF

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lisa F Carver,1 Diane Buchanan2 1Department of Sociology, Queen’s University Kingston, ON, Canada; 2School of Nursing, Queen’s University Kingston, ON, Canada Objectives: Successful aging continues to be applied in a variety of contexts and is defined using a number of different constructs. Although previous reviews highlight the multidimensionality of successful aging, a few have focused exclusively on non-biomedical factors, as was done here. Methods: This scoping review searched Ovid Medline database for peer-reviewed English-language articles published between 2006 and 2015, offering a model of successful aging and involving research with older adults. Results: Seventy-two articles were reviewed. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Common non-biomedical constructs associated with successful aging included engagement, optimism and/or positive attitude, resilience, spirituality and/or religiosity, self-efficacy and/or self-esteem, and gerotranscendence. Discussion: Successful aging is a complex process best described using a multidimensional model. Given that the majority of elders will experience illness and/or disease during the life course, public health initiatives that promote successful aging need to employ non-biomedical constructs, facilitating the inclusion of elders living with disease and/or disability. Keywords: successful aging, resilience, gerotranscendence, engagement, optimism

  6. Citizen Science for Mining the Biomedical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger Tsueng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature represents one of the largest and fastest growing collections of unstructured biomedical knowledge. Finding critical information buried in the literature can be challenging. To extract information from free-flowing text, researchers need to: 1. identify the entities in the text (named entity recognition, 2. apply a standardized vocabulary to these entities (normalization, and 3. identify how entities in the text are related to one another (relationship extraction. Researchers have primarily approached these information extraction tasks through manual expert curation and computational methods. We have previously demonstrated that named entity recognition (NER tasks can be crowdsourced to a group of non-experts via the paid microtask platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT, and can dramatically reduce the cost and increase the throughput of biocuration efforts. However, given the size of the biomedical literature, even information extraction via paid microtask platforms is not scalable. With our web-based application Mark2Cure (http://mark2cure.org, we demonstrate that NER tasks also can be performed by volunteer citizen scientists with high accuracy. We apply metrics from the Zooniverse Matrices of Citizen Science Success and provide the results here to serve as a basis of comparison for other citizen science projects. Further, we discuss design considerations, issues, and the application of analytics for successfully moving a crowdsourcing workflow from a paid microtask platform to a citizen science platform. To our knowledge, this study is the first application of citizen science to a natural language processing task.

  7. Text Mining in Biomedical Domain with Emphasis on Document Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, Vinaitheerthan

    2017-07-01

    With the exponential increase in the number of articles published every year in the biomedical domain, there is a need to build automated systems to extract unknown information from the articles published. Text mining techniques enable the extraction of unknown knowledge from unstructured documents. This paper reviews text mining processes in detail and the software tools available to carry out text mining. It also reviews the roles and applications of text mining in the biomedical domain. Text mining processes, such as search and retrieval of documents, pre-processing of documents, natural language processing, methods for text clustering, and methods for text classification are described in detail. Text mining techniques can facilitate the mining of vast amounts of knowledge on a given topic from published biomedical research articles and draw meaningful conclusions that are not possible otherwise.

  8. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  9. Experimental research and numerical simulation on cryogenic line chill-down process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Cho, Hyokjin; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2018-01-01

    The empirical heat transfer correlations are suggested for the fast cool down process of the cryogenic transfer line from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. The correlations include the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) correlations for single-phase gas convection and film boiling regimes, minimum heat flux (MHF) temperature, critical heat flux (CHF) temperature and CHF. The correlations are obtained from the experimental measurements. The experiments are conducted on a 12.7 mm outer diameter (OD), 1.25 mm wall thickness and 7 m long stainless steel horizontal pipe with liquid nitrogen (LN2). The effect of the lengthwise position is verified by measuring the temperature profiles in near the inlet and the outlet of the transfer line. The newly suggested heat transfer correlations are applied to the one-dimensional homogeneous transient model to simulate the cryogenic line chill-down process, and the chill-down time and the cryogen consumption are well predicted in the mass flux range from 26.0 kg/m2 s to 73.6 kg/m2 s through the correlations.

  10. Experimental and numerical simulation of thermomechanical phenomena during a TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depradeux, L.; Julien, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a parallel experimental and numerical simulation of phenomena that take place in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) during TIG welding on 316L stainless steel is presented. The aim of this study is to predict by numerical simulation residual stresses and distortions generated by the welding process. For the experiment, a very simple geometry with reduced dimensions is considered: the specimens are disks, made of 316L. The discs are heated in the central zone in order to reproduce thermo-mechanical cycles that take place in the HAZ during a TIG welding process. During and after thermal cycle, a large quantity of measurement is provided, and allows to compare the results of different numerical models used in the simulations. The comparative thermal and mechanical analysis allows to assess the general ability of the numerical models to describe the structural behavior. The importance of the heat input rate and material characteristics is also investigated. When a melted zone is created, the thermal simulation reproduce well the temperature field in the upper face of the disk, but the size of the weld pool is not correctly rated, as fluid flows are not taken into account. Despite this fact, the general structural behavior is well represented by simulation

  11. Experimental optimization of catalytic process in-situ for heavy oil and bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.; Fishwick, R.P.; Leeke, G.A.; Wood, J. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.P.; Greaves, M. [Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Peak crude oil production is expected to occur in the second decade of this century, followed by a phase of permanent decline in conventional crude oil production. However, very large resources of heavy oil and bitumen exist throughout the world, most notably in Canada and Venezuela. The high viscosity and density of these non-conventional crude oils require more energy intensive operations for production and upgrading, and also for transportation. As such, they are more costly to extract. This paper described some of the technological innovations that are being considered to extract heavier oil supplies with reduced environmental impact. The toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) process and its catalytic added-on (CAPRI) process combine in-situ combustion with catalytic upgrading using an annular catalyst packed around a horizontal producer well. Results of an experimental study concerning optimization of catalyst type and operating conditions showed that CAPRI can effect further upgrading of partially upgraded THAI oil, with upgrading levels of viscosity and API gravity dependent upon temperature and flow rate. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Ti film deposition process of a plasma focus: Study by an experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Inestrosa-Izurieta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma generated by plasma focus (PF devices have substantially different physical characteristics from another plasma, energetic ions and electrons, compared with conventional plasma devices used for plasma nanofabrication, offering new and unique opportunities in the processing and synthesis of Nanomaterials. This article presents the use of a plasma focus of tens of joules, PF-50J, for the deposition of materials sprayed from the anode by the plasma dynamics in the axial direction. This work focuses on the determination of the most significant effects of the technological parameters of the system on the obtained depositions through the use of a statistical experimental design. The results allow us to give a qualitative understanding of the Ti film deposition process in our PF device depending on four different events provoked by the plasma dynamics: i an electric erosion of the outer material of the anode; ii substrate ablation generating an interlayer; iii electron beam deposition of material from the center of the anode; iv heat load provoking clustering or even melting of the deposition surface.

  13. A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of terbium from fluorescent lamps: Experimental design, optimization of acid leaching process and process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; Ippolito, Nicolò Maria; De Michelis, Ida; Medici, Franco; Vegliò, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    Terbium and rare earths recovery from fluorescent powders of exhausted lamps by acid leaching with hydrochloric acid was the objective of this study. In order to investigate the factors affecting leaching a series of experiments was performed in according to a full factorial plan with four variables and two levels (4 2 ). The factors studied were temperature, concentration of acid, pulp density and leaching time. Experimental conditions of terbium dissolution were optimized by statistical analysis. The results showed that temperature and pulp density were significant with a positive and negative effect, respectively. The empirical mathematical model deducted by experimental data demonstrated that terbium content was completely dissolved under the following conditions: 90 °C, 2 M hydrochloric acid and 5% of pulp density; while when the pulp density was 15% an extraction of 83% could be obtained at 90 °C and 5 M hydrochloric acid. Finally a flow sheet for the recovery of rare earth elements was proposed. The process was tested and simulated by commercial software for the chemical processes. The mass balance of the process was calculated: from 1 ton of initial powder it was possible to obtain around 160 kg of a concentrate of rare earths having a purity of 99%. The main rare earths elements in the final product was yttrium oxide (86.43%) following by cerium oxide (4.11%), lanthanum oxide (3.18%), europium oxide (3.08%) and terbium oxide (2.20%). The estimated total recovery of the rare earths elements was around 70% for yttrium and europium and 80% for the other rare earths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental studies on optimal process of the iodine-sulfur cycle for nuclear hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ho Joon

    2010-02-15

    For nuclear hydrogen production, we selected Iodine-Sulfur (I-S) cycle as the most promising one by screening process among 115 thermo-chemical water splitting technologies. We developed a thermo-physical model for the hydrogen-iodide (HI) VLE and decomposition behavior in the iodine-sulfur (IS) cycle to improve the conventional I-S cycle suggested by GA. Neumann's modified NRTL model was improved by correcting an unphysical assumption for the non-randomness parameter, and using the two-step equilibrium approach for the HI decomposition modeling. However, the parameters of the model were decided through regression with the 271 sets of existing experimental data: the accuracy of the model should be improved by more experimental data over all operating ranges, especially, in the high temperature and high pressure regions. To obtain the data of those regions, an autoclave for high temperature and high pressure was designed and manufactured. Various materials and surface coating technologies were investigated for preventing corrosion from acids. However, we have currently failed to overcome the corrosion problems with highly corrosive acids at a high temperature and high pressure. We experimentally validated that azeotropic constraint between acid and H{sub 2}O undermined the total efficiency of the I-S cycle. As mentioned above, the conventional I-S cycle suffers from low thermal efficiency and highly corrosive streams. To alleviate these problems, we have proposed the optimal operating conditions for the Bunsen reaction and devised a new KAIST flowsheet that produces highly enriched HI through spontaneous L-L phase separation and simple flash processes under low pressure. A series of phase separation experiments were performed to validate the new flowsheet and extend its feasibility. When the molar ratio of I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the feed increased from 2 to 4, the molar ratio of HI/(HI+H{sub 2}O) in the HI{sub x} phase improved from 0.157 to 0.22, which

  15. Experimental studies on optimal process of the iodine-sulfur cycle for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon

    2010-02-01

    For nuclear hydrogen production, we selected Iodine-Sulfur (I-S) cycle as the most promising one by screening process among 115 thermo-chemical water splitting technologies. We developed a thermo-physical model for the hydrogen-iodide (HI) VLE and decomposition behavior in the iodine-sulfur (IS) cycle to improve the conventional I-S cycle suggested by GA. Neumann's modified NRTL model was improved by correcting an unphysical assumption for the non-randomness parameter, and using the two-step equilibrium approach for the HI decomposition modeling. However, the parameters of the model were decided through regression with the 271 sets of existing experimental data: the accuracy of the model should be improved by more experimental data over all operating ranges, especially, in the high temperature and high pressure regions. To obtain the data of those regions, an autoclave for high temperature and high pressure was designed and manufactured. Various materials and surface coating technologies were investigated for preventing corrosion from acids. However, we have currently failed to overcome the corrosion problems with highly corrosive acids at a high temperature and high pressure. We experimentally validated that azeotropic constraint between acid and H 2 O undermined the total efficiency of the I-S cycle. As mentioned above, the conventional I-S cycle suffers from low thermal efficiency and highly corrosive streams. To alleviate these problems, we have proposed the optimal operating conditions for the Bunsen reaction and devised a new KAIST flowsheet that produces highly enriched HI through spontaneous L-L phase separation and simple flash processes under low pressure. A series of phase separation experiments were performed to validate the new flowsheet and extend its feasibility. When the molar ratio of I 2 /H 2 SO 4 in the feed increased from 2 to 4, the molar ratio of HI/(HI+H 2 O) in the HI x phase improved from 0.157 to 0.22, which is high enough to generate

  16. Experimental activities in the early years of elementary school: a methodological tool for construction of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de Souza Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early years of elementary school, this study evaluated the impact of experimental activities based in the scientific method and preconceptions on the learning and memorization of concepts and phenomena associated with the fermentation process. The different activities were carried out through an experimental course (20hs, with students of elementary school from school municipal Diacono Joao Luiz Pozzobon, Santa Maria-RS. The research involved 20 students, with 6 and 7 old years. The evaluation was performed by comparing the interview responses made before the course (pre-test and after the course (post-test. The post-tests were applied at the end of the experimental course, and after 6 and 12 months. The experimental activities facilitated the acquisition and retention of new concepts. The data show that "experimental activities" can be used by teachers in early grades as a methodological tool to complement the teaching-learning process.

  17. Biomedical informatics: we are what we publish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, P L; Brown, S H; Wright, G

    2013-01-01

    This article is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biomedical Informatics: We are what we publish". It is introduced by an editorial and followed by a commentary paper with invited comments. In subsequent issues the discussion may continue through letters to the editor. Informatics experts have attempted to define the field via consensus projects which has led to consensus statements by both AMIA. and by IMIA. We add to the output of this process the results of a study of the Pubmed publications with abstracts from the field of Biomedical Informatics. We took the terms from the AMIA consensus document and the terms from the IMIA definitions of the field of Biomedical Informatics and combined them through human review to create the Health Informatics Ontology. We built a terminology server using the Intelligent Natural Language Processor (iNLP). Then we downloaded the entire set of articles in Medline identified by searching the literature by "Medical Informatics" OR "Bioinformatics". The articles were parsed by the joint AMIA / IMIA terminology and then again using SNOMED CT and for the Bioinformatics they were also parsed using HGNC Ontology. We identified 153,580 articles using "Medical Informatics" and 20,573 articles using "Bioinformatics". This resulted in 168,298 unique articles and an overlap of 5,855 articles. Of these 62,244 articles (37%) had titles and abstracts that contained at least one concept from the Health Informatics Ontology. SNOMED CT indexing showed that the field interacts with most all clinical fields of medicine. Further defining the field by what we publish can add value to the consensus driven processes that have been the mainstay of the efforts to date. Next steps should be to extract terms from the literature that are uncovered and create class hierarchies and relationships for this content. We should also examine the high occurring of MeSH terms as markers to define Biomedical Informatics

  18. PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-1/2 ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs

  19. Experimental study of permeation and selectivity of zeolite membranes for tritium processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, Olga; Antunes, Rodrigo; Demange, David, E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about new experimental results on advanced membranes for tritium processing especially for the DEMO breeding blanket. • High permeances are measured on different zeolite MFI membranes made by film deposition or pore plugging. • Selectivity for H{sub 2}/He is limited requiring a multi-stage membrane process. • Selectivity of H{sub 2}O/He seems high enough to operate one single module. - Abstract: Zeolites are known as tritium compatible inorganic materials widely used in packed beds as driers in detritiation systems and are also suggested for tritium removal from helium at cryogenic temperature. The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) proposed a new fully continuous approach for tritium extraction from the solid breeding blanket of fusion machines that improves the overall tritium management and minimizes both the tritium inventory and processing time. It is based on membrane permeation as a pre-concentration stage upstream of a final tritium recovery stage using a catalytic Pd-based membrane reactor. Zeolite membranes were identified as the most promising candidates for the pre-concentration stage. In the present work the tubular zeolite MFI membrane provided by the Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS, Hermsdorf, Germany) is studied to consolidate the proposed approach. The permeation measurements for single gases hydrogen (replacing radioactive tritium) and helium, for binary mixtures H{sub 2}/He and H{sub 2}O/He at different concentrations and temperatures are presented. The tested membrane demonstrates a high performance, almost independent from the inlet composition in the case of a gaseous mixture, while the transport in the presence of water vapour is strongly related to the temperature of the mixture and component concentrations.

  20. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical programs operations plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbrecher, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational guidelines for the space shuttle life sciences payloads are presented. An operational assessment of the medical experimental altitude test for Skylab, and Skylab life sciences documentation are discussed along with the operations posture and collection of space shuttle operational planning data.

  2. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  3. MIMI: Multimodality, Multiresource, Information Integration Environment for Biomedical Core Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administrativel...

  4. Acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region for biomedical prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurer, Maria Ines; Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes da; Santa Barbara, Ailton; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira, Marilia Gerhardt de; Silva, Daniela Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical prototyping has resulted from a merger of rapid prototyping and imaging diagnosis technologies. However, this process is complex, considering the necessity of interaction between biomedical sciences and engineering. Good results are highly dependent on the acquisition of computed tomography images and their subsequent manipulation by means of specific software. The present study describes the experience of a multidisciplinary group of researchers in the acquisition and manipulation of computed tomography images of the maxillofacial region aiming at biomedical prototyping for surgical purposes. (author)

  5. Advanced Processing for Biomedical Informatics (APBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    pothetical gene CG018 CG018 90634 1.62E-06 4.16E-05 7.21 4.81 -5.3 203881_s_at dystrophin (muscular dystrophy , Duchenne and Becker types) DMD 1756 1.93E-06...fundus dystrophy , pseudoinflammatory) TIMP3 7078 1.62E-06 4.16E-05 10.96 8.63 -5.0 1563466_at myosin, light chain kinase MYLK 4638 1.62E-06 4.16E-05

  6. Innovations in Biomedical Engineering 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Tkacz, Ewaryst; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Piętka, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the “Innovations in Biomedical Engineering IBE’2016” Conference held on October 16–18, 2016 in Poland, discussing recent research on innovations in biomedical engineering. The past decade has seen the dynamic development of more and more sophisticated technologies, including biotechnologies, and more general technologies applied in the area of life sciences. As such the book covers the broadest possible spectrum of subjects related to biomedical engineering innovations. Divided into four parts, it presents state-of-the-art achievements in: • engineering of biomaterials, • modelling and simulations in biomechanics, • informatics in medicine • signal analysis The book helps bridge the gap between technological and methodological engineering achievements on the one hand and clinical requirements in the three major areas diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation on the other.

  7. Normalizing biomedical terms by minimizing ambiguity and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaught John

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the difficulties in mapping biomedical named entities, e.g. genes, proteins, chemicals and diseases, to their concept identifiers stems from the potential variability of the terms. Soft string matching is a possible solution to the problem, but its inherent heavy computational cost discourages its use when the dictionaries are large or when real time processing is required. A less computationally demanding approach is to normalize the terms by using heuristic rules, which enables us to look up a dictionary in a constant time regardless of its size. The development of good heuristic rules, however, requires extensive knowledge of the terminology in question and thus is the bottleneck of the normalization approach. Results We present a novel framework for discovering a list of normalization rules from a dictionary in a fully automated manner. The rules are discovered in such a way that they minimize the ambiguity and variability of the terms in the dictionary. We evaluated our algorithm using two large dictionaries: a human gene/protein name dictionary built from BioThesaurus and a disease name dictionary built from UMLS. Conclusions The experimental results showed that automatically discovered rules can perform comparably to carefully crafted heuristic rules in term mapping tasks, and the computational overhead of rule application is small enough that a very fast implementation is possible. This work will help improve the performance of term-concept mapping tasks in biomedical information extraction especially when good normalization heuristics for the target terminology are not fully known.

  8. Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; Cargo, C.H.; Ayers, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO 2 ) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

  9. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  10. Advances in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry, the accurate determination of the absorbed dose within an irradiated body or a piece of material, is a prerequisite for all applications of ionizing radiation. This has been known since the very first radiation applications in medicine and biology, and increasing efforts are being made by radiation researchers to develop more reliable, effective and safe instruments, and to further improve dosimetric accuracy for all types of radiation used. Development of new techniques and instrumentation was particularly fast in the field of both medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Thus, in Paris in October the IAEA held the latest symposium in its continuing series on dosimetry in medicine and biology. The last one was held in Vienna in 1975. High-quality dosimetry is obviously of great importance for human health, whether the objectives lie in the prevention and control of risks associated with the nuclear industry, in medical uses of radioactive substances or X-ray beams for diagnostic purposes, or in the application of photon, electron or neutron beams in radiotherapy. The symposium dealt with the following subjects: General aspects of dosimetry; Special physical and biomedical aspects; Determination of absorbed dose; Standardization and calibration of dosimetric systems; and Development of dosimetric systems. The forty or so papers presented and the discussions that followed them brought out a certain number of dominant themes, among which three deserve particular mention. - The recent generalization of the International System of Units having prompted a fundamental reassessment of the dosimetric quantities to be considered in calibrating measuring instruments, various proposals were advanced by the representatives of national metrology laboratories to replace the quantity 'exposure' (SI unit = coulomb/kg) by 'Kerma' or 'absorbed dose' (unit joule/kg, the special name of which is 'gray'), this latter being closer to the practical

  11. BEST: Next-Generation Biomedical Entity Search Tool for Knowledge Discovery from Biomedical Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwon Lee

    Full Text Available As the volume of publications rapidly increases, searching for relevant information from the literature becomes more challenging. To complement standard search engines such as PubMed, it is desirable to have an advanced search tool that directly returns relevant biomedical entities such as targets, drugs, and mutations rather than a long list of articles. Some existing tools submit a query to PubMed and process retrieved abstracts to extract information at query time, resulting in a slow response time and limited coverage of only a fraction of the PubMed corpus. Other tools preprocess the PubMed corpus to speed up the response time; however, they are not constantly updated, and thus produce outdated results. Further, most existing tools cannot process sophisticated queries such as searches for mutations that co-occur with query terms in the literature. To address these problems, we introduce BEST, a biomedical entity search tool. BEST returns, as a result, a list of 10 different types of biomedical entities including genes, diseases, drugs, targets, transcription factors, miRNAs, and mutations that are relevant to a user's query. To the best of our knowledge, BEST is the only system that processes free text queries and returns up-to-date results in real time including mutation information in the results. BEST is freely accessible at http://best.korea.ac.kr.

  12. Experimentally testing the dependence of momentum transport on second derivatives using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Lee, J. P.; Marzouk, Y. M.; Rice, J. E.; White, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    It remains an open question to explain the dramatic change in intrinsic rotation induced by slight changes in electron density (White et al 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 056106). One proposed explanation is that momentum transport is sensitive to the second derivatives of the temperature and density profiles (Lee et al 2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 125006), but it is widely considered to be impossible to measure these higher derivatives. In this paper, we show that it is possible to estimate second derivatives of electron density and temperature using a nonparametric regression technique known as Gaussian process regression. This technique avoids over-constraining the fit by not assuming an explicit functional form for the fitted curve. The uncertainties, obtained rigorously using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, are small enough that it is reasonable to explore hypotheses which depend on second derivatives. It is found that the differences in the second derivatives of n{e} and T{e} between the peaked and hollow rotation cases are rather small, suggesting that changes in the second derivatives are not likely to explain the experimental results.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of granular flow characteristics of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He; Li Tianjin; Qi Weiwei; Huang Zhiyong; Bo Hanliang

    2014-01-01

    Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system is the main part of absorber sphere shutdown system and closely related to granular flow. Granular flow characteristics, such as mass flow rate, angle of repose, contact forces, etc., are crucial important for the optimization of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process. Mass flow rate of granular flow through the sphere discharge valve and the bend tube are significant for the time of ball dropping and the time of conveying back rate, respectively. Experiments and DEM simulations have been conducted to investigate the granular flow characteristics. Experimental results showed that the relation between average mass flow rate through the sphere discharge valve and the valve stroke was composed of three zones i. e. the idle stroke zone, linearly zone and orifice restriction zone. The Beverloo's law was suitable for the granular flow through the multi-orifice during the orifice restriction zone. The variation of average mass flow rate with the valve stroke could be described by modified Beverloo's law based on the valve stroke. DEM simulation results showed that the drained angle of repose remained 23° at different valve strokes. Mass flow rate during steady granular flow through the sphere discharge valve at different valve strokes kept stable. The variation of mass flow rate through a bend tube was different from that through a circular orifice. (author)

  14. Estimation of surface absorptivity in laser surface heating process with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H-T; Wu, X-Y

    2006-01-01

    This study applies a hybrid technique of the Laplace transform and finite-difference methods in conjunction with the least-squares method and experimental temperature data inside the test material to predict the unknown surface temperature, heat flux and absorptivity for various surface conditions in the laser surface heating process. In this study, the functional form of the surface temperature is unknown a priori and is assumed to be a function of time before performing the inverse calculation. In addition, the whole time domain is divided into several analysis sub-time intervals and then these unknown estimates on each analysis interval can be predicted. In order to show the accuracy of the present inverse method, comparisons are made among the present estimates, direct results and previous results, showing that the present estimates agree with the direct results for the simulated problem. However, the present estimates of the surface absorptivity deviate slightly from previous estimated results under the assumption of constant thermal properties. The effect of the surface conditions on the surface absorptivity and temperature is not negligible

  15. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  16. Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Zhirong; Gong, Junhui; Liu, Kai; Wang, Hao; Guo, Linsheng

    2017-02-25

    This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging-discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging.

  17. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  18. All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatele, Mukta

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles presented by researchers and practitioners, including engineers, biologists, health professionals and informatics/computer scientists, interested in both theoretical advances and applications of information systems, artificial intelligence, signal processing, electronics and other engineering tools in areas related to biology and medicine in the All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012 (AISOBE 2012), organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Jabalpur Local Centre, Jabalpur, India during November 3-4, 2012. The content of the book is useful to doctors, engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  19. The genetic influence on the cortical processing of experimental pain and the moderating effect of pain status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Vossen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the COMT Val(158Met, BDNF Val(66Met and OPRM1 A(118G polymorphisms moderate the experience of pain. In order to obtain experimental confirmation and extension of findings, cortical processing of experimentally-induced pain was used. METHOD: A sample of 78 individuals with chronic low back pain complaints and 37 healthy controls underwent EEG registration. Event-Related Potentials were measured in response to electrical nociceptive stimuli and moderation by COMT Val(158Met, BDNF Val(66Met and OPRM1 A(118G polymorphisms was assessed. RESULTS: Genetic variation did not have a direct effect on cortical processing of experimental pain. However, genetic effects (COMT Val(158Met and BDNF Val(66Met on experimental pain were moderated by the presence of chronic pain. In the presence of chronic pain, the COMT Met allele and the BDNF Met allele augmented cortical pain processing, whilst reducing pain processing in pain-free controls. No significant effects were found concerning the OPRM1 A(118G polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that chronic experience of pain enhances genetic sensitivity to experimentally induced mildly painful stimuli, possibly through a process of epigenetic modification.

  20. Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2007-07-01

    We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan.

  1. Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Rafael; Jiménez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Nebot, Victoria

    2012-01-25

    The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations can be exploited for

  2. Experimental study of the processes of aerosol production for technical oil cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev Gennadiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experimental study of mechanism of fine mist formation in oil-flooded screw compressor it has been drawn the conclusion on evaporation of fine aerosol of mineral oil that has been obtained in two ways: on the basis of oil spray with mechanical burner and on the basis of volume condensation of oil vapour in air. The given paper presents experimental facility for the production of mineral oil aerosol and also comparison of the experimentation results with calculations.

  3. Data Processing and Experimental Design for Micrometeorite Impacts in Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E.; Lederer, S.; Smith, D.; Strojia, C.; Cintala, M.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L.

    2014-01-01

    Comets and asteroids have been altered from their original "pristine" state by impacts occurring throughout their 4.5 billion year lives: [1]. Proof of shock deformation has been detected in the crystal structure of several Stardust samples from Comet Wild 2 [2, 3]. Analyses indicated that the planar dislocations in the crystal structure of the minerals had been imparted by impacts sustained during their lives, and not due to the aerogel capture process. Distortions to crystal structure also affect the ideal absorption spectra in the infrared, and [4], thus providing indirect evidence of its impact history and a means of remotely investigating the impact history of small bodies through comparing laboratory spectra with spectra observed by telescopes or spacecraft. -The effects of impacts propagating shock waves through minerals were investigated through laboratory impact experiments. Utilizing NASA Johnson Space Center's Experimental Impact Laboratory, projectiles were fired from the vertical gun at velocities ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 km/sec, projected impact velocities between Kuiper Belt Objects. Two types of projectiles were used, including spherical alumina ceramic, whose density mimics that of rock, and cylinders made from the same material that they impacted. The target materials chosen for testing included: OLIVINES forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite, Fe2SiO4); PYROXENES enstatite (Mg2Si2O6) and diopside (MgCaSi2O6); and CARBONATES magnesite (MgCO3) and siderite (FeCO3). Targets were impacted at either 25 C or cooled to -20 C to examine the effects of temperature, if any, on lattice distortions during the shock propagation. As comets and asteroids can undergo a wide range of temperatures in their orbital lifetimes, the effect of temperature on the equation of state of minerals being shocked needs to be examined for interpreting the results of these experiments. The porosity of the target mineral is varied by either grinding it into a powder/granular texture or

  4. Process simulation and experimental validation of Hot Metal Gas Forming with new press hardening steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Reuther, F.; Neumann, S.; Albert, A.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    One field in the work of the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in Chemnitz is industry applied research in Hot Metal Gas Forming, combined with press hardening in one process step. In this paper the results of investigations on new press hardening steels from SSAB AB (Docol®1800 Bor and Docol®2000 Bor) are presented. Hot tensile tests recorded by the project partner (University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering) were used to create a material model for thermo-mechanical forming simulations. For this purpose the provided raw data were converted into flow curve approximations of the real stress-real strain-curves for both materials and afterwards integrated in a LS-DYNA simulation model of Hot Metal Gas Forming with all relevant boundary conditions and sub-stages. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using a tool at room temperature to permit evaluation of the forming behaviour of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor tubes as well as validation of the simulation model. Using this demonstrator geometry (outer diameter 57 mm, tube length 300 mm, wall thickness 1.5 mm), the intention was to perform a series of tests with different furnace temperatures (from 870 °C to 1035 °C), maximum internal pressures (up to 67 MPa) and pressure build-up rates (up to 40 MPa/s) to evaluate the formability of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor. Selected demonstrator parts produced in that way were subsequently analysed by wall thickness and hardness measurements. The tests were carried out using the completely modernized Dunkes/AP&T HS3-1500 hydroforming press at the Fraunhofer IWU. In summary, creating a consistent simulation model with all relevant sub-stages was successfully established in LS-DYNA. The computation results show a high correlation with the experimental data regarding the thinning behaviour. The Hot Metal Gas Forming of the demonstrator geometry was successfully established as well. Different hardness values

  5. Experimental study on the aging process of the LR 115 cellulose nitrate radon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siems, M.; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.-C.; Joensson, G.; Enge, W.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental determination of the aging process of cellulose nitrate detector material was based on the examination of special properties of the LR 115 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) of various ages up to 18 years. The examined relevant parameters are the bulk etching rate v b and the track etching rate v t . These parameters are responsible for the appearance, the size and the registration efficiency of tracks of α-particles from radon gas in the detector. To find a correlation between these material parameters and the detector sensitivity an experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices based on LR 115 took place at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany). To avoid routine calibration work in external radon exposure facilities a correction of the age dependent calibration factors with the material parameters measured in one's own laboratory was targeted. In this study a general age dependence, however, was not found. The following statements for practical applications can be made. (i) the bulk etching rate v b for detectors of the same batch has a depth dependence and this dependence is constant over 2 years (LR 115 September 1994). (ii) detectors of different batches older than 5 years and stored at room temperature show an odd v b behaviour when v b is used for describing track shapes. (iii) the calibration factor of detectors of different batches that were stored at about +4 deg. C is constant over 5 years (LR 115 September 1994 and February 1999, Table 2). The conclusion is that LR 115 detectors not older than 5 years and stored in a refrigerator at about +4 deg. C should be preferred for radon measurements. Furthermore these detectors should be recalibrated every year and the microscope work of this calibrations should be performed by the same person who performs the measurements. In addition, a phenomenon related to fundamental track formation mechanisms was found, that the time straggling of the

  6. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  7. Usage of cell nomenclature in biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Kafkas, Senay

    2017-12-21

    Background Cell lines and cell types are extensively studied in biomedical research yielding to a significant amount of publications each year. Identifying cell lines and cell types precisely in publications is crucial for science reproducibility and knowledge integration. There are efforts for standardisation of the cell nomenclature based on ontology development to support FAIR principles of the cell knowledge. However, it is important to analyse the usage of cell nomenclature in publications at a large scale for understanding the level of uptake of cell nomenclature in literature by scientists. In this study, we analyse the usage of cell nomenclature, both in Vivo, and in Vitro in biomedical literature by using text mining methods and present our results. Results We identified 59% of the cell type classes in the Cell Ontology and 13% of the cell line classes in the Cell Line Ontology in the literature. Our analysis showed that cell line nomenclature is much more ambiguous compared to the cell type nomenclature. However, trends indicate that standardised nomenclature for cell lines and cell types are being increasingly used in publications by the scientists. Conclusions Our findings provide an insight to understand how experimental cells are described in publications and may allow for an improved standardisation of cell type and cell line nomenclature as well as can be utilised to develop efficient text mining applications on cell types and cell lines. All data generated in this study is available at https://github.com/shenay/CellNomenclatureStudy.

  8. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D

    2017-07-01

    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Biomedical nanomaterials from design to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Nanomaterials brings together the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare in a single source. Each chapter covers important and new information in the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  10. Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  12. Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  14. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  15. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  16. Statistics in three biomedical journals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilčík, Tomáš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2003), s. 39-43 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/1381 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : statistics * usage * biomedical journals Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  17. KaBOB: ontology-based semantic integration of biomedical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kevin M; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2015-04-23

    The ability to query many independent biological databases using a common ontology-based semantic model would facilitate deeper integration and more effective utilization of these diverse and rapidly growing resources. Despite ongoing work moving toward shared data formats and linked identifiers, significant problems persist in semantic data integration in order to establish shared identity and shared meaning across heterogeneous biomedical data sources. We present five processes for semantic data integration that, when applied collectively, solve seven key problems. These processes include making explicit the differences between biomedical concepts and database records, aggregating sets of identifiers denoting the same biomedical concepts across data sources, and using declaratively represented forward-chaining rules to take information that is variably represented in source databases and integrating it into a consistent biomedical representation. We demonstrate these processes and solutions by presenting KaBOB (the Knowledge Base Of Biomedicine), a knowledge base of semantically integrated data from 18 prominent biomedical databases using common representations grounded in Open Biomedical Ontologies. An instance of KaBOB with data about humans and seven major model organisms can be built using on the order of 500 million RDF triples. All source code for building KaBOB is available under an open-source license. KaBOB is an integrated knowledge base of biomedical data representationally based in prominent, actively maintained Open Biomedical Ontologies, thus enabling queries of the underlying data in terms of biomedical concepts (e.g., genes and gene products, interactions and processes) rather than features of source-specific data schemas or file formats. KaBOB resolves many of the issues that routinely plague biomedical researchers intending to work with data from multiple data sources and provides a platform for ongoing data integration and development and for

  18. Journal of Biomedical Investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An application of image processing to the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy for the automatic detection of microaneurysms and hemorrhages in fundus images of the human retina · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RW LeAnder, P Chindam, S Tummala, M Das.

  19. Research evaluation support services in biomedical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elizabeth Gutzman

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Libraries can leverage a variety of evaluation support services as an opportunity to successfully meet an array of challenges confronting the biomedical research community, including robust efforts to report and demonstrate tangible and meaningful outcomes of biomedical research and clinical care. These services represent a transformative direction that can be emulated by other biomedical and research libraries.

  20. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F. [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  1. Encapsulated magnetite particles for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Landfester, K

    2003-01-01

    The process of miniemulsification allows the generation of small, homogeneous, and stable droplets containing monomer or polymer precursors and magnetite which are then transferred by polymer reactions to the final polymer latexes, keeping their particular identity without serious exchange kinetics involved. It is shown that the miniemulsion process can excellently be used for the formulation of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can further be used for biomedical applications. The use of high shear, appropriate surfactants, and the addition of a hydrophobe in order to suppress the influence of Ostwald ripening are key factors for the formation of the small and stable droplets in miniemulsion and will be discussed. Two different approaches based on miniemulsion processes for the encapsulation of magnetite into polymer particles will be presented in detail.

  2. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes in mining induced fracturing and rock instability.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The main themes of the project GAP601b have been experimental investigations of creep effects, further underground observations of time-dependent behaviour, investigation of scale effects and rock mass stability and studies of the interaction...

  3. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    is no insulating layer formed. The oxides are washed out by electrolyte flow. The method provides a constant escape of abrasive grain. The grain escape reaches 100-120% of average diameter.Adaptation of ECD on conventional grinding machine is performed. For this, the copper electrode is mounted to the grinding wheel. The electrolyte circulates in the gap between the wheel and electrode. The control system for the normal and tangential forces of process is also used during the adaptation.The enterprise VNIIINSTRUMENT has designed a special experimental stand for diamond grinding. At this stand the ECD-dressing of diamond wheel with metal bond is implemented. This machine consists of a longitudinal support and a cross slide. Spindle of grinding wheel is set on the longitudinal support. A rotating speed of this spindle is about 50-3000 rev/min. A spindle of work piece is set on the cross slide. A rotating speed of this spindle is about 10-1000 rev/min.The copper electrode is mounted on the spindle of grinding wheel. An area of electrode surface is 1/3 of the wheel area. The gap between the grinding wheel and electrode is about 0.3 mm. The electrolyte is placed in the gap.The electrode is anode and the grinding wheel is cathode. Wheel and electrode are connected to the direct current source. When switching on the power source, the process of electrolysis begins. A bond of the wheel is oxidized and washed out. Waste of dressing is carried away with electrolyte.The electrolyte leaves the zone of cutting. Next, the liquid gets into a special trough. Thereafter, the electrolyte enters the filter unit to have three steps of purification. The purified liquid is supplied to the pump, and then again enters the cutting zone.ECD provides a large escape abrasive grain out of bond. It ensures that the cutting force is constant. The constant cutting force ensures the surface finish consistency, decreased surface roughness, and improved accuracy of work piece form.Due to ECD, space

  4. The porous surface model, a novel experimental system for online quantitative observation of microbial processes under unsaturated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Gulez, Gamze

    2008-01-01

    Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless, no experim....... The PSM constitutes a tool uniquely adapted to study the influence of liquid film geometry on microbial processes. It should therefore contribute to uncovering mechanisms of microbial adaptation to unsaturated environments.......Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless......, no experimental systems are available that allow real-time observation of bacterial processes in liquid films of controlled thickness. We propose a novel, inexpensive, easily operated experimental platform, termed the porous surface model (PSM) that enables quantitative real-time microscopic observations...

  5. New roles & responsibilities of hospital biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; Stone, B; Booth, P; Lui, W

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the changing healthcare environment has required hospitals and specifically Biomedical Engineering to critically evaluate, optimize and adapt their operations. The focus is now on new technologies, changes to the environment of care, support requirements and financial constraints. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), an NIH-designated comprehensive cancer center, has been transitioning to an increasing outpatient care environment. This transition is driving an increase in-patient acuity coupled with the need for added urgency of support and response time. New technologies, regulatory requirements and financial constraints have impacted operating budgets and in some cases, resulted in a reduction in staffing. Specific initiatives, such as the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals, requirements for an electronic medical record, meaningful use and ICD10 have caused institutions to reevaluate their operations and processes including requiring Biomedical Engineering to manage new technologies, integrations and changes in the electromagnetic environment, while optimizing operational workflow and resource utilization. This paper addresses the new and expanding responsibilities and approach of Biomedical Engineering organizations, specifically at MSKCC. It is suggested that our experience may be a template for other organizations facing similar problems. Increasing support is necessary for Medical Software - Medical Device Data Systems in the evolving wireless environment, including RTLS and RFID. It will be necessary to evaluate the potential impact on the growing electromagnetic environment, on connectivity resulting in the need for dynamic and interactive testing and the growing demand to establish new and needed operational synergies with Information Technology operations and other operational groups within the institution, such as nursing, facilities management, central supply, and the user departments.

  6. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  7. A robust approach to extract biomedical events from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Chinh; Sloot, Peter M A

    2012-10-15

    The abundance of biomedical literature has attracted significant interest in novel methods to automatically extract biomedical relations from the literature. Until recently, most research was focused on extracting binary relations such as protein-protein interactions and drug-disease relations. However, these binary relations cannot fully represent the original biomedical data. Therefore, there is a need for methods that can extract fine-grained and complex relations known as biomedical events. In this article we propose a novel method to extract biomedical events from text. Our method consists of two phases. In the first phase, training data are mapped into structured representations. Based on that, templates are used to extract rules automatically. In the second phase, extraction methods are developed to process the obtained rules. When evaluated against the Genia event extraction abstract and full-text test datasets (Task 1), we obtain results with F-scores of 52.34 and 53.34, respectively, which are comparable to the state-of-the-art systems. Furthermore, our system achieves superior performance in terms of computational efficiency. Our source code is available for academic use at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/10256952/BioEvent.zip.

  8. Digital fabrication of multi-material biomedical objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H H; Choi, S H, E-mail: shchoi@hku.h [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system for modelling and digital fabrication of discrete and functionally graded multi-material objects for biomedical applications. The MMVP system consists of a DMMVP module, an FGMVP module and a virtual reality (VR) simulation module. The DMMVP module is used to model discrete multi-material (DMM) objects, while the FGMVP module is for functionally graded multi-material (FGM) objects. The VR simulation module integrates these two modules to perform digital fabrication of multi-material objects, which can be subsequently visualized and analysed in a virtual environment to optimize MMLM processes for fabrication of product prototypes. Using the MMVP system, two biomedical objects, including a DMM human spine and an FGM intervertebral disc spacer are modelled and digitally fabricated for visualization and analysis in a VR environment. These studies show that the MMVP system is a practical tool for modelling, visualization, and subsequent fabrication of biomedical objects of discrete and functionally graded multi-materials for biomedical applications. The system may be adapted to control MMLM machines with appropriate hardware for physical fabrication of biomedical objects.

  9. Digital fabrication of multi-material biomedical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H H; Choi, S H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system for modelling and digital fabrication of discrete and functionally graded multi-material objects for biomedical applications. The MMVP system consists of a DMMVP module, an FGMVP module and a virtual reality (VR) simulation module. The DMMVP module is used to model discrete multi-material (DMM) objects, while the FGMVP module is for functionally graded multi-material (FGM) objects. The VR simulation module integrates these two modules to perform digital fabrication of multi-material objects, which can be subsequently visualized and analysed in a virtual environment to optimize MMLM processes for fabrication of product prototypes. Using the MMVP system, two biomedical objects, including a DMM human spine and an FGM intervertebral disc spacer are modelled and digitally fabricated for visualization and analysis in a VR environment. These studies show that the MMVP system is a practical tool for modelling, visualization, and subsequent fabrication of biomedical objects of discrete and functionally graded multi-materials for biomedical applications. The system may be adapted to control MMLM machines with appropriate hardware for physical fabrication of biomedical objects.

  10. Laser surface texturing of polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveiro, Antonio; Maçon, Anthony L. B.; del Val, Jesus; Comesaña, Rafael; Pou, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Polymers are materials widely used in biomedical science because of their biocompatibility, and good mechanical properties (which, in some cases, are similar to those of human tissues); however, these materials are, in general, chemically and biologically inert. Surface characteristics, such as topography (at the macro-, micro, and nanoscale), surface chemistry, surface energy, charge or wettability are interrelated properties, and they cooperatively influence the biological performance of materials when used for biomedical applications. They regulate the biological response at the implant/tissue interface (e.g., influencing the cell adhesion, cell orientation, cell motility, etc.). Several surface processing techniques have been explored to modulate these properties for biomedical applications. Despite their potentials, these methods have limitations that prevent their applicability. In this regard, laser-based methods, in particular laser surface texturing (LST), can be an interesting alternative. Different works have showed the potentiality of this technique to control the surface properties of biomedical polymers and enhance their biological performance; however, more research is needed to obtain the desired biological response. This work provides a general overview of the basics and applications of LST for the surface modification of polymers currently used in the clinical practice (e.g. PEEK, UHMWPE, PP, etc.). The modification of roughness, wettability, and their impact on the biological response is addressed to offer new insights on the surface modification of biomedical polymers.

  11. A realistic approach to modeling an in-duct desulfurization process based on an experimental pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This paper has been written to provide a realistic approach to modeling an in-duct desulfurization process and because of the disagreement between the results predicted by published kinetic models of the reaction between hydrated lime and SO{sub 2} at low temperature and the experimental results obtained in pilot plants where this process takes place. Results were obtained from an experimental program carried out in a 3-MWe pilot plant. Additionally, five kinetic models, from the literature, of the reaction of sulfation of Ca(OH){sub 2} at low temperatures were assessed by simulation and indicate that the desulfurization efficiencies predicted by them are clearly lower than those experimentally obtained in our own pilot plant as well as others. Next, a general model was fitted by minimizing the difference between the calculated and the experimental results from the pilot plant, using Matlab{sup TM}. The parameters were reduced as much as possible, to only two. Finally, after implementing this model in a simulation tool of the in-duct sorbent injection process, it was validated and it was shown to yield a realistic approach useful for both analyzing results and aiding in the design of an in-duct desulfurization process.

  12. The effect of process conditions on the alpha-amylolytic hydrolysis of amylopectin potato starch : an experimental design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, L.M.; Jonkers, J.; Franke, G.T.; Goooijer, de C.D.; Tramper, J.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrolysis of amylopectin potato starch with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (Maxamyl) was studied under industrially relevant conditions (i.e. high dry-weight concentrations). The following ranges of process conditions were chosen and investigated by means of an experimental design: pH [5.6-

  13. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise.

  14. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  15. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  16. 1st European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

     This volume presents the proceedings of the first European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators ENCY2015. It was in Budapest, from 28th to 30th May, 2015. The papers were assembled under the motto "Understanding complex living systems” and cover the topics sensors, image processing, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and modeling.

  17. The effects of acute inflammation on cognitive functioning and emotional processing in humans: A systematic review of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Jessica; Trick, Leanne; Llewellyn, David; Dickens, Chris

    2017-03-01

    The cognitive neuropsychological model of depression proposes that negative biases in the processing of emotionally salient information have a central role in the development and maintenance of depression. We have conducted a systematic review to determine whether acute experimental inflammation is associated with changes to cognitive and emotional processing that are thought to cause and maintain depression. We identified experimental studies in which healthy individuals were administered an acute inflammatory challenge (bacterial endotoxin/vaccination) and standardised tests of cognitive function were performed. Fourteen references were identified, reporting findings from 12 independent studies on 345 participants. Methodological quality was rated strong or moderate for 11 studies. Acute experimental inflammation was triggered using a variety of agents (including endotoxin from E. coli, S. typhi, S. abortus Equi and Hepatitis B vaccine) and cognition was assessed over hours to months, using cognitive tests of i) attention/executive functioning, ii) memory and iii) social/emotional processing. Studies found mixed evidence that acute experimental inflammation caused changes to attention/executive functioning (2 of 6 studies showed improvements in attention executive function compared to control), changes in memory (3 of 5 studies; improved reaction time: reduced memory for object proximity: poorer immediate and delayed memory) and changes to social/emotional processing (4 of 5 studies; reduced perception of emotions, increased avoidance of punishment/loss experiences, and increased social disconnectedness). Acute experimental inflammation causes negative biases in social and emotional processing that could explain observed associations between inflammation and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Suyan; Li Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data

  19. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Suyan [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: hesuyan67829@sina.com; Li Yunfei [Department of Food Science and Engineering, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)

    2008-10-15

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data.

  20. Optimization of a pharmaceutical freeze-dried product and its process using an experimental design approach and innovative process analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Hawe, A; Kasper, J C; Almeida, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2011-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibilities/advantages of using recently introduced in-line spectroscopic process analyzers (Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy), within well-designed experiments, for the optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation and its freeze-drying process. The formulation under investigation was a mannitol (crystalline bulking agent)-sucrose (lyo- and cryoprotector) excipient system. The effects of two formulation variables (mannitol/sucrose ratio and amount of NaCl) and three process variables (freezing rate, annealing temperature and secondary drying temperature) upon several critical process and product responses (onset and duration of ice crystallization, onset and duration of mannitol crystallization, duration of primary drying, residual moisture content and amount of mannitol hemi-hydrate in end product) were examined using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A 2-level fractional factorial design (2(5-1)=16 experiments+3 center points=19 experiments) was employed. All experiments were monitored in-line using Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy, which supply continuous process and product information during freeze-drying. Off-line X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Karl-Fisher titration were performed to determine the morphology and residual moisture content of the end product, respectively. In first instance, the results showed that - besides the previous described findings in De Beer et al., Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 7639-7649 - Raman and NIR spectroscopy are able to monitor the product behavior throughout the complete annealing step during freeze-drying. The DOE approach allowed predicting the optimum combination of process and formulation parameters leading to the desired responses. Applying a mannitol/sucrose ratio of 4, without adding NaCl and processing the formulation without an annealing step, using a freezing rate of 0.9°C/min and a secondary drying temperature of 40°C resulted in

  1. Construction of experimental HMA test sections in order to monitor the compaction process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2003-01-01

    For getting better understanding about the process of HMA compaction, a test section was constructed while the governing process parameters, like; compaction progress, temperature of the material at which activities were employed, equipment properties and meteorological circumstances, were

  2. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  3. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where ...

  4. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  5. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research.

  6. Specificity of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Biomedical Cell Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, M A; Pyatigorskaya, N V

    2018-03-01

    The article describes special aspects of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for biomedical cell products (BMCP) that imply high standards of aseptics throughout the entire productio process, strict requirements to donors and to the procedure of biomaterial isolation, guaranty of tracing BMCP products, defining processing procedures which allow to identify BMCP as minimally manipulated; continuous quality control and automation of the control process at all stages of manufacturing, which will ensure product release simultaneously with completion of technological operations.

  7. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  8. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K.; Mochalin, Vadym N.

    2017-06-01

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics—two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krustev, P.; Ruskov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe different biomedical application using magnetic nanoparticles. Over the past decade, a number of biomedical applications have begun to emerge for magnetic nanoparticles of differing sizes, shapes, and compositions. Areas under investigation include targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection, gene therapy, high throughput genetic screening, biochemical sensing, and rapid toxicity cleansing. Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic behavior, magnetizing strongly under an applied field. In the second case (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) there is no permanent magnetism once the field is removed. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles are highly attractive as in vivo probes or in vitro tools to extract information on biochemical systems. The optical properties of magnetic metal nanoparticles are spectacular and, therefore, have promoted a great deal of excitement during the last few decades. Many applications as MRI imaging and hyperthermia rely on the use of iron oxide particles. Moreover magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies are also applied to hyperthermia and have enabled tumor specific contrast enhancement in MRI. Other promising biomedical applications are connected with tumor cells treated with magnetic nanoparticles with X-ray ionizing radiation, which employs magnetic nanoparticles as a complementary radiate source inside the tumor. (authors)

  10. Superhydrophobic Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air state at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors’ future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic surfaces for biomedical applications. PMID:27449946

  11. Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Although the mathematical sciences were used in a general way for image processing, they were of little importance in biomedical work until the development in the 1970s of computed tomography (CT) for the imaging of x-rays and isotope emission tomography. In the 1980s, MRI eclipsed the other modalities in many ways as the most informative medical imaging methodology. Besides these well-established techniques, computer-based mathematical methods are being explored in applications to other well-known methods, such as ultrasound and electroencephalography, as well as new techniques of optical imaging, impedance tomography, and magnetic source imaging. It is worth pointing out that, while the final images of many of these techniques bear many similarities to each other, the technologies involved in each are completely different and the parameters represented in the images are very different in character as well as in medical usefulness. In each case, rather different mathematical or statistical models are used, with different equations. One common thread is the paradigm of reconstruction from indirect measurements--this is the unifying theme of this report. The imaging methods used in biomedical applications that this report discusses include: (1) x-ray projection imaging; (2) x-ray computed tomography (CT); (3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; (4) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); (5) positron emission tomography (PET); (6) ultrasonics; (7) electrical source imaging (ESI); (8) electrical impedance tomography (EIT); (9) magnetic source imaging (MSI); and (10) medical optical imaging

  12. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T

    1975-01-01

    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  13. Biocompatible electrospun polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munj, Hrishikesh Ramesh; Nelson, M Tyler; Karandikar, Prathamesh Sadanand; Lannutti, John Joseph; Tomasko, David Lane

    2014-10-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers have received considerable attention as biomaterials due to the potential to optimize both mechanical and bioactive properties. Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers is an efficient method producing biomimetic topographies suited to various applications. In the ultimate application, electrospun scaffolds must also incorporate drug/protein delivery for effective cell growth and tissue repair. This study explored the suitability of a ternary Polymethylmethacrylate-Polycaprolactone-gelatin blend in the preparation of electrospun scaffolds for biomedical applications. Tuning the blend composition allows control over scaffold mechanical properties and degradation rate. Significant improvements were observed in the mechanical properties of the blend compared with the individual components. In order to study drug delivery potential, triblends were impregnated with the model compound Rhodamine-B using sub/supercritical CO₂ infusion under benign conditions. Results show significantly distinct release profiles of the impregnated dye from the triblends. Specific factors such as porosity, degradation rate, stress relaxation, dye-polymer interactions, play key roles in impregnation and release. Each polymer component of the triblends shows distinct behavior during impregnation and release process. This affects the aforementioned factors and the release profiles of the dye. Careful control over blend composition and infusion conditions creates the flexibility needed to produce biocompatible electrospun scaffolds for a variety of biomedical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Causes and consequences of pathogenic processes in evolution: Implications from experimental epilepsy in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godlevsky, L.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Shandra, A.A.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Examples from experimental epilepsy in animals are used to illustrate the view that a crucial role of the transfer of mechanisms from compensatory into pathogenic (e.g. lethal ones in the course of a disease), is played by the power of pathologic stimuli. In the genesis of epilepsy it is suggested

  15. Experimental Research of Moisture Evaporation Process from Biomass in a Drying Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented mass evaporation rate hardwood (birch, aspen, maple, poplar derived from experimental studies. The dependence of temperature on evaporation mass rate and calculated the accommodation coefficient for the respective temperature ranges are obtained. Analyzed the temperature of drying conditions relevant species hardwood.

  16. Experimentally Determining β-Decay Intensities for 103,104Nb to Improve R-process Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, J.; Deyoung, P. D.; Spyrou, A.; Dombos, A. C.; Lyons, S.; SuN Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is responsible for the formation of nuclei heavier than iron. This process is theorized to occur in supernovas and/or neutron star mergers. R-process calculations require the accurate knowledge of a significant amount of nuclear properties, the majority of which are not known experimentally. Nuclear masses, β-decay properties and neutron-capture reactions are all input ingredients into r-process models. This present study focuses on the β decay of 103Nb and 104Nb. The β decay of 103Nb and 104Nb, two nuclei found in the r-process, were observed at the NSCL using the Summing NaI (SuN) detector. An unstable beam implanted inside SuN. The γ rays were measured in coincidence with the emitted electrons. The β-decay intensity function was then extracted. The experimentally determined functions for 103Nb and 104Nb will be compared to predictions made by the Quasi Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) model. These theoretical calculations are used in astrophysical models of the r-process. This comparison will lead to a better understanding of the nuclear structure for 103Nb and 104Nb. A more dependable prediction of the formation of heavier nuclei birthed from supernovas or neutron star mergers can then be made. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1613188 and PHY-1306074, and by the Hope College Department of Physics Guess Research Fund.

  17. Anxiety-linked attentional bias and its modification: Illustrating the importance of distinguishing processes and procedures in experimental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin; Grafton, Ben

    2016-11-01

    In this review of research concerning anxiety-linked attentional bias, we seek to illustrate a general principle that we contend applies across the breadth of experimental psychopathology. Specifically, we highlight how maintenance of a clear distinction between process and procedure serves to enhance the advancement of knowledge and understanding, while failure to maintain this distinction can foster confusion and misconception. We show how such clear differentiation has permitted the continuous refinement of assessment procedures, in ways that have led to growing confidence in the existence of the putative attentional bias process of interest, and also increasing understanding of its nature. In contrast, we show how a failure to consistently differentiate between process and procedure has contributed to confusion concerning whether or not attentional bias modification reliably alters anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction. As we demonstrate, such confusion can be avoided by distinguishing the process of attentional bias modification from the procedures that have been employed with the intention of evoking this target process. Such an approach reveals that procedures adopted with the intention of eliciting the attentional bias modification process do not always do so, but that successful evocation of the attentional bias modification process quite reliably alters anxiety symptomatology. We consider some of the specific implications for future research concerning attentional bias modification, while also pointing to the broader implications for experimental psychopathology research in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Navigating the Path to a Biomedical Science Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely

    The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Semantic similarity measure in biomedical domain leverage web search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Wen-Yung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measure plays an essential role in Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing. In this paper we propose a page-count-based semantic similarity measure and apply it in biomedical domains. Previous researches in semantic web related applications have deployed various semantic similarity measures. Despite the usefulness of the measurements in those applications, measuring semantic similarity between two terms remains a challenge task. The proposed method exploits page counts returned by the Web Search Engine. We define various similarity scores for two given terms P and Q, using the page counts for querying P, Q and P AND Q. Moreover, we propose a novel approach to compute semantic similarity using lexico-syntactic patterns with page counts. These different similarity scores are integrated adapting support vector machines, to leverage the robustness of semantic similarity measures. Experimental results on two datasets achieve correlation coefficients of 0.798 on the dataset provided by A. Hliaoutakis, 0.705 on the dataset provide by T. Pedersen with physician scores and 0.496 on the dataset provided by T. Pedersen et al. with expert scores.

  20. Functionality of porous silicon particles: Surface modification for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallach, D.; Recio Sanchez, G.; Munoz Noval, A.; Manso Silvan, M.; Ceccone, G.; Martin Palma, R.J.; Torres Costa, V.; Martinez Duart, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Porous silicon-based particles (PSps) with tailored physical and biological properties have recently attracted great attention given their biomedical potential. Within this context, the objective of the present work is to optimize the experimental parameters for the formation of biofunctional mesoporous PSps. Their functionality has been studied on the one hand by analyzing the fluorescence characteristics, such as tunable narrow band emission and fluorescence aging for PSps with different molecular capping. With regard to the biofunctional characteristics, two different molecular end-capping processes have been assayed: antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polar binding amino silanes (APTS), which were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both PEG and APTS binding to the particles could be confirmed from the analysis of Si 2p and C 1s XPS core level spectra. The finding that these PSp-molecule conjugates allow the reduction of fluorescence degradation with time in solution is of interest for the development of cellular or tissue markers. From the morphological point of view, PEG termination is of special interest allowing the PSps after an ultrasonic treatment to get spherical shapes in the micron scale. The functionality as solid state dyes is preliminarily evaluated by direct fluorescence imaging.