WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical complex systems

  1. Trends in modeling Biomedical Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Remondini Daniel; Castellani Gastone; Romano Paolo; Milanesi Luciano; Liò Petro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we provide an introduction to the techniques for multi-scale complex biological systems, from the single bio-molecule to the cell, combining theoretical modeling, experiments, informatics tools and technologies suitable for biological and biomedical research, which are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, multidimensional and information-driven. The most important concepts on mathematical modeling methodologies and statistical inference, bioinformatics and standards...

  2. Mechanism-based modeling of complex biomedical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanism-based modeling is an approach in which the physiological, pathological and pharmacological processes of relevance to a given problem are represented as directly as possible. This approach allows us (i) to test whether assumed hypotheses are consistent with observed behaviour, (ii......) to examine the sensitivity of a system to parameter variation, (iii) to learn about processes not directly amenable to experimentation, and (iv) to predict system behavior under conditions not previously experienced. The paper illustrates different aspects of the application of mechanism-based modeling...... through three different examples of relevance to the treatment of diabetes and hypertension: subcutaneous absorption of insulin, pulsatile insulin secretion in normal young persons, and synchronization of the pressure and flow regulation in neighbouring nephrons. The underlying ideas are that each...

  3. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  4. Visualization and simulation of complex flows in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Oliveira, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the most recent advances in the application of visualization and simulation methods to understand the flow behavior of complex fluids used in biomedical engineering and other related fields. It shows the physiological flow behavior in large arteries, microcirculation, respiratory systems and in biomedical microdevices.

  5. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  6. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pérez, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This final year project presents the design principles and prototype implementation of BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System), a flexible software system which provides an infrastructure to manage all information required by biomedical research projects.The BIMS project was initiated with the motivation to solve several limitations in medical data acquisition of some research projects, in which Universitat Pompeu Fabra takes part. These limitations,based on the lack of control mechan...

  7. Integrating systems biology models and biomedical ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bono Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology is an approach to biology that emphasizes the structure and dynamic behavior of biological systems and the interactions that occur within them. To succeed, systems biology crucially depends on the accessibility and integration of data across domains and levels of granularity. Biomedical ontologies were developed to facilitate such an integration of data and are often used to annotate biosimulation models in systems biology. Results We provide a framework to integrate representations of in silico systems biology with those of in vivo biology as described by biomedical ontologies and demonstrate this framework using the Systems Biology Markup Language. We developed the SBML Harvester software that automatically converts annotated SBML models into OWL and we apply our software to those biosimulation models that are contained in the BioModels Database. We utilize the resulting knowledge base for complex biological queries that can bridge levels of granularity, verify models based on the biological phenomenon they represent and provide a means to establish a basic qualitative layer on which to express the semantics of biosimulation models. Conclusions We establish an information flow between biomedical ontologies and biosimulation models and we demonstrate that the integration of annotated biosimulation models and biomedical ontologies enables the verification of models as well as expressive queries. Establishing a bi-directional information flow between systems biology and biomedical ontologies has the potential to enable large-scale analyses of biological systems that span levels of granularity from molecules to organisms.

  8. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  9. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  10. BiOSS: A system for biomedical ontology selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Vázquez-Naya, José M; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    In biomedical informatics, ontologies are considered a key technology for annotating, retrieving and sharing the huge volume of publicly available data. Due to the increasing amount, complexity and variety of existing biomedical ontologies, choosing the ones to be used in a semantic annotation problem or to design a specific application is a difficult task. As a consequence, the design of approaches and tools addressed to facilitate the selection of biomedical ontologies is becoming a priority. In this paper we present BiOSS, a novel system for the selection of biomedical ontologies. BiOSS evaluates the adequacy of an ontology to a given domain according to three different criteria: (1) the extent to which the ontology covers the domain; (2) the semantic richness of the ontology in the domain; (3) the popularity of the ontology in the biomedical community. BiOSS has been applied to 5 representative problems of ontology selection. It also has been compared to existing methods and tools. Results are promising and show the usefulness of BiOSS to solve real-world ontology selection problems. BiOSS is openly available both as a web tool and a web service.

  11. Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong; Han, Haewook; Han, Joon; Ahn, Jaewook; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Jeong, Young

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules. There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contr...

  12. Biomedical Engineering Strategies in System Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a “system design space” for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further

  13. Analysis and modeling of noise in biomedical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Jalaleddini, Kian; Lopez, Diego Guarin; Kearney, Robert E; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2013-01-01

    Noise characteristics play an important role in evaluating tools developed to study biomedical systems. Despite usual assumptions, noise in biomedical systems is often nonwhite or non-Gaussian. In this paper, we present a method to analyze the noise component of a biomedical system. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the analysis of noise in voluntary ankle torque measured by a torque transducer and eye movements measured by electro-oculography (EOG).

  14. Usability survey of biomedical question answering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We live in an age of access to more information than ever before. This can be a double-edged sword. Increased access to information allows for more informed and empowered researchers, while information overload becomes an increasingly serious risk. Thus, there is a need for intelligent information retrieval systems that can summarize relevant and reliable textual sources to satisfy a user's query. Question answering is a specialized type of information retrieval with the aim of returning precise short answers to queries posed as natural language questions. We present a review and comparison of three biomedical question answering systems: askHERMES (http://www.askhermes.org/, EAGLi (http://eagl.unige.ch/EAGLi/, and HONQA (http://services.hon.ch/cgi-bin/QA10/qa.pl.

  15. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  16. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  17. A Semantics and Data-Driven Biomedical Multimedia Software System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsi Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a large-scale biomedical multimedia software system is always a challenging task: Satisfaction of sundry and stringent biomedical multimedia related requirements and standards; Heterogeneous software deployment and communication environments; and tangling correlation between data/contents and software functionalities, among others. This paper introduces a novel biomedical multimedia software system developed under Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA. Such a system takes the advantage of interoperability of SOA to solve the heterogeneity and correlation problems. The paper also classifies the system into services, annotation, ontologies, semantics matching, and QoS optimization aspects which may potentially solve the requirements problem: By establishing data ontology with respect to data properties, contents, QoS, and biomedical regulations and expanding service ontology to describe more functional and QoS specifications supported by services, appropriate services for processing biomedical multimedia data may be discovered, performed, tuned up or replaced as needed. Lastly, a biomedical education project that improves the performance of feature extraction and classification processed afterwards is introduced to illustrate the advantages of our software system developed under SOA.

  18. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  19. Cloud Based Metalearning System for Predictive Modeling of Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vukićević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and storage of biomedical data enabled many opportunities for predictive modeling and improvement of healthcare processes. On the other side analysis of such large amounts of data is a difficult and computationally intensive task for most existing data mining algorithms. This problem is addressed by proposing a cloud based system that integrates metalearning framework for ranking and selection of best predictive algorithms for data at hand and open source big data technologies for analysis of biomedical data.

  20. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity.

  1. Bioactive luminescent transition-metal complexes for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2013-07-22

    The serendipitous discovery of the anticancer drug cisplatin cemented medicinal inorganic chemistry as an independent discipline in the 1960s. Luminescent metal complexes have subsequently been widely applied for sensing, bio-imaging, and in organic light-emitting diode applications. Transition-metal complexes possess a variety of advantages that make them suitable as therapeutics and as luminescent probes for biomolecules. It is thus highly desirable to develop new luminescent metal complexes that either interact with DNA through different binding modes or target alternative cellular machinery such as proteins as well as to provide a more effective means of monitoring disease progression. In this Review, we highlight recent examples of biologically active luminescent metal complexes that can target and probe a specific biomolecule, and offer insights into the future potential of these compounds for the investigation and treatment of human diseases.

  2. [The system of biomedical scientific information of Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacić, M

    1995-09-01

    Building of the System of biomedical scientific information of Yugoslavia (SBMSI YU) began, by the end of 1980, and the system became operative officially in 1986. After the political disintegration of former Yugoslavia SBMSI of Serbia was formed. SBMSI is developed according to the policy of developing of the System of scientific technologic information of Serbia (SSTI S), and with technical support of SSTI S. Reconstruction of the System is done by using former SBMSI YU as a model. Unlike the former SBMSI YU, SBMSI S owns besides the database Biomedicina Serbica, three important databases: database of doctoral dissertations promoted at University Medical School in Belgrade in the period from 1955-1993, database of Master's theses promoted at the University School of Medicine in Belgrade from 1965-1993; A database of foreign biomedical periodicals in libraries of Serbia.

  3. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising. PMID:26077872

  4. Remote powering and data communication for implanted biomedical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kilinc, Enver Gurhan; Maloberti, Franco

    2016-01-01

    This book describes new circuits and systems for implantable biomedical applications and explains the design of a batteryless, remotely-powered implantable micro-system, designed for long-term patient monitoring.  Following new trends in implantable biomedical applications, the authors demonstrate a system which is capable of efficient, remote powering and reliable data communication.  Novel architecture and design methodologies are used to transfer power with a low-power, optimized inductive link and data is transmitted by a reliable communication link.  Additionally, an electro-mechanical solution is presented for tracking and monitoring the implantable system, while the patient is mobile.  ·         Describes practical example of an implantable batteryless biomedical system; ·         Analyzes and compares various energy harvesting and power transfer methods; ·         Describes design of remote powering link and data communication of the implantable system, comparing differe...

  5. Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods.

  6. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  7. Power optimization in wearable biomedical systems: a signal processing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Wearable monitoring systems have caught considerable attention recently due to their potential in many domains including smart health and well-being. These new biomedical monitoring systems aim to provide continuous patient monitoring and proactive care options. Realization of this vision requires research that addresses a number of challenges, in particular, regarding limited resources that the wearable sensor networks offer. This paper presents an overview of different strategies for prolonging system lifetimes through power optimization in such systems. Particular emphasis is given to enhancing processing and communication architectures with respect to the signal processing requirements of the system.

  8. Information Retrieval Systems Adapted to the Biomedical Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Marrero, Mónica; Urbano, Julián; Morato, Jorge; Moreiro, José-Antonio; 10.3145/epi.2010.may.04

    2012-01-01

    The terminology used in Biomedicine shows lexical peculiarities that have required the elaboration of terminological resources and information retrieval systems with specific functionalities. The main characteristics are the high rates of synonymy and homonymy, due to phenomena such as the proliferation of polysemic acronyms and their interaction with common language. Information retrieval systems in the biomedical domain use techniques oriented to the treatment of these lexical peculiarities. In this paper we review some of the techniques used in this domain, such as the application of Natural Language Processing (BioNLP), the incorporation of lexical-semantic resources, and the application of Named Entity Recognition (BioNER). Finally, we present the evaluation methods adopted to assess the suitability of these techniques for retrieving biomedical resources.

  9. Cloud Based Metalearning System for Predictive Modeling of Biomedical Data

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth and storage of biomedical data enabled many opportunities for predictive modeling and improvement of healthcare processes. On the other side analysis of such large amounts of data is a difficult and computationally intensive task for most existing data mining algorithms. This problem is addressed by proposing a cloud based system that integrates metalearning framework for ranking and selection of best predictive algorithms for data at hand and open source big data technologies fo...

  10. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  11. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  12. Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents. PMID:27577484

  13. Biomedical image and signal de-noising using dual tree complex wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizi, F. Yousefi; Noubari, H. Ahmadi; Setarehdan, S. K.

    2011-10-01

    Dual tree complex wavelet transform(DTCWT) is a form of discrete wavelet transform, which generates complex coefficients by using a dual tree of wavelet filters to obtain their real and imaginary parts. The purposes of de-noising are reducing noise level and improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) without distorting the signal or image. This paper proposes a method for removing white Gaussian noise from ECG signals and biomedical images. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is very valuable in a large scope of de-noising problems. However, it has limitations such as oscillations of the coefficients at a singularity, lack of directional selectivity in higher dimensions, aliasing and consequent shift variance. The complex wavelet transform CWT strategy that we focus on in this paper is Kingsbury's and Selesnick's dual tree CWT (DTCWT) which outperforms the critically decimated DWT in a range of applications, such as de-noising. Each complex wavelet is oriented along one of six possible directions, and the magnitude of each complex wavelet has a smooth bell-shape. In the final part of this paper, we present biomedical image and signal de-noising by the means of thresholding magnitude of the wavelet coefficients.

  14. Design and implementation of efficient low complexity biomedical artifact canceller for nano devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zia Ur RAHMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current day scenario, with the rapid development of communication technology remote health care monitoring becomes as an intense research area. In remote health care monitoring, the primary aim is to facilitate the doctor with high resolution biomedical data. In order to cancel various artifacts in clinical environment in this paper we propose some efficient adaptive noise cancellation techniques. To obtain low computational complexity we combine clipping the data or error with Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm. This results sign regressor LMS (SRLMS, sign LMS (SLMS and sign LMS (SSLMS algorithms. Using these algorithms, we design Very-large-scale integration (VLSI architectures of various Biomedical Noise Cancellers (BNCs. In addition, the filtering capabilities of the proposed implementations are measured using real biomedical signals. Among the various BNCs tested, SRLMS based BNC is found to be better with reference to convergence speed, filtering capability and computational complexity. The main advantage of this technique is it needs only one multiplication to compute next weight. In this manner SRLMS based BNC is independent of filter length with reference to its computations. Whereas, the average signal to noise ratio achieved in the noise cancellation experiments are recorded as 7.1059dBs, 7.1776dBs, 6.2795dBs and 5.8847dBs for various BNCs based on LMS, SRLMS, SLMS and SSSLMS algorithms respectively. Based on the filtering characteristics, convergence and computational complexity, the proposed SRLMS based BNC architecture is well suited for nanotechnology applications.

  15. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  16. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  17. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (neurotoxicity, DNA (genotoxicity, and kidney (nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s. This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  18. Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, R.; M. Azmirruddin; Jabir, M; Ismail, M. R.; M. Muhamad; R. Awang; Muhamad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the implants...

  19. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Lund, P Kay; Gammie, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce.

  20. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  1. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Lund, P Kay; Gammie, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  2. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  3. System-of-Systems Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kopetz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.

  4. Topics in complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Yee Jiun

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Fundamental laws of physics, although successful in explaining many phenomena observed in nature and society, cannot account for the behaviour of complex, non-Hamiltonian systems. Much effort has been devoted to better understanding the topological properties of these systems. Neither ordered nor disordered, these systems of high variability are found in many areas of science. Studies on sand...

  5. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  6. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  7. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  8. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  9. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  10. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  11. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System for Biomedical Applications of RNAi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-strand RNA, including synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) and endogenous microRNA (miRNA). RNAi has attracted great attention for developing a new class of therapeutics, due to its capability to speci......RNA/miRNA and transport them to the action site in the target cells. This thesis describes the development of various nanocarriers for siRNA/miRNA delivery and investigate their potential biomedical applications including: anti-inflammation, tissue engineering and cancer...

  12. STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  13. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    Due to their unique characteristics, diode lasers are increasingly attractive for numerous applications. For example, in the biomedical field the provided output power, spatial quality, and wavelength coverage of diode lasers has enabled their applications in, e.g., dermatology, diffuse...... spectroscopy and imaging, and fluorescence measurements. A major challenge in diode laser technology is to obtain high-power laser emission at wavelengths lasers...... in conjunction with optical coherence tomography, two-photon microscopy or coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In order to provide high-power green diode laser emission, nonlinear frequency conversion of state-of-the-art near-infrared diode lasers represents a necessary means. However, the obtained...

  15. Question Processing and Clustering in INDOC: A Biomedical Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Mittal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC—a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort.

  16. Establishment of an index system for evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists for science foundation of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-jing; CHEN Xin; REN Xu-feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To establish a scientific, objective and applicable index system for evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists for science foundation of Shanghai. Methods: According to the principal indices that have been used in the developed countries for evaluating their talented personnel and the reality of our country, an index system was set up to evaluate the outstanding biomedical scientists for Shanghai science foundation. The following parameters were used to simplify the indices: correlation coefficient,multiple correlation coefficient, partial correlation coefficient, creditability, and discriminatory power.And analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of each index. Results and Conclusions:The established index system is scientific and applicable; it is helpful for cultivating and evaluating outstanding biomedical scientists.

  17. Question Processing and Clustering in INDOC: A Biomedical Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondhi Parikshit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC—a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort.

  18. Hardware and software design for a National Instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Excitation coils are used to induce eddy currents in the medium, and the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy current is then sensed by the receiver coils. Because of its non-invasive and contactless feature, it becomes an attractive technique for many applications (especially in biomedical area) compared to traditional contact electrode-based electrical impedance tomography. Due to the low contrast in conductivity between biological tissues, an accurate and stable hardware system is necessary. Most MIT systems in the literature employ external signal generators, power amplifiers and highly stable down-conversion electronics to obtain a satisfactory phase measurement. However, this would increase design complexity substantially. In this paper, a National Instrument-based MIT system is developed at the University of Bath, aiming for biomedical applications. The system utilizes National Instrument products to accomplish all signal driving, switching and data acquisition tasks, which ease the system design whilst providing satisfactory performance. This paper presents a full-scaled medical MIT system, from the sensor and system hardware design, eddy current model verification to the image reconstruction software: the performance of this MIT instrumentation system is characterized in detail, including the system accuracy and system stability. The methods of solving eddy current problem are presented. The reconstructed images of detecting the presence of saline solutions are also included in this paper, which show the capability of national instrument products to be developed into a full-scaled biomedical MIT system, by demonstrating the practical experimental results. (paper)

  19. Forecasting in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Graves, W. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Complex nonlinear systems are typically characterized by many degrees of freedom, as well as interactions between the elements. Interesting examples can be found in the areas of earthquakes and finance. In these two systems, fat tails play an important role in the statistical dynamics. For earthquake systems, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency is applicable, whereas for daily returns for the securities in the financial markets are known to be characterized by leptokurtotic statistics in which the tails are power law. Very large fluctuations are present in both systems. In earthquake systems, one has the example of great earthquakes such as the M9.1, March 11, 2011 Tohoku event. In financial systems, one has the example of the market crash of October 19, 1987. Both were largely unexpected events that severely impacted the earth and financial systems systemically. Other examples include the M9.3 Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, and the Great Recession which began with the fall of Lehman Brothers investment bank on September 12, 2013. Forecasting the occurrence of these damaging events has great societal importance. In recent years, national funding agencies in a variety of countries have emphasized the importance of societal relevance in research, and in particular, the goal of improved forecasting technology. Previous work has shown that both earthquakes and financial crashes can be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model. These metastable systems are characterized by fat tail statistics near the classical spinodal. Correlations in these systems can grow and recede, but do not imply causation, a common source of misunderstanding. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In this talk, we describe the basic phenomenology of these systems and emphasize their similarities and differences. We also consider the problem of forecast validation and verification

  20. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  1. Views on the peer review system of biomedical journals: an online survey of academics from high-ranking universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Tao, Ren; Lu, Yanxia; Day, Jeffrey R; Pan, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer review is the major method used by biomedical journals for making the decision of publishing an article. This cross-sectional survey assesses views concerning the review system of biomedical journals among academics globally. Methods A total of 28,009 biomedical academics from high-ranking universities listed by the 2009 Times Higher Education Quacquarelli Symonds (THE-QS) World University Rankings were contacted by email between March 2010 and August 2010. 1,340 completed an ...

  2. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys, Inc., Bolder Technologies Corp., Boyds Wheels, Inc., Breakaway Solutions, Inc., and BRE-X Minerals... Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended December 31, 2006....

  3. An ultra low energy biomedical signal processing system operating at near-threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzink, J.; Konijnenburg, M.; Ashouei, M.; Breeschoten, A.; Berset, T.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Groot, H. de; Barat, F.; David, J.; Ginderdeuren, J. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage-scalable digital signal processing system designed for the use in a wireless sensor node (WSN) for ambulatory monitoring of biomedical signals. To fulfill the requirements of ambulatory monitoring, power consumption, which directly translates to the WSN battery lifetime

  4. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  5. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  6. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  7. An analog front-end enables electrical impedance spectroscopy system on-chip for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane, Fernando; Ferreira, Javier; Sanchéz, Juan José; Bragós, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    The increasing number of applications of electrical bioimpedance measurements in biomedical practice, together with continuous advances in textile technology, has encouraged several researchers to make the first attempts to develop portable, even wearable, electrical bioimpedance measurement systems. The main target of these systems is personal and home monitoring. Analog Devices has made available AD5933, a new system-on-chip fully integrated electrical impedance spectrometer, which might al...

  8. Complexity of EEG-signal in Time Domain - Possible Biomedical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Stepien, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Human brain is a highly complex nonlinear system. So it is not surprising that in analysis of EEG-signal, which represents overall activity of the brain, the methods of Nonlinear Dynamics (or Chaos Theory as it is commonly called) can be used. Even if the signal is not chaotic these methods are a motivating tool to explore changes in brain activity due to different functional activation states, e.g. different sleep stages, or to applied therapy, e.g. exposure to chemical agents (drugs) and physical factors (light, magnetic field). The methods supplied by Nonlinear Dynamics reveal signal characteristics that are not revealed by linear methods like FFT. Better understanding of principles that govern dynamics and complexity of EEG-signal can help to find `the signatures' of different physiological and pathological states of human brain, quantitative characteristics that may find applications in medical diagnostics.

  9. Biocompatible hybrid nanomaterials involving polymers and hydrogels interfaced with phosphorescent complexes and toxin-free metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpu, Sreekar B.

    The major topics discussed are all relevant to interfacing brightly phosphorescent and non-luminescent coinage metal complexes of [Ag(I) and Au(I)] with biopolymers and thermoresponsive gels for making hybrid nanomaterials with an explanation on syntheses, characterization and their significance in biomedical fields. Experimental results and ongoing work on determining outreaching consequences of these hybrid nanomaterials for various biomedical applications like cancer therapy, bio-imaging and antibacterial abilities are described. In vitro and in vivo studies have been performed on majority of the discussed hybrid nanomaterials and determined that the cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity are comparatively superior when compared to analogues in literature. Consequential differences are noticed in photoluminescence enhancement from hybrid phosphorescent hydrogels, phosphorescent complex ability to physically crosslink, Au(I) sulfides tendency to form NIR (near-infrared) absorbing AuNPs compared to any similar work in literature. Syntheses of these hybrid nanomaterials has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that either metallic nanoparticles syntheses or syntheses of phosphorescent hydrogels can be carried in single step without involving any hazardous reducing agents or crosslinkers or stabilizers that are commonly employed during multiple step syntheses protocols for syntheses of similar materials in literature. These astounding results that have been discovered within studies of hybrid nanomaterials are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to health science and will have striking effect on environmental and green chemistry approaches.

  10. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  11. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future.

  12. The Application of Integrated Knowledge-based Systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Holden, Tina; Rudisill, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN), an integrated network of both human and computer elements. The BRAIN will function as an advisor to flight surgeons by assessing the risk of in-flight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. This paper describes the joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and an Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of the following: (1) knowledge acquisition; (2) integration of IDRA components; (3) use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process; (4) development of a user-friendly interface; and (5) integration of the IDRA prototype and Exercise Countermeasures Intelligent System (ExerCISys). Because the C Language, CLIPS (the C Language Integrated Production System), and the X-Window System were portable and easily integrated, they were chosen as the tools for the initial IDRA prototype. The feasibility was tested by developing an IDRA prototype that predicts the individual risk of influenza. The application of knowledge-based systems to risk assessment is of great market value to the medical technology industry.

  13. A remotely powered implantable biomedical system with location detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Enver G; Ghanad, Mehrdad A; Maloberti, Franco; Dehollain, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    An universal remote powering and communication system is presented for the implantable medical devices. The system be interfaced with different sensors or actuators. A mobile external unit controls the operation of the implantable chip and reads the sensor's data. A locator system is proposed to align the mobile unit with the implant unit for the efficient magnetic power transfer. The location of the implant is detected with 6 mm resolution from the rectified voltage level at the implanted side. The rectified voltage level is fedback to the mobile unit to adjust the magnetic field strength and maximize the efficiency of the remote powering system. The sensor's data are transmitted by using a free running oscillator modulated with on-off key scheme. To tolerate large data carrier drifts, a custom designed receiver is implemented for the mobile unit. The circuits have been fabricated in 0.18 um CMOS technology. The remote powering link is optimized to deliver power at 13.56 MHz. On chip voltage regulator creates 1.8 V from a 0.9 V reference voltage to supply the sensor/actuator blocks. The implantable chip dissipates 595 μW and requires 1.48 V for start up. PMID:24988596

  14. Biomedical wellness monitoring system based upon molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Whitney

    2012-06-01

    We wish to assist caretakers with a sensor monitoring systems for tracking the physiological changes of homealone patients. One goal is seeking biomarkers and modern imaging sensors like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), which has achieved visible imaging at the nano-scale range. Imaging techniques like STORM can be combined with a fluorescent functional marker in a system to capture the early transformation signs from wellness to illness. By exploiting both microscopic knowledge of genetic pre-disposition and the macroscopic influence of epigenetic factors we hope to target these changes remotely. We adopt dual spectral infrared imaging for blind source separation (BSS) to detect angiogenesis changes and use laser speckle imaging for hypertension blood flow monitoring. Our design hypothesis for the monitoring system is guided by the user-friendly, veteran-preferred "4-Non" principles (noninvasive, non-contact, non-tethered, non-stop-to-measure) and by the NIH's "4Ps" initiatives (predictive, personalized, preemptive, and participatory). We augment the potential storage system with the recent know-how of video Compressive Sampling (CSp) from surveillance cameras. In CSp only major changes are saved, which reduces the manpower cost of caretakers and medical analysts. This CSp algorithm is based on smart associative memory (AM) matrix storage: change features and detailed scenes are written by the outer-product and read by the inner product without the usual Harsh index for image searching. From this approach, we attempt to design an effective household monitoring approach to save healthcare costs and maintain the quality of life of seniors.

  15. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  16. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

    2010-06-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  17. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  18. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

    2010-06-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.

  19. A System for Information Management in BioMedical Studies—SIMBioMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestyaninova, Maria; Zarins, Andris; Viksna, Juris; Kurbatova, Natalja; Rucevskis, Peteris; Neogi, Sudeshna Guha; Gostev, Mike; Perheentupa, Teemu; Knuuttila, Juha; Barrett, Amy; Lappalainen, Ilkka; Rung, Johan; Podnieks, Karlis; Sarkans, Ugis; McCarthy, Mark I; Brazma, Alvis

    2009-01-01

    Summary: SIMBioMS is a web-based open source software system for managing data and information in biomedical studies. It provides a solution for the collection, storage, management and retrieval of information about research subjects and biomedical samples, as well as experimental data obtained using a range of high-throughput technologies, including gene expression, genotyping, proteomics and metabonomics. The system can easily be customized and has proven to be successful in several large-scale multi-site collaborative projects. It is compatible with emerging functional genomics data standards and provides data import and export in accepted standard formats. Protocols for transferring data to durable archives at the European Bioinformatics Institute have been implemented. Availability: The source code, documentation and initialization scripts are available at http://simbioms.org. Contact: support@simbioms.org; mariak@ebi.ac.uk PMID:19633095

  20. Method for Detecting Core Malware Sites Related to Biomedical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most advanced persistent threat attacks target web users through malicious code within landing (exploit or distribution sites. There is an urgent need to block the affected websites. Attacks on biomedical information systems are no exception to this issue. In this paper, we present a method for locating malicious websites that attempt to attack biomedical information systems. Our approach uses malicious code crawling to rearrange websites in the order of their risk index by analyzing the centrality between malware sites and proactively eliminates the root of these sites by finding the core-hub node, thereby reducing unnecessary security policies. In particular, we dynamically estimate the risk index of the affected websites by analyzing various centrality measures and converting them into a single quantified vector. On average, the proactive elimination of core malicious websites results in an average improvement in zero-day attack detection of more than 20%.

  1. Method for detecting core malware sites related to biomedical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohoon; Choi, Donghee; Jin, Jonghyun

    2015-01-01

    Most advanced persistent threat attacks target web users through malicious code within landing (exploit) or distribution sites. There is an urgent need to block the affected websites. Attacks on biomedical information systems are no exception to this issue. In this paper, we present a method for locating malicious websites that attempt to attack biomedical information systems. Our approach uses malicious code crawling to rearrange websites in the order of their risk index by analyzing the centrality between malware sites and proactively eliminates the root of these sites by finding the core-hub node, thereby reducing unnecessary security policies. In particular, we dynamically estimate the risk index of the affected websites by analyzing various centrality measures and converting them into a single quantified vector. On average, the proactive elimination of core malicious websites results in an average improvement in zero-day attack detection of more than 20%. PMID:25821511

  2. NASA Ames Research Center R and D Services Directorate Biomedical Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, J.; Flynn, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate teams with NASA, other government agencies and/or industry investigators for the development, design, fabrication, manufacturing and qualification testing of space-flight and ground-based experiment hardware for biomedical and general aerospace applications. In recent years, biomedical research hardware and software has been developed to support space-flight and ground-based experiment needs including the E 132 Biotelemetry system for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), E 100 Neurolab neuro-vestibular investigation systems, the Autogenic Feedback Systems, and the Standard Interface Glove Box (SIGB) experiment workstation module. Centrifuges, motion simulators, habitat design, environmental control systems, and other unique experiment modules and fixtures have also been developed. A discussion of engineered systems and capabilities will be provided to promote understanding of possibilities for future system designs in biomedical applications. In addition, an overview of existing engineered products will be shown. Examples of hardware and literature that demonstrate the organization's capabilities will be displayed. The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate is available to support the development of new hardware and software systems or adaptation of existing systems to meet the needs of academic, commercial/industrial, and government research requirements. The Ames R&D Services Directorate can provide specialized support for: System concept definition and feasibility Mathematical modeling and simulation of system performance Prototype hardware development Hardware and software design Data acquisition systems Graphical user interface development Motion control design Hardware fabrication and high-fidelity machining Composite materials development and application design Electronic/electrical system design and fabrication System performance verification testing and qualification.

  3. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  4. Implementation and management of a biomedical observation dictionary in a large healthcare information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Cormont, Sylvie; André, Christophe; Daniel, Christel; Delahousse, Jean; Charlet, Jean; Lepage, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study shows the evolution of a biomedical observation dictionary within the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux Paris (AP-HP), the largest European university hospital group. The different steps are detailed as follows: the dictionary creation, the mapping to logical observation identifier names and codes (LOINC), the integration into a multiterminological management platform and, finally, the implementation in the health information system. Methods AP-HP decided to create a biomedical observation dictionary named AnaBio, to map it to LOINC and to maintain the mapping. A management platform based on methods used for knowledge engineering has been put in place. It aims at integrating AnaBio within the health information system and improving both the quality and stability of the dictionary. Results This new management platform is now active in AP-HP. The AnaBio dictionary is shared by 120 laboratories and currently includes 50 000 codes. The mapping implementation to LOINC reaches 40% of the AnaBio entries and uses 26% of LOINC records. The results of our work validate the choice made to develop a local dictionary aligned with LOINC. Discussion and Conclusions This work constitutes a first step towards a wider use of the platform. The next step will support the entire biomedical production chain, from the clinician prescription, through laboratory tests tracking in the laboratory information system to the communication of results and the use for decision support and biomedical research. In addition, the increase in the mapping implementation to LOINC ensures the interoperability allowing communication with other international health institutions. PMID:23635601

  5. ON COMPLEXITY OF POWER SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin; CHENG Daizhan; HONG Yiguang; SUN Yuanzhang

    2003-01-01

    The power system is a classical example of complex systems. In this paper it is shown that the power industry in China is facing a tremendous challenge. The complexity in power systems is investigated as follows. First, the cascade failure in power systems is analyzed, and compared with sand-pile model. Next, we show that the agent-based modelling is a proper way for power network. Mathematically, the geometric dynamics and differential inclusion are useful tools for the stability analysis of large scale power systems. As for power market, the game theory and generalized control system model are proposed. For a complex power system, an evolutive model may be more accurate in description and analysis. Finally, certain newly developed numerical methods in the power system computation are introduced. Overall, we are convinced that the theorem of complexity, combined with modern control theory, may be the right way to answer the challenges faced by the power industry in China.

  6. Wearable Biomedical Measurement Systems for Assessment of Mental Stress of Combatants in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seoane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Ministry of Defense, through its Future Combatant program, has sought to develop technology aids with the aim of extending combatants’ operational capabilities. Within this framework the ATREC project funded by the “Coincidente” program aims at analyzing diverse biometrics to assess by real time monitoring the stress levels of combatants. This project combines multidisciplinary disciplines and fields, including wearable instrumentation, textile technology, signal processing, pattern recognition and psychological analysis of the obtained information. In this work the ATREC project is described, including the different execution phases, the wearable biomedical measurement systems, the experimental setup, the biomedical signal analysis and speech processing performed. The preliminary results obtained from the data analysis collected during the first phase of the project are presented, indicating the good classification performance exhibited when using features obtained from electrocardiographic recordings and electrical bioimpedance measurements from the thorax. These results suggest that cardiac and respiration activity offer better biomarkers for assessment of stress than speech, galvanic skin response or skin temperature when recorded with wearable biomedical measurement systems.

  7. Comment on 'Interpretation of the Lempel-Ziv Complexity Measure in the context of Biomedical Signal Analysis'

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Karthi

    2013-01-01

    In this Communication, we express our reservations on some aspects of the interpretation of the Lempel-Ziv Complexity measure (LZ) by Mateo et al. in "Interpretation of the Lempel-Ziv complexity measure in the context of biomedical signal analysis," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 2282-2288, Nov. 2006. In particular, we comment on the dependence of the LZ complexity measure on number of harmonics, frequency content and amplitude modulation. We disagree with the following statements made by Mateo et al. 1. "LZ is not sensitive to the number of harmonics in periodic signals." 2. "LZ increases as the frequency of a sinusoid increases." 3. "Amplitude modulation of a signal doesnot result in an increase in LZ." We show the dependence of LZ complexity measure on harmonics and amplitude modulation by using a modified version of the synthetic signal that has been used in the original paper. Also, the second statement is a generic statement which is not entirely true. This is true only in the low freque...

  8. Survey of biomedical and environental data bases, models, and integrated computer systems at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains an inventory (index) of information resources pertaining to biomedical and environmental projects at Argonne National Laboratory--the information resources include a data base, model, or integrated computer system. Entries are categorized as models, numeric data bases, bibliographic data bases, or integrated hardware/software systems. Descriptions of the Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) program, the system for compiling this inventory, and the plans for continuing and expanding it are given, and suggestions for utilizing the services of the ICFP are outlined

  9. Survey of biomedical and environental data bases, models, and integrated computer systems at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, I.P.; Bodeau, D.J.; Scott, J.M.; Huebner, R.H.

    1978-08-01

    This document contains an inventory (index) of information resources pertaining to biomedical and environmental projects at Argonne National Laboratory--the information resources include a data base, model, or integrated computer system. Entries are categorized as models, numeric data bases, bibliographic data bases, or integrated hardware/software systems. Descriptions of the Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) program, the system for compiling this inventory, and the plans for continuing and expanding it are given, and suggestions for utilizing the services of the ICFP are outlined.

  10. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  11. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems are characterized by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behavior. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical world. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicist's point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualized in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representatio...

  12. Challenges in Complex Systems Science

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel, Maxi San; Kertesz, Janos; Kaski, Kimmo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; MacKay, Robert S; Loreto, Vittorio; Erdi, Peter; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    FuturICT foundations are social science, complex systems science, and ICT. The main concerns and challenges in the science of complex systems in the context of FuturICT are laid out in this paper with special emphasis on the Complex Systems route to Social Sciences. This include complex systems having: many heterogeneous interacting parts; multiple scales; complicated transition laws; unexpected or unpredicted emergence; sensitive dependence on initial conditions; path-dependent dynamics; networked hierarchical connectivities; interaction of autonomous agents; self-organisation; non-equilibrium dynamics; combinatorial explosion; adaptivity to changing environments; co-evolving subsystems; ill-defined boundaries; and multilevel dynamics. In this context, science is seen as the process of abstracting the dynamics of systems from data. This presents many challenges including: data gathering by large-scale experiment, participatory sensing and social computation, managing huge distributed dynamic and heterogeneou...

  13. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  14. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shahand

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists fr

  15. NeuroTerrain – a client-server system for browsing 3D biomedical image data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissanov Jonathan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three dimensional biomedical image sets are becoming ubiquitous, along with the canonical atlases providing the necessary spatial context for analysis. To make full use of these 3D image sets, one must be able to present views for 2D display, either surface renderings or 2D cross-sections through the data. Typical display software is limited to presentations along one of the three orthogonal anatomical axes (coronal, horizontal, or sagittal. However, data sets precisely oriented along the major axes are rare. To make fullest use of these datasets, one must reasonably match the atlas' orientation; this involves resampling the atlas in planes matched to the data set. Traditionally, this requires the atlas and browser reside on the user's desktop; unfortunately, in addition to being monolithic programs, these tools often require substantial local resources. In this article, we describe a network-capable, client-server framework to slice and visualize 3D atlases at off-axis angles, along with an open client architecture and development kit to support integration into complex data analysis environments. Results Here we describe the basic architecture of a client-server 3D visualization system, consisting of a thin Java client built on a development kit, and a computationally robust, high-performance server written in ANSI C++. The Java client components (NetOStat support arbitrary-angle viewing and run on readily available desktop computers running Mac OS X, Windows XP, or Linux as a downloadable Java Application. Using the NeuroTerrain Software Development Kit (NT-SDK, sophisticated atlas browsing can be added to any Java-compatible application requiring as little as 50 lines of Java glue code, thus making it eminently re-useable and much more accessible to programmers building more complex, biomedical data analysis tools. The NT-SDK separates the interactive GUI components from the server control and monitoring, so as to support

  16. An analog front-end enables electrical impedance spectroscopy system on-chip for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing number of applications of electrical bioimpedance measurements in biomedical practice, together with continuous advances in textile technology, has encouraged several researchers to make the first attempts to develop portable, even wearable, electrical bioimpedance measurement systems. The main target of these systems is personal and home monitoring. Analog Devices has made available AD5933, a new system-on-chip fully integrated electrical impedance spectrometer, which might allow the implementation of minimum-size instrumentation for electrical bioimpedance measurements. However, AD5933 as such is not suitable for most applications of electrical bioimpedance. In this work, we present a relatively simple analog front-end that adapts AD5933 to a four-electrode strategy, allowing its use in biomedical applications for the first time. The resulting impedance measurements exhibit a very good performance in aspects like load dynamic range and accuracy. This type of minimum-size, system-on-chip-based bioimpedance measurement system would lead researchers to develop and implement light and wearable electrical bioimpedance systems for home and personal health monitoring applications, a new and huge niche for medical technology development

  17. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions...

  18. HEALTHCARE: A COMPLEX SERVICE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. TIEN; Pascal J. GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is indeed a complex service system, one requiring the technobiology approach of systems engineering to underpin its development as an integrated and adaptive system. In general, healthcare services are carried out with knowledge-intensive agents or components which work together as providers and consumers to create or co-produce value. Indeed, the engineering design of a healthcare system must recognize the fact that it is actually a complex integration of human-centered activities that is increasingly dependent on information technology and knowledge. Like any service system, healthcare can be considered to be a combination or recombination of three essential components-people (characterized by behaviors, values, knowledge, etc.), processes (characterized by collaboration, customization, etc.) and products (characterized by software, hardware, infrastructures, etc.). Thus, a healthcare system is an integrated and adaptive set of people, processes and products. It is, in essence, a system of systems which objectives are to enhance its efficiency (leading to greater interdependency) and effectiveness (leading to improved health). Integration occurs over the physical, temporal, organizational and functional dimensions, while adaptation occurs over the monitoring, feedback, cybernetic and learning dimensions. In sum, such service systems as healthcare are indeed complex, especially due to the uncertainties associated with the human-centered aspects of these systems. Moreover, the system complexities can only be dealt with methods that enhance system integration and adaptation.

  19. Mining biomedical data using MetaMap Transfer (MMtx) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, John D; Lin, Simon; Zhu, Lihua; Kibbe, Warren A

    2007-01-01

    Detailed instruction is described for mapping unstructured, free text data into common biomedical concepts (drugs, diseases, anatomy, and so on) found in the Unified Medical Language System using MetaMap Transfer (MMTx). MMTx can be used in applications including mining and inferring relationship between concepts in MEDLINE publications by transforming free text into computable concepts. MMTx is in general not designed to be an end-user program; therefore, a simple analysis is described using MMTx for users without any programming knowledge. In addition, two Java template files are provided for automated processing of the output from MMTx and users can adopt this with minimum Java program experience. PMID:18314582

  20. Challenges in complex systems science

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, M.; Johnson, J. H.; Kertesz, J.; Kaski, K.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; MacKay, R. S.; Loreto, V.; Érdi, P.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    FuturICT foundations are social science, complex systems science, and ICT. The main concerns and challenges in the science of complex systems in the context of FuturICT are laid out in this paper with special emphasis on the Complex Systems route to Social Sciences. This include complex systems having: many heterogeneous interacting parts; multiple scales; complicated transition laws; unexpected or unpredicted emergence; sensitive dependence on initial conditions; path-dependent dynamics; networked hierarchical connectivities; interaction of autonomous agents; self-organisation; non-equilibrium dynamics; combinatorial explosion; adaptivity to changing environments; co-evolving subsystems; ill-defined boundaries; and multilevel dynamics. In this context, science is seen as the process of abstracting the dynamics of systems from data. This presents many challenges including: data gathering by large-scale experiment, participatory sensing and social computation, managing huge distributed dynamic and heterogeneous databases; moving from data to dynamical models, going beyond correlations to cause-effect relationships, understanding the relationship between simple and comprehensive models with appropriate choices of variables, ensemble modeling and data assimilation, modeling systems of systems of systems with many levels between micro and macro; and formulating new approaches to prediction, forecasting, and risk, especially in systems that can reflect on and change their behaviour in response to predictions, and systems whose apparently predictable behaviour is disrupted by apparently unpredictable rare or extreme events. These challenges are part of the FuturICT agenda.

  1. Methods of cognitive analysis to support the design and evaluation of biomedical systems: the case of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V L; Arocha, J F; Diermeier, M; Greenes, R A; Shortliffe, E H

    2001-02-01

    This article provides a theoretical and methodological framework for the use of cognitive analysis to support the representation of biomedical knowledge and the design of clinical systems, using clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) as an example. We propose that propositional and semantic analyses, when used as part of the system-development process, can improve the validity, usability, and comprehension of the resulting biomedical applications. The framework we propose is based on a large body of research on the study of how people mentally represent information and subsequently use it for problem solving. This research encompasses many areas of psychology, but the more important ones are the study of memory and the study of comprehension. Of particular relevance is research devoted to investigating the comprehension and memory of language, expressed verbally or in text. In addition, research on how contextual variables affect performance is informative because these psychological processes are influenced by situational variables (e.g., setting, culture). One important factor limiting the acceptance and use of clinical-practice guidelines (CPGs) may be the mismatch between a guideline's recommended actions and the physician-user's mental models of what seems appropriate in a given case. Furthermore, CPGs can be semantically complex, often composed of elaborate collections of prescribed procedures with logical gaps or contradictions that can promote ambiguity and hence frustration on the part of those who attempt to use them. An improved understanding of the semantics and structure of CPGs may help to improve such matching, and ultimately the comprehensibility and usability of CPGs. Cognitive methods of analysis can help guideline designers and system builders throughout the development process, from the conceptual design of a computer-based system to its implementation phases. By studying how guideline creators and developers represent guidelines, both mentally and

  2. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  3. Biomedical stretchable sytems using MID based stretchable electronics technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, F; Brosteaux, D; De Leersnyder, E; Bossuyt, F; Vanfleteren, J; Hermans, B; Puers, R

    2007-01-01

    In order to fit human body, flexibility, or even better stretchability is requested for biomedical systems like implants or smart clothes. A stretchable electronic technology has been developed. This can provide highly stretchable interconnections fully compatible with PCB technologies. In order to prove the feasibility of complex biomedical systems like inner body implants or wearable systems, a variety of stretchable systems has been designed from sensor to power source systems.

  4. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  5. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  6. Control principles of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-07-01

    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.

  7. Studies on thermo-optic property of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG complex: a direction for devices for biomedical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nidhi Nigam; Santosh Kumar; Pradip Kumar Dutta; Tamal Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    The optical parameters including the refractive index () and thermo-optic coefficient, TOC (d/d), the dielectric constant () and its variation with temperature, and the thermal volume expansion coefficient () and its variation with temperature of chitosan–alizarin yellow GG (CS–AY GG) complex were examined. The dn/dT and - values for the polymer derivative were in the range −2.5 × 10−4 to 1.2 × 10−4° C−1 and 2.2 to 2.3, respectively. The dn/dT values were larger than that of inorganic glasses such as zinc silicate glass (5.5 × 10−6° C−1) and borosilicate glass (4.1 × 10−6° C−1) and were larger than that of organic polymers such as polystyrene (−1.23 × 10−4 ° C−1) and PMMA (−1.20 × 10−4 ° C−1). The -values are lower than optically estimated -values of conventional polymer (3.00), aliphatic polyimide (2.5) and semi-aromatic polyamide (2.83). The obtained results of chitosan derivative are expected to be useful for optical switching and optical waveguide areas for devices of biomedical applications.

  8. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-15

    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  9. Pluralistic Modeling of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of complex systems such as ecological or socio-economic systems can be very challenging. Although various modeling approaches exist, they are generally not compatible and mutually consistent, and empirical data often do not allow one to decide what model is the right one, the best one, or most appropriate one. Moreover, as the recent financial and economic crisis shows, relying on a single, idealized model can be very costly. This contribution tries to shed new light on problems that arise when complex systems are modeled. While the arguments can be transferred to many different systems, the related scientific challenges are illustrated for social, economic, and traffic systems. The contribution discusses issues that are sometimes overlooked and tries to overcome some frequent misunderstandings and controversies of the past. At the same time, it is highlighted how some long-standing scientific puzzles may be solved by considering non-linear models of heterogeneous agents with spatio-temporal inte...

  10. The Complex System in Babel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the plot of Babel reflects the principles of the quantum-physic theory of complex system such as complexity, indeterminacy and non-linearity. In terms of complexity, the movie exposes more than two distinct subplots with their subcomponents. Yet, every subplot is only meaningful when it is mentally put in relation to the others. Due to its complexity, it is highly difficult for the audience and the characters of Babel to determine the meaning or the significance of a component in the story. Finally, Babel also displays the phenomena of non-linearity and chaos. Babel's non-linearity expresses both positive and negative feedback loops, with the first being dominant. This is largely responsible for the chaotic development of the plot.

  11. Bilinear effect in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Lui; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chih-Hui Alston; Shu, Chang-Qing; Wei, Zhengjin; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Jichen

    2010-01-01

    A new, generic type of Zipf-plot behavior in complex systems has been discovered. This Zipf plot does not obey the power law or stretched-exponent distribution but appears as two monotonically decreasing straight lines intersecting each other. This is called the Bilinear Effect. Examples from real systems (including lifetime distributions of Chinese dynasties) are presented. A 3-layer network model that leads to the bilinear effect is given.

  12. COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karsai Márton

    2009-01-01

    In my PhD thesis I studied cooperative phenomena arise in complex systems using the methods of statistical and computational physics. The aim of my work was also to study the critical behaviour of interacting many-body systems during their phase transitions and describe their universal features analytically and by means of numerical calculations. In order to do so I completed studies in four different subjects. My first investigated subject was a study of non-equilibrium phase transitions in ...

  13. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  14. Physical approach to complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  15. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  16. Permutation Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Amigo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The study of permutation complexity can be envisioned as a new kind of symbolic dynamics whose basic blocks are ordinal patterns, that is, permutations defined by the order relations among points in the orbits of dynamical systems. Since its inception in 2002 the concept of permutation entropy has sparked a new branch of research in particular regarding the time series analysis of dynamical systems that capitalizes on the order structure of the state space. Indeed, on one hand ordinal patterns and periodic points are closely related, yet ordinal patterns are amenable to numerical methods, while periodicity is not. Another interesting feature is that since it can be shown that random (unconstrained) dynamics has no forbidden patterns with probability one, their existence can be used as a fingerprint to identify any deterministic origin of orbit generation. This book is primarily addressed to researchers working in the field of nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, yet will also be suitable for graduate stude...

  17. Translational systems biology using an agent-based approach for dynamic knowledge representation: An evolutionary paradigm for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary C

    2010-01-01

    The greatest challenge facing the biomedical research community is the effective translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into clinically effective therapeutics. This challenge is most evident in attempts to understand and modulate "systems" processes/disorders, such as sepsis, cancer, and wound healing. Formulating an investigatory strategy for these issues requires the recognition that these are dynamic processes. Representation of the dynamic behavior of biological systems can aid in the investigation of complex pathophysiological processes by augmenting existing discovery procedures by integrating disparate information sources and knowledge. This approach is termed Translational Systems Biology. Focusing on the development of computational models capturing the behavior of mechanistic hypotheses provides a tool that bridges gaps in the understanding of a disease process by visualizing "thought experiments" to fill those gaps. Agent-based modeling is a computational method particularly well suited to the translation of mechanistic knowledge into a computational framework. Utilizing agent-based models as a means of dynamic hypothesis representation will be a vital means of describing, communicating, and integrating community-wide knowledge. The transparent representation of hypotheses in this dynamic fashion can form the basis of "knowledge ecologies," where selection between competing hypotheses will apply an evolutionary paradigm to the development of community knowledge.

  18. Empirical and theoretical analysis of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guannan

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary work under the heading of complexity science which focuses on an arguably common "hard" problem across physics, finance and biology [1], to quantify and mimic the macroscopic "emergent phenomenon" in large-scale systems consisting of many interacting "particles" governed by microscopic rules. In contrast to traditional statistical physics, we are interested in systems whose dynamics are subject to feedback, evolution, adaption, openness, etc. Global financial markets, like the stock market and currency market, are ideal candidate systems for such a complexity study: there exists a vast amount of accurate data, which is the aggregate output of many autonomous agents continuously competing with each other. We started by examining the ultrafast "mini flash crash (MFC)" events in the US stock market. An abrupt system-wide composition transition from a mixed human machine phase to a new all-machine phase is uncovered, and a novel theory developed to explain this observation. Then in the study of FX market, we found an unexpected variation in the synchronicity of price changes in different market subsections as a function of the overall trading activity. Several survival models have been tested in analyzing the distribution of waiting times to the next price change. In the region of long waiting-times, the distribution for each currency pair exhibits a power law with exponent in the vicinity of 3.5. By contrast, for short waiting times only, the market activity can be mimicked by the fluctuations emerging from a finite resource competition model containing multiple agents with limited rationality (so called El Farol Model). Switching to the biomedical domain, we present a minimal mathematical model built around a co-evolving resource network and cell population, yielding good agreement with primary tumors in mice experiment and with clinical metastasis data. In the quest to understand contagion phenomena in systems where social group

  19. A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed.

  20. Biomedical performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Landrock, Clinton

    2007-02-01

    The paper focuses on the strong correlation between unmitigated symptoms exhibited by post Space flight astronauts, and symptoms associated with postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) that can be correctly assessed, identified, and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular monitoring system (OVMS). From examining clinical data taken over a 10-year period from patients experiencing PDS related acute and chronic post-traumatic medical conditions, the authors show the potential for current assessment and monitoring techniques to examine better the impacts on astronaut neurophysiology. The data presented provide strong evidence that this biomedical monitoring and assessment methodology along with appropriate technology can lead to a better understanding of astronaut post-flight neurophysiology, which is necessary if human exploration in Space is to continue on a successful path.

  1. Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the implants. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin had been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. Results: The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system had been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder held the particles in place. The binder system had to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis had been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part was then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The in vitro biocompatibility also was tested using Neutral Red (NR and mouse fibroblast cell lines L-929 for the direct contact assay. Conclusion: The results showed that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF 35 for PIM parts except for tensile strength and elongation due to the formation of titanium carbide. The in vitro biocompatibility on the extraction using mouse fibroblast cell line L-929 by means of NR assays showed non toxic for the sintered specimen titanium alloy parts.

  2. Simulation of complex molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined evolution of the electronic structure softwares and computational capabilities makes quantum molecular dynamics simulations available for increasingly complex systems, up to several hundred atoms. Among the various ab initio techniques, Density Functional Theory (DFT) is very successful due to its important computational efficiency with respect to Hartree-Fock type approaches. Its combination with empirical treatments of the weak van der Waals interactions allows the simulation of equilibrium or dynamics properties of numerous systems of interest for the nuclear and defense industry. We present 3 direct applications of quantum molecular dynamics: the determination of the structure of the complex Pu(DTPA) ion where DTPA means diethylen-triamine-penta-acid, the calculation of the equation of state and the Hugoniot curve of TATB monocrystal. (authors)

  3. Description complexity of lindenmayer systems

    OpenAIRE

    SELAMAT, H.; Mavlankulov, G.; Othman, M.; S. Turaev

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonterminal complexity of Lindenmayer systems withrespect to tree controlled grammars. We show that all 0L, D0Land E0L languages can begenerated by tree controlled grammars with at most five nonterminals. The results based onthe idea of using a tree controlled grammar in the t-normal form, which has the one activenonterminal, and a coding homomorphism

  4. Description complexity of lindenmayer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Selamat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the nonterminal complexity of Lindenmayer systems withrespect to tree controlled grammars. We show that all 0L, D0Land E0L languages can begenerated by tree controlled grammars with at most five nonterminals. The results based onthe idea of using a tree controlled grammar in the t-normal form, which has the one activenonterminal, and a coding homomorphism

  5. 7th International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore common themes and applications of complex system science. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex system science.

  6. 5th International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore common themes and applications of complex system science. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex system science.

  7. Testing Complex and Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pries, Kim H

    2010-01-01

    Many enterprises regard system-level testing as the final piece of the development effort, rather than as a tool that should be integrated throughout the development process. As a consequence, test teams often execute critical test plans just before product launch, resulting in much of the corrective work being performed in a rush and at the last minute. Presenting combinatorial approaches for improving test coverage, Testing Complex and Embedded Systems details techniques to help you streamline testing and identify problems before they occur--including turbocharged testing using Six Sigma and

  8. Semiotics of constructed complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The scope of this paper is limited to software and other constructed complex systems mediated or integrated by software. Our research program studies foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. There have really been only two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems: mathematics and linguistics. We show how semiotics can also play a role, whether we think of it as part of these other theories or as subsuming one or both of them. We describe our notion of {open_quotes}computational semiotics{close_quotes}, which we define to be the study of computational methods of dealing with symbols, show how such a theory might be formed, and describe what we might get from it in terms of more interesting use of symbols by computing systems. This research was supported in part by the Federal Highway Administration`s Office of Advanced Research and by the Advanced Research Projects Agency`s Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office.

  9. A Multilayer Secure Biomedical Data Management System for Remotely Managing a Very Large Number of Diverse Personal Healthcare Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KeeHyun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multilayer secure biomedical data management system for managing a very large number of diverse personal health devices is proposed. The system has the following characteristics: the system supports international standard communication protocols to achieve interoperability. The system is integrated in the sense that both a PHD communication system and a remote PHD management system work together as a single system. Finally, the system proposed in this paper provides user/message authentication processes to securely transmit biomedical data measured by PHDs based on the concept of a biomedical signature. Some experiments, including the stress test, have been conducted to show that the system proposed/constructed in this study performs very well even when a very large number of PHDs are used. For a stress test, up to 1,200 threads are made to represent the same number of PHD agents. The loss ratio of the ISO/IEEE 11073 messages in the normal system is as high as 14% when 1,200 PHD agents are connected. On the other hand, no message loss occurs in the multilayered system proposed in this study, which demonstrates the superiority of the multilayered system to the normal system with regard to heavy traffic.

  10. A Multilayer Secure Biomedical Data Management System for Remotely Managing a Very Large Number of Diverse Personal Healthcare Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, KeeHyun; Lim, SeungHyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multilayer secure biomedical data management system for managing a very large number of diverse personal health devices is proposed. The system has the following characteristics: the system supports international standard communication protocols to achieve interoperability. The system is integrated in the sense that both a PHD communication system and a remote PHD management system work together as a single system. Finally, the system proposed in this paper provides user/message authentication processes to securely transmit biomedical data measured by PHDs based on the concept of a biomedical signature. Some experiments, including the stress test, have been conducted to show that the system proposed/constructed in this study performs very well even when a very large number of PHDs are used. For a stress test, up to 1,200 threads are made to represent the same number of PHD agents. The loss ratio of the ISO/IEEE 11073 messages in the normal system is as high as 14% when 1,200 PHD agents are connected. On the other hand, no message loss occurs in the multilayered system proposed in this study, which demonstrates the superiority of the multilayered system to the normal system with regard to heavy traffic.

  11. Problem Solving and Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guinand, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.

  12. [An integral chip for the multiphase pulse-duration modulation used for voltage changer in biomedical microprocessor systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A M; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    An integral chip (IC) was designed for controlling the step-down pulse voltage converter, which is based on the multiphase pulse-duration modulation, for use in biomedical microprocessor systems. The CMOS technology was an optimal basis for the IC designing. An additional feedback circuit diminishes the output voltage dispersion at dynamically changing loads.

  13. Computational models of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Computational and mathematical models provide us with the opportunities to investigate the complexities of real world problems. They allow us to apply our best analytical methods to define problems in a clearly mathematical manner and exhaustively test our solutions before committing expensive resources. This is made possible by assuming parameter(s) in a bounded environment, allowing for controllable experimentation, not always possible in live scenarios. For example, simulation of computational models allows the testing of theories in a manner that is both fundamentally deductive and experimental in nature. The main ingredients for such research ideas come from multiple disciplines and the importance of interdisciplinary research is well recognized by the scientific community. This book provides a window to the novel endeavours of the research communities to present their works by highlighting the value of computational modelling as a research tool when investigating complex systems. We hope that the reader...

  14. COMPLEX ECO-ECONOMY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pawel Bartoszczuk; Yoshiteru Nakamori

    2003-01-01

    In the past there were a lot of researches on the topic of economic growth. Nevertheless, the environment has been a bit abstracted by standard economics. Scarce natural resources and our choices to protect them or exploit them jointly determine the economic and environmental systems. In this paper we describe a model with a particular focus on the relationship among income, pollution, and non-renewable resources. We want to combine both economic and environmental sectors. The system dynamics approach is used in analyzing these complex relationships. This paper gives an insight into the possibilities for replacing non-renewable resources with more renewable ones. Next, we present the simulation runs of the model that are conducted with the help of existing system dynamics modeling tools. Only the relationships simulated so far between the variables ought to be put under yet more cautious examination.

  15. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  16. A high-efficiency power and data transmission system for biomedical implanted electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamici, Zoubir; Itti, Roland; Champier, Jacques

    1996-02-01

    In biomedical engineering, inductive transcutaneous links can be used for power and data transfer between external systems and implanted electronic devices. The development of a micro-telemeter having a significant implantation depth needs a high-efficiency magnetic transcutaneous link. This paper presents a new system, which uses a multi-frequency load network for transmitter coil based on the class E power amplifier. At the carrier frequency used, the resistive load is influenced by the coupling of the coils and by the variation of the implant equivalent resistance. Modulating this latter between two rails permits one to modulate the amplitude of the external transmitter current and then to transmit internal data without the use of the classical implanted emitter design. Furthermore, the fact that the modulation index depends on the coupling factor, allows one to find the external coil's correct position using a position feedback loop. A complete study of the concept of digital data transmission by impedance modulation associated with a class E power amplifier is presented. Internal data transmission using this system yields a decrease of the internal electronic circuitry bulk and constitutes a high-efficiency energizing device. A theoretical investigation shows that the efficiency of the power transfer varies between 44 and 75% within a wide range of implantation depths (20 - 40 mm).

  17. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  18. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  19. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  20. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinka, Ivan; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the "ISCS 2013: Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems" held at the historical capital of Bohemia as a continuation of our series of symposia in the science of complex systems. Prague, one of the most beautiful European cities, has its own beautiful genius loci. Here, a great number of important discoveries were made and many important scientists spent fruitful and creative years to leave unforgettable traces. The perhaps most significant period was the time of Rudolf II who was a great supporter of the art and the science and attracted a great number of prominent minds to Prague. This trend would continue. Tycho Brahe, Niels Henrik Abel, Johannes Kepler, Bernard Bolzano, August Cauchy Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach, Albert Einstein and many others followed developing fundamental mathematical and physical theories or expanding them. Thus in the beginning of the 17th century, Kepler formulated here the first two of his three laws of planetary motion on ...

  1. Compound Synchronization of Four Chaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chaotic complex system is designed from the start of the chaotic real system. Dynamical properties of a chaotic complex system in complex space are investigated. In this paper, a compound synchronization scheme is achieved for four chaotic complex systems. According to Lyapunov stability theory and the adaptive control method, four chaotic complex systems are considered and the corresponding controllers are designed to realize the compound synchronization scheme. Four novel design chaotic complex systems are given as an example to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Generating Explanations for Biomedical Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Esra; Oztok, Umut

    2013-01-01

    We introduce novel mathematical models and algorithms to generate (shortest or k different) explanations for biomedical queries, using answer set programming. We implement these algorithms and integrate them in BIOQUERY-ASP. We illustrate the usefulness of these methods with some complex biomedical queries related to drug discovery, over the biomedical knowledge resources PHARMGKB, DRUGBANK, BIOGRID, CTD, SIDER, DISEASE ONTOLOGY and ORPHADATA. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Program...

  3. Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2005, a group of German and Polish mathematicians worked under a DFG research project No 436 POL 113/98/0-1 entitled "Methods of stochastic analysis in the theory of collective phenomena: Gibbs states and statistical hydrodynamics". The results of their study were summarized at the German-Polish conference, which took place in Poland in October 2005. The venue of the conference was Kazimierz Dolny upon Vistula - a lovely town and a popular place for various cultural, scientific, and even political events of an international significance. The conference was also attended by scientists from France, Italy, Portugal, UK, Ukraine, and USA, which predetermined its international character. Since that time, the conference, entitled "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems" has become an annual international event, attended by leading scientists from Germany, Poland and many other countries. The present volume of the "Condensed Matter Physics" contains proceedings of the conference "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III", which took place in June 2007.

  4. Fractional Order and non-linear System Identification algorithms for Biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the modelling of dielectric responses of amorphous biological samples. Such samples are commonly encountered in impedance spectroscopy studies as well as in UV, IR, optical and THz transient spectroscopy experiments and in pump-probe studies. In many occasions, the samples may display quenched absorption bands. A systems identification framework may be developed to provide parsimonious representations of such responses. To achieve this, it is appropriate to augment the standard models found in the identification literature to incorporate fractional order dynamics. Extensions of models using the forward shift operator, state space models as well as their non-linear Hammerstein-Wiener counterpart models are highlighted. We also discuss the need to extend the theory of electromagnetically excited networks which can account for fractional order behaviour in the non-linear regime by incorporating nonlinear elements to account for the observed non-linearities. The proposed approach leads to the development of a range of new chemometrics tools for biomedical data analysis and classification

  5. Multilevel Complex Networks and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Network theory has been a powerful tool to model isolated complex systems. However, the classical approach does not take into account the interactions often present among different systems. Hence, the scientific community is nowadays concentrating the efforts on the foundations of new mathematical tools for understanding what happens when multiple networks interact. The case of economic and financial networks represents a paramount example of multilevel networks. In the case of trade, trade among countries the different levels can be described by the different granularity of the trading relations. Indeed, we have now data from the scale of consumers to that of the country level. In the case of financial institutions, we have a variety of levels at the same scale. For example one bank can appear in the interbank networks, ownership network and cds networks in which the same institution can take place. In both cases the systemically important vertices need to be determined by different procedures of centrality definition and community detection. In this talk I will present some specific cases of study related to these topics and present the regularities found. Acknowledged support from EU FET Project ``Multiplex'' 317532.

  6. Complexity and synchronization in stochastic chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Dang, Thai; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayan; Hoang, Thang Manh; Banerjee, Santo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the complexity of a hyperchaotic dynamical system perturbed by noise and various nonlinear speech and music signals. The complexity is measured by the weighted recurrence entropy of the hyperchaotic and stochastic systems. The synchronization phenomenon between two stochastic systems with complex coupling is also investigated. These criteria are tested on chaotic and perturbed systems by mean conditional recurrence and normalized synchronization error. Numerical results including surface plots, normalized synchronization errors, complexity variations etc show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.

  7. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Daly, Michael; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system -...

  8. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex ...

  9. Cooperative behaviour in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Márton

    2009-07-01

    In my PhD thesis I studied cooperative phenomena arise in complex systems using the methods of statistical and computational physics. The aim of my work was also to study the critical behaviour of interacting many-body systems during their phase transitions and describe their universal features analytically and by means of numerical calculations. In order to do so I completed studies in four different subjects. My first investigated subject was a study of non-equilibrium phase transitions in weighted scale-free networks. The second problem I examined was the ferromagnetic random bond Potts model with large values of q on evolving scale-free networks which problem is equivalent to an optimal cooperation problem. The third examined problem was related to the large-q sate random bond Potts model also and I examined the critical density of clusters which touched a certain border of a perpendicular strip like geometry and expected to hold analytical forms deduced from conformal invariance. The last investigated problem was a study of the non-equilibrium dynamical behaviour of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on two-dimensional triangular lattice at zero temperature in the absence of external field and at the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition point.

  10. SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; Haan, Mark de; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) a...

  11. Lessons Learned from Development of De-identification System for Biomedical Research in a Korean Tertiary Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Lyu, Yongman; Shin, Yongdon; Choi, Hyo Joung; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Korean government has enacted two laws, namely, the Personal Information Protection Act and the Bioethics and Safety Act to prevent the unauthorized use of medical information. To protect patients' privacy by complying with governmental regulations and improve the convenience of research, Asan Medical Center has been developing a de-identification system for biomedical research. Methods We reviewed Korean regulations to define the scope of the de-identification methods and well...

  12. Metal ion-assisted self-assembly of complexes for controlled and sustained release of minocycline for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the development of novel drug delivery complexes self-assembled by divalent metal ion-assisted coacervation for controlled and sustained release of a hydrophilic small drug molecule minocycline hydrochloride (MH). MH is a multifaceted agent that has demonstrated therapeutic effects in infection, inflammation, tumor, as well as cardiovascular, renal, and neurological disorders due to its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. However, the inability to translate the high doses used in experimental animals to tolerable doses in human patients limits its clinical application. Localized delivery can potentially expose the diseased tissue to high concentrations of MH that systemic delivery cannot achieve, while minimizing the side effects from systemic exposure. The strong metal ion binding-assisted interaction enabled high drug entrapment and loading efficiency, and stable long term release for more than 71 d. Released MH demonstrated potent anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, MH release from the complexes is pH-sensitive as the chelation between minocycline and metal ions decreases with pH, allowing ‘smart’ drug release in response to the severity of pathology-induced tissue acidosis. This novel metal ion binding-mediated drug delivery mechanism can potentially be applied to other drugs that have high binding affinity for metal ions and may lead to the development of new delivery systems for a variety of drugs. (paper)

  13. Metasynthetic computing and engineering of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Longbing

    2015-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview and introduction to the concepts, methodologies, analysis, design and applications of metasynthetic computing and engineering. The author: Presents an overview of complex systems, especially open complex giant systems such as the Internet, complex behavioural and social problems, and actionable knowledge discovery and delivery in the big data era. Discusses ubiquitous intelligence in complex systems, including human intelligence, domain intelligence, social intelligence, network intelligence, data intelligence and machine intelligence, and their synergy thro

  14. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  15. Hierarchical Self-organization of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-he; WEN Dong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Researches on organization and structure in complex systems are academic and industrial fronts in modern sciences. Though many theories are tentatively proposed to analyze complex systems, we still lack a rigorous theory on them. Complex systems possess various degrees of freedom, which means that they should exhibit all kinds of structures. However, complex systems often show similar patterns and structures. Then the question arises why such similar structures appear in all kinds of complex systems. The paper outlines a theory on freedom degree compression and the existence of hierarchical self-organization for all complex systems is found. It is freedom degree compression and hierarchical self-organization that are responsible for the existence of these similar patterns or structures observed in the complex systems.

  16. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  17. Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other n...

  18. Complex system modelling and control through intelligent soft computations

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a snapshot of the theories and applications of soft computing in the area of complex systems modeling and control. It presents the most important findings discussed during the 5th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, held in Cairo, from August 31-September 2, 2013. The book consists of twenty-nine selected contributions, which have been thoroughly reviewed and extended before their inclusion in the volume. The different chapters, written by active researchers in the field, report on both current theories and important applications of soft-computing. Besides providing the readers with soft-computing fundamentals, and soft-computing based inductive methodologies/algorithms, the book also discusses key industrial soft-computing applications, as well as multidisciplinary solutions developed for a variety of purposes, like windup control, waste management, security issues, biomedical applications and many others. It is a perfect reference guide for graduate students, r...

  19. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity. PMID:26319897

  20. Biomedical technology transfer: Bioinstrumentation for cardiology, neurology, and the circulatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Developments in applying aerospace medical technology to the design and production of medical equipment and instrumentation are reported. Projects described include intercranial pressure transducers, leg negative pressure devices, a synthetic speech prosthesis for victims of cerebral palsy, and a Doppler blood flow instrument. Commercialization activities for disseminating and utilizing NASA technology, and new biomedical problem areas are discussed.

  1. European Conference on Complex Systems 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkilionis, Markus; Nicolis, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. ECCS'12, its ninth edition, took place in Brussels, during the first week of September 2012. It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. More specifically, the following tracks were covered:  1. Foundations of Complex Systems 2. Complexity, Information and Computation 3. Prediction, Policy and Planning, Environment 4. Biological Complexity 5. Interacting Populations, Collective Behavior 6. Social Systems, Economics and Finance This book contains a selection of the contributions presented at the conference and its satellite meetings. Its contents reflect the extent, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied.  

  2. Systemic Resilience of Complex Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Salat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two key paradigms emerge out of the variety of urban forms: certain cities resemble trees, others leaves. The structural difference between a tree and a leaf is huge: one is open, the other closed. Trees are entirely disconnected on a given scale: even if two twigs are spatially close, if they do not belong to the same branch, to go from one to the other implies moving down and then up all the hierarchy of branches.  Leaves on the contrary are entirely connected on intermediary scales. The veins of a leaf are disconnected on the two larger scales but entirely connected on the two or three following intermediary scales before presenting tiny tree-like structures on the finest capillary scales. Deltas are leaves not trees. Neither galaxies nor whirlpools are trees. We will see in this paper that historical cities, like leaves, deltas, galaxies, lungs, brains and vein systems are all fractal structures, multiply connected and complex on all scales. These structures display the same degree of complexity and connectivity, regardless of the magnification scale on which we observe them. We say that these structures are scale free. Mathematical fractal forms are often generated recursively by applying again and again the same generator to an initiator. The iteration creates an arborescence. But scale free structure is not synonymous with a recursive tree-like structure. The fractal structure of the leaf is much more complex than that of the tree by its multiconnectivity on three or more intermediary levels. In contrast, trees in the virgin forest, even when they seem to be entangled, horizontal, and rhizomic, have branches that are not interconnected to form a lattice. As we will see, the history of urban planning has evolved from leaf-like to tree-like patterns, with a consequent loss of efficiency and resilience. Indeed, in a closed foliar path structure, the formation of cycles enables internal complexification and flow fluctuations due to the

  3. Synchronization and emergence in complex systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatihcan M Atay

    2011-11-01

    We show how novel behaviour can emerge in complex systems at the global level through synchronization of the activities of their constituent units. Two mechanisms are suggested for the emergence, namely non-diffusive coupling and time delays. In this way, simple units can synchronize to display complex dynamics, or conversely, simple dynamics may arise from complex constituents.

  4. Chaotic systems in complex phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Carl M; Hook, Daniel W; Weir, David J

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines numerically the complex classical trajectories of the kicked rotor and the double pendulum. Both of these systems exhibit a transition to chaos, and this feature is studied in complex phase space. Additionally, it is shown that the short-time and long-time behaviors of these two PT-symmetric dynamical models in complex phase space exhibit strong qualitative similarities.

  5. COMPLEX COMPOST AND DETOXICATION OF AGROLANDSCAPE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity complex compost arises during compiling of organomineral mixtures of various waste of life, agriculture and mineral industries. One of detoxification factors of complex compost is the ability of heavy metal cations to the formation insoluble compounds, which are fixed by clay materials and different disperse systems, and differ markedly by calcium content, acidity and humus soil-absorbing complex

  6. Large-scale Complex IT Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that identifies the major challenges and issues in the development of large-scale complex, software-intensive systems. Central to this is the notion that we cannot separate software from the socio-technical environment in which it is used.

  7. A novel multisensoric system recording and analyzing human biometric features for biometric and biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The recording and analyzing human motor control movements are fundamental parts of both behavioral biometrics and biomedical research studies. The dynamics of human motor functions of fingers, hand and wrist movements can be studied while handwriting, drawing or hand gestures. The major difficulties are the acquisition of high quality data and the characterization of the acquired data accurately and efficiently. A multisensoric Biometric Smart Pen BiSP device has been developed which has the ...

  8. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.

  9. Predictive Approaches to Control of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karer, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    A predictive control algorithm uses a model of the controlled system to predict the system behavior for various input scenarios and determines the most appropriate inputs accordingly. Predictive controllers are suitable for a wide range of systems; therefore, their advantages are especially evident when dealing with relatively complex systems, such as nonlinear, constrained, hybrid, multivariate systems etc. However, designing a predictive control strategy for a complex system is generally a difficult task, because all relevant dynamical phenomena have to be considered. Establishing a suitable model of the system is an essential part of predictive control design. Classic modeling and identification approaches based on linear-systems theory are generally inappropriate for complex systems; hence, models that are able to appropriately consider complex dynamical properties have to be employed in a predictive control algorithm. This book first introduces some modeling frameworks, which can encompass the most frequ...

  10. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  11. Third International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have applied the principles of complex systems science to increasingly diverse fields. The results have been nothing short of remarkable: their novel approaches have provided answers to long-standing questions in biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology. The Third International Conference on Complex Systems attracted over 400 researchers from around the world. The conference aimed to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen our understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains over 35 papers selected from those presented at the conference on topics including: self-organization in biology, ecological systems, language, economic modeling, ecological systems, artificial life, robotics, and complexity and art. ALI MINAI is an Affiliate of the New England Complex Systems Institute and an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engine...

  12. Reliability of large and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems. In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asympt

  13. Self-Organization of Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Paczuski, Maya; Bak, Per

    1999-01-01

    The basic laws of physics are simple, so why is the world complex? The theory of self-organized criticality posits that complex behavior in nature emerges from the dynamics of extended, dissipative systems that evolve through a sequence of meta-stable states into a critical state, with long range spatial and temporal correlations. Minor disturbances lead to intermittent events of all sizes. These events organize the system into a complex state that cannot be reduced to a few degrees of freedo...

  14. About Evaluation of Complex Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dmytro Polishchuk; Olexandr Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    The methods are proposed for evaluation of complex dynamical systems, choice of their optimal operating modes, determination of optimal operating system from given class of equivalent systems, system's timeline behaviour analysis on the basis of versatile multicriteria and multilevel analysis of behaviour of system's elements.

  15. Complex Evaluation of Hierarchically-Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Dmytro; Yadzhak, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    Methods of complex evaluation based on local, forecasting, aggregated, and interactive evaluation of the state, function quality, and interaction of complex system's objects on the all hierarchical levels is proposed. Examples of analysis of the structural elements of railway transport system are used for illustration of efficiency of proposed approach.

  16. Mining sensor data from complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vespier, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Today, virtually everything, from natural phenomena to complex artificial and physical systems, can be measured and the resulting information collected, stored and analyzed in order to gain new insight. This thesis shows how complex systems often exhibit diverse behavior at different temporal scales

  17. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Perši

    2008-01-01

    Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system level...

  18. The Ontologies of Complexity and Learning about Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; So, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, June

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a study of students learning core conceptual perspectives from recent scientific research on complexity using a hypermedia learning environment in which different types of scaffolding were provided. Three comparison groups used a hypermedia system with agent-based models and scaffolds for problem-based learning activities that…

  19. Models of complex attitude systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo

    production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-cultural survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food...... search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...

  20. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV

    2008-01-01

    In June of 2002, over 500 professors, students and researchers met in Boston, Massachusetts for the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. The attendees represented a remarkably diverse collection of fields: biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology, The goal of the conference was to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains 43 papers selected from the more than 200 presented at the conference. Topics include: cellular automata, neurology, evolution, computer science, network dynamics, and urban planning. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex sys...

  1. Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2008-01-01

    The International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS) creates a unique atmosphere for scientists of all fields, engineers, physicians, executives, and a host of other professionals to explore the common themes and applications of complex systems science. In June 2006, 500 participants convened in Boston for the sixth ICCS, exploring an array of topics, including networks, systems biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, and global systems. This volume selects 77 papers from over 300 presented at the conference. With this new volume, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems continues to build common ground between the wide-ranging domains of complex systems science.

  2. The 1 MV multi-element AMS system for biomedical applications at the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) has installed a compact 1 MV multi-element AMS system manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., The Netherlands. TNO performs clinical research programs for pharmaceutical and innovative foods industry to obtain early pharmacokinetic data and to provide anti-osteoporotic efficacy data of new treatments. The AMS system will analyze carbon, iodine and calcium samples for this purpose. The first measurements on blank samples indicate background levels in the low 10−12 for calcium and iodine, making the system well suited for these biomedical applications. Carbon blanks have been measured at low 10−16. For unattended, around-the-clock analysis, the system features the 200 sample version of the SO110 hybrid ion source and user friendly control software.

  3. Statistically validated networks in bipartite complex systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available Many complex systems present an intrinsic bipartite structure where elements of one set link to elements of the second set. In these complex systems, such as the system of actors and movies, elements of one set are qualitatively different than elements of the other set. The properties of these complex systems are typically investigated by constructing and analyzing a projected network on one of the two sets (for example the actor network or the movie network. Complex systems are often very heterogeneous in the number of relationships that the elements of one set establish with the elements of the other set, and this heterogeneity makes it very difficult to discriminate links of the projected network that are just reflecting system's heterogeneity from links relevant to unveil the properties of the system. Here we introduce an unsupervised method to statistically validate each link of a projected network against a null hypothesis that takes into account system heterogeneity. We apply the method to a biological, an economic and a social complex system. The method we propose is able to detect network structures which are very informative about the organization and specialization of the investigated systems, and identifies those relationships between elements of the projected network that cannot be explained simply by system heterogeneity. We also show that our method applies to bipartite systems in which different relationships might have different qualitative nature, generating statistically validated networks in which such difference is preserved.

  4. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  5. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  6. Bevalac biomedical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the physical layout of the Bevalac Facility and the research programs carried out at the facility. Beam time on the Bevalac is divided between two disciplines: one-third for biomedical research and two-thirds for nuclear science studies. The remainder of the paper discusses the beam delivery system including dosimetry, beam sharing and beam scanning

  7. Detection of timescales in evolving complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Darst, Richard K; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Saramäki, Jari; Fortunato, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Most complex systems are intrinsically dynamic in nature. The evolution of a dynamic complex system is typically represented as a sequence of snapshots, where each snapshot describes the configuration of the system at a particular instant of time. Then, one may directly follow how the snapshots evolve in time, or aggregate the snapshots within some time intervals to form representative "slices" of the evolution of the system configuration. This is often done with constant intervals, whose duration is based on arguments on the nature of the system and of its dynamics. A more refined approach would be to consider the rate of activity in the system to perform a separation of timescales. However, an even better alternative would be to define dynamic intervals that match the evolution of the system's configuration. To this end, we propose a method that aims at detecting evolutionary changes in the configuration of a complex system, and generates intervals accordingly. We show that evolutionary timescales can be id...

  8. Membrane tethering complexes in the endosomal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSpang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the CORVET complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the HOPS complex. Recycling through the TGN and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the GARP and EARP complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, complexes that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic.

  9. Systems pharmacology of complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jens; Zhao, Shan; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology approaches can be used to identify and predict drug-induced adverse events. Disease-centered networks within the human interactome allow us to predict which drugs may produce a similar pathophysiology. Such predictions can be tested in animal models.

  10. Theoretical studies to elucidate the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions occurring in the magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaci, M.; Cacciola, M.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the study of magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively developed not only for their fundamental theoretical interest, but also for their many technological applications, especially biomedical applications, ranging from contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to the deterioration of cancer cells via hyperthermia treatment. The theoretical and experimental research has shown until now that the magnetic dipolar interactions between nanoparticles can have a significant influence on the magnetic behaviour of the system. But, this influence is not well understood. It is clear that the magnetic dipolar interaction intensity is correlated with the nanoparticle concentration, volume fraction and magnetic moment orientations. In this paper, we try to understand the influence of magnetic dipolar interactions on the behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle systems, for biomedical applications. For the model, we considered spherical nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy and lognormal distribution of the sizes. The model involves a simulation stage of the spatial distribution and orientation of the nanoparticles and their easy axes of magnetic anisotropy, and an evaluation stage of the Néel relaxation time. To assess the Néel relaxation time, we are going to discretise and adapt, to the local magnetic field, the Coffey analytical solution for the equation Fokker-Planck describing the dynamics of magnetic moments of nanoparticles in oblique external magnetic field. There are three fundamental aspects of interest in our studies on the magnetic nanoparticles: their spatial & orientational distributions, concentrations and sizes.

  11. Understanding Supply Networks from Complex Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamur Johnas Marchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper is based on complex adaptive systems (CAS that integrate dynamic and holistic elements, aiming to discuss supply networks as complex systems and their dynamic and co-evolutionary processes. The CAS approach can give clues to understand the dynamic nature and co-evolution of supply networks because it consists of an approach that incorporates systems and complexity. This paper’s overall contribution is to reinforce the theoretical discussion of studies that have addressed supply chain issues, such as CAS.

  12. Chaotic systems in complex phase space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carl M Bender; Joshua Feinberg; Daniel W Hook; David J Weir

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines numerically the complex classical trajectories of the kicked rotor and the double pendulum. Both of these systems exhibit a transition to chaos, and this feature is studied in complex phase space. Additionally, it is shown that the short-time and long-time behaviours of these two $\\mathcal{PT}$ -symmetric dynamical models in complex phase space exhibit strong qualitative similarities.

  13. Complex motions and chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together 10 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems—including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.

  14. Dynamics of complex quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akulin, Vladimir M

    2014-01-01

    This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...

  15. Quantum mechanics in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Ross Douglas

    This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown

  16. Complexity of Multi-Modal Transportation and Systems of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karcanias, N.; Hessami, A. G.; Alonso, E

    2015-01-01

    The multi-modal transportation comprising diverse infrastructures, means & operations, energy resources, rules & regulations and a broad community of stakeholders constitute a complex yet real candidate for formalisation, analysis and optimization. It is shown that the complexity of the system is best described by viewing the challenges of its complexity as a System of Systems (SoS). The objective of this paper is to make an attempt to define and formalise the loose concept of “System of Syst...

  17. Complex engineering systems science meets technology

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    Every time that we take money out of an ATM, surf the internet or simply turn on a light switch, we enjoy the benefits of complex engineered systems. Systems like power grids and global communication networks are so ubiquitous in our daily lives that we usually take them for granted, only noticing them when they break down. But how do such amazing technologies and infrastructures come to be what they are? How are these systems designed? How do distributed networks work? How are they made to respond rapidly in 'real time'? And as the demands that we place on these systems become increasingly complex, are traditional systems-engineering practices still relevant? This volume examines the difficulties that arise in creating highly complex engineered systems and new approaches that are being adopted. Topics addressed range from the formal representation and classification of distributed networked systems to revolutionary engineering practices inspired by biological evolution. By bringing together the latest resear...

  18. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of complex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong

    Offshore reservoirs represent one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry, and environmental safety is one of the biggest challenges for the offshore exploration and production. The oil accidents in the Gulf of Mexico in 1979 and 2010 were two of the biggest disasters in history...... after an oil spill. Engineering thermodynamics could be applied in the state-of-the-art sonar products through advanced artificial technology, if the speed of sound, solubility and density of oil-seawater systems could be satisfactorily modelled. The addition of methanol or glycols into unprocessed well...

  20. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  1. Coordination Approaches for Complex Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the results of a collaboration between the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Artificial Intelligence and Force Vision to investigate coordination approaches for complex software systems. The project was funded by Force Vision.

  2. From System Complexity to Emergent Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz-Alaoui, M. A

    2009-01-01

    Emergence and complexity refer to the appearance of higher-level properties and behaviours of a system that obviously comes from the collective dynamics of that system's components. These properties are not directly deductable from the lower-level motion of that system. Emergent properties are properties of the "whole'' that are not possessed by any of the individual parts making up that whole. Such phenomena exist in various domains and can be described, using complexity concepts and thematic knowledges. This book highlights complexity modelling through dynamical or behavioral systems. The pluridisciplinary purposes, developped along the chapters, are enable to design links between a wide-range of fundamental and applicative Sciences. Developing such links - instead of focusing on specific and narrow researches - is characteristic of the Science of Complexity that we try to promote by this contribution.

  3. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements ...

  4. (R)evolution of complex regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Signaling systems are exciting to study precisely because they are some of the most complex and dynamical systems that we know. The cell needs operational freedom and, thus, many motif-domain interactions might not be "hard-wired" through evolution, but instead may be like the Linux operating sys...... system, where symbolic links can point to files without duplication....

  5. Is the Lean Organisation a Complex System?

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Pierre; Parrend, Pierre; Toussaint, Nicolas; Collet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    International audience; 3 Toyota Motor Europe, Bruxelles, Belgium 4 Complex System Digital Campus (UNESCO Unitwin) http://unitwin-cs.org/ Abstract The Lean Organisation enjoys a tremendous success. It was first developed within Toyota Motor Corporation in the Automotive Industry, but was then adopted by many organisations in all fields of human activities. A deeper observation of this success displays behaviours of complex systems: a high number of agents interact ...

  6. Mining sensor data from complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vespier, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Today, virtually everything, from natural phenomena to complex artificial and physical systems, can be measured and the resulting information collected, stored and analyzed in order to gain new insight. This thesis shows how complex systems often exhibit diverse behavior at different temporal scales, and that data mining methods should be able to cope with the multiple resolutions (scales) at the same time in order to fully understand the data at hand and extract useful information from it. U...

  7. The retail market as a complex system

    OpenAIRE

    Pennacchioli, Diego; Coscia, Michele; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Giannotti, Fosca; Pedreschi, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to introduce the complex system perspective into retail market analysis. Currently, to understand the retail market means to search for local patterns at the micro level, involving the segmentation, separation and profiling of diverse groups of consumers. In other contexts, however, markets are modelled as complex systems. Such strategy is able to uncover emerging regularities and patterns that make markets more predictable, e.g. enabling to predict how much a country's G...

  8. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  9. Low Complex System for Levitating Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiru Sani Shu'aibu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper primarily presents detailed design and implementation of a low complex magnetic levitation system which can be used in laboratory for levitation experiments. The system transfer function was derived from the coenergy and the mathematical model of the state space representation was obtained. The mathematical model showed that, the system is highly non-linear and inherently unstable. Based on simulation, a low complex circuit was designed and implemented to stabilize the system, using MATLAB control tool-box. The developed controller was simple, cheap and effective, capable of controlling weights of different masses at various distances as compared to some controllers in literature.

  10. What Is a Complex Innovation System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sylvan Katz

    Full Text Available Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance. The focus of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system. In particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature that can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. Citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. It is demonstrated that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time and decreasing group sizes. Scale-invariant correlations are shown between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. The recursive or self-similar nature of scale-invariance suggests that any smaller innovation system within the global research system is likely to be complex with scale-invariant properties too.

  11. Signs, Systems and Complexity of Transmedia Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renira Rampazzo Gambarato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses key concepts such as sign, system and complexity in order to approach transmedia storytelling and better understand its intricate nature. The theoretical framework chosen to investigate transmedia storytelling meanders is Semiotics by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 and General Systems Theory by Mario Bunge (1919-. The complexity of transmedia storytelling is not simply the one of the signs of the works included in a transmedia franchise. It also includes the complexity of the dispositions of users/consumers/players as interpreters of semiotic elements (e.g. characters, themes, environments, events and outcomes presented by transmedia products. It extends further to the complexity of social, cultural, economical and political constructs. The German transmedia narrative The Ultimate SuperHero-Blog by Stefan Gieren and Sofia’s Diary, a Portuguese multiplatform production by BeActive, are presented as examples of closed and open system transmedia storytelling respectively.

  12. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  13. Symptoms of complexity in a tourism system

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, R

    2007-01-01

    Tourism destinations behave as dynamic evolving complex systems, encompassing numerous factors and activities which are interdependent and whose relationships might be highly nonlinear. Traditional research in this field has looked after a linear approach: variables and relationships are monitored in order to forecast future outcomes with simplified models and to derive implications for management organizations. The limitations of this approach have become apparent in many cases, and several authors claim for a new and different attitude. While complex systems ideas are amongst the most promising interdisciplinary research themes emerged in the last few decades, very little has been done so far in the field of tourism. This paper presents a brief overview of the complexity framework as a means to understand structures, characteristics, relationships and explores the implications and contributions of the complexity literature on tourism systems. The objective is to allow the reader to gain a deeper appreciatio...

  14. Collectives and the design of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly powerful computers are making possible distributed systems comprised of many adaptive and self-motivated computational agents. Such systems, when distinguished by system-level performance criteria, are known as "collectives." Collectives and the Design of Complex Systems lays the foundation for a science of collectives and describes how to design them for optimal performance. An introductory survey chapter is followed by descriptions of information-processing problems that can only be solved by the joint actions of large communities of computers, each running its own complex, decentralized machine-learning algorithm. Subsequent chapters analyze the dynamics and structures of collectives, as well as address economic, model-free, and control-theory approaches to designing complex systems. The work assumes a modest understanding of basic statistics and calculus. Topics and Features: Introduces the burgeoning science of collectives and its practical applications in a single useful volume Combines ap...

  15. Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2011-01-01

    We are living in an ever more complex world, an epoch where human actions can accordingly acquire far-reaching potentialities. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us and require us to adapt to new realities and the way of dealing with them. This primer has been developed with the aim of conveying a wide range of "commons-sense" knowledge in the field of quantitative complex system science at an introductory level, providing an entry point to this both fascinating and vitally important subject. The approach is modular and phenomenology driven. Examples of emerging phenomena of generic importance treated in this book are: -- The small world phenomenon in social and scale-free networks. -- Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in adaptive systems. -- Life at the edge of chaos and coevolutionary avalanches resulting from the unfolding of all living. -- The concept of living dynamical systems and emotional diffusive control within cognitive system theory. Techn...

  16. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Complex system theory is rapidly developing and gaining importance, providing tools and concepts central to our modern understanding of emergent phenomena. This primer offers an introduction to this area together with detailed coverage of the mathematics involved. All calculations are presented step by step and are straightforward to follow. This new third edition comes with new material, figures and exercises. Network theory, dynamical systems and information theory, the core of modern complex system sciences, are developed in the first three chapters, covering basic concepts and phenomena like small-world networks, bifurcation theory and information entropy. Further chapters use a modular approach to address the most important concepts in complex system sciences, with the emergence and self-organization playing a central role. Prominent examples are self-organized criticality in adaptive systems, life at the edge of chaos, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase...

  17. Discontinuity and complexity in nonlinear physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Luo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This unique book explores recent developments in experimental research in this broad field, organized in four distinct sections. Part I introduces the reader to the fractional dynamics and Lie group analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations. Part II covers chaos and complexity in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, important to understand the resonance interactions in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as Tsunami waves and wildfire propagations; as well as Lev flights in chaotic trajectories, dynamical system synchronization and DNA information complexity analysis. Part III examines chaos and periodic motions in discontinuous dynamical systems, extensively present in a range of systems, including piecewise linear systems, vibro-impact systems and drilling systems in engineering. And in Part IV, engineering and financial nonlinearity are discussed. The mechanism of shock wave with saddle-node bifurcation and rotating disk stability will be presented, and the financial nonlinear models will be discussed....

  18. Machine learning and complex-network for personalized and systems biomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2016-01-27

    The talk will begin with an introduction on using machine learning to discover hidden information and unexpected patterns in large biomedical datasets. Then, recent results on the use of complex network theory in biomedicine and neuroscience will be discussed. In particular, metagenomics and metabolomics data, approaches for drug-target repositioning, functional/structural MR connectomes and gut-brain axis data will be presented. The conclusion will outline the novel and exciting perspectives offered by the translation of these methods from systems biology to systems medicine.

  19. A System for Complex Robotic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Sørensen, Carsten Bro; Olsen, Birger;

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a system for robotic welding of complex tasks. The system integrates off-line programming, control of redundant robots, collision-free motion planning and sensor-based control. An implementation for pipe structure welding made at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd...

  20. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  1. Are large complex economic systems unstable ?

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Sitabhra

    2010-01-01

    Although classical economic theory is based on the concept of stable equilibrium, real economic systems appear to be always out of equilibrium. Indeed, they share many of the dynamical features of other complex systems, e.g., ecological food-webs. We focus on the relation between increasing complexity of the economic network and its stability with respect to small perturbations in the dynamical variables associated with the constituent nodes. Inherent delays and multiple time-scales suggest that economic systems will be more likely to exhibit instabilities as their complexity is increased even though the speed at which transactions are conducted has increased many-fold through technological developments. Analogous to the birth of nonlinear dynamics from Poincare's work on the question of whether the solar system is stable, we suggest that similar theoretical developments may arise from efforts by econophysicists to understand the mechanisms by which instabilities arise in the economy.

  2. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-01

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  3. Particlelike wave packets in complex scattering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Benoît; Laurent, Jérôme; Ambichl, Philipp; Prada, Claire; Rotter, Stefan; Aubry, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    A wave packet undergoes a strong spatial and temporal dispersion while propagating through a complex medium. This wave scattering is often seen as a nightmare in wave physics whether it be for focusing, imaging, or communication purposes. Controlling wave propagation through complex systems is thus of fundamental interest in many areas, ranging from optics or acoustics to medical imaging or telecommunications. Here, we study the propagation of elastic waves in a cavity and a disordered waveguide by means of laser interferometry. From the direct experimental access to the time-delay matrix of these systems, we demonstrate the existence of particlelike wave packets that remain focused in time and space throughout their complex trajectory. Due to their limited dispersion, their selective excitation will be crucially relevant for all applications involving selective wave focusing and efficient information transfer through complex media.

  4. Ecological Systems as Complex Systems: Challenges for an Emerging Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lael Parrott

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems science has contributed to our understanding of ecology in important areas such as food webs, patch dynamics and population fluctuations. This has been achieved through the use of simple measures that can capture the difference between order and disorder and simple models with local interactions that can generate surprising behaviour at larger scales. However, close examination reveals that commonly applied definitions of complexity fail to accommodate some key features of ecological systems, a fact that will limit the contribution of complex systems science to ecology. We highlight these features of ecological complexity—such as diversity, cross-scale interactions, memory and environmental variability—that continue to challenge classical complex systems science. Further advances in these areas will be necessary before complex systems science can be widely applied to understand the dynamics of ecological systems.

  5. On Phenomenology of Complex Scientific Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Performance evolution of a number of complex scientific and technical systems demonstrate exponential progress with time exp(+t/C) . The speed of progress C - a measure of difficulty and complexity - is analyzed for high energy elementary particle colliders, astrophysical searches for galaxies and exoplanets, protein structure determination and compared with computers and thermonuclear fusion reactors. An explanation of the characteristic exponential progress is offered.

  6. Distributed redundancy and robustness in complex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The uptake and increasing prevalence of Web 2.0 applications, promoting new large-scale and complex systems such as Cloud computing and the emerging Internet of Services/Things, requires tools and techniques to analyse and model methods to ensure the robustness of these new systems. This paper reports on assessing and improving complex system resilience using distributed redundancy, termed degeneracy in biological systems, to endow large-scale complicated computer systems with the same robustness that emerges in complex biological and natural systems. However, in order to promote an evolutionary approach, through emergent self-organisation, it is necessary to specify the systems in an \\'open-ended\\' manner where not all states of the system are prescribed at design-time. In particular an observer system is used to select robust topologies, within system components, based on a measurement of the first non-zero Eigen value in the Laplacian spectrum of the components\\' network graphs; also known as the algebraic connectivity. It is shown, through experimentation on a simulation, that increasing the average algebraic connectivity across the components, in a network, leads to an increase in the variety of individual components termed distributed redundancy; the capacity for structurally distinct components to perform an identical function in a particular context. The results are applied to a specific application where active clustering of like services is used to aid load balancing in a highly distributed network. Using the described procedure is shown to improve performance and distribute redundancy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Stochastic Physics, Complex Systems and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In complex systems, the interplay between nonlinear and stochastic dynamics gives rise to an evolution process in Darwinian sense with punctuated equilibrium, random "mutations" and "adaptations". The emergent discrete states in such a system, i.e., attractors, have natural robustness against both internal and external perturbations. Epigenetic states of a biological cell, a mesoscopic nonlinear stochastic open biochemical system, could be understood through such a framework.

  8. Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Precisely Controlled Micro and Nano Scale Environments for Complex Tissue Regeneration and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin

    As modern medicine advances, it is still very challenging to cure joint defects due to their poor inherent regenerative capacity, complex stratified architecture, and disparate biomechanical properties. The current clinical standard for catastrophic or late stage joint degradation is a total joint implant, where the damaged joint is completely excised and replaced with a metallic or artificial joint. However, these procedures still only lasts for 10-15 years, and there are hosts of recovery complications which can occur. Thus, these studies have sought to employ advanced biomaterials and scaffold fabricated techniques to effectively regrow joint tissue, instead of merely replacing it with artificial materials. We can hypothesize here that the inclusion of biomimetic and bioactive nanomaterials with highly functional electrospun and 3D printed scaffold can improve physical characteristics (mechanical strength, surface interactions and nanotexture) enhance cellular growth and direct stem cell differentiation for bone, cartilage and vascular growth as well as cancer metastasis modeling. Nanomaterial inclusion and controlled 3D printed features effectively increased nano surface roughness, Young's Modulus and provided effective flow paths for simulated arterial blood. All of the approaches explored proved highly effective for increasing cell growth, as a result of increasing micro-complexity and nanomaterial incorporation. Additionally, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, cell migration, cell to cell interaction and vascular formation were enhanced. Finally, growth-factor(gf)-loaded polymer nanospheres greatly improved vascular cell behavior, and provided a highly bioactive scaffold for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture and bone formation. In conclusion, electrospinning and 3D printing when combined effectively with biomimetic and bioactive nanomaterials (i.e. carbon nanomaterials, collagen, nHA, polymer

  9. Third International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have applied the principles of complex systems science to increasingly diverse fields. The results have been nothing short of remarkable: their novel approaches have provided answers to long-standing questions in biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology. The Third International Conference on Complex Systems attracted over 400 researchers from around the world. The conference aimed to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen our understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains selected transcripts from presentations given at the conference. Speakers include: Chris Adami, Kenneth Arrow, Michel Baranger, Dan Braha, Timothy Buchman, Michael Caramanis, Kathleen Carley, Greg Chaitin, David Clark, Jack Cohen, Jim Collins, George Cowan, Clay Easterly, Steven Eppinger, Irving Epstein, Dan Frey, Ary Goldberger, Helen Harte, Leroy Hood, Don Ingber, Atlee Jackson,...

  10. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Perši

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system levels and views, allowing system representations for developing computer models.Complex systems, such as business systems with a continuous-discrete production process, require a well organised supply chain highly reactive to production assortment changes. Aligning two different production components distinctive in their behaviour is especially delicate at the production parameters transition point. Such system performances require distinctive designing methods that can follow the double nature of the production process behaviour in accordance with their entities dynamics caused by assortment changes. Consequently, such systems need different conceptual presentations for their purpose to be realized from different views and aspects.

  11. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  12. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  13. Toolsets Maintain Health of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    First featured in Spinoff 2001, Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI), of Wethersfield, Connecticut, adapted its Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System (TEAMS) toolset under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center to strengthen NASA's systems health management approach for its large, complex, and interconnected systems. Today, six NASA field centers utilize the TEAMS toolset, including TEAMS-Designer, TEAMS-RT, TEAMATE, and TEAMS-RDS. TEAMS is also being used on industrial systems that generate power, carry data, refine chemicals, perform medical functions, and produce semiconductor wafers. QSI finds TEAMS can lower costs by decreasing problems requiring service by 30 to 50 percent.

  14. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  15. Evolution, Complex Systems and the Dialectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of large scale historical macro-theories is contested both in world-systems theory and in sociology as a whole. I distinguish three types of such dynamic models: evolutionary models, systems models and dialectical models. I define dialectical models as a family of complex systems models characterized by positive feedback (self-reinforcement or auto-catalysis. Such models lead to processes of accumulation and polarization, leading to system crisis. The games of Monopoly and Risk provide popular examples. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of three examples of such models: Myrdal's model of cumulative causation; Collins's models of Marxian transformations and geopolitics; and Chaso-Dunn and Hall's iterative model of world-systems transformations. A combination of evolutionary, complex systems and dialectical analyses has consideralble overlap with chaotic, far-from-equilibrium types of models and with analyses of complex adaptive systems. Such discontinuous, nonlinear dynamic models show great potential for solving problems of dynamic analysis both within world-systems theory and within sociology as a whole.

  16. Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...... finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral...... system, rather than a modular, although the industry forces modular organizational structures. This creates a high complexity degree caused by the non-alignment of building parts and organizations and the frequent swapping of modules....

  17. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable.

  18. Extraction of quantifiable information from complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Griebel, Michael; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ritter, Klaus; Schneider, Reinhold; Schwab, Christoph; Yserentant, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In April 2007, the  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) approved the  Priority Program 1324 “Mathematical Methods for Extracting Quantifiable Information from Complex Systems.” This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results obtained over the course of the program.   Mathematical models of complex systems provide the foundation for further technological developments in science, engineering and computational finance.  Motivated by the trend toward steadily increasing computer power, ever more realistic models have been developed in recent years. These models have also become increasingly complex, and their numerical treatment poses serious challenges.   Recent developments in mathematics suggest that, in the long run, much more powerful numerical solution strategies could be derived if the interconnections between the different fields of research were systematically exploited at a conceptual level. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations as w...

  19. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  20. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  1. SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; de Haan, Mark; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) and HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology). This data curation process is usually a time-consuming process performed by a human expert. To help mechanize this process, we have developed SORTA, a computer-aided system for rapidly encoding free text or locally coded values to a formal coding system or ontology. SORTA matches original data values (uploaded in semicolon delimited format) to a target coding system (uploaded in Excel spreadsheet, OWL ontology web language or OBO open biomedical ontologies format). It then semi- automatically shortlists candidate codes for each data value using Lucene and n-gram based matching algorithms, and can also learn from matches chosen by human experts. We evaluated SORTA's applicability in two use cases. For the LifeLines biobank, we used SORTA to recode 90 000 free text values (including 5211 unique values) about physical exercise to MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task) codes. For the CINEAS clinical symptom coding system, we used SORTA to map to HPO, enriching HPO when necessary (315 terms matched so far). Out of the shortlists at rank 1, we found a precision/recall of 0.97/0.98 in LifeLines and of 0.58/0.45 in CINEAS. More importantly, users found the tool both a major time saver and a quality improvement because SORTA reduced the chances of human mistakes. Thus, SORTA can dramatically ease data (re)coding tasks and we believe it will prove useful for many more projects. Database URL: http://molgenis.org/sorta or as an open source download from

  2. SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; de Haan, Mark; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) and HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology). This data curation process is usually a time-consuming process performed by a human expert. To help mechanize this process, we have developed SORTA, a computer-aided system for rapidly encoding free text or locally coded values to a formal coding system or ontology. SORTA matches original data values (uploaded in semicolon delimited format) to a target coding system (uploaded in Excel spreadsheet, OWL ontology web language or OBO open biomedical ontologies format). It then semi- automatically shortlists candidate codes for each data value using Lucene and n-gram based matching algorithms, and can also learn from matches chosen by human experts. We evaluated SORTA's applicability in two use cases. For the LifeLines biobank, we used SORTA to recode 90 000 free text values (including 5211 unique values) about physical exercise to MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task) codes. For the CINEAS clinical symptom coding system, we used SORTA to map to HPO, enriching HPO when necessary (315 terms matched so far). Out of the shortlists at rank 1, we found a precision/recall of 0.97/0.98 in LifeLines and of 0.58/0.45 in CINEAS. More importantly, users found the tool both a major time saver and a quality improvement because SORTA reduced the chances of human mistakes. Thus, SORTA can dramatically ease data (re)coding tasks and we believe it will prove useful for many more projects. Database URL: http://molgenis.org/sorta or as an open source download from

  3. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  4. Morphogenetic Engineering Toward Programmable Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Michel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Generally, spontaneous pattern formation phenomena are random and repetitive, whereas elaborate devices are the deterministic product of human design. Yet, biological organisms and collective insect constructions are exceptional examples of complex systems that are both self-organized and architectural.   This book is the first initiative of its kind toward establishing a new field of research, Morphogenetic Engineering, to explore the modeling and implementation of “self-architecturing” systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the programmability and computational abilities of self-organization, properties that are often underappreciated in complex systems science—while, conversely, the benefits of self-organization are often underappreciated in engineering methodologies.   Altogether, the aim of this work is to provide a framework for and examples of a larger class of “self-architecturing” systems, while addressing fundamental questions such as   > How do biological organisms carry out morphog...

  5. Constructing minimal models for complex system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-05-01

    One of the strengths of statistical physics is the ability to reduce macroscopic observations into microscopic models, offering a mechanistic description of a system's dynamics. This paradigm, rooted in Boltzmann's gas theory, has found applications from magnetic phenomena to subcellular processes and epidemic spreading. Yet, each of these advances were the result of decades of meticulous model building and validation, which are impossible to replicate in most complex biological, social or technological systems that lack accurate microscopic models. Here we develop a method to infer the microscopic dynamics of a complex system from observations of its response to external perturbations, allowing us to construct the most general class of nonlinear pairwise dynamics that are guaranteed to recover the observed behaviour. The result, which we test against both numerical and empirical data, is an effective dynamic model that can predict the system's behaviour and provide crucial insights into its inner workings.

  6. Complex and adaptive dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2015-01-01

    This primer offers readers an introduction to the central concepts that form our modern understanding of complex and emergent behavior, together with detailed coverage of accompanying mathematical methods. All calculations are presented step by step and are easy to follow. This new fourth edition has been fully reorganized and includes new chapters, figures and exercises. The core aspects of modern complex system sciences are presented in the first chapters, covering network theory, dynamical systems, bifurcation and catastrophe theory, chaos and adaptive processes, together with the principle of self-organization in reaction-diffusion systems and social animals. Modern information theoretical principles are treated in further chapters, together with the concept of self-organized criticality, gene regulation networks, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase transitions and the cognitive system approach to the brain. Technical course prerequisites are the standard ...

  7. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, is a collection of papers that discusses circulatory system models, linguistics in computer usage, and clinical applications on patient monitoring. One paper describes the use of comparative models of overall circulatory mechanics that include models of the cardiac pump, of the vascular systems, and of the overall systems behavior. Another paper describes a model in processing medical language data that employs an explicit semantic structure, becoming the basis for the computer-based, artificial intelligence of the system. One paper cites studies b

  8. Complex systems modeling by cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kroc; P.M.A. Sloot

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the notion of complex systems proved to be a very useful concept to define, describe, and study various natural phenomena observed in a vast number of scientific disciplines. Examples of scientific disciplines that highly benefit from this concept range from physics, mathematics, an

  9. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; F. Wagener

    2008-01-01

    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics. Pri

  10. Circadian systems : different levels of complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2001-01-01

    After approximately 50 years of circadian research, especially in selected circadian model systems (Drosophila, Neurospora, Gonyaulax and, more recently, cyanobacteria and mammals), we appreciate the enormous complexity of the circadian programme in organisms and cells, as well as in physiological a

  11. Ensemble annealing of complex physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habeck, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Algorithms for simulating complex physical systems or solving difficult optimization problems often resort to an annealing process. Rather than simulating the system at the temperature of interest, an annealing algorithm starts at a temperature that is high enough to ensure ergodicity and gradually decreases it until the destination temperature is reached. This idea is used in popular algorithms such as parallel tempering and simulated annealing. A general problem with annealing methods is th...

  12. Dependency visualization for complex system understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J.A.C.

    1994-09-01

    With the volume of software in production use dramatically increasing, the importance of software maintenance has become strikingly apparent. Techniques now sought and developed for reverse engineering and design extraction and recovery. At present, numerous commercial products and research tools exist which are capable of visualizing a variety of programming languages and software constructs. The list of new tools and services continues to grow rapidly. Although the scope of the existing commercial and academic product set is quite broad, these tools still share a common underlying problem. The ability of each tool to visually organize object representations is increasingly impaired as the number of components and component dependencies within systems increases. Regardless of how objects are defined, complex ``spaghetti`` networks result in nearly all large system cases. While this problem is immediately apparent in modem systems analysis involving large software implementations, it is not new. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, related problems involving the theory of graphs were identified long ago. This important theoretical foundation provides a useful vehicle for representing and analyzing complex system structures. While the utility of directed graph based concepts in software tool design has been demonstrated in literature, these tools still lack the capabilities necessary for large system comprehension. This foundation must therefore be expanded with new orgnizational and visualization constructs necessary to meet this challenge. This dissertation addresses this need by constructing a conceptual model and a set of methods for interactively exploring, organizing, and understanding the structure of complex software systems.

  13. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  14. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Vedanarayanan

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasised since in our country, at present, there are no regulations covering the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Finally the question of the general and subtle long term systemic toxicity of biomedical polymers have been brought to attention with the suggestion that this question needs to be resolved permanently by appropriate studies.

  15. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, van, PJW; Olabarriaga, S.D.; Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists from different organizations. Data-driven or e-Science methods are defined as a combination of Information Technology (IT) and science that enables scientists to tackle the data deluge challenges. Th...

  16. Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

  17. Unified Computational Intelligence for Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seiffertt, John

    2010-01-01

    Computational intelligence encompasses a wide variety of techniques that allow computation to learn, to adapt, and to seek. That is, they may be designed to learn information without explicit programming regarding the nature of the content to be retained, they may be imbued with the functionality to adapt to maintain their course within a complex and unpredictably changing environment, and they may help us seek out truths about our own dynamics and lives through their inclusion in complex system modeling. These capabilities place our ability to compute in a category apart from our ability to e

  18. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  19. Stability threshold approach for complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A new measure to characterize the stability of complex dynamical systems against large perturbations is suggested, the stability threshold (ST). It quantifies the magnitude of the weakest perturbation capable of disrupting the system and switch it to an undesired dynamical regime. In the phase space, the ST corresponds to the ‘thinnest site’ of the attraction basin and therefore indicates the most ‘dangerous’ direction of perturbations. We introduce a computational algorithm for quantification of the ST and demonstrate that the suggested approach is effective and provides important insights. The generality of the obtained results defines their vast potential for application in such fields as engineering, neuroscience, power grids, Earth science and many others where the robustness of complex systems is studied.

  20. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  1. Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy; Cavallo, Peter; Dash, Sanford

    2007-01-01

    A numerical framework for analysis of complex valve systems supports testing of propulsive systems by simulating key valve and control system components in the test loop. In particular, it is designed to enhance the analysis capability in terms of identifying system transients and quantifying the valve response to these transients. This system has analysis capability for simulating valve motion in complex systems operating in diverse flow regimes ranging from compressible gases to cryogenic liquids. A key feature is the hybrid, unstructured framework with sub-models for grid movement and phase change including cryogenic cavitations. The multi-element unstructured framework offers improved predictions of valve performance characteristics under steady conditions for structurally complex valves such as pressure regulator valve. Unsteady simulations of valve motion using this computational approach have been carried out for various valves in operation at Stennis Space Center such as the split-body valve and the 10-in. (approx.25.4-cm) LOX (liquid oxygen) valve and the 4-in. (approx.10 cm) Y-pattern valve (liquid nitrogen). Such simulations make use of variable grid topologies, thereby permitting solution accuracy and resolving important flow physics in the seat region of the moving valve. An advantage to this software includes possible reduction in testing costs incurred due to disruptions relating to unexpected flow transients or functioning of valve/flow control systems. Prediction of the flow anomalies leading to system vibrations, flow resonance, and valve stall can help in valve scheduling and significantly reduce the need for activation tests. This framework has been evaluated for its ability to predict performance metrics like flow coefficient for cavitating venturis and valve coefficient curves, and could be a valuable tool in predicting and understanding anomalous behavior of system components at rocket propulsion testing and design sites.

  2. Dependability problems of complex information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents original research results on selected problems of dependability in contemporary Complex Information Systems (CIS). The ten chapters are concentrated around the following three aspects: methods for modelling of the system and its components, tasks ? or in more generic and more adequate interpretation, functionalities ? accomplished by the system and conditions for their correct realization in the dynamic operational environment. While the main focus is on theoretical advances and roadmaps for implementations of new technologies, a?much needed forum for sharing of the bes

  3. Complex systems: features, similarity and connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar H; Silva, Filipi N; Amancio, Diego R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Costa, Luciano da F

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in complex networks research has been a consequence of several intrinsic features of this area, such as the generality of the approach to represent and model virtually any discrete system, and the incorporation of concepts and methods deriving from many areas, from statistical physics to sociology, which are often used in an independent way. Yet, for this same reason, it would be desirable to integrate these various aspects into a more coherent and organic framework, which would imply in several benefits normally allowed by the systematization in science, including the identification of new types of problems and the cross-fertilization between fields. More specifically, the identification of the main areas to which the concepts frequently used in complex networks can be applied paves the way to adopting and applying a larger set of concepts and methods deriving from those respective areas. Among the several areas that have been used in complex networks research, pattern recognition, op...

  4. Complex Systems Design & Management : Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Caseau, Yves; Krob, Daniel; Rauzy, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the third edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2012) international conference that took place in Paris (France) from December 12-14, 2012. (Website: http://www.csdm2012.csdm.fr)  These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture& engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic  tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2012 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization (http://www.cesames.net).

  5. Complex Systems Design & Management : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Voirin, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSDM 2011) international conference that took place in Paris (France) from December 7 to December 9, 2011. (Website: http://www.csdm2011.csdm.fr/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture& engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic  tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSDM 2011 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization (http://www.cesames.net/).

  6. Multifractal Resilience Metrics for Complex Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, especially for complex systems, whereas corresponding operational definitions have remained rather elusive (Carpenter et al. 2001). More precisely, the resilience assessment of man-made systems (from nuclear plants to cities) to geophysical extremes require mathematically defined resilience metrics based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the often cited definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973): "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks". Surprisingly, whereas it was acknowledged by Folke et al. (2010) that "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability", the relation between resilience and scaling has not been so much questioned, see however Peterson (2000). We argue that is rather indispensable to go well beyond the attractor approach (Pimm and Lawton 1977; Collings and Wollkind 1990;), as well as extensions (Martin et al., 2011) into the framework of the viability theory (Aubin 1991; Aubin et al. 2011). Indeed, both are rather limited to systems that are complex only in time. Scale symmetries are indeed indispensable to reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent observables, which are the singularities of the original, scale dependent fields. These singularities enable to define across-scale resilience, instead of resilience at a given scale.

  7. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  8. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  9. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  10. Complex Failure Forewarning System - DHS Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As the critical infrastructures of the United States have become more and more dependent on public and private networks, the potential for widespread national impact resulting from disruption or failure of these networks has also increased. Securing the nation s critical infrastructures requires protecting not only their physical systems but, just as important, the cyber portions of the systems on which they rely. A failure is inclusive of random events, design flaws, and instabilities caused by cyber (and/or physical) attack. One such domain, aging bridges, is used to explain the Complex Structure Failure Forewarning System. We discuss the workings of such a system in the context of the necessary sensors, command and control and data collection as well as the cyber security efforts that would support this system. Their application and the implications of this computing architecture are also discussed, with respect to our nation s aging infrastructure.

  11. Risk calculation method for complex engineering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid and simple risk calculation method for large and complex engineering systems, the simulated maximum entropy method (SMEM, which is based on integration of the advantages of the Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods, thus avoiding the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate of the Monte Carlo method in risk calculation. Application of SMEM in the calculation of reservoir flood discharge risk shows that this method can make full use of the known information under the same conditions and obtain the corresponding probability distribution and the risk value. It not only greatly improves the speed, compared with the Monte Carlo method, but also provides a new approach for the risk calculation in large and complex engineering systems.

  12. Complex Binary Number System Algorithms and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Jamil, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    This book is a compilation of the entire research work on the topic of Complex Binary Number System (CBNS) carried out by the author as the principal investigator and members of his research groups at various universities during the years 1992-2012. Pursuant to these efforts spanning several years, the realization of CBNS as a viable alternative to represent complex numbers in an 'all-in-one' binary number format has become possible and efforts are underway to build computer hardware based on this unique number system. It is hoped that this work will be of interest to anyone involved in computer arithmetic and digital logic design and kindle renewed enthusiasm among the engineers working in the areas of digital signal and image processing for developing newer and efficient algorithms and techniques incorporating CBNS.

  13. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai, K L

    2011-01-01

    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  14. Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akulin, Vladimir M

    2006-01-01

    A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...

  15. Verification and Examination Management of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Ruud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As ship systems become more complex, with an increasing number of safety-critical functions, many interconnected subsystems, tight integration to other systems, and a large amount of potential failure modes, several industry parties have identified the need for improved methods for managing the verification and examination efforts of such complex systems. Such needs are even more prominent now that the marine and offshore industries are targeting more activities and operations in the Arctic environment. In this paper, a set of requirements and a method for verification and examination management are proposed for allocating examination efforts to selected subsystems. The method is based on a definition of a verification risk function for a given system topology and given requirements. The marginal verification risks for the subsystems may then be evaluated, so that examination efforts for the subsystem can be allocated. Two cases of requirements and systems are used to demonstrate the proposed method. The method establishes a systematic relationship between the verification loss, the logic system topology, verification method performance, examination stop criterion, the required examination effort, and a proposed sequence of examinations to reach the examination stop criterion.

  16. Existence of travelling wave solutions for a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with applications in oncology Pérez-García et al. (2015). Of interest is the question of the existence of travelling front solutions of the system. When the speed of the travelling wave is sufficiently large, existence of such fronts is shown using singular geometric perturbation theory.

  17. Student Response (Clicker) Systems: Preferences of Biomedical Physiology Students in Asian Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Isabel; Wong, Kevin; Lam, Shun Leung; Lam, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Student response systems (commonly called "clickers") are valuable tools for engaging students in classroom interactions. In this study, we investigated the use of two types of response systems (a traditional clicker and a mobile device) by students in human physiology courses. Our results showed high student satisfaction with the use of…

  18. Metadata queries for complex database systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Federated Database Management Systems (FDBS) are very complex. Component databases can be heterogeneous, autonomous and distributed, accounting for these different characteristics in building a FDBS is a difficult engineering problem. The Common Data Model (CDM) is what is used to represent the data in the FDBS. It must be semantically rich to correctly represent the data from diverse component databases which differ in structure, datamodel, semantics and content. In this research project we ...

  19. Stochastic Physics, Complex Systems and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In complex systems, the interplay between nonlinear and stochastic dynamics, e.g., J. Monod's necessity and chance, gives rise to an evolutionary process in Darwinian sense, in terms of discrete jumps among attractors, with punctuated equilibrium, spontaneous random "mutations" and "adaptations". On an evlutionary time scale it produces sustainable diversity among individuals in a homogeneous population rather than convergence as usually predicted by a deterministic dynamics. The emergent dis...

  20. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  1. FRAM Modelling Complex Socio-technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2012-01-01

    There has not yet been a comprehensive method that goes behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, and various complicated accidents have accentuated the need for it. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, and understand both why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed.

  2. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  3. Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Ali A.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    Human history is often seen as an inexorable march towards greater complexity — in ideas, artifacts, social, political and economic systems, technology, and in the structure of life itself. While we do not have detailed knowledge of ancient times, it is reasonable to conclude that the average resident of New York City today faces a world of much greater complexity than the average denizen of Carthage or Tikal. A careful consideration of this change, however, suggests that most of it has occurred recently, and has been driven primarily by the emergence of technology as a force in human life. In the 4000 years separating the Indus Valley Civilization from 18th century Europe, human transportation evolved from the bullock cart to the hansom, and the methods of communication used by George Washington did not differ significantly from those used by Alexander or Rameses. The world has moved radically towards greater complexity in the last two centuries. We have moved from buggies and letter couriers to airplanes and the Internet — an increase in capacity, and through its diversity also in complexity, orders of magnitude greater than that accumulated through the rest of human history. In addition to creating iconic artifacts — the airplane, the car, the computer, the television, etc. — this change has had a profound effect on the scope of experience by creating massive, connected and multiultra- level systems — traffic networks, power grids, markets, multinational corporations — that defy analytical understanding and seem to have a life of their own. This is where complexity truly enters our lives.

  4. Life: An Introduction to Complex Systems Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    What is life? Has molecular biology given us a satisfactory answer to this question? And if not, why, and how to carry on from there? This book examines life not from the reductionist point of view, but rather asks the question: what are the universal properties of living systems and how can one construct from there a phenomenological theory of life that leads naturally to complex processes such as reproductive cellular systems, evolution and differentiation? The presentation has been deliberately kept fairly non-technical so as to address a broad spectrum of students and researchers from the natural sciences and informatics.

  5. Chaos from simple models to complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cencini, Massimo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Chaos: from simple models to complex systems aims to guide science and engineering students through chaos and nonlinear dynamics from classical examples to the most recent fields of research. The first part, intended for undergraduate and graduate students, is a gentle and self-contained introduction to the concepts and main tools for the characterization of deterministic chaotic systems, with emphasis to statistical approaches. The second part can be used as a reference by researchers as it focuses on more advanced topics including the characterization of chaos with tools of information theor

  6. Complexity for Survival of Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A logical connection between the survivability of living systems and the complexity of their behavior (equivalently, mental complexity) has been established. This connection is an important intermediate result of continuing research on mathematical models that could constitute a unified representation of the evolution of both living and non-living systems. Earlier results of this research were reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most relevant being Characteristics of Dynamics of Intelligent Systems (NPO- 21037), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48; and Self-Supervised Dynamical Systems (NPO- 30634) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 72. As used here, living systems is synonymous with active systems and intelligent systems. The quoted terms can signify artificial agents (e.g., suitably programmed computers) or natural biological systems ranging from single-cell organisms at one extreme to the whole of human society at the other extreme. One of the requirements that must be satisfied in mathematical modeling of living systems is reconciliation of evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics. In the approach followed in this research, this reconciliation is effected by means of a model, inspired partly by quantum mechanics, in which the quantum potential is replaced with an information potential. The model captures the most fundamental property of life - the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The model incorporates the equations of classical dynamics, including Newton s equations of motion and equations for random components caused by uncertainties in initial conditions and by Langevin forces. The equations of classical dynamics are coupled with corresponding Liouville or Fokker-Planck equations that describe the evolutions of probability densities that represent the uncertainties. The coupling is effected by fictitious information-based forces that are

  7. High-frequency Ultrasound Doppler System for Biomedical Applications with a 30 MHz Linear Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochen; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Yen, Jesse T.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of the first high-frequency (HF) pulsed-wave Doppler system using a 30 MHz linear array transducer to assess the cardiovascular functions in small animal. This array based pulsed-wave Doppler system included a 16-channel HF analog beamformer, a HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, timing circuits, HF bipolar pulsers, and analog front-ends. The beamformed echoes acquired by the 16 channel analog beamformer, were directly fed to the HF pulsed-wave Doppler module. Then the in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) audio Doppler signals were digitized by either a sound card or a Gage digitizer and stored in a PC. The Doppler spectrogram was displayed on a PC in real time. The two-way beam-widths were determined to be 160 μm to 320 μm when the array was electronically focused at different focal points at depths from 5–10 mm. A micro flow phantom, consisting of a polyimide tube with inner diameter of 127 μm, and the wire phantom were used to evaluate and calibrate the system. The results show that the system is capable of detecting motion velocity of the wire phantom as low as 0.1 mm/s, and detecting blood-mimicking flow velocity in the 127 μm tube lower than 7 mm/s. The system was subsequently used to measure the blood flow in vivo in two mouse abdominal superficial vessels with diameters of approximately 200 μm, and a mouse aorta close to the heart. These results demonstrated that this system may become an indispensable part of the current HF array based imaging systems for small animal studies. PMID:17993243

  8. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a chaotic complexsystem with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibing; Wang, Xingyuan; Han, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS) is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS). Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic) complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem and a chaotic complexsystem with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:27014879

  10. An Engineering Approach to Biomedical Sciences: Advanced Strategies in Drug Delivery Systems Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d’Amore, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Development and optimization of novel production techniques for drug delivery systems are fundamental steps in the “from the bench to the bedside” process which is the base of translational medicine. In particular, in the current scenery where the need for reducing energy consumption, emissions, wastes and risks drives the development of sustainable processes, new pharmaceutical manufacturing does not constitute an exception. In this paper, concepts of process intensification are presented and their transposition in drug delivery systems production is discussed. Moreover, some examples on intensified techniques, for drug microencapsulation and granules drying, are reported. PMID:23905058

  11. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion: Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for

  12. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx. PMID:25667358

  13. Network fingerprint: a knowledge-based characterization of biomedical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuliang Cui; Haochen He; Fuchu He; Shengqi Wang; Fei Li; Xiaochen Bo

    2015-01-01

    It can be difficult for biomedical researchers to understand complex molecular networks due to their unfamiliarity with the mathematical concepts employed. To represent molecular networks with clear meanings and familiar forms for biomedical researchers, we introduce a knowledge-based computational framework to decipher biomedical networks by making systematic comparisons to well-studied “basic networks”. A biomedical network is characterized as a spectrum-like vector called “network fingerpr...

  14. Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2010-01-01

    Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...

  15. Biomedical informatics: changing what physicians need to know and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, William W; Searle, John R; Fessler, Henry E; Smith, Jack W; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2011-04-01

    The explosive growth of biomedical complexity calls for a shift in the paradigm of medical decision making-from a focus on the power of an individual brain to the collective power of systems of brains. This shift alters professional roles and requires biomedical informatics and information technology (IT) infrastructure. The authors illustrate this future role of medical informatics with a vignette and summarize the evolving understanding of both beneficial and deleterious effects of informatics-rich environments on learning, clinical care, and research. The authors also provide a framework of core informatics competencies for health professionals of the future and conclude with broad steps for faculty development. They recommend that medical schools advance on four fronts to prepare their faculty to teach in a biomedical informatics-rich world: (1) create academic units in biomedical informatics; (2) adapt the IT infrastructure of academic health centers (AHCs) into testing laboratories; (3) introduce medical educators to biomedical informatics sufficiently for them to model its use; and (4) retrain AHC faculty to lead the transformation to health care based on a new systems approach enabled by biomedical informatics. The authors propose that embracing this collective and informatics-enhanced future of medicine will provide opportunities to advance education, patient care, and biomedical science.

  16. Biomedical informatics as support to individual healthcare in hereditary colon cancer: the Danish HNPCC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Larsen, K.L.; Timshel, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish HNPCC register is a publically financed national database. The register gathers epidemiological and genomic data in HNPCC families to improve prognosis by screening and identifying family members at risk. Diagnostic data are generated throughout the country and collected over several...... decades. Until recently, paper-based reports were sent to the register and typed into the database. In the EC cofunded-INFOBIOMED network of excellence, the register was a model for electronic exchange of epidemiological and genomic data between diagnosing/treating departments and the central database...... of heterogeneous data, elaboration, and dissemination of classification systems and development of communication standards. At the conclusion of the EU project in 2007 the system was implemented in 12 pilot departments. In the surgical departments this resulted in a 192% increase of reports to the database...

  17. A Novel Feature Selection Strategy for Enhanced Biomedical Event Extraction Using the Turku System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion.

  18. A purification system for 64Cu produced by a biomedical cyclotron for antibody PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange is a simple and efficient method for separating no-carrier-added 64Cu from an irradiated Ni target. We developed a semi-automated two-round 64Cu separation system equipped with a strong-base anion exchange resin column. We first verified the efficiency of the system using a non-radioactive substitute consisting of 25 mg of Ni and 127 ng of Cu, and confirmed that Cu was completely eluted at the second round of the separation step. After the bombardment, separation of 64Cu from the Ni target was achieved with high radiochemical purity. 64Cu produced and separated in this study had an extremely low level of Ni impurity. It could be used for labeling monoclonal antibodies for antibody positron emission tomography imaging and synthesizing radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Development of A Biomedical Imaging Informatics System for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Geoffrey; Wang, May D.

    2003-01-01

    The medical imaging technologies have been used for detecting tumors through the years. Tumors that can be viewed in imaging are usually big enough to contain billion tumor cells. Some patients may be cured if detected earlier and the surgery is performed well. Those lead to molecular imaging and image-guided surgery research activities, which post new challenges on large scale imaging data management and 3-D visualization. The goal of this project is to develop 3-D imaging informatics system...

  20. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  1. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  2. Ensemble annealing of complex physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Habeck, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Algorithms for simulating complex physical systems or solving difficult optimization problems often resort to an annealing process. Rather than simulating the system at the temperature of interest, an annealing algorithm starts at a temperature that is high enough to ensure ergodicity and gradually decreases it until the destination temperature is reached. This idea is used in popular algorithms such as parallel tempering and simulated annealing. A general problem with annealing methods is that they require a temperature schedule. Choosing well-balanced temperature schedules can be tedious and time-consuming. Imbalanced schedules can have a negative impact on the convergence, runtime and success of annealing algorithms. This article outlines a unifying framework, ensemble annealing, that combines ideas from simulated annealing, histogram reweighting and nested sampling with concepts in thermodynamic control. Ensemble annealing simultaneously simulates a physical system and estimates its density of states. The...

  3. Supervisory control for a complex robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Robotic Radiation Survey and Analysis System investigates the use of advanced robotic technology for performing remote radiation surveys on nuclear waste shipping casks. Robotic systems have the potential for reducing personnel exposure to radiation and providing fast reliable throughput at future repository sites. A primary technology issue is the integrated control of distributed specialized hardware through a modular supervisory software system. Automated programming of robot trajectories based upon mathematical models of the cask and robot coupled with sensory feedback enables flexible operation of a commercial gantry robot with the reliability needed to perform autonomous operations in a hazardous environment. Complexity is managed using structured software engineering techniques resulting in the generation of reusable command primitives which contribute to a software parts catalog for a generalized robot programming language

  4. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  5. Modular interdependency in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Pollack, Jordan B

    2005-01-01

    Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may enable subsystems to be modified and adapted independently of other subsystems, whereas in a nonmodular system, modifications to one part of the system may result in deleterious side effects elsewhere in the system. But this notion of modularity and its effect on evolvability is not well quantified and is rather simplistic. In particular, modularity need not imply that intermodule dependences are weak or unimportant. In dynamical systems this is acknowledged by Simon's suggestion that, in the long term, the dynamical behaviors of subsystems do interact with one another, albeit in an "aggregate" manner--but this kind of intermodule interaction is omitted in models of modularity for evolvability. In this brief discussion we seek to unify notions of modularity in dynamical systems with notions of how modularity affects evolvability. This leads to a quantifiable measure of modularity and a different understanding of its effect on evolvability. PMID:16197673

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaotic and Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, E.; Zelazny, R.; Galkowski, A.

    2011-04-01

    Part I. Dynamic Systems Bifurcation Theory and Chaos: 1. Chaos in random dynamical systems V. M. Gunldach; 2. Controlling chaos using embedded unstable periodic orbits: the problem of optimal periodic orbits B. R. Hunt and E. Ott; 3. Chaotic tracer dynamics in open hydrodynamical flows G. Karolyi, A. Pentek, T. Tel and Z. Toroczkai; 4. Homoclinic chaos L. P. Shilnikov; Part II. Spatially Extended Systems: 5. Hydrodynamics of relativistic probability flows I. Bialynicki-Birula; 6. Waves in ionic reaction-diffusion-migration systems P. Hasal, V. Nevoral, I. Schreiber, H. Sevcikova, D. Snita, and M. Marek; 7. Anomalous scaling in turbulence: a field theoretical approach V. Lvov and I. Procaccia; 8. Abelian sandpile cellular automata M. Markosova; 9. Transport in an incompletely chaotic magnetic field F. Spineanu; Part III. Dynamical Chaos Quantum Physics and Foundations Of Statistical Mechanics: 10. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and ergodic theory L. A. Bunimovich; 11. Pseudochaos in statistical physics B. Chirikov; 12. Foundations of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics J. P. Dougherty; 13. Thermomechanical particle simulations W. G. Hoover, H. A. Posch, C. H. Dellago, O. Kum, C. G. Hoover, A. J. De Groot and B. L. Holian; 14. Quantum dynamics on a Markov background and irreversibility B. Pavlov; 15. Time chaos and the laws of nature I. Prigogine and D. J. Driebe; 16. Evolutionary Q and cognitive systems: dynamic entropies and predictability of evolutionary processes W. Ebeling; 17. Spatiotemporal chaos information processing in neural networks H. Szu; 18. Phase transitions and learning in neural networks C. Van den Broeck; 19. Synthesis of chaos A. Vanecek and S. Celikovsky; 20. Computational complexity of continuous problems H. Wozniakowski; Part IV. Complex Systems As An Interface Between Natural Sciences and Environmental Social and Economic Sciences: 21. Stochastic differential geometry in finance studies V. G. Makhankov; Part V. Conference Banquet

  7. Combination-Combination Hyperchaos Synchronization of Complex Memristor Oscillator System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jin-E

    2014-01-01

    The combination-combination synchronization scheme is based on combination of multidrive systems and combination of multiresponse systems. In this paper, we investigate combination-combination synchronization of hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator system. Several sufficient conditions are provided to ascertain the combination of two drive hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems to synchronize the combination of two response hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems. Th...

  8. Complex system analysis using CI methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Madjid; Hildebrand, Lars

    1999-03-01

    Modern technical tasks often need the use of complex system models. In many complex cases the model parameters can be gained using neural networks, but these systems allow only a one-way simulation from the input values to the learned output values. If evaluation in the other direction is needed, these model allow no direct evaluation. This task can be solved using evolutionary algorithms, which are part of the computational intelligence. The term computational intelligence covers three special fields of the artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. We will focus only on the topic of evolutionary algorithms and fuzzy logic. Evolutionary algorithms covers the fields of genetic algorithms, evolution strategies and evolutionary programming. These methods can be used to optimize technical problems. Evolutionary algorithms have certain advantages, if these problems have no mathematical properties, like steadiness or the possibility to obtain the derivatives. Fuzzy logic systems normally lack these properties. The use of a combination of evolutionary algorithms and fuzzy logic allow an evaluation of the learned simulation models in the direction form output to the input values. An example can be given from the field of screw rotor design.

  9. Principles of Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2010-01-01

    Describing the role of engineering in medicine today, this comprehensive volume covers a wide range of the most important topics in this burgeoning field. Supported with over 145 illustrations, the book discusses bioelectrical systems, mechanical analysis of biological tissues and organs, biomaterial selection, compartmental modeling, and biomedical instrumentation. Moreover, you find a thorough treatment of the concept of using living cells in various therapeutics and diagnostics.Structured as a complete text for students with some engineering background, the book also makes a valuable refere

  10. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4, is a collection of papers that deals with gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and the analysis of minute samples, as well as the role of the government in regulating the production, usage, safety, and efficacy of medical devices. One paper reviews the use of mass spectrometry and computer technology in relation to gas-phase analytical methods based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instruments and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer analytical systems. Many health practitioners, government and private health agencies, the legal prof

  11. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  12. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  13. Metaheuristics progress in complex systems optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Doerner, Karl F; Greistorfer, Peter; Gutjahr, Walter; Hartl, Richard F; Reimann, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The aim of ""Metaheuristics: Progress in Complex Systems Optimization"" is to provide several different kinds of information: a delineation of general metaheuristics methods, a number of state-of-the-art articles from a variety of well-known classical application areas as well as an outlook to modern computational methods in promising new areas. Therefore, this book may equally serve as a textbook in graduate courses for students, as a reference book for people interested in engineering or social sciences, and as a collection of new and promising avenues for researchers working in this field.

  14. Complex Adaptive Digital EcoSystems

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an abstract conceptualisation of DigitalEcosystems from a computer science perspective. We then provide a conceptual framework for the cross pollination of ideas, concepts and understanding between different classes of ecosystems through the universally applicable principles of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) modelling. A framework to assist the cross-disciplinary collaboration of research into Digital Ecosystems, including Digital BusinessEcosystems (DBEs) and Digital Knowledge Ecosystems (DKEs). So, we have defined the key steps towards a theoretical framework for Digital Ecosystems, that is compatible with the diverse theoretical views prevalent. Therefore, a theoretical edifice that can unify the diverse efforts within Digital Ecosystems research.

  15. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  16. Complex Fluids in Energy Dissipating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Galindo-Rosales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of engineered systems for energy dissipation (or absorption during impacts or vibrations is an increasing need in our society, mainly for human protection applications, but also for ensuring the right performance of different sort of devices, facilities or installations. In the last decade, new energy dissipating composites based on the use of certain complex fluids have flourished, due to their non-linear relationship between stress and strain rate depending on the flow/field configuration. This manuscript intends to review the different approaches reported in the literature, analyses the fundamental physics behind them and assess their pros and cons from the perspective of their practical applications.

  17. Telementoring and teleparamedic communication platforms and robotic systems for battlefield biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Zeltser, Gregory; Forrester, Thomas

    2000-08-01

    A new approach to C4, in the form of supercomputer-path soft communication and computing (SC2), provides enabling technology baseline for teleparamedic and telementoring communication platforms and robotic systems. In particular, this new information technology offers full-duplex 2-D and/or 3-D wireless communication and interactive telepresence, as well as remotely-controlled semi-automatic sensing, within so-called telementoring scheme, being the specific brand of telemedicine. In this paper, we discuss the SC2 capabilities, including: 20-times, higher than prior art, compression of digital multimedia data (especially including digital video) with computing power higher than the of 100 Pentiums. The further extension of SC2- technologies, combined with nearly-autonomous teleparamedic scheme, will be also discussed.

  18. A System for Computing Conceptual Pathways in Bio-medical Text Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer;

    2014-01-01

    -algebraic form of predicate logic. Natural logics are distinguished by coming close to natural language so that propositions are readable by domain experts. The natural logic knowledge base is accompanied by an internal graph representation, where the nodes represent simple concept terms as well as compound...... concepts stemming from entire phrases. Path finding between concepts is facilitated by a labelled graph form that represents the knowledge base as well as the ontological information.......This paper describes the key principles in a system for querying and conceptual path finding in a logic-based knowledge base. The knowledge base is extracted from textual descriptions in bio-, pharma- and medical areas. The knowledge base applies natural logic, that is, a variable-free term...

  19. System architecture and information model for integrated access to distributed biomedical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Alaoui, Adil; Levine, Betty; Leondaridis, Leonidas; Shields, Peter; Byers, Steve; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    The current trend towards systems medicine will rely heavily on computational and bioinformatics capabilities to collect, integrate, and analyze massive amounts of data from disparate sources. The objective is to use this information to make medical decisions that improve patient care. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing an informatics capability to integrate several research and clinical databases. Our long term goal is to provide researchers at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center better access to aggregated molecular and clinical information facilitating the investigation of new hypotheses that impact patient care. We also recognize the need for data mining tools and intelligent agents to help researchers in these efforts. This paper describes our initial work to create a flexible platform for researchers and physicians that provides access to information sources including clinical records, medical images, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. This paper describes the data sources selected for this pilot project and possible approaches to integrating these databases. We present the different database integration models that we considered. We conclude by outlining the proposed Information Model for the project.

  20. Nanodiamonds as novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications: drug delivery and imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randeep Kaur, Ildiko BadeaDrug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CanadaAbstract: Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.Keywords: dispersion, surface functionalization, toxicity, carriers, fluorescence, light scattering

  1. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  2. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  3. Topological analysis of complexity in multiagent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaid, Nicole; Bollt, Erik; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    Social organisms at every level of evolutionary complexity live in groups, such as fish schools, locust swarms, and bird flocks. The complex exchange of multifaceted information across group members may result in a spectrum of salient spatiotemporal patterns characterizing collective behaviors. While instances of collective behavior in animal groups are readily identifiable by trained and untrained observers, a working definition to distinguish these patterns from raw data is not yet established. In this work, we define collective behavior as a manifestation of low-dimensional manifolds in the group motion and we quantify the complexity of such behaviors through the dimensionality of these structures. We demonstrate this definition using the ISOMAP algorithm, a data-driven machine learning algorithm for dimensionality reduction originally formulated in the context of image processing. We apply the ISOMAP algorithm to data from an interacting self-propelled particle model with additive noise, whose parameters are selected to exhibit different behavioral modalities, and from a video of a live fish school. Based on simulations of such model, we find that increasing noise in the system of particles corresponds to increasing the dimensionality of the structures underlying their motion. These low-dimensional structures are absent in simulations where particles do not interact. Applying the ISOMAP algorithm to fish school data, we identify similar low-dimensional structures, which may act as quantitative evidence for order inherent in collective behavior of animal groups. These results offer an unambiguous method for measuring order in data from large-scale biological systems and confirm the emergence of collective behavior in an applicable mathematical model, thus demonstrating that such models are capable of capturing phenomena observed in animal groups.

  4. Electromagnetic driving units for complex microrobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Frank; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Berg, Udo; Degen, Reinhard; Schmitz, Felix

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic actuators play an important role in macroscopic robotic systems. In combination with motion transformers, like reducing gear units, angular gears or spindle-screw drives, electromagnetic motors in large product lines ensure the rotational or linear motion of robot driving units and grippers while electromagnets drive valves or part conveyors. In this paper micro actuators and miniaturized motion transformers are introduced which allow a similar development in microrobotics. An electromagnetic motor and a planetary gear box, both with a diameter of 1.9 mm, are already commercially available from the cooperation partner of IMM, the company Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH in Schonaich, Germany. In addition, a motor with a diameter of 2.4 mm is in development. The motors successfully drive an angular gear and a belt drive. A linear stage with a motion range of 7 mm and an overall size as small as 5 X 3.5 X 24 mm3 has been realized involving the motor, a stationary spur gear with zero backlash and a spindle-screw drive. By the use of these commercially available elements complex microrobots can be built up cost-efficiently and rapidly. Furthermore, a batch process has been developed to produce the coils of micro actuator arrays using lithographic techniques with SU-8 resin. In applying these components, the modular construction of complex microrobotic systems becomes feasible.

  5. Theories and simulations of complex social systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mago, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...

  6. Intrinsic Uncertainties in Modeling Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Curtis S; Bramson, Aaron L.; Ames, Arlo L.

    2014-09-01

    Models are built to understand and predict the behaviors of both natural and artificial systems. Because it is always necessary to abstract away aspects of any non-trivial system being modeled, we know models can potentially leave out important, even critical elements. This reality of the modeling enterprise forces us to consider the prospective impacts of those effects completely left out of a model - either intentionally or unconsidered. Insensitivity to new structure is an indication of diminishing returns. In this work, we represent a hypothetical unknown effect on a validated model as a finite perturba- tion whose amplitude is constrained within a control region. We find robustly that without further constraints, no meaningful bounds can be placed on the amplitude of a perturbation outside of the control region. Thus, forecasting into unsampled regions is a very risky proposition. We also present inherent difficulties with proper time discretization of models and representing in- herently discrete quantities. We point out potentially worrisome uncertainties, arising from math- ematical formulation alone, which modelers can inadvertently introduce into models of complex systems. Acknowledgements This work has been funded under early-career LDRD project #170979, entitled "Quantify- ing Confidence in Complex Systems Models Having Structural Uncertainties", which ran from 04/2013 to 09/2014. We wish to express our gratitude to the many researchers at Sandia who con- tributed ideas to this work, as well as feedback on the manuscript. In particular, we would like to mention George Barr, Alexander Outkin, Walt Beyeler, Eric Vugrin, and Laura Swiler for provid- ing invaluable advice and guidance through the course of the project. We would also like to thank Steven Kleban, Amanda Gonzales, Trevor Manzanares, and Sarah Burwell for their assistance in managing project tasks and resources.

  7. Solving complex problems: Human identification and control of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Joachim

    1991-01-01

    Studying complex problem solving by means of computer-simulated scenarios has become one of the favorite themes of modern theorists in German-speaking countries who are concerned with the psychology of thinking. Following the pioneering work of Dietrich Doerner (University of Bamberg, FRG) in the mid-70s, many new scenarios have been developed and applied in correlational as well as in experimental studies (for a review see Funke, 1988). Instead of studying problem-solving behavior in restric...

  8. On Complexity of Social System and Modern Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongsenWei

    2004-01-01

    This paper puts forward the idea that social system is an open complex macrosystem and summarized its eight characteristics. The research object of social system is also an open complex macro-system, thus the complex theory and systems thinking should be applied to research rather than the simplicity theory.

  9. Complex flows in granular and quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mark Richard

    In this thesis we investigate three problems involving complex flows in granular and quantum systems. (a) We first study the dynamics of granular particles in a split-bottom shear cell experiment. We utilize network theory to quantify the dynamics of the granular system at the mesoscopic scale. We find an apparent phase transition in the formation of a giant component of broken links as a function of applied shear. These results are compared to a numerical model where breakages are based on the amount of local stretching in the granular pile. (b) Moving to quantum mechanical systems, we study revival and echo phenomena in systems of anharmonically confined atoms, and find a novel phenomena we call the "pre-revival echo". We study the effect of size and symmetry of the perturbations on the various echoes and revivals, and form a perturbative model to describe the phenomena. We then model the effect of interactions using the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation and study interactions' effect on the revivals. (c) Lastly, we continue to study the effect of interactions on particles in weakly anharmonic traps. We numerically observe a "dynamical localization" phenomena in the presence of both anharmonicity and interactions. States may remain localized or become spread out in the potential depending on the strength and sign of the anharmonicity and interactions. We formulate a model for this phenomena in terms of a classical phase space.

  10. Statistically validated networks in bipartite complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tumminello, Michele; Lillo, Fabrizio; Piilo, Jyrki; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2010-01-01

    Many complex systems present an intrinsic bipartite nature and are often described and modeled in terms of networks [1-5]. Examples include movies and actors [1, 2, 4], authors and scientific papers [6-9], email accounts and emails [10], plants and animals that pollinate them [11, 12]. Bipartite networks are often very heterogeneous in the number of relationships that the elements of one set establish with the elements of the other set. When one constructs a projected network with nodes from only one set, the system heterogeneity makes it very difficult to identify preferential links between the elements. Here we introduce an unsupervised method to statistically validate each link of the projected network against a null hypothesis taking into account the heterogeneity of the system. We apply our method to three different systems, namely the set of clusters of orthologous genes (COG) in completely sequenced genomes [13, 14], a set of daily returns of 500 US financial stocks, and the set of world movies of the ...

  11. Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Frank, S.; Bonneau, M.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Hild, S.; Gross, C.; Cheneau, M.; Bloch, I.; Pichler, T.; Negretti, A.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum technologies will ultimately require manipulating many-body quantum systems with high precision. Cold atom experiments represent a stepping stone in that direction: a high degree of control has been achieved on systems of increasing complexity. However, this control is still sub-optimal. In many scenarios, achieving a fast transformation is crucial to fight against decoherence and imperfection effects. Optimal control theory is believed to be the ideal candidate to bridge the gap between early stage proof-of-principle demonstrations and experimental protocols suitable for practical applications. Indeed, it can engineer protocols at the quantum speed limit – the fastest achievable timescale of the transformation. Here, we demonstrate such potential by computing theoretically and verifying experimentally the optimal transformations in two very different interacting systems: the coherent manipulation of motional states of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the crossing of a quantum phase transition in small systems of cold atoms in optical lattices. We also show that such processes are robust with respect to perturbations, including temperature and atom number fluctuations.

  12. 生物医学传感器与医疗保健系统的发展趋势%Developing Trends of Biomedical Sensors and Healthcare System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲁英; 刘忠国; 刘伯强

    2011-01-01

    生物医学传感器是高质量、低成本的卫生保健系统发展的主要驱动力.以智能生物医学衣服、无损检测传感器、吞服式智能药丸、植入式传感器、无线传感器等为例介绍了生物医学传感器的发展趋势,指出它的发展方向是低成本、低功耗、微型化、智能化、多功能化、无损检测、远程供电、无线传输和采用高级功能生物相客材料,并对未来卫生保健系统的发展进行了展望.%With the upcoming aging population, it will be important to offer high-quality cost-effective health care services to them. Monitoring, diagnostics and therapy will become much more closely coupled than it is now. Thus, development of biomedical sensors technology will be crucial. With the increasing of hospital cost, the need for home care is expected to increase drastically, which will necessitate an increased use of simple sensors for health status monitoring and early detection. This will prevent diseases and will shorten hospital stays and contribute to a better life quality. Biomedical sensors will be one of the main driving forces for a high quality cost effective healthcare system. Future biomedical sensors will be low -cost, low -power, miniature, intelligent, invasive and multifunctional. Future biomedical sensors require technology of remote power generation and wireless communication with advanced functional and biocompatible materials. Intelligent biomedical clothes, invasive sensors, implantable sensors, smart pill, wireless monitoring, etc are taken as the examples to explain the prospect of biomedical sensor.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011,32(12) :90-92,109

  13. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique ’intelligent’ characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  14. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO ChunSheng; TIAN HuaYu; ZHUANG XiuLi; CHEN XueSi; JING XiaBin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique 'intelligent' characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  15. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  16. Spintronic platforms for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P P; Cardoso, F A; Martins, V C; Martins, S A M; Loureiro, J; Amaral, J; Chaves, R C; Cardoso, S; Fonseca, L P; Sebastião, A M; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M; Fermon, C

    2012-02-01

    Since the fundamental discovery of the giant magnetoresistance many spintronic devices have been developed and implemented in our daily life (e.g. information storage and automotive industry). Lately, advances in the sensors technology (higher sensitivity, smaller size) have potentiated other applications, namely in the biological area, leading to the emergence of novel biomedical platforms. In particular the investigation of spintronics and its application to the development of magnetoresistive (MR) biomolecular and biomedical platforms are giving rise to a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices, suitable for bench top bioassays as well as point-of-care and point-of-use devices. Herein, integrated spintronic biochip platforms for diagnostic and cytometric applications, hybrid systems incorporating magnetoresistive sensors applied to neuroelectronic studies and biomedical imaging, namely magneto-encephalography and magneto-cardiography, are reviewed. Also lab-on-a-chip MR-based platforms to perform biological studies at the single molecule level are discussed. Overall the potential and main characteristics of such MR-based biomedical devices, comparing to the existing technologies while giving particular examples of targeted applications, are addressed. PMID:22146898

  17. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Aloisio; Maria Cristina Barba; Euro Blasi; Massimo Cafaro; Sandro Fiore; Maria Mirto

    2004-01-01

    Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc.), advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid), a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedic...

  18. Biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last years computational methods lead to new approaches that can be applied within medical practice. Based on the tremendous advances in medical imaging and high-performance computing, virtual testing is able to help in medical decision processes or implant designs. Current challenges in medicine and engineering are related to the application of computational methods to clinical medicine and the study of biological systems at different scales. Additionally manufacturers will be able to use computational tools and methods to predict the performance of their medical devices in virtual patients. The physical and animal testing procedures could be reduced by virtual prototyping of medical devices. Here simulations can enhance the performance of alternate device designs for a range of virtual patients. This will lead to a refinement of designs and to safer products. This book summarizes different aspects of approaches to enhance function, production, initialization and complications of different types o...

  19. Optimal sensor configuration for complex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of sensor configuration for complex systems with the aim of maximizing the useful information about certain quantities of interest. Our approach involves: 1) definition of an appropriate optimality criterion or performance measure; and 2) description of an efficient...... and practical algorithm for achieving the optimality objective. The criterion for optimal sensor configuration is based on maximizing the overall sensor response while minimizing the correlation among the sensor outputs, so as to minimize the redundant information being provided by the multiple sensors....... The procedure for sensor configuration is based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm. SPSA avoids the need for detailed modeling of the sensor response by simply relying on the observed responses obtained by limited experimentation with test sensor configurations. We...

  20. Optimal sensor configuration for complex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the problem of sensor configuration for complex systems. Our approach involves definition of an appropriate optimality criterion or performance measure, and description of an efficient and practical algorithm for achieving the optimality objective. The criterion for optimal sensor...... configuration is based on maximizing the overall sensor response while minimizing the correlation among the sensor outputs. The procedure for sensor configuration is based on simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA). SPSA avoids the need for detailed modeling of the sensor response by simply...... relying on observed responses as obtained by limited experimentation with test sensor configurations. We illustrate the approach with the optimal placement of acoustic sensors for signal detection in structures. This includes both a computer simulation study for an aluminum plate, and real...

  1. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  2. SoC-based architecture for biomedical signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rivas, R; Hernández, A; García, J J; Marnane, W

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, many algorithms have been proposed for processing biomedical signals. Most of these algorithms have been focused on the elimination of noise and artifacts existing in these signals, so they can be used for automatic monitoring and/or diagnosis applications. With regard to remote monitoring, the use of portable devices often requires a reduced number of resources and power consumption, being necessary to reach a trade-off between the accuracy of algorithms and their computational complexity. This paper presents a SoC (System-on-Chip) architecture, based on a FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) device, suitable for the implementation of biomedical signal processing. The proposal has been successfully validated by implementing an efficient QRS complex detector. The results show that, using a reduced amount of resources, values of sensitivity and positive predictive value above 99.49% are achieved, which make the proposed approach suitable for telemedicine applications.

  3. Understanding Complex Adaptive Systems by Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bilsen, Arthur; Bekebrede, Geertje; Mayer, Igor

    2010-01-01

    While educators teach their students about decision making in complex environments, managers have to deal with the complexity of large projects on a daily basis. To make better decisions it is assumed, that the latter would benefit from better understanding of complex phenomena, as do students as the professionals of the future. The goal of this…

  4. Major depression as a complex dynamical system

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, Angélique O J; Giltay, Erik J; van der Maas, Han L J; Kendler, Kenneth S; Scheffer, Marten; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamical system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a healthy state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming active as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as s...

  5. Design in Complex Systems: Individual Performance versus System Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the correlations of the average winnings of agents and the volatilities of systems based on mix-game model which is an extension of minority game (MG). In mix-game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. The results show that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agents' memory lengths when the proportion of agents in group1 increases. The average winnings of agents can represent the average individual performance and the volatility of a system can represent the efficiency of the system. Therefore, these results imply that the combinations of agents' memory lengths largely influence the relation between the system efficiency and the average individual performance. These results could give some guidance in designing complex systems.

  6. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  7. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. PMID:23159498

  8. Economic decision making: application of the theory of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kitt

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter the complex systems are discussed in the context of economic and business policy and decision making. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic, non-linear and/or non-equilibrium and therefore complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change in global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in business and management. For policy making under complexity, following principles are offered: openness and internatio...

  9. Research on basic characteristics of complex system brittleness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-zhang; GUO Jian; WEI Qi; LIN De-ming; LI Qi

    2004-01-01

    Tbe goal of this paper is to research one new characteristic of complex system. Brittleness, which is one new characteritic of complex system, is presented in this paper. The linguistic and qualitative descriptions of complex system are also given in this paper.Otherwise, the qualitative description of complex system is presented at first. On the basis of analyzing the existing brittleness problems, linguistic description and mathematic description of brittleness are given as well. Three kinds of phenomena to judge brittleness of complex system are also given, based on catastrophe theory. Basic characteristics of brittleness are given on the basis of its mathematic description. Two critical point sets are defined by using catastrophe theory. The definition of brittleness and its related theory can serve the control of complex system, and provide theoretical basis for the design and control of complex system.

  10. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering is a comprehensive survey text for biomedical engineering courses. It is the most widely adopted text across the BME course spectrum, valued by instructors and students alike for its authority, clarity and encyclopedic coverage in a single volume. Biomedical engineers need to understand the wide range of topics that are covered in this text, including basic mathematical modeling; anatomy and physiology; electrical engineering, signal processing and instrumentation; biomechanics; biomaterials science and tissue engineering; and medical and engineering e

  11. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  12. Natural immunoglobulins (contribution to a debate on biomedical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Nelson M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunology has contributed to biomedical education in many important ways since the creation of scientific medicine in the last quarter of the 19th century. Today, immunology is a major area of biomedical research. Nevertheless, there are many basic problems unresolved in immunological activities and phenomena. Solving these problems is probably necessary to devise predictable and safe ways to produce new vaccines, treat allergy and autoimmune diseases and perform safe transplants. This challenge involves not only technical developments but also changes in attitude, of which the most fundamental is to abandon the traditional stimulus-response perspective in favor of more "systemic" views. Describing immunological activities as the operation of a complex multiconnected network, raises biological and epistemological issues not usually dealt with in biomedical education. Here we point to one example of systemic approaches. A new form of immunoblot (Panama blot, by which the reaction of natural immunoglobulins with complex protein mixtures may be analyzed by a special software and multivariate statistics, has been recently used to characterize human autoimmune diseases. Our preliminary data show that Panama blots can also be used to characterize global (systemic immunogical changes in chronic human parasitic diseases, such as malaria and schistosomiasis mansoni, that correlate with the clinical status.

  13. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  14. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  15. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  16. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  17. Antimicrobial Chitosan based formulations with impact on different biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Marius; Ficai, Denisa; Oprea, Ovidiu; Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina M

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its physico-chemical characteristics, the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer derived from crustacean shells, Chitosan is one of the preferred candidates for green biomedical applications and also for several industries. Its solubility in acid solutions and ability to form complexes with anionic macromolecules to yield nanoparticles, microparticles and hydrogels, as well as the ability of chitosan based nanocomposites to remain stable at physiological pH recommend this polymer for the development of efficient drug delivery systems. This paper reviews the main utilities of chitosan as a drug delivery component and describes the most recent technologies which utilize this polymer for developing nanostructured systems with antimicrobial effect, offering a perspective of using these findings in new, ecological biomedical applications.

  18. Complexity Analysis and Critical Factor Identity in Multimedia Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dali Li

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of multimedia social systems makes the exchange and the share of the information between users more and more convenient. At the same time, it also makes that the multimedia social systems have complexity characteristic. Hence the traditional object-oriented analysis methods have been not able to suit this kind of saturation. This paper analyzes the complexity of social multimedia systems and proposes that the complexity performance of multimedia social systems includes t...

  19. The engineering of concurrent simulations of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Polack, Fiona A.C.; Andrews, Paul S.; Sampson, Adam T

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent process-oriented programming is a natural medium for simulating complex systems, particularly systems where many simple components interact in an environment (which may itself be complex). There is little guidance for engineering complex systems simulation. In the context of simulation work to support immunological research, we explore relevant approaches to modelling, and draw on concepts from dependable and high-integrity systems engineering, including the emphasis on the need to...

  20. SWITCHING CONTROL:FROM SIMPLE RULES TO COMPLEX CHAOTIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jinhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews and introduces some simple switching piecewise-linear controllers, which can generate complex chaotic behaviors from simple switching systems. The mechanism of simple switching rules creating complex chaotic behaviors is further investigated.

  1. Biomedical Visual Computing: Case Studies and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Johnson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computational geometric modeling, imaging, and simulation let researchers build and test models of increasing complexity, generating unprecedented amounts of data. As recent research in biomedical applications illustrates, visualization will be critical in making this vast amount of data usable; it\\'s also fundamental to understanding models of complex phenomena. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. The brittleness model of complex system based on cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN De-ming; JIN Hong-zhang; LI Qi; WU Hong-mei

    2004-01-01

    Now the research on the complex system is a hot spot. Brittleness is one of the basic characteristics of a complex system. In a complex system, after one of subsystems is struck to be collapsed, the whole system will collapse. Meanwhile, cellular automata is a discrete dynamic system. When the rule is given, the cellular automata could be defined. Then it can imitate the complex action. Cellular automata is used to simulate the brittleness action in this study. Entropy was used to analyze the action and get the rule. Then,three normal brittleness models were given. The result shows that the brittleness of complex system is existent and in addition some important behavior mode of complex system brittleness has been achieved.

  3. Complex System Optimization Using Biogeography-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems are frequently found in modern industry. But with their multisubsystems, multiobjectives, and multiconstraints, the optimization of complex systems is extremely hard. In this paper, a new algorithm adapted from biogeography-based optimization (BBO is introduced for complex system optimization. BBO/Complex is the combination of BBO with a multiobjective ranking system, an innovative migration approach, and effective diversity control. Based on comparisons with three complex system optimization algorithms (multidisciplinary feasible (MDF, individual discipline feasible (IDF, and collaborative optimization (CO on four real-world benchmark problems, BBO/Complex demonstrates competitive performance. BBO/Complex provides the best performance in three of the benchmark problems and the second best in the fourth problem.

  4. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  5. Complexity Measurement of Large-Scale Software System Based on Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of software system complexity, the traditional measurements can not meet the requirements, for the reason that the developers need control the software quality effectively and guarantee the normal operation of software system. Hence how to measure the complexity of large-scale software system has been a challenge problem. In order to solve this problem, the developers have to obtain a good method to measure the complexity of software system first. Only through this work, the software quality and the software structure could be controlled and optimized. Note that the complex network theory has offered a new theoretical understanding and a new perspective to solve this kind of complexity problem, this work discusses the complexity phenomenon in large-scale software system. Based on this, some complexity measurements of large-scale software system are put forward from static structure and dynamic structure perspectives. Furthermore, we find some potential complexity characteristics in large-scale software networks through the numerical simulations. The proposed measurement methods have a guiding significance on the development for today's large-scale software system. In addition, this paper presents a new technique for the structural complexity measurements of large-scale software system

  6. Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.

  7. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

  8. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  9. Tethering Complexes in the Arabidopsis Endomembrane System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Targeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defense against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model-Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF) mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology. PMID:27243010

  10. Tethering complexes in the Arabidopsis endomembrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja eVukasinovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTargeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defence against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model – Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA. The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology.

  11. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2000-06-12

    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  12. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Abdul Wahab; Azam, Farooque; Qamar, Usman

    2015-01-01

    The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  13. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  14. A Remote Health Care System Combining a Fall Down Alarm and Biomedical Signal Monitor System in an Android Smart-Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Sung Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available First aid and immediate help are very important following an accident. The earlier the detection and treatment is carried out, the better the prognosis and chance of recovery of the patients. It is even more important when considering the elderly. Once the elderly have an accident, they not only physically injure their body, but also impair their mental and social ability, and may develop severe sequela. In the last few years, the continuously developed Android cell phone has been applied to many fields. Despite the nature of the GPS positioning system that the mobile phone currently uses, most applications used are SMS and file transfers. However, these biomedical measurement signals, passing through a transferring interface and uploading to the mobile, result the little really successful cases with the remote health care feasibility. This research will develop an Android cell phone which combines the functionality of an ECG, pulsimeter, SpO2, and BAD (Body Activity Detector for real-time monitoring of the activity of a body. When an accident occurs, the signals go through Android smart phone, immediately notifying the remote ends and providing first time help.

  15. Analysis and control of complex dynamical systems robust bifurcation, dynamic attractors, and network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Imura, Jun-ichi; Ueta, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to report on theoretical breakthroughs on control of complex dynamical systems developed by collaborative researchers in the two fields of dynamical systems theory and control theory. As well, its basic point of view is of three kinds of complexity: bifurcation phenomena subject to model uncertainty, complex behavior including periodic/quasi-periodic orbits as well as chaotic orbits, and network complexity emerging from dynamical interactions between subsystems. Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems offers a valuable resource for mathematicians, physicists, and biophysicists, as well as for researchers in nonlinear science and control engineering, allowing them to develop a better fundamental understanding of the analysis and control synthesis of such complex systems.

  16. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  17. Smart modeling and simulation for complex systems practice and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Ito, Takayuki; Tang, Xijin

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide a description of these new Artificial Intelligence technologies and approaches to the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field such as the platforms and/or the software tools for smart modeling and simulating complex systems. These tasks are difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches due to the complex relationships of components and distributed features of resources, as well as the dynamic work environments. In order to effectively model the complex systems, intelligent technologies such as multi-agent systems and smart grids are employed to model and simulate the complex systems in the areas of ecosystem, social and economic organization, web-based grid service, transportation systems, power systems and evacuation systems.

  18. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F. [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  19. Complexity: Outline of the NWO strategic theme Dynamics of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Burgers, G.; Doelman, A.; Frenken, K.; Hogeweg, P.; Hommes, C.; Maas, van der, H.L.J.; Mulder, B.; Stam, K.; Steen, van der, M.; Zandee, L.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is one of the program 5 themes in the NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) strategy for the years 2007-2011. The ambition of the current proposal is to initiate integrated activities in the field of complex systems within the Netherlands, to provide opportunities for the Dutch scientific community to start up a research program on 'Complexity', and to join in, and give direction to, European activities in this field. At many levels of activity, Du...

  20. Complexity Thinking in PE: Game-Centred Approaches, Games as Complex Adaptive Systems, and Ecological Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Brian; Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article draws on the literature relating to game-centred approaches (GCAs), such as Teaching Games for Understanding, and dynamical systems views of motor learning to demonstrate a convergence of ideas around games as complex adaptive learning systems. This convergence is organized under the title "complexity thinking"…

  1. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  2. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Manuela Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and futu...

  3. From Hamiltonian chaos to complex systems a nonlinear physics approach

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach collects contributions on recent developments in non-linear dynamics and statistical physics with an emphasis on complex systems. This book provides a wide range of state-of-the-art research in these fields. The unifying aspect of this book is a demonstration of how similar tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics can lead to a large panorama of  research in various fields of physics and beyond, most notably with the perspective of application in complex systems. This book also: Illustrates the broad research influence of tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics Adopts a pedagogic approach to facilitate understanding by non-specialists and students Presents applications in complex systems Includes 150 illustrations From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach is an ideal book for graduate students and researchers working in applied...

  4. Combination-Combination Hyperchaos Synchronization of Complex Memristor Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jin-E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination-combination synchronization scheme is based on combination of multidrive systems and combination of multiresponse systems. In this paper, we investigate combination-combination synchronization of hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator system. Several sufficient conditions are provided to ascertain the combination of two drive hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems to synchronize the combination of two response hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems. These new conditions improve and extend the existing synchronization results for memristive systems. A numerical example is given to show the feasibility of theoretical results.

  5. Managing software complexity of adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, de Auke Jan

    2012-01-01

    To survive under competitive pressure, embedded system companies build systems that can deal with changing customer needs and operating conditions, and deterioration of the hardware over the lifetime of the embedded system. Engineers face the challenge to design such adaptive systems, while keeping

  6. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  7. Shape-Memory Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakacki, Christopher M.; Gall, Ken

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of mechanically functional "smart" materials that have generated substantial interest for biomedical applications. SMPs offer the ability to promote minimally invasive surgery, provide structural support, exert stabilizing forces, elute therapeutic agents, and biodegrade. This review focuses on several areas of biomedicine including vascular, orthopedic, and neuronal applications with respect to the progress and potential for SMPs to improve the standard of treatment in these areas. Fundamental studies on proposed biomedical SMP systems are discussed with regards to biodegradability, tailorability, sterilization, and biocompatibility. Lastly, a proposed research and development pathway for SMP-based biomedical devices is proposed based on trends in the recent literature.

  8. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  9. The BIRN Project: Distributed Information Infrastructure and Multi-scale Imaging of the Nervous System (BIRN = Biomedical Informatics Research Network)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with "complete" knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their ...

  10. Statistical Features of Complex Systems ---Toward Establishing Sociological Physics---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Kuninaka, Hiroto; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    Complex systems have recently attracted much attention, both in natural sciences and in sociological sciences. Members constituting a complex system evolve through nonlinear interactions among each other. This means that in a complex system the multiplicative experience or, so to speak, the history of each member produces its present characteristics. If attention is paid to any statistical property in any complex system, the lognormal distribution is the most natural and appropriate among the standard or ``normal'' statistics to overview the whole system. In fact, the lognormality emerges rather conspicuously when we examine, as familiar and typical examples of statistical aspects in complex systems, the nursing-care period for the aged, populations of prefectures and municipalities, and our body height and weight. Many other examples are found in nature and society. On the basis of these observations, we discuss the possibility of sociological physics.

  11. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  12. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century,medicine has come out of the "black bag" and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiology to informatics and signal processing. Reflecting the enormous growth and change in biomedical engineering during the infancy of the 21st century, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook enters its third edition as a set of three carefully focused and

  13. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  14. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  15. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  16. Size and complexity in model financial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmis...

  17. Systems Thinking Managing Chaos and Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Sönmez, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    This book is the third edition of the Author’s System Thinking and was first published in 1999 by Butterworth-Heinemann Title. This book is a direct result of the author's work with the systems methodology first introduced by the author's partner, Russell Ackoff, one of the founding fathers of systems thinking. Ackoff reported that it was the most comprehensive systems methodology he has seen.

  18. Environmental and biomedical applications of natural metal stable isotope variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, T.D.; Walczyk, T.

    2009-01-01

    etal stable isotopes are now being used to trace metal contaminants in the environment and as indicators of human systemic function where metals play a role. Stable isotope abundance variations provide information about metal sources and the processes affecting metals in complex natural systems, complementing information gained from surrogate tracers, such as metal abundance ratios or biochemical markers of metal metabolism. The science is still in its infancy, but the results of initial studies confirm that metal stable isotopes can provide a powerful tool for forensic and biomedical investigations.

  19. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    to analyses conducted within a single type of data. e first line of research presented here outlines two integrative methodologies designed to identify etiological pathways and susceptibility genes. In Paper I, my coworkers and I present an integrative approach that interrogates protein complexes...... that body-mass index associated gene products coalesce onto distinct protein complexes, and show that these putative risk modules incriminate novel candidate obesitysusceptibility genes. e last overall line of research presented here, provides examples on how networks of human metabolism may serve...... for weight maintenance upon dietary-induced weight loss. e approaches presented in this PhD esis provide integrative methodologies for the aggregation of multiple, functionally relevant data types. Together they represent a novel bioinformatics-based toolbox for analyses of genetic variation in human...

  20. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored. PMID:25474670

  1. Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, M A

    2003-01-01

    What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.

  2. French Roadmap for complex Systems 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalarias, David; Bourgine, Paul; Perrier, Edith; Amblard, Fréderic; Arlabosse, François; Auger, Pierre; Baillon, Jean-Bernard; Barreteau, Olivier; Baudot, Pierre; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Ben Amor, Soufian; Berry, Hugues; Bertelle, Cyrille; Berthod, Marc; Beslon, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    This second issue of the French Complex Systems Roadmap by the French National Network for Complex SYstems (http://RNSC.fr) and the Paris Ile-de-France Complex Systems Institute (http://iscpif.fr) is the outcome of the “Entretiens de Cargèse 2008”, an interdisciplinary brainstorming session organized over one week in 2008, jointly by RNSC, ISC-PIF and IXXI. It capitalizes on the first roadmap and gathers contributions of more than 70 scientists from major French institutions. A “complex sy...

  3. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored.

  4. Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Charles V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Awschalom, David [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Bawendi, Moungi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frechet, Jean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Murphy, Donald [Lucent Technologies (United States); Stupp, Sam [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Wolynes, Peter [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1999-03-06

    The workshop was designed to help define new scientific directions related to complex systems in order to create new understanding about the nano world and complicated, multicomponent structures. Five emerging themes regarding complexity were covered: Collective Phenomena; Materials by Design; Functional Systems; Nature's Mastery; and New Tools.

  5. Complex, Dynamic Systems: A New Transdisciplinary Theme for Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In this plenary address, I suggest that Complexity Theory has the potential to contribute a transdisciplinary theme to applied linguistics. Transdisciplinary themes supersede disciplines and spur new kinds of creative activity (Halliday 2001 [1990]). Investigating complex systems requires researchers to pay attention to system dynamics. Since…

  6. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, J.; Z. Wang; Zhang, Y.; J. MA

    2010-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc.) may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coeffic...

  7. No Fundamental Limitation on Studying Living Organisms and Other Complex Systems with Statistical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Drew M

    2012-01-01

    Although the state of living organisms is affected by many interrelated and unidentified variables, one need not invoke this to explain the "Truth Wears Off" or "decline" effect, and this complexity imposes no fundamental limitation on statistical inference. Similar "decline" effects occur in physics as well as the biomedical sciences; selective reporting and publication bias, and scientists' biases in favour of reporting eye-catching results (in biomedical sciences and psychology) or conforming to others' results (in physics) better explain this feature of the "Truth Wears Off" effect than Rabin's suggested limitation on statistical inference.

  8. ARTIFICIAL LIVING SYSTEM AND ITS COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  9. Financial Networks, Complexity and Systemic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Roukny, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has brought to the fore the need to better understand systemic risk, that is, the risk of collapse of a large part of the financial system and its potential effects on the real economy. In this thesis, we argue that a proper assessment of systemic risk must include an analysis of the network of interdependencies that exists between the different financial institutions. In fact, today's level of financial interconnectedness between and among markets has proven to ha...

  10. Understanding complex urban systems multidisciplinary approaches to modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gurr, Jens; Schmidt, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Complex Urban Systems takes as its point of departure the insight that the challenges of global urbanization and the complexity of urban systems cannot be understood – let alone ‘managed’ – by sectoral and disciplinary approaches alone. But while there has recently been significant progress in broadening and refining the methodologies for the quantitative modeling of complex urban systems, in deepening the theoretical understanding of cities as complex systems, or in illuminating the implications for urban planning, there is still a lack of well-founded conceptual thinking on the methodological foundations and the strategies of modeling urban complexity across the disciplines. Bringing together experts from the fields of urban and spatial planning, ecology, urban geography, real estate analysis, organizational cybernetics, stochastic optimization, and literary studies, as well as specialists in various systems approaches and in transdisciplinary methodologies of urban analysis, the volum...

  11. Complex systems fractionality, time-delay and synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    "Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-delay and Synchronization" covers the most recent developments and advances in the theory and application of complex systems in these areas. Each chapter was written by scientists highly active in the field of complex systems. The book discusses a new treatise on fractional dynamics and control, as well as the new methods for differential delay systems and control. Lastly, a theoretical framework for the complexity and synchronization of complex system is presented. The book is intended for researchers in the field of nonlinear dynamics in mathematics, physics and engineering. It can also serve as a reference book for graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA. Dr. Jian-Qiao Sun is a Professor at the University of California, Merced, USA.

  12. Size and complexity in model financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in “confidence” in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases. PMID:23091020

  13. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  14. What is complex in the complex world? Niklas Luhmann and the theory of social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Eckert Baeta Neves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Niklas Luhmann's understanding of complexity, its function in the theory and the different ways of its use. It starts with the paradigmatic change that occurred in the field of general Science, with the rupture of the Newtonian model. In the 20th century, the paradigm of order, symmetry, regularity, regulation of the intellect to things, collapses.Based on new formulations of Physics, Chemistry, etc., a new universe is built on bases radically opposed to those of modern Science.Chaos, the procedural irreversibility, indeterminism, the observer and the complexity are rehabilitated.This new conceptual context served as substratum to Niklas Luhmann's theoretical reflection.With his Theory of Social Systems, he proposes the reduction of the world's complexity.Social systems have the function of reducing complexity because of their difference in relation to the environment.On the other hand, the reduction of complexity also creates its own complexity. Luhmann defines complexity as the moment when it is not possible anymore for each element to relate at any moment with all the others. Complexity forces the selection, what means contingency and risk. Luhmann expands the concept of complexity when he introduces the figure of the observer and the distinction of complexity as a unit of a multiplicity. He also deals with the limit of relations in connection, the time factor, the self-reference of operations and the representation of complexity in the form of sense. To conclude, the paper discusses the complexity in the system of science, the way it reduces internal and external complexity, in accordance in its own operative basis.

  15. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  16. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  17. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  18. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  19. A high accuracy broadband measurement system for time resolved complex bioimpedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioimpedance measurements are useful tools in biomedical engineering and life science. Bioimpedance is the electrical impedance of living tissue and can be used in the analysis of various physiological parameters. Bioimpedance is commonly measured by injecting a small well known alternating current via surface electrodes into an object under test and measuring the resultant surface voltages. It is non-invasive, painless and has no known hazards. This work presents a field programmable gate array based high accuracy broadband bioimpedance measurement system for time resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system is able to measure magnitude and phase of complex impedances under test in a frequency range of about 10–500 kHz with excitation currents from 10 µA to 5 mA. The overall measurement uncertainties stay below 1% for the impedance magnitude and below 0.5° for the phase in most measurement ranges. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3840 impedance spectra per second. The performance of the bioimpedance measurement system is demonstrated with a resistor based system calibration and with measurements on biological samples. (paper)

  20. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Rubin, Joshua B; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2016-01-01

    Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems-univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425

  1. Big Data Processing in Complex Hierarchical Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Olexandr; Tyutyunnyk, Maria; Yadzhak, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    This article covers the problem of processing of Big Data that describe process of complex networks and network systems operation. It also introduces the notion of hierarchical network systems combination into associations and conglomerates alongside with complex networks combination into multiplexes. The analysis is provided for methods of global network structures study depending on the purpose of the research. Also the main types of information flows in complex hierarchical network systems being the basic components of associations and conglomerates are covered. Approaches are proposed for creation of efficient computing environments, distributed computations organization and information processing methods parallelization at different levels of system hierarchy.

  2. Complexity in practice: understanding primary care as a complex adaptive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Ellis

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions The results are real-world exemplars of the emergent properties of complex adaptive systems. Improving clinical governance in primary care requires both complex social interactions and underpinning informatics. The socio-technical lessons learned from this research should inform future management approaches.

  3. Forewarning of Failure in Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As the critical infrastructures of the United States have become more and more dependent on public and private networks, the potential for widespread national impact resulting from disruption or failure of these networks has also increased. Securing the nation s critical infrastructures requires protecting not only their physical systems but, just as important, the cyber portions of the systems on which they rely. A failure is inclusive of random events, design flaws, and instabilities caused by cyber (and/or physical) attack. One such domain is failure in critical equipment. A second is aging bridges. We discuss the workings of such a system in the context of the necessary sensors, command and control and data collection as well as the cyber security efforts that would support this system. Their application and the implications of this computing architecture are also discussed, with respect to our nation s aging infrastructure.

  4. Quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    This Perspective presents a broad overview of the present status of theoretical capabilities for describing quantum dynamics in molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, e.g., chemical reactions in solution, clusters, solids, or biomolecular environments.

  5. Nonlinear and Complex Dynamics in Real Systems

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; Demitre Serletis

    2005-01-01

    This paper was produced for the El-Naschie Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics in Shanghai in December 2005. In this paper we provide a review of the literature with respect to fluctuations in real systems and chaos. In doing so, we contrast the order and organization hypothesis of real systems with nonlinear chaotic dynamics and discuss some techniques used in distinguishing between stochastic and deterministic behavior. Moreover, we look at the issue of where and when the ideas of chaos could p...

  6. Metabolic Scaling in Complex Living Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glazier, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    In this review I show that four major kinds of theoretical approaches have been used to explain the scaling of metabolic rate in cells, organisms and groups of organisms in relation to system size. They include models focusing on surface-area related fluxes of resources and wastes (including heat), internal resource transport, system composition, and various processes affecting resource demand, all of which have been discussed extensively for nearly a century or more. I argue that, although e...

  7. 5th International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Morel, Gérard; Roussel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the fifth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2014) international conference which took place in Paris (France) on the November 12-14, 2014. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautic & aerospace, transportation & systems, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, health & welfare services, software & e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2014 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, addres...

  8. Complex systems and networks dynamics, controls and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This elementary book provides some state-of-the-art research results on broad disciplinary sciences on complex networks. It presents an in-depth study with detailed description of dynamics, controls and applications of complex networks. The contents of this book can be summarized as follows. First, the dynamics of complex networks, for example, the cluster dynamic analysis by using kernel spectral methods, community detection algorithms in bipartite networks, epidemiological modeling with demographics and epidemic spreading on multi-layer networks, are studied. Second, the controls of complex networks are investigated including topics like distributed finite-time cooperative control of multi-agent systems by applying homogenous-degree and Lyapunov methods, composite finite-time containment control for disturbed second-order multi-agent systems, fractional-order observer design of multi-agent systems, chaos control and anticontrol of complex systems via Parrondos game and many more. Third, the applications of ...

  9. Complex systems relationships between control, communications and computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a wide-ranging description of the many facets of complex dynamic networks and systems within an infrastructure provided by integrated control and supervision: envisioning, design, experimental exploration, and implementation. The theoretical contributions and the case studies presented can reach control goals beyond those of stabilization and output regulation or even of adaptive control. Reporting on work of the Control of Complex Systems (COSY) research program, Complex Systems follows from and expands upon an earlier collection: Control of Complex Systems by introducing novel theoretical techniques for hard-to-control networks and systems. The major common feature of all the superficially diverse contributions encompassed by this book is that of spotting and exploiting possible areas of mutual reinforcement between control, computing and communications. These help readers to achieve not only robust stable plant system operation but also properties such as collective adaptivity, integrity an...

  10. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SYSTEM BASED ON COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shiming; GU Peiliang

    2004-01-01

    Complex adaptive system (CAS) is a kind of complex system in natural and artificial systems. In this paper, the theory of complex adaptive system is introduced at first. Considering the characteristic of energy system, it can be regarded as a complex adaptive system. After the evolutionary law is analysed, the energy complex system model is established based on CAS and application tool SWARM, which is a simulation software platform. The model differs from the models as well as methods developed before. As an application, China's energy system is simulated with the model established above.China's future total energy demand in the future, energy structure and related in fiuence on environment are presented.

  11. Measuring system complexity to support development cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Wolfarth, L.

    Systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) are being used more frequently either as a design element of stand alone systems or architectural frameworks. Consequently, a programmatic need has arisen to understand and measure systems complexity in order to estimate more accurately development plans and life-cycle costs. In a prior paper, we introduced the System Readiness Level (SRL) concept as a composite function of both Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) and touched on system complexity. While the SRL approach provides a repeatable, process-driven method to assess the maturity of a system or SoS, it does not capture all aspects of system complexity. In this paper we assess the concept of cyclomatic complexity as a system complexity metric and consider its utility as an approach for estimating the life-cycle costs and cost growth of complex systems. We hypothesize that the greater the number of technologies and integration tasks, the more complex the system and the higher its cost to develop and maintain. We base our analysis on historical data from DoD programs that have experienced significant cost growth, including some that have been cancelled due to unsustainable cost (and schedule) growth. We begin by describing the original implementation of the cyclomatic method, which was developed to estimate the effort to maintain system software. We then describe how the method can be generalized and applied to systems. Next, we show how to estimate the cyclomatic number (CN) and show the statistical significance between a system's CN metric and its cost. We illustrate the method with an example. Last, we discuss opportunities for future research.

  12. Eigenfunction Statistics of Complex Systems: A Common Mathematical Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pragya

    2005-01-01

    We derive a common mathematical formulation for the eigenfunction statistics of Hermitian operators, represented by a multi-parametric probability density. The system-information in the formulation enters through two parameters only, namely, system size and the complexity parameter, a function of all system parameter including size. The behavior is contrary to the eigenvalue statistics which is sensitive to complexity parameter only and shows a single parametric scaling. The existence of a ma...

  13. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS. PMID:26656389

  14. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  15. Discovering independent parameters in complex dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a nonlinear dynamical system into a standard form by using one of its variables and its successive derivatives can be used to identify the relationships that may exist between the parameters of the original system such as the subset of the parameter space over which the dynamics is left invariant. We show how the size of the attractor or the time scale (the pseudo-period) can be varied without affecting the underlying dynamics. This is demonstrated for the Rössler and th...

  16. 6th International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, Jean-Claude; Bonjour, Eric; Krob, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the sixth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management Paris » (CSD&M Paris 2015) international conference which took place in Paris (France) on November 23-25, 2015. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautics & aerospace, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, health & welfare, software & e-services, transportation), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systems modeling tools) and systems types (artificial ecosystems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, transportation systems). The CSD&M Paris 2015 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, address...

  17. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Frédéric; Krob, Daniel; Marchal, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the fourth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2013) international conference which took place in Paris (France) from December 4-6, 2013. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2013 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization

  18. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  19. Proactive degradation management in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely preventive maintenance is of great importance for safety equipment on NPP's. But preventive maintenance becomes complicated when we face systems in where these activities can be performed only during outage period and reactor shutdown must be executed in cause of safety related equipment failure during operation to perform corrective actions. For preventive maintenance strategy degradation monitoring is not always sufficient and degradation trending (extrapolation) should be performed to provide predictability of the extend of degradation and timely preventive or mitigative actions. Degradation trending in proactive maintenance case plays very important role. Current paper is devoted to the analysis and application of mathematical models to the degradation assessment of systems with dependent components. The main attention in present work was paid to the mathematical description of the degradation mechanism. Developed mathematical model allows assess and perform trending of degradation processes during various time moments. Methods can be applied for assessment of various risk estimates of hazardous systems such as systems at nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Dynamical systems examples of complex behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to introduce, explain, and discuss the fundamental problems, ideas, concepts, results, and methods of the theory of dynamical systems and to show how they can be used in speci?c examples. We do not intend to give a comprehensive overview of the present state of research in the theory of dynamical systems, nor a detailed historical account of its development. We try to explain the important results, often neglecting technical re?nements 1 and, usually, we do not provide proofs. One of the basic questions in studying dynamical systems, i.e. systems that evolve in time, is the construction of invariants that allow us to classify qualitative types of dynamical evolution, to distinguish between qualitatively di?erent dynamics, and to studytransitions between di?erent types. Itis also important to ?nd out when a certain dynamic behavior is stable under small perturbations, as well as to understand the various scenarios of instability. Finally, an essential aspect of a dynamic evolution is the transformat...

  1. Statistical Study of Complex Eigenvalues in Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifedine Kadry

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research we analyze the complex modes arising in multiple degree-of-freedom nonproportionally damped discrete linear stochastic systems. The complex eigenvalues intervene when unstable states like resonances, happened. Linear dynamic systems must generally be expected to exhibit non-proportional damping. Non-proportionally damped linear systems do not possess classical normal modes but possess complex modes. The proposed method is based on the transformation of random variables. The advantage of this method which give us the probability density function of real and imaginary part of the complex eigenvalue for stochastic mechanical system, i.e. a system with random output (Young's modulus, load. The proposed method is illustrated by considering numerical example based on a linear array of damped spring-mass oscillators. It is show n that the approach can predict the probability density function with good accuracy when compared with independent Monte-Carlo simulations.

  2. Synchronization in Complex Networks of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chai Wah

    2007-01-01

    This book brings together two emerging research areas: synchronization in coupled nonlinear systems and complex networks, and study conditions under which a complex network of dynamical systems synchronizes. While there are many texts that study synchronization in chaotic systems or properties of complex networks, there are few texts that consider the intersection of these two very active and interdisciplinary research areas. The main theme of this book is that synchronization conditions can be related to graph theoretical properties of the underlying coupling topology. The book introduces ide

  3. Engineering Complex Systems: Multiscale Analysis and Evolutionary Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    We describe an analytic approach, multiscale analysis, that can demonstrate the fundamental limitations of decomposition based engineering for the development of highly complex systems. The interdependence of components and communication between design teams limits any planning based process. Recognizing this limitation, we found that a new strategy for constructing many highly complex systems should be modeled after biological evolution, or market economies, where multiple design efforts compete in parallel for adoption through testing in actual use. Evolution is the only process that is known to create highly complex systems.

  4. Large-scale computing techniques for complex system simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubitzky, Werner; Schott, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems modeling and simulation approaches are being adopted in a growing number of sectors, including finance, economics, biology, astronomy, and many more. Technologies ranging from distributed computing to specialized hardware are explored and developed to address the computational requirements arising in complex systems simulations. The aim of this book is to present a representative overview of contemporary large-scale computing technologies in the context of complex systems simulations applications. The intention is to identify new research directions in this field and

  5. Ligamentotaxis for complex calcaneal fractures using Joshi's external stabilization system

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai; Srivastava, RN; Jah, M; Kumar, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Background: Controversies exist in the literature regarding the management of complex fractures of the calcaneum. We evaluated a series of complex fractures of the calcaneum managed by ligamentotaxis using Joshi's external stabilization system (JESS) for its efficacy. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients having complex (comminuted, intra-articular fracture with compromised soft tissue condition) fractures of the calcaneum, who were treated by external fixator (JESS) based on the princip...

  6. 生物医学研究伦理审查信息系统的应用%Application of biomedical research ethics review information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭智才; 尚政琴

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨生物医学研究伦理审查信息系统在医院生物医学研究伦理审查中的应用.方法:系统设计依据国际协调会议(ICH)、临床试验管理规范(GCP)、世界卫生组织与热带病研究部门(WHO/TDR)的《生物医学研究审查伦理委员会操作指南》以及世界卫生组织、发展伦理委员会审查能力的战略行动(WHO SIDCER)认证有关伦理委员会操作规范进行开发.结果:新型生物医学研究伦理审查系统的应用,解决了伦理委员会务实高效地开展伦理审查和研究者有效遵循伦理原则来开展研究的问题,实现了伦理审查的申请、受理、审查、传达决定以及跟踪审查等操作规程的电子程序化.结论:生物医学研究伦理审查系统的应用,使伦理审查流程更加合理,操作更加简捷,可极大提高医院伦理审查的工作效率,方便和规范伦理审查的文档管理,提升伦理审查的质量管理,对生物医学研究伦理审查工作具有重要意义.%Objective:To discuss the application of "ethical review of biomedical research" system in the hospital ethical review of biomedical research.Methods: To design based on the ICH GCP specification, WHO/TDR" biomedical research ethics committee guidelines" Systematic, WHO SIDCER authentication on the ethics committee specification development.Results: The application of this system can realize the ethical review application, acceptance, examination and decision, convey the follow-up review procedures for electronic program.Conclusion: "The ethical review of biomedical research ethics review" system to make process more reasonable, operation more convenient, greatly improves the work efficiency of the hospital ethics review, document management, facilitate and regulate the ethical review, enhance the quality of management ethics review, plays an important role inbiomedical research ethics review.

  7. Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...

  8. Applications of Complex Systems in Business and Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Kitt, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the complex systems are discussed from the business and economics point of view. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic and/or non-linear and therefore non-equilibrium or complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in the business and management. For successful management under complexity, a following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of the ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in management under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. It is motivated that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate flexible production, reliable business ethics and good risk management. In this environment, the challenges for corporate managements are being also permanently changed: the bala...

  9. Methodology for Measuring the Complexity of Enterprise Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of enterprise information systems is currently a challenge faced not only by IT professionals and project managers, but also by the users of such systems. Current methodologies and frameworks used to design and implement information systems do not specifically deal with the issue of their complexity and, apart from few exceptions, do not at all attempt to simplify the complexity. This article presents the author's own methodology for managing complexity, which can be used to complement any other methodology and which helps limit the growth of complexity. It introduces its own definition and metric of complexity, which it defines as the sum of entities of the individual UML models of the given system, which are selected according to the MMDIS methodology so as to consistently describe all relevant content dimensions of the system. The main objective is to propose a methodology to manage information system complexity and to verify it in practice on a real-life SAP implementation project.

  10. Managing complex systems: The Labdata case

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Mads Walle

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to explore the organization of a program within Digital Fornying, namely Labdata. The goal of Labdata is to introduce a common, standard, laboratory system for the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority. We compare the organization of Labdata with theoretical concepts from adaptive co-management, Weill & Ross, project and program management. In order to manage this, we have developed the following research question: What are the challenges involved...

  11. Computer aided operation of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced technology is having the effect that industrial systems are becoming more highly automated and do not rely on human intervention for the control of normally planned and/or predicted situations. Thus the importance of the operator has shifted from being a manual controller to becoming more of a systems manager and supervisory controller. At the same time, the use of advanced information technology in the control room and its potential impact on human-machine capabilities places additional demands on the designer. This report deals with work carried out to describe the plant-operator relationship in order to systematize the design and evaluation of suitable information systems in the control room. This design process starts with the control requirements from the plant and transforms them into corresponding sets of decision-making tasks with appropriate allocation of responsibilities between computer and operator. To further effectivize this cooperation, appropriate information display and accession are identified. The conceptual work has been supported by experimental studies on a small-scale simulator. (author)

  12. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.

  13. A Memristor-Based Hyperchaotic ComplexSystem and Its Adaptive Complex Generalized Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibing Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new memristor-based hyperchaotic complexsystem (MHCLS and investigates its adaptive complex generalized synchronization (ACGS. Firstly, the complex system is constructed based on a memristor-based hyperchaotic real Lü system, and its properties are analyzed theoretically. Secondly, its dynamical behaviors, including hyperchaos, chaos, transient phenomena, as well as periodic behaviors, are explored numerically by means of bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, and time history diagrams. Thirdly, an adaptive controller and a parameter estimator are proposed to realize complex generalized synchronization and parameter identification of two identical MHCLSs with unknown parameters based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the numerical simulation results of ACGS and its applications to secure communication are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Stripping syntax from complexity: An information-theoretical perspective on complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Quax, Rick; Thurner, Stefan; Sloot, Peter M A

    2016-01-01

    Claude Shannons information theory (1949) has had a revolutionary impact on communication science. A crucial property of his framework is that it decouples the meaning of a message from the mechanistic details from the actual communication process itself, which opened the way to solve long-standing communication problems. Here we argue that a similar impact could be expected by applying information theory in the context of complexity science to answer long-standing, cross-domain questions about the nature of complex systems. This happens by decoupling the domain-specific model details (e.g., neuronal networks, ecosystems, flocks of birds) from the cross-domain phenomena that characterize complex systems (e.g., criticality, robustness, tipping points). This goes beyond using information theory as a non-linear correlation measure, namely it allows describing a complex system entirely in terms of the storage, transfer, and modification of informational bits. After all, a phenomenon that does not depend on model ...

  15. Luminescence response of an osmium(II) complex to macromolecular polyanions for the detection of heparin and chondroitin sulfate in biomedical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Jain; Saez, Christopher; Campana, Maria; Megehee, Elise G; Wang, Enju

    2013-12-01

    Heparin, dextran sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and carrageenan are found to enhance the luminescence intensity of an osmium(II) carbonyl complex with phenanthroline (phen) and 4-phenylpyridine (4-phpy) ligands in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The enhancing effect of the polyanions on the luminescence of the complex is heavily dependent on the sulfate content and other factors such as structure, solubility, and counter ions of the polyanion. The highly sulfated dextran and ι-carrageenan have the most profound effect, while the low charged κ-carrageenan and CS have the least response in aqueous solution. All polyanions exhibited enhanced luminescence intensity of the complex in ethanol solutions, and even the low charged CS and κ-carrageenan enhanced the luminescence more than 4 times. DS contamination of the sodium heparin at 5% can show a significant increase in luminescence response. The osmium complex is found to be highly successful in the fast and sensitive detection of heparin in commercial injectable samples with various backgrounds as well as the detection of CS in over the counter food supplement tablets. PMID:24267085

  16. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  17. Vertical leadership in highly complex and unpredictable health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Dutta, Nina; McKimm, Judy

    2016-08-01

    This article explores how the concept of vertical leadership development might help health organizations cope with and thrive within highly complex and unpredictable health systems, looking at concepts of VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) and RUPT (rapid, unpredictable, paradoxical and tangled). PMID:27487058

  18. On the Descriptional Complexity of Limited Propagating Lindenmayer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Truthe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the descriptional complexity of limited propagating Lindenmayer systems and their deterministic and tabled variants with respect to the number of rules and the number of symbols. We determine the decrease of complexity when the generative capacity is increased. For incomparable families, we give languages that can be described more efficiently in either of these families than in the other.

  19. On the Descriptional Complexity of Limited Propagating Lindenmayer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Truthe

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the descriptional complexity of limited propagating Lindenmayer systems and their deterministic and tabled variants with respect to the number of rules and the number of symbols. We determine the decrease of complexity when the generative capacity is increased. For incomparable families, we give languages that can be described more efficiently in either of these families than in the other.

  20. Understanding Learner Agency as a Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…

  1. Communication and control for networked complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Chen; Han, Qing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This book reports on the latest advances in the study of Networked Control Systems (NCSs). It highlights novel research concepts on NCSs; the analysis and synthesis of NCSs with special attention to their networked character; self- and event-triggered communication schemes for conserving limited network resources; and communication and control co-design for improving the efficiency of NCSs. The book will be of interest to university researchers, control and network engineers, and graduate students in the control engineering, communication and network sciences interested in learning the core principles, methods, algorithms and applications of NCSs.

  2. Distributed Diagnosis, Prognosis and Recovery for Complex Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Complex space systems such as lunar habitats generate huge amounts of data. For example, the International Space Station (ISS) has over 250,000 individually...

  3. AN ADVANCED SYSTEM FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN CHEMICAL COMPLEXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    One important accomplishment is that the system will give process engineers interactively and simultaneously use of programs for total cost analysis, life cycle assessment and sustainability metrics to provide direction for the optimal chemical complex analysis pro...

  4. Data Infrastructures for Asset Management Viewed as Complex Adaptive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brous, P.A.; Overtoom, I.; Herder, P.M.; Versluis, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A

    2014-01-01

    Data infrastructures represent information about physical reality. As reality changes, data infrastructures might also be subject to change. Researchers have increasingly approached physical infrastructures as being complex adaptive systems (CAS). Although physical infrastructures are often approach

  5. A simple framework for complex system improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Sally; Carayon, Pascale; Weiss, Jennifer; Pandhi, Nancy

    2015-05-01

    The need to rapidly improve health care value is unquestioned, but the means to accomplish this task is unknown. Improving performance at the level of the health care organization frequently involves multiple interventions, which must be coordinated and sequenced to fit the specific context. Those responsible for achieving large-scale improvements are challenged by the lack of a framework to describe and organize improvement strategies. Drawing from the fields of health services, industrial engineering, and organizational behavior, a simple framework was developed and has been used to guide and evaluate improvement initiatives at an academic health center. The authors anticipate that this framework will be helpful for health system leaders responsible for improving health care quality. PMID:24723664

  6. Lie and Noether symmetries of systems of complex ordinary differential equations and their split systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Naz; F M Mahomed

    2014-07-01

    The Lie and Noether point symmetry analyses of a th-order system of complex ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with dependent variables are performed. The decomposition of complex symmetries of the given system of complex ODEs yields Lie- and Noether-like operators. The system of complex ODEs can be split into 2 coupled real partial differential equations (PDEs) and 2 Cauchy–Riemann (CR) equations. The classical approach is invoked to compute the symmetries of the 4 real PDEs and these are compared with the decomposed Lie- and Noetherlike operators of the system of complex ODEs. It is shown that, in general, the Lie- and Noether-like operators of the system of complex ODEs and the symmetries of the decomposed system of real PDEs are not the same. A similar analysis is carried out for restricted systems of complex ODEs that split into 2 coupled real ODEs. We summarize our findings on restricted complex ODEs in two propositions.

  7. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  8. A Remodeled Stretched ExponentiaDecay Formula for Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moses E. Emetere; Uno E Uno; KU Isah

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of velocity ratios (of electrons within the superconducting system) as one of superconducting parameters has been earlier established. Further investigation on the effects of velocity ratio to complex systems was examined at different relaxations. The model clarified the conditions for both positive and negative relaxation of current in complex bodies e.g. superconductor, spintronics e.t.c. The relaxation rates discovered to proportional to the velocity ratios.

  9. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively, safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational be-havior, and organizational behavior produced individual behavior. The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectifi-cation, organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture. The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  10. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively,safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational behavior,and organizational behavior produced individual behavior.The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectification,organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture.The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  11. Supply Chain as Complex Adaptive System and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingmingWang

    2004-01-01

    Supply chain is a complex, hierarchical, integrated, open and dynamic network.Every node in the network is an independent business unit that unites other organizations to develop its value, the competition and cooperation between these units are basic impetus of the development and evolution of the supply chain system. The characteristics of supply chain as a complex adaptive system and its modeling are discussed in this paper, and use an example demonstrating the feasibility of CAS modeling in supply chain management study.

  12. 1st International Workshop on Complex Systems in Sports - Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Guervós, Juan Julián Merelo; Cotta, Carlos; Mora, Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    Online proceedings for the first workshop on complex systems in sports; index pointing to the papers that will be presented and discussed in that workshop. The papers deal with sports from a complex systems point of view, and include papers on a network analysis of the performance of the Spanish team in the 2010 world cup and basketball scoring, study of populations of sports fans, try to select attributes for sports forecasting and finally try to analyze the physical condition from the persp...

  13. Summer School Mathematical Foundations of Complex Networked Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fosson, Sophie; Ravazzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the reader to the mathematics beyond complex networked systems, these lecture notes investigate graph theory, graphical models, and methods from statistical physics. Complex networked systems play a fundamental role in our society, both in everyday life and in scientific research, with applications ranging from physics and biology to economics and finance. The book is self-contained, and requires only an undergraduate mathematical background.

  14. Modelling Organisational Evolution and Change - a Complex Systems Modelling Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Strathern, M.

    2008-01-01

    The cumulative output of these papers emphasise that modelling organisational evolution and change from a complex systems perspective makes a significant contribution to organisational studies and brings new insight and understandings both to theory and practice. It is also true that the studies and modelling presented in these papers has pushed forward the boundaries of complex systems science, again both in theory and practice. The papers have made new findings and underst...

  15. Statistical physics of complex systems a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This course-tested primer provides graduate students and non-specialists with a basic understanding of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and demonstrates their wide range of applications to interdisciplinary topics in the field of complex system sciences, including selected aspects of theoretical modeling in biology and the social sciences. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting units, and on the other to predict the macroscopic, collective behavior of the system considered from the perspective of the microscopic laws governing the dynamics of the individual entities. These two goals are essentially also shared by what is now called 'complex systems science', and as such, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered to be among the simplest examples of complex systems – while also offering a rather well developed mathematical treatment. The second ...

  16. Cancer-drug associations: a complex system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Dalkic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Network analysis has been performed on large-scale medical data, capturing the global topology of drugs, targets, and disease relationships. A smaller-scale network is amenable to a more detailed and focused analysis of the individual members and their interactions in a network, which can complement the global topological descriptions of a network system. Analysis of these smaller networks can help address questions, i.e., what governs the pairing of the different cancers and drugs, is it driven by molecular findings or other factors, such as death statistics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined global and local lethality values representing death rates relative to other cancers vs. within a cancer. We generated two cancer networks, one of cancer types that share Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs (FDA cancer network, and another of cancer types that share clinical trials of FDA approved drugs (clinical trial cancer network. Breast cancer is the only cancer type with significant weighted degree values in both cancer networks. Lung cancer is significantly connected in the FDA cancer network, whereas ovarian cancer and lymphoma are significantly connected in the clinical trial cancer network. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that global lethality impacts the drug approval and trial numbers, whereas, local lethality impacts the amount of drug sharing in trials and approvals. However, this effect does not apply to pancreatic, liver, and esophagus cancers as the sharing of drugs for these cancers is very low. We also collected mutation target information to generate cancer type associations which were compared with the cancer type associations derived from the drug target information. The analysis showed a weak overlap between the mutation and drug target based networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The clinical and FDA cancer networks are differentially connected, with only breast cancer significantly

  17. From the complex system leadership perspective: DNA leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basri Gündüz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional leadership models are based on the paradigm of bureaucratic top-down administration. These models were suitable for industrial societies and organizations. However, the complex and quickly changing structure of information societies and because market conditions become more and more challenging conditions require different and more flexible organizational structures and leadership approaches. Complexity leadership approach is one of the approaches that were put forward to meet these needs. This approach suggests a new paradigm for leadership, and leadership is defined as a complex interactive dynamic from which adaptive outcomes (learning, innovation, and adaptability emerge.  Multi-cellular higher organisms are complex systems like information societies. In this context, DNA that leads the processes in multi-cellular higher organisms may be taken as a metaphor for leadership. In this study, considering the functions and role of DNA in a cell, the concept of DNA leadership was discussed from the complex system leadership perspective.

  18. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  19. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S.; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein–protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  20. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described.

  1. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on complex network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIAN FUZHONG; LIU WEILONG

    2016-06-01

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network was affected by different information sources. Another is how to achieve hybrid synchronization on the network. In this paper, the theoretical analysis andnumerical simulation on various complex networks are implemented. The results indicate that the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems is feasible.

  2. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Göker Arpağ; Ayşe Erzan

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be non-adaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness.

  3. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness.

  4. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness. PMID:24736159

  5. Green photonics realized by optical complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Hiroto; Sasaki, Wakao

    2013-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new smart grid model which can control DC electric power flow autonomously among individual homes, by using an optical self-organized node with optical non-linear characteristics, and these homes are assumed to be installed by distributed power supplies, and electric power storage devices, and also supposed to be supplied partly by the commercial electric power grid utilities. An electric power network is composed of nodes and devises called Power Gate Unit (PGU). The nodes have optical nonlinearity for self-organizing informations about surplus or shortage of electric power as to individual homes. The PGU is a distributing unit of actual electric power based on above informations of power surplus or shortage at each home. The PGU at each home is electrically connected to both the onsite power supplies and household load such as a solar panel, a DC motor, and a storage battery as well as the commercial electric power grid utilities. In this work, we composed our experimental self-organized DC power grid with above components and supposed the supplied maximum power from the commercial electric power grid utilities to be limited to 5V-0.5A. In this network, information about surplus or shortage of electric power will propagate through the nodes. In the experiments, surplus electric current 0.4A at a particular node was distributed toward a PGU of another node suffering from shortage of electric current. We also confirmed in the experiments and simulations that even when signal propagation path was disconnected accidentally the network could recover an optimized path. The present smart grid system we have attained may be applied by optical fiber link in the near future because our essential components controlling PGU, i.e. the nodes are electro-optical hybrid which are easily applicable to fiber optical link so as to control electric power transmission line.

  6. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  7. Stability of rotor systems: A complex modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of a large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a linearized complex matrix differential equation of second order, Mz + (D + iG)(z) over dot + (K + iN)z = 0, where the system matrices M, D, G, K and N are real symmetric. Moreover M and K are assumed to be positive definite and D...... approach applying bounds of appropriate Rayleigh quotients. The rotor systems tested are: a simple Laval rotor, a Laval rotor with additional elasticity and damping in the bearings, and a number of rotor systems with complex symmetric 4 x 4 randomly generated matrices....

  8. Quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process on technical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Кучеренко, Валентина Леонідівна

    2014-01-01

    Construction of a system of biomedical equipment repair on the actual technical condition is considered, and results of research in this area are given in the paper. The purpose of the research is to analyze the ways of quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process in transition to the operation on the actual technical condition. Using the methods and means for the repair process stages automation allows to estimate actual technical condition of biomedical equipment. The analysis o...

  9. 基于知识组织系统的生物医学文本挖掘研究%Research on Biomedical Text Mining Based on Knowledge Organization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱庆

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of biomedical information technology, biological medical literatures grow exponential y. It's hard to read and understand the required knowledge by manual, how to integrate knowledge from huge amounts of biomedical literatures, mining new knowledge has been becoming the current hot spot. Knowledge organization system construction in the field of biological medicine is more normative and complete than other fields, which is the foundation for biomedical text mining. A large number of text mining methodsand systems based on knowledge organization system have fast development. This paper investigates the existing medical knowledge organization systems and summarizes the process of biomedical text mining. It also summaries the researches andrecentprogressand analyzes the characteristics of biomedical text mining based on knowledge organization system. The knowledge organization systems play an important role in biomedical text mining and the chal enge for the current study are summarized, so as to provide references for biomedical workers.%随着生物医学信息技术的飞速发展,生物医学文献呈“指数型”增长,单纯依靠人工阅读获取和理解所需知识变得异常困难,如何从海量生物医学文献中整合已有知识、挖掘新知识成为当前研究热点。生物医学领域的知识组织系统建设相比其他领域更加规范和完整,为生物医学文本挖掘奠定了基础,大量基于知识组织系统的文本挖掘方法、系统得到快速发展。本文主要梳理现有医学知识组织系统,归纳生物医学文本挖掘的主要流程,按照挖掘任务探讨当前的主要研究和进展情况,并进一步分析基于知识组织系统的生物医学文本挖掘的特点,对知识组织系统在生物医学文本挖掘中发挥的主要作用和当前研究面临的挑战进行总结,以期为生物医学工作者提供借鉴。

  10. An Agent Based Software Approach towards Building Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Kharb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analyzing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, points to be argued include:firstly, the conceptual apparatus of agent-oriented systems is well-suited to building software solutions for complex systems and secondly, agent-oriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  11. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  12. PCA Fault Feature Extraction in Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. The complexity is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. The fault in electric power system cannot be completely avoided. When electric power system operates from normal state to failure or abnormal, its electric quantities (current, voltage and angles, etc. may change significantly. Our researches indicate that the variable with the biggest coefficient in principal component usually corresponds to the fault. Therefore, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on principal components analysis technology, we have extracted successfully the distinct features of fault component. Of course, because of the complexity of different types of faults in electric power system, there still exists enormous problems need a close and intensive study.

  13. Application of Complex Systems Research To Efforts of International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Hans-Peter

    Fundamental research on complex systems has shown relevance to efforts of international development. This paper canvasses some practitioner friendly approaches to international development. Development is about interventions in a highly complex system, the society. Complex systems research tells us that development interventions should not be overly planned, rather the fundamental uncertainty of a changing social system requires a diversity of interventions, and rapid learning from development success and failure. Developing economies are functioning at a low level of effectiveness and resource use. Complex systems are change resistant, and intervention requires understanding the autocatalytic nature of a process of change. International development is about the stimulation of a society's innate autocatalytic / self-organizing processes through interventions that stimulate enough to overcome change resistance, but which do not overwhelm the system. Since the size of financial interventions may in some cases be a substantial fraction of the existing economic activity, disruption is a likely outcome. Crucially, one must avoid having the socio-economic activity organized around the intervention itself, since then an undesirable dependency of the economy on the intervention arises. Stimulation of the innate modes of activity results in the development of socio-economic organization around energy, material and financial flows. The primary generator of effectiveness is an appropriate network structure of interactions and relationships. This paper summarizes traditional development efforts and their outcomes as well as a plausible description of the process of complex systems motivated interventions. Examples are given of recent approaches which aim to appropriately stimulate international development.

  14. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  15. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  16. Complexity and Control: Towards a Rigorous Behavioral Theory of Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    We introduce our motive for writing this book on complexity and control with a popular "complexity myth," which seems to be quite wide spread among chaos and complexity theory fashionistas: Low-dimensional systems usually exhibit complex behaviours (which we know fromMay's studies of the Logisticmap), while high-dimensional systems usually exhibit simple behaviours (which we know from synchronisation studies of the Kuramoto model)... We admit that this naive view on complex (e.g., human) systems versus simple (e.g., physical) systems might seem compelling to various technocratic managers and politicians; indeed, the idea makes for appealing sound-bites. However, it is enough to see both in the equations and computer simulations of pendula of various degree - (i) a single pendulum, (ii) a double pendulum, and (iii) a triple pendulum - that this popular myth is plain nonsense. The only thing that we can learn from it is what every tyrant already knows: by using force as a strong means of control, it is possible to effectively synchronise even hundreds of millions of people, at least for a while.

  17. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  18. Biomedical applications of photochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, BP

    2010-01-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities a...

  19. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  20. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.